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Latest Amendments in SOLAS

2. latest amendments in MARPOL
3. latest development in engines B&W
4. latest developments in SULZER engines
5. latest development in turbochargers
Ans; Adjustable nozzle ring
The intake air is compressed by the compressor wheel, which is driven by the
turbine. Both the
compressor wheel and the turbine can be adjusted to engine requirements by
choosing from a range of meridians and blading configurations. Diffusers and nozzle
rings which are very finely stepped in their mass-flow areas allow the turbochargers
to be fine-tuned to the engine. For
maximum variability an optional nozzle ring capable of adjustment during operation
will be available in the near future.
Oil mist instead of water cooling
None of the TCA turbocharger bearing casings is water-cooled - not even in the
largest framesizes,the TCA88 and TCA99. The heat brought in by the compressor
and the turbine is dissipated in the luboil flung off the shaft of the rotating assembly.
The oil mist thus generated can drop down the walls of the very generously-
dimensioned interior of the bearing casing, thereby evenly absorbing the heat which
is to be dissipated. The bearing casing boasts its own air vent, which can likewise be
connected to the left or right. This air vent ensures that the leakage air which the
compressor inevitably forces into the bearing casing through the shaft seal of the
rotating assembly does not increase crankcase pressure in the engine, but instead is
dissipated directly.
The result is a turbine with 41 so-called "wide-chord" blades arranged in a fir-tree
root in the turbine disc.The characteristic feature of wide-chord blades is their very
high chord-to-height ratio. Thisproduces a compact-looking, very stiff and hard-
wearing turbine blade. For engine matching theturbine blades can be of varying
angles and lengths. With the aid of leading-edge design tools it is now possible to
dispense with lacing wire to dampen exhaust-generated vibrations, even in four-
stroke engine applications. Apart from improving the blade profile, this has also been
an immense boost to efficiency.
A new design of compressor volute and new designs of nozzle ring ensure optimum
turbocharger matching and contribute to the high efficiency of the TCAturbochargers.
6. Difference SULZER, RT FLEX and B&W (ME-C)
7. Difference between ME MC
Ans; The ME series of engines have no camshaft. Instead, to provide power for fuel
injection and exhaust valve lifting, they utilise a hydraulic oil loop with fine filtered oil
from the main engine lubricating system at about 200 bar pressure.
The advantages of the ME series of engines come from the fact that the timing and
intensity of fuel oil injection and exhaust valve opening and closing is optimal at all
steady and transient loads, thus giving lower part load fuel oil consumption, lower
emissions and particularly smoother and better low load operation. The balance
between cylinders will be easier to adjust for smoother operation. All this will
eventually mean longer MTBO (Mean Time Between Overhauls).
The engine can be changed over to different low emission modes where its NO x
exhaust emission can be reduced below the IMO limits if desirable due to local
emission regulations
The electronic control of the fuel injection system and the exhaust valve operation,
together with the fact that ME engines are normally delivered with on-line cylinder
pressure measurement equipment and the engine diagnosis system CoCoS-EDS,
provides a number of benefits:
Well-proven conventional fuel injection pattern and technology
Adjustable injection intensity by electronically variable cam angle and cam
The control system offers more precise timing and thereby better engine balance
with equalized thermal load in and between cylinders
Uniform combustion and heat load at any load
Lower rpm possible for manoeuvring
Sequential cylinder cut-off at low load
High injection pressure at low load
Slide type zero-sack-volume fuel valves
Improved emission characteristics, i.e. lower NOx and less visible smoke at any load
System comprising performance monitoring for longer time between overhauls.
Monitoring of the engine (based on CoCoS-EDS) identifies running conditions which
could lead to performance problems
The Overload Protection System ensures compliance with the load diagram and
ensures that the engine is not overloaded
Optimum crash stop and reverse running performance
Engine braking may be obtained, reducing the stopping distance of the vessel
Faster acceleration of the engine by opening the exhaust valves earlier during
Significantly improved dead slow running with low minimum rpm and stable
operation together with improved combustion due to the electronic control of fuel

The following parts are omitted:

Chain drive
Chain wheel frame
Chain box on frame box
Camshaft with cams
Roller guides for fuel pumps and exhaust valves
Fuel injection pumps
Exhaust valve actuators
Starting air distributor
Regulating shaft
Mechanical cylinder lubricator
Local control stand
The above-mentioned parts are replaced by:
Hydraulic Power Supply (HPS)
Hydraulic Cylinder Units (HCU)
Engine Control System (ECS), controlling the following:
Electronically Profiled Injection (EPIC)
Exhaust valve actuation
Fuel oil pressure boosters
Start and reversing sequences
Governor function
Starting air valves
Auxiliary blowers
Crankshaft position sensing system
Electronically controlled Alpha Lubricator
Local Operating Panel (LOP)
Hydraulic cylinder unit
The hydraulic cylinder unit, of which there is one per cylinder, consists of a hydraulic
oil distributor block with pressure accumulators, an exhaust valve actuator with ELVA
control valve and a fuel oil pressure booster with ELFI control valve. Each individual
HCU is interconnected by double-wall piping, through which the hydraulic oil is led.
ELVA and ELFI valves were substituted by one common FIVA valve controlling both
the exhaust valve actuation and the fuel oil injection.
ELFI valves
On the Print Circuit Board (PCB) components have come loose due to vibrations.
Improvements by means of resilient mountings have been introduced on all vessels
in service with ELFI valves, and performance has been Good
ELVA valves
Early service experience proved that low ambient temperatures, as often experienced
during shop tests in the winter season, gave rise to sticking high response valve
spools in the ELVA valve due to low hydraulic oil temperatures. The diameter of the
spool was reduced in order to obtain correct functioning of the high-response valve
Initially, the ME tacho system was designed on the basis of trigger segments with a
sine-curved tooth profile mounted on the turning wheel. The total trigger ring was
built from eight equal segments.
Two redundant sets of sensors were applied. This initial tacho system is relatively
expensive, and the system The new tacho system is based on optical angular
encoders installed on the free end of the crankshaft. This system, consisting of two
redundant encoders
, Alpha Lubrication system
The ME engine has the advantage of an integrated Alpha lubrication system, which
utilises the hydraulic oil as the medium for activation of the main piston in the
lubricators. Thus, a separate
pump station and control are not needed compared to the MC counterpart.
8. what are the basic features of ME GI engines
Ans; the new modified parts of the ME-GI engine pointed out, comprising gas supply
piping, large-volume accumulator on the (slightly modified) cylinder cover with gas
injection valves, and HCU with ELGI valve for control of the injected gas amount.
High-pressure gas compressor supply system, including a cooler, to raise the
pressure to 250-300 bar, which is the pressure required at the engine inlet.
Pulsation/buffer tank including a condensate separator.
Compressor control system.
Safety systems, which ex. includes a hydrocarbon analyser for checking the hydro-
carbon content of the air in the compressor room and in the double-wall gas pipes.
Sealing oil system, delivering sealing oil to the gas valves separating the control oil
and the gas.
Inert gas system, which enables purging of the gas system on the engine with inert

the gas supply system is a common rail system, the gas injection valve must be
controlled by another system, i.e. the control oil system. This, in principle, consists of
the ME hydraulic control (servo) oil system and an ELGI valve, supplying high-
pressure control oil to the gas injection valve, thereby control-ling the timing and
opening of the gas valve. the normal fuel oil pressure booster, which supplies pilot oil
in the dual fuel operation mode, is connected to the ELGI valve by a pressure gauge
and an on/ off valve incorporated in the ELGI valve.
By the control system, the engine can be operated in the various relevant modes:
normal dual-fuel mode with minimum pilot oil amount, specified gas mode with
injection of a fixed gas
amount, and the fuel-oil-only mode.
The principle of the gas mode control system is that it is controlled by the error
between the wanted discharge pressure and the actual measured discharge pressure
from the compressor system. Depending on the size of this error the amount of fuel-
gas (or of pilot oil) is either increased or decreased. If there is any variation over time
in the calorific value of the fuel-gas it can be measured on the rpm of the crankshaft.
Depending on the value measured, the amount of fuel-gas is either increased or
9. comparison between ME- MC engine
Power, speed and nominal Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC) are
the same for the ME series as for their MC counterparts.
The SFOC has been reduced significantly at part load as the maximum
pressure can be maintained down to 65-70 percent of the engine load.
SFOC is the same as for the mechanically controlled engines at
nominal output
At lower load, the SFOC is lower for the electronically controlled
Easy to change between various running modes.
10. What is intelligent cylinder lubrication
Alpha Lubricator system
- ensures considerable cylinder oil savings
controllable wear rates, scuffing control and
longer intervals between engine overhauls.
However, over lubrication is not only expensive - it may even be counter
productive in promoting scuffing through excessive carbon deposits
and/or "bore-polished" running surfaces.
The properties of cylinder oil scraped from the cylinder liner wall reflect the chemical environment
in the cylinder as well as the physical condition of rings and liner; and there is a direct relationship
between some of the key parameters in the scrape-down oil and the actual cylinder condition. A
lubrication algorithm - based on scrape-down oil analysis data, cylinder oil dosage, engine load
and cylinder wear rate can thus be created.
11. Alpha adaptive lubrication
Ans; The main element of cylinder liner wear is of a corrosive nature, and the amount of neutralizing
alkalinic components needed in the cylinder will therefore be proportional to the amount of sulphur (which
generates sulphurous acids) entering the cylinders. A minimum cylinder oil dosage is set
in order to satisfy other requirements of a lubricant, such as providing an adequate oil film and detergency
The cylinder oil must be injected into the cylinder at the exact position and time where the effect
is optimal, which is not always possible with the conventional lubricators of today.
The following two criteria determine the control:
The cylinder oil dosage shall be proportional to the sulphur percentage in the fuel
The cylinder oil dosage shall be proportional to the engine load (i.e. the amount of
fuel entering the cylinders). a standard TBN 70-80 cylinder oil. For operation in long
periods with fuels with a
sulphur content below 1%, we recommend changing to a cylinder oil with a lower
TBN (i.e. TBN 40-50 cylinder oils). the control of the cylinder oil dosage proportional
to the engine load, together with rpm-proportional and mep-proportional lubrication.
At part load, load-proportional cylinder oil
dosage will provide large cost savings and also reduce the environmental impact
from excessive lubrication. Below 25% load, the load-proportional lubrication is
stopped, and rpm-proportional
lubrication takes over,
In the present version of the Alpha Lubricator System the ship staff inputs the so-called HMI( human
machine interface-setting based on the sulphur percentage of the fuel used and a conversion table. An input
is made at the appropriate system panel each time the fuel specification is changed. This is done by
one input on the
HMI-panel of the Alpha Lubricator System each time the fuel specification is changed.
Typical feed rate (mechanical lubriator), 1.2 g/bhph, rpm proportional control
Basic feed rate (mechanical lurbicator), 0.9 g/bhph, rpm proportional control
Basic feed rate (Alpha Lubricator System), 0.8 g/bhph, MEP proportional control
Alpha ACC, 0.25 g/bhph/S%
Significant savings in daily cylinder oil consumption through Alpha ACC of this 12K90MC engine
monitored over a five-month period since system implementation equate to annual savings of 340 000
USD on cylinder oil.
12. what is alpha pulse cylinder lubrication system
Ans; The new lubricating system is based on the principle of injecting a specific volume of oil into
the cylinder, via a number of injectors, for every four (or every five, six, etc.) revolutions.
Furthermore, the precise timing ensures that all cylinder oil is delivered directly onto the piston
ring pack where it is needed.
a small piston for each lubricator quill in the cylinder liner, and the power for injecting the oil
comes from the system pressure, supplied by a pump station. A common rail system is used on
the driving side, but the injection side has a high-pressure positive displacement system, thus
giving equal amounts to each quill and providing the best possible safety margin against clogging
of single lubricator quills.
The pump station includes two pumps (one operating, the other on stand-by with automatic
start up). The computer unit comprises a main computer, controlling the normal operation,
a switch-over unit and a (simple) back-up unit. The injection function is controlled by the computer
sending an on/off signal to a solenoid valve.
A shaft encoder (which can be shared with the PMI system, or timing system on the Intelligent
Engine) supplies the necessary timing signal.
The amount of oil injected can be adjusted automatically or manually as required, e.g. at load
changes, start/stop, at reduced engine load (different modes are available), sulphur % in the fuel,
temperature level on liner surface, variation in cylinder oil BN, etc. Pre-lubrication before start can
be made manually or be a sequence in the bridge manoeuvring system.
The pump station supplies the Alpha Lubricators with 40-50 bar oil
13. What is ECS governor
14. What is multistage turbo charging
1. exhaust flow is bypassed from one stage to another, in doing so energy contained
in the exhaust is preserved.
2. bypass flow is passed through a VGT vane outletas other variable geometry
nozzle. Thus converting pressure energy to kinetic energy. Such high kinetic
energy exhaust gas is made to exert mechanical rotational force on thelower
pressure turbine wheel. The VGT mechanism is only in one turbine volute.
15. What is intelligent engine
16. What are the parts reduced in RT Flex as compared to conventional sulzer
engines, so inabsence of removed components parts how the functions of those
parts are done.
17. How the camless can be run at a low rpm
18. Latest developments and amendments on the ships you have done last.
19. Latest developments about propellers

20. Definition of a bulk carrier as per SOLAS

Ans: bulk carrier means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck , top
side tanks, and hopper side tanks, in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry
dry cargo in bulk, and includes such types as coal carriers and combination carriers.

21. definition of bulk carrier of single side skin

Ans means a bulk carrier in which cargo hold is bounded by the side shell. One or
more cargo holds bounded by a double skin, the width of whichis less than 760mm
(for ships built before 1 jan2000) and less than for 1000mm( for ships built between
1st jan 2000 and 1st july 2000).

22. Difference between a bulk carrier and a cargo ship, construction wise
Ans: cargo ship is any ship which is not a passenger ship.

23. As chief engineer vessel has too much breakdown people are tired how will you
motivate them.
Ans; 1. Improve the working atmosphere- safety culture to follow, no goupism, no
2. approval, praise and recognition
3. ensure that work is divided amongst them equally- team building
4. do the job peacefully and carefully, to avoid mistakes
5. C/E must be in the vicinity of the job and provide guidance where required
6. pat on their backs-
7. give them incentive- overtime to the crew,
8. assure them sufficient rest after the job is completed, keeping in mind minimum
manning required for watch keeping
9. emphasise on good communications
10. help them in their jobs with ur own hands.
11. tell them to do better job so that work is carried out without errors and no further
breakdown of same machineries to be attended
12. permit them to use new spares where required, avoid using substandard spares.

13. Grounding holed ship is sitting hard what will you do.
a. follow the contingency plan , damaged stability plan- for grounding and
b. calculate all stress and stability before attempting any transfer of oil and
c. Consider transfer of oil in case it is in the way of bunker or cargo tanks, to
prevent pollution
d. Inform the company, DPA, communicate with office alert team
e. Analyze the possibility of assistance required from the shore- nearest
coastal state and classification societies
f. Refer to the tidal charts of the concerned area
g. Maintain stability of the vessel
h. Sound the adjacent tanks
i. Consider the possibility of the patching up of the hole or any repairs if
possible by the shore and ship staff
j. Do not use engines to take the vessel out of the aground condition
k. Warn vessel in vicinity
l. Close all tank valves and pipe lines master valves where appropriate

14. Bunker spill who will pay for the compensation, up to what extent
Ans: as per bunker convention the P&I club of the shipowner shall pay the

15. Difference between car insurance and ship insurance

Ans;Car insurance s transferable where as ship insurance is not transferable,
Car insurance is done on the basis of depreciated value , where as ship insurance is on
the basis of agreed value coverage. Or actual cash value- will get depreciated amount.
On ships new for old provision is there, the price of new parts is paid,
Negligence of master crew and officer can be insured against- drunken driving is not

16. what is the difference between the bunker and CLC conventions
Ans: bunker convention is applicable above 1000GT for ships others than tankers,
contribution from shipowner, bareboat charterers, operator / manager, , limits of
liability as per the national regime, but in all cases not exceeding LLMC (limitation
of liability for maritime claims
CLC is applicable to oil tankers carrying 2000GT and above, applicable to laden as
well as unladen and bunkers from such tankers.

17. All generators damage, H&M policy, insurance clause,

Ans; new for old clause: either new generator or new spares required for partial
damaged generators shall be compensated for

18. Differentiate between safety and security

Ans; safety;is action to prevent a possible injury or death or damage to the property
and environment
Security: is a threat to country, ship, premises of any installation from the intruders
who wish to cause damage to the persons, property or environment deliberately
19. Differentiate between prohibited area and restricted area
Ans: Prohibited area: area where no trespassing is allowed and trespassers are liable
to be prosecuted
Restricted area: area where entry is subjected to identification of the concerned

20. Annex VI Volatile organic compound,

Ans; Regulation 15 Volatile Organic Compounds

IMO shall specify the ports and terminals, size of ships and types of cargos which
requires vapour emission control with an approved vapuor collection system
during loading of such cargos

Vapour emission control systems are provided on terminals

Vapour emission collection systems are required for ships

Existing tankers which are not fitted with vapour collection systems may be accepted for
a period of three years after the terminal was included in the above list.

This regulation shall only apply to gas carriers when the type of loading and containment
systems allow safe retention of non-methane VOCs on board, or their safe return ashore.

21. How will you train your juniors for safety and security?
Ans; training concerning safety
a. Demonstrate the use and notify the locations of all safety equipments-
such as LSA and FFA, carry out drills and ask seniors to demonstrate,
b. Train them regarding the pollution prevention equipments- such as
IOPP( to officers and trainee engineers), contents of SOPEP locker,
garbage segregation and disposal
c. Ensure they understand the garbage management pan and its contents
d. Train them in the operation of workshop machinery and power tool, safe
methods and procedures, checks to be carried out prior every operation
e. Importance of wearing appropriate safety gear- such as goggles, helmets,
safety shoes, full sleeve boiler suits, ear protection, etc through training
sessions verbally and through audio visuals
f. Importance of following safe techniques while lifting loads
g. Importance of implementation of ISM filling up of checklists and
h. Importance of following standard operating practice.
i. Familiarization with all locations of emergency exits
j. Importance of record keeping, and religiously carrying out daily and
safety routines- such as Saturday routines.
k. Importance of team work and taking sufficient rest during non working
l. Carry out fire, abandon ship , oil spill, MOB drills at regular intervals

Training concerning security

m. importance of keeping a good vigilance on board ship
n. familiarization with Ships security plan
o. importance of gangway watchkeeping, importance of filling up gangway
p. significance of various security levels
q. action to be taken when a security breach has taken place- raise alarm
r. precaution to prevent piracy,
s. importance of doing religious security search to prevent stowaways
t. importance of checking received spares and stores prior taking them on
u. Actions to be taken on finding an unidentifiable object
v. Keep the areas which not in use closed and locked,
w. Importance of access control.
x. Importance of adequate lighting and patrolling under various security

22. What is collision what action will you take as chief engineer
a. raise alarm
b. stand by in engine room for engine movements as per bridge order, stop
c. muster, head count
d. shut down all non essentials
e. sound all the tanks
f. isolate penetrated tanks
g. consider the possibility of oil transfer
h. make initial assessment of type , location and extent of damage
i. is damage above or below water line
j. buoyancy and stability affected
k. is vessel manoeuvrable
l. is there any risk of any pollution to the enviornment
m. prepare for firefighting if required,
n. inform the nearest coastal state

23. Oil spill punishment in MS act

Ans; oil spill 5 lakhs rupees fine to master or the person concerned
IOPP equipment not fitted 10000 rupees fine
Not maintaining oil record book 5000 rupees., imprisonment of six months or fine
or both if willfully make an false entry or destroys entries
If master refuses to certify the entries in the oil record book then 100rupees fine.

24. MS amendments/ chapters

Ans: The Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 has been amended on thirteen occasions since
1958 and the major amendments were made as indicated below :-

(a) In 1966, the provisions of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea,
1960 were inserted in the Act;

(i) The Special Trade Passenger Ship Agreement, 1971 and

(ii) The Protocol on space Requirements for Special Trade Passenger Ships, 1973. The
amended provisions of Law aim at upgrading safety requirements applicable to special
Trade Passenger Ships (Formerly known as unberthed Passenger Ships)

(e) In 1979, provision for placing an obligations on the persons obtaining certificates of
competency under the Act to serve Government or Indian Ships for a specified period was
incorporated in the Act;

(f) In 1981, provisions to enable the Co-operative Societies to own and register ships was
incorporated in the Act;

(g) In 1983, the provisions of the International Convention on Control and Prevention of
Pollution of Sea by ships in accordance with the amendments to the 1954 Oil Pollution
Convention; giving provisions for civil liability for Oil Pollution damage, was incorporated
in Part X B of the Act. The 1983 amendment act also provided to insert new provisions for
registration of fishing boats, their inspection etc, in Part XVA of the Act,

(h) In 1984 provisions in relation to Welfare of Seamen and insurance of crew of sailing
vessels, etc. was incorporated in the Act;
(i) In 1986, Section 80 of the Act regarding grant of certificate of service to naval officers
was deleted from the Act, as the International Convention on Standards of training,
Certification and Watch-keeping 1978 (to which India is a party) does not permit grant of
certificates of service without examination.

(j) In 1986, an Act called the Shipping Development Fund Committee (Abolition) Act,1986
was passed to abolish the SDFC constituted under the M.S. Act, 1958. The Central
Government delegated the Shipping credit and Investment Company of India Limited, a
Company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 ( 1 of 1956) with all its functions in

(k) In 1987 provision with regard to manning of ships by certificated officers in accordance
with the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Convention of 1978 was
inserted in the Act;

(l) In 1988, provisions of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution
Damage, 1969 and its 1976 Protocol was inserted in Part XB of the Act;

(m) In 1993, on the recommendation of the M.S.Act Review Committee, the Sections
21,42,45,51, 412 and 414 of the M.S. Act, 1958 were amended. The Govt. of India in 1991,
set up a Review Committee under the Chairmanship of Director General of Shipping to
review the Merchant Shipping Act 1958 in its entirety taking into consideration the
international conventions which India has ratified but not enacted statutorily. The
Committee has gone into depth of the provisions of M.S. Act 1958 and has suggested wide
ranging amendments of various sections including the preamble. The intent and purpose
of the Act is better explained in the suggested preamble by the Review Committee which
now includes to provide for registration of Indian ships, safety.of ships, welfare of
seafarers etc. These suggestions/recommendations of the Review Committee are under
consideration of the Government to amend the M.S. Act 1958 for incorporating the same.
The policy of liberalisation adopted by the Government since 1991 has also been taken
care of for inclusion in the Merchant Shipping Act.

amendments 2002

a. seamans employment office role has been redefiened to control and

regulate the manning agent, and recruitmant and placement service,
instead of controlling and reulating the employment of seaman.
b. Central govt has been empowered to prescribe different manning scales
for different types of ships
c. Act was amended to improve CLC 92 protocol and fund convention 92
d. Solas 74 as amended in 1988 to implement the provisions of loadline
conventions 1966 as amended in 1988,
e. To harmonize the survey and certification (HSSC) procedures with those
of solas convention 1974 as amended in 1988, to enable the central govt to
implement the provisions of LLMC 76
Amendment 2003
g. substitution for a new section added 356 Provisions of port state
inspections on Indian ports, issue of certificates under MARPOL for
annex I, II, IV. To any non Indian ship in India and to Indian ship abroad
on the request of the flag state.
h. Regulation for the noxious liquid substances and its associated equipments
added to the act,

25. seaman welfare fund

a. grant of monthly exgratia monetary assistance of rs 200 to medically unfit
seaman/ widows
b. Adhoc ex gratia on death of seaman 5000 rs for foreign going and 3000
for home trade
c. Educational scholarship to children of seaman
d. Grants to various seafarers clubs hostels homes for recreation and other
welfare facilities
e. Financial assistance to distress seaman effected by natural calamities-
cyclone floods riots
f. Advance of wages to seaman to the vessels of ex shipping company who
could not meet their liabilities- goes into liquidation
g. Death compensation to the widows- 40000 rs
Contribution to the fund
From foreign shipowners, by way of wage differential between international
and Indian wage- initial corpus
By way of transfer of fines imposed on seaman. And voluntary donations
Fees from govt, -aid
Unemployment relief contribution received from shipowners,
Interests earning of thereof.

Construction of welfare fund 16 members

Chairman- DG
Vice chairman- Dy DG
Two Indian Shipowners reps
2 govt nominee
2 foreign shipowners reps
one person representing Indian public sector shipping company
4 seaman
1- merchant navy officer
1 secretary
1 treasurer

26. responsibilities of seaman as per MS act. 190.

Misconduct endangering life or ship.- No master, seaman or apprentice belonging to an

Indian ship, wherever it may be, or to any other ship, while in India, shall knowingly-

(a) do anything tending to the immediate loss or destruction of, or serious damage to, the
ship, or tending immediately to endanger the life of, or to cause injury to any person
belonging to or on board the ship; or

(b) refuse or omit to do any lawful act proper and requisite to be done by him for
preserving the ship from immediate loss destruction or serious damage, or for preserving
any person belonging to or on board the ship from danger to life or from injury.

191.Desertion and absence without leave.-

194.General offences against discipline

(b) if he is guilty of wilful disobedience to any lawful command or neglect of duty;

(d) if he assaults the master or any other officer of the ship;

(e) if he combines with any of the crew to disobey lawful commands or to neglect
duty or to impede the navigation of the ship or retard the progress of the voyage;

(f) if he wilfully damages his ship or commits criminal misappropriation or breach

of trust in respect of, or wilfully damages any of, her store or cargo.

195.Smuggling of goods by seamen or apprentices.-

(2) If a seaman lawfully engaged is convicted of an offence of smuggling opium,
hemp or any other narcotic drug or narcotic,

196.Entry of offences of official logs.-

202.Payment of fines imposed under agreement to shipping master.-

208.On change of master, documents to be handed over to successor.-

27. enumerate the benefits of seaman

a. issuance of Continuous discharge certificate
b. issuance of certificate of competency provisions
c. repatriation of seaman
d. medical examination and treatment of sick seaman
e. maritime lien over the ship
f. distress seaman benefits
g. welfare benefits
h. provisions health and accommodations- working condition benefits
i. allowances for short and bad provisions
j. enquiry(inspection) upon complaint by a seaman
k. special provision for the protection of seaman in respect of litigation
l. property of deceased seaman
m. payment of wages
n. advance and allotment of wages
o. settlement of wages
p. working hours of seaman
q. wages on termination of service by wrecks illness etc

28. how will you evaluate and training a junior engineer

Ans; training has to be done systematically and under a certified experienced person.
It has to be documented, follow TAR BOOK
a. on the basis of performance in task assigned.
b. Follow safe working practices
c. Knowledge of LSA and FFA equipments- location and operation
d. On the basis of knowledge of emergency exits
e. On the basis of pipe line tracing
f. Performance as evaluated during drills- knowledge of life boat stations-
g. Ability to assisst a watchkeeping engineer in keeping the watch as second
h. Ability to work with hand tools , measuring instruments,
i. Ability to communicate clearly
j. Ability to understand drawing and manuals
k. Ability to demonstrate the medical first aid , and action to be taken to
prevent the shock
l. Ability to prepare main and aux machineries for operation, as second
assistance to a engine room watch keeper
m. Ability to trouble shoot.
n. Ability to understand the importance of the working parameters and their
o. Ability to understand transfer and ship board pumping systems
p. Basic knowledge of electrical machineries and safe working practices
q. Understanding the importance of documentation under ISM
r. Knowledge of operation of anti pollution equipments and plans
s. Ability to demonstrate fire fighting perform during fire drills etc
30. Why divided into X, Y, Z, what is the scientific aspect and wat is the pollution
Ans; the marine pollution hazards of thousands of chemicals have been evaluated by the Evaluation of
Hazardous Substances Working Group, giving a resultant GESAMP2 Hazard Profile which indexes the
substance according to its bio-accumulation; bio-degradation; acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; long-term
health effects; and effects on marine wildlife and on benthic habitats.
As a result of the hazard evaluation process and the new categorization system,

Category X ; if discharge into sea or tank cleaning would present a major hazard to
environment and humans, therefore justify the prohibition of the discharge into the sea.
Category Y ; hazard, or harm to amenities, therefore requires, limitation on the quantity
and qualityof the discharge
Category Z ; minor hazard or therefore justify less stringent restrictions on the quality and
quantity of the discharge.
Other substances; those substances which fall outside the category X, Y , Z because if
discharged or tank washings they present no harm to the marine resources and human
healthor amenities, when discharged into sea. The discharge of bilge or or ballast water or
other residues or mixtures from such tanks are not subjected to any requirements of the
MARPOL annex II.

vegetable oils which were previously categorized as being unrestricted will now be required to be
carried in chemical tankers. for the transport of vegetable oils in deep tanks or in independent tanks
specially designed for the carriage of such vegetable oils on board dry cargo ships allows general dry
cargo ships that are currently certified to carry vegetable oil in bulk to continue to carry these vegetable
oils on specific trades.

31. In case of engine room fire how will as a leader of the team fight the fire
a. refer to the contingency plan and take suitable action
b. muster, headcount, evacuate any casualty if any
c. assess the situation , gravity of the fire if any witness is present,
d. stop M/E after informing bridge if required
f. shut down ventilation and operate remote shut down devices
g. motivate crew to effectively prepare the fire fighting outfit and fight the
h. start emergency fire pump and isolate concerned valvescarry out
boundary cooling where possible
i. emphasise the crew entering the fire space to follow safety procedure and
effectively communicate the situation thereof
j. as a leader of the team chief engineer will access the situation and consult
with the master the possibility of releasing fixed fire fighting installation
k. ensure that engine room is evacuated prior releasing CO2, after releasing
CO2 do not enter the engine room and give sufficient time for fire to
extinguish and cool- say 6-8 hrs.
l. after lapse of such time again make entry into engine room and re assess
the situation and damage caused.
m. after fighting the fire consider the damage and the maneuverability
n. consider shore assistance required in there after
o. make initial report and final reports

32. What is re-insurance

Ans; Reinsurance The insurer under a contract of marine insurance has an insurable interest in his risk,
and may reinsure in respect of it, the original assured has no right or interest in respect of such reinsurance.
Insurers reduce their exposure to risk by insuring themselves against claims. General Insurance
Corporation (GIC) was designated as the Indian Reinsurer in November 2000 by Act of parliament to
function exclusively as Life and Non-life Reinsurer. The reinsurance regulation of the country aims at
maximum retention of insurance premium within the country. As per existing statute, GIC is entitled for
20% obligatory cessions on risks underwritten by the non-life insurers in India. The legislation also
provides for utilizing GICs capacity before any risk is offered to the international market. Being the
Indian Reinsurer, GCI plays the role of reinsurance facilitator for the Indian insurance companies.

33. who- will pay for the ships total loss

Ans hull and machinery insurer

34. who will pay for the ships crew

Ans; protection and indemnity clubs

35. who will pay for the pollution

Ans; protection and indemnity clubs

36. what is the difference- efficiency and effectiveness

Ans; efficiency- ratio of useful work performed in relation to efforts input or ratio of
output to input

37. suppose you are 2/E on a foreign ship, and you are injured or dead what are the
provision in MS act
Ans; 174.Expenses of medical attendance in case of illness.- (1) If the master of an Indian
ship, or a seaman or apprentice, receives any hurt or injury or suffers from any illness (not being
a hurt, injury or illness due to his own wilful act or default or to his own misbehaviour), resulting in
his being discharged or left behind at a place other than his proper return port, the expenses of
providing the necessary surgical and medical advice, attendance and treatment and medicine,
and also the expenses of the maintenance of the master, seaman or apprentice until he is cured,
or dies, or is brought back to the port from which he was shipped or other port agreed upon after
receiving the necessary medical treatment, and of his conveyance to that port, and in case of
death, the expenses, if any, of his burial r cremation shall be defrayed by the owner of the ship
without any deduction on that account from his wages.

(2) If the master, seaman or apprentice is on account of any illness or injury temporarily removed
from his ship, at a port other than his proper return port, for the purpose f preventing infection, or
otherwise for the convenience of the ship, and subsequently returns to his duty, the expenses of
removal and of providing the necessary surgical and medical advice, attendance and treatment
and medicine and of his maintenance while away from the ship, shall be defrayed in like manner.

(3) The expenses of all medicines, and surgical and medical advice, attendance and treatment,
given to a master, seaman or apprentice while on board his ship, shall be defrayed in like

(4) In all other cases any reasonable expenses duly incurred by the owner for any master,
seaman or apprentice in respect of illness, shall, if proved to the satisfaction of the Indian
consular officer or a shipping master, be deducted from, the wages of the master, seaman or

(5) Where any expenses referred to in this section have been paid by the master, seaman or
apprentice himself, the same may be recovered as if they were wages duly earned, and, if any
such expenses are paid by the Government, the amount shall be a charge upon the ship and may
be recovered with full costs of suit by the Central Government.

50. what are the provisions for property of the deceased seaman
a. 152.Master to take charge of the effects of deceased seamen.
b. The master shall thereupon enter in the official log book the following
particulars, namely:-

(a) a statement of the amount of money and a detailed description of the other effects;

(b) a statement of the sum due to the deceased for wages and of the amount of deduction, if any,
to be made from the wages.

c. If the ship touches a foreign port for forty-eight hours elsewhere, the
master shall report the case to the Indian consular officer at such port
d. if consular thinks necessary then he will take charge of the property of
deceased seaman and shall give a receipt to the master The receipt shall be
produced by the master to the shipping master within forty-eight hours
after his arrival at his port of destination in India.
e. If ship is coming to India then the master shall, within forty-eight hours after
his arrival at his port of destination in India, pay and deliver and property to the
shipping master at that port.

f. if the deceased seaman dies at any place outside India leaving any money or
effects not on board the ship, the Indian consular officer at or near the place shall
claim and take charge of such money and other effects

g. An Indian consular officer to whom any property of a deceased seaman or

apprentice is delivered, may think of selling such property with permission of the
dependent of the deceased seaman or shall remit the property to the shipping
master at the port of engagement of the deceased seaman.
h. Disposal of unclaimed property of deceased seamen, such property shall
be with shipping master for 1yr then he will sell it and put the money in
public account of India
38. latest developments on chemical tankers-
Ans; revised annex II
Before category were A,B,C,D on the basis of
Category A ; if discharged or tank cleaning would present a major hazard to environment
or humans, or causes serious harm to amenities. and therefore requires stringent anti
pollution measures.
Category B if discharged or tank cleaning would present a hazard to environment or
humans , or harm to amenities., requires special anti pollution measures
Category C : minor hazard , or minor harm, requires special operational procedures
Category D; recognizable hazard and minimal harm, requires some attention in
operational procedures

Category X ; if discharge into sea or tank cleaning would present a major hazard to
environment and humans, therefore justify the prohibition of the discharge into the sea.
Category Y ; hazard, or harm to amenities, therefore requires, limitation on the quantity
and qualityof the discharge
Category Z ; minor hazard or therefore justify less stringent restrictions on the quality and
quantity of the discharge.
Other substances; those substances which fall outside the category X, Y , Z because if
discharged or tank washings they present no harm to the marine resources and human
healthor amenities, when discharged into sea. The discharge of bilge or or ballast water or
other residues or mixtures from such tanks are not subjected to any requirements of the
MARPOL annex II.

Tank retention has been reduced to 75 ltrs per tank. For each category for ships after 1 jan
2007 as compared with previous 100 to 300 ltrs.

what are the technical benefits of MS Act to seaman.

42 what is MS act and its applicability
43. Applicability of SOLAS and MARPOL
44. is ESP mandatory or not.
45. What is distress seaman as per MS act?

46. Under LDC what are black and gray material

Ans black materials list, most dangerous and prohibited
organo halogen compounds
mercury and its compounds
cadmium and its compounds
persistent plastics and other persistent synthetic material
crude oil and petroleum products
radioactive waste
chemical and biological weapons
Grey list materials ( can be dumped after permission is sought from the
national authorities)
waste containing significant amounts of Arsenic , Zinc ,Copper , Lead,
Organo silicon compounds, Cyanides Fluorides, pesticides and by
47. Why amendments SAR required to be made.
Ans ;
all the countries are not fully developed so a regional cooperation was
sought with assistance from developed countries, and also few of the
developed countries were not party to the convention
cooperation between IMO and ICAO, led to replacement of IAMSAR
( international aeronautical and maritime search and rescue )manual with
MERSAR ( merchant ship search and rescue) and IMOSAR ( IMO search
and rescue),
experience of states which had implemented the convnetion

48. How many IMO and ILO conventions India has ratified
Ans. IMO conventions
Protocol SOLAS 78
Protocol MARPOL 73
CLC 69
CSC 72
SAR 79
ILO conventions

49. ISM applicable to which all ships.

Ans regardless of construction applies to
passenger ships including high speeds crafts, not later than 1 JULY 1998
oil tankers, chemical tankers, gas tankers, bulk carriers , cargo high
speed craft of 500 GT and above not later than 1 JULY 1998
other cargo ships and mobile offshore drilling units of 500 GT and above
not later than 1 JULY 2002
50. Incase of unlimited liability in US water how will the owner pay

Ans; Oil pollution cover for U.S.A.

Separate cover has to be taken for actual or threatened oil pollution arising out of an incident to
which the US Oil Pollution Act 1990 (OPA 90) and COFR (Certificate of Financial Responsibility)
requirements is applicable. Additional premium has to be paid for this additional cover.
P&I will pay .

51. How you are going to motivate a junior engineer who is not willing to work, tell
me what will you do.
talk to him about his problem
give him task to build up his confidance
a new person is unknown , you will have to find his capabilities
give him training as per the TAR book
solve if any work related problems
guide him . or assign a suitable person to guide him
give him sufficient rest
involve him in major overhauls
unbiased evaluation of his performance
52. What is ISPS code, what are the duties of a chief engineer, security levels
assessment of SSP plan
declaration of security- , being SSO
strict control on access control
regular security inspection
maintaining and supervising the implementation of SSP
proposing modification to the SSP
reporting to the company any non conformity during internal audit
reporting all security incidents to the CSO
ensure all security equipments are properly calibrated and maintained
reviewing and completing the declaration of security

53. Incase of a piracy attack how will you manage or action to be taken,
Ans ;
raise SSAS ( ships security alarm system) to notify the nearest port
sound emergency alarm & muster the crew inside accommodation
inform local authority by any other means to ask for assistance
lock all restricted area, lock all the entrances to the accommodation
avoid direct confrontation with pirates
piracy can be avoided by keeping security patrols deck watch
rig fire hose to deter boarders,
best possible illumination of water around the vessel at night
advise the crew that emergency alarm will be sounded if pirates board
notify head office, flag state, P&I,
pre pare report with full description- with photographs of crime scene.

54. As you have come out of your cabin have noticed smoke in the alleyway what
action will you take.
raise alarm , find the source of fire or smoke, and inform bridge to raise
emergency alarm signal, inform them details of fire
try to extinguish or restrict fire,
muster and fight the fire as per fire contingency plan.
Make a report and inform authorities- port state, flag state, company and

55. What is hamburg rule,
hague and hague visby rules were too much in favors of carrier hence
hamburg rule were designed
they do not give so many exception from liability as hagu and Hague
visby rules
applicable to inward and outward cargos, live animals carried as
cargocargo carried on deck
India has not ratified to hamburg rules
Limitation of liability of carriers has increased about 25 %, that is 835
SDR per package

56. Difference between wreck and salvage
57. Difference between bill of lading, and mates receipt
58. What in premation
59. Under what conditions insurance will be given
Ans hull and machinery
Peril clause;
Sister ship clause
Leased equipment
Running down clause- th collision liability
Sue and labour
Vessel should be under classification
ISM certification , DOC SMC
Management, flag, state charter( bareboat), changes insurance becomes invalid
Wages and maintenances- which form a part of general average
War risk clause- additional premium to be paid
New for old
Bottom treatment- painting cleaning not be given- but claims for bottom plating
Disbursement- increased value of the vessel can be insured
General average and salvage
Tender provisions- leading under writer has write to order to go to port of refuge, has
write to place tender,
Notice of claim

61. If container is fallen who will pay
Ans cargo insurer will pay
39. How is doing salvage LOF, SCOPIC, who will pay for the salvage.
40. Gas carrier latest developments
41. loyds open form 2000

42. veg oil

43. charter party
44. salvage

63. what are inter personal conflict

64. latest developments in car carriers
65. latest developments in bulk carriers
45. hague visby rules
66. CAS
67. Incase of grounding what is your action, how you will retrieve from the situation
manage to re-float the vessel
68. Junior engineer is disobeying you what action will you take as chief engineer
69. Court case against you can you join ship
70. Human fatigue
Ans; state of feeling tired, weary, or sleepy that results from prolonged mental or physical
work, extended periods of anxiety, exposure to harsh environments, or loss of sleep. The
result of fatigue is impaired performance and diminished alertness.

A reduction in physical and/or mental capability as the result of

physical, mental or emotional exertion which may impair nearly all
physical abilities including: strength; speed; reaction time;
coordination; decision making; or balance.

Causes of fatigue;
Crew-specific Factors
Sleep and Rest(e.g. ships violent movement, weather, heavy vibration, noise
or poor accommodation)
(e.g. stress, family worries, on-duty responsibilities) (e.g. disruptions caused by drills,
loading and unloading)
- Quality, Quantity and Duration of Sleep
- Sleep Disorders/Disturbances
- Rest Breaks
Biological Clock/Circadian RhythmsThe biological clock is perfectly
synchronised to the traditional pattern of daytime wakefulness and night-time sleep.
Irregular schedules caused by shifting rotations, crossing time zones, etc. cause the
circadian rhythms to be out of synchronization.
Psychological and Emotional Factors, including stress
- Fear
- Monotony and Boredom
- Diet
- Illness
StressStress can be caused by a number of things, including:
Environmental hardships (noise, vibration, exposure to high and low temperatures, etc)
Weather (i.e. ice conditions)
Personal problems (family problems, home sickness, etc.)
Broken rest
Long working hour sExcessive work load
Working consistently heavy workloads can cause fatigue. Workload is considered
heavy when a person works excessive hours or performs physically demanding or
mentally stressful tasks. Excessive work hours and fatigue can result in negative effects:
- Increased accident and fatality rates
- Increased dependence upon drugs, tobacco or alcohol
- Poor quality and disrupted sleep patterns
On-board interpersonal relationships
- Skill, knowledge and training as it relates to the job
- Personal problems
- Interpersonal relationships
- Age
Management Factors (ashore and aboard ship)
Organizational Factors
Staffing policies and Retention
Role of riders and shore personnel
Paperwork requirements
Schedules-shift, Overtime, Breaks
Company culture and Management style
Rules and Regulations
Upkeep of vessel
Training and Selection of crew
2. Voyage and Scheduling Factors
Frequency of port calls
Time between ports
Weather and Sea condition on route
Traffic density on route
Nature of duties/workload while in port
Ship-specific Factors
Ship design
Level of Automation
Level of Redundancy
Equipment reliability
Inspection and Maintenance
Age of vessel
Physical comfort in work spaces
Location of quarters
Ship motion
Physical comfort of accommodation spaces
Environmental Factors
Exposure to excess levels of environmental factors, e.g. temperature,
humidity,excessive noise levels,can cause or affect fatigue.
Ship motion is also considered an environmental factor. Motion affects a persons ability
to maintain physical balance.
1 Inability to concentrate Unable to organize a series of activities
Preoccupied with a single task
Focuses on a trivial problem, neglecting more important ones
Reverts to old but ineffective habits
Less vigilant than usual
2 Diminished decision-making ability Misjudges distance, speed, time, etc.
Fails to appreciate the gravity of the situation
Overlooks items that should be included
Chooses risky options
Difficulty with simple arithmetic, geometry, etc.
3 Poor memory Fails to remember the sequence of task or task elements
Difficulty remembering events or procedures
Forgets to complete a task or part of a task
4 Slow response Responds slowly (if at all) to normal, abnormal or
emergency situations
5 Loss of control of bodily movements May appear to be drunk
Inability to stay awake
Affected speech e.g. it may be slurred, slowed or garbled
Feeling heaviness in the arms and legs
Decreased ability to exert force while lifting, pushing or
Increased frequency of dropping objects like tools or parts
fatigue that will manifest in physical discomfort, such as:
Heart palpitations / irregular heart beats
Rapid breathing
Loss of appetite
Sudden sweating fits
Leg pains or cramps
Digestion problems
detrimental effect on alertness
susceptible to errors of attention and memory
affect an individual's ability to respond to stimuli, perceive stimuli, interpret or
understand stimuli, and it can take longer to react to them
detrimentally affect a persons performance and may reduce individual and crew
effectiveness and efficiency; decrease productivity; lower standards of work and may
lead to errors being made.
Deep sleep
Between 7 to 8 hours of sleep per 24-hour day
Uninterrupted sleep
Consider relaxation techniques such as meditation and yoga, which can also be of great
help if learnt properly
Monitor your hours of work and rest when opportunity arises
Take breaks when scheduled breaks are assigned
Exercise regularly. Any type of muscular activity: running, walking, stretching or even
chewing gum
strategic napping as a short-term relief technique to help maintain
performance levels during long periods of wakefulness. The most effective length for a
nap is about 20 minutes. This means that if you have the opportunity to nap you should
take it. naps longer than 30 minutes will cause sleep inertia, may disrupt later sleeping
Social Interaction Social interaction (conversation) can help you stay awake. However,
the interaction must be active to be effective.
Job Rotation Changing the order of activities, where personnel are assigned tasks that
include variety in the nature of tasks, can be beneficial in breaking up job monotony.
Mixing tasks requiring high physical or mental work with low-demand tasks can be
Scheduling drills in a manner that minimizes the disturbance of rest/sleep periods
Ensuring that shipboard conditions, within the crews ability to influence, are
maintained in a good state (e.g., maintaining the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning
(HVAC) on schedule, replacing light bulbs, and contending with the sources of unusual
noise at the first opportunity)
Emphasizing to shore management the importance of selecting seafarers with the right
training and experience for the job
Creating an open communication environment, by making it clear to the crew members
that it is important to inform supervisors when fatigue is impairing their performance and
ensuring that there will be no recriminations for such reports
Increasing awareness of the long term health care of appropriate lifestyle behavior (e.g.
exercise, relaxation, nutrition, smoking and alcohol consumption)
Management should consider the following in developing fatigue management policies
ISM Code requirements for clear, concise guidance on operational procedures on board
The need for joining crews to be adequately rested before assuming duties
Scheduling time for proper hand over on crew change
Voyage length, time in port, length of service and leave ratios
Multicultural issues; language barriers, social, cultural and religious isolation
Interpersonal relationships, stress, loneliness, boredom, social deprivation and increased
workload as a result of small crew numbers
Provision for shore leave and onboard recreation, family communication
Improved sleeping berths and accommodation
Adequate quality and quantity of food for proper nutrition
Read Modules 2-4 for additional potential managerial mitigation tools
Modification of present ship design or future designs
International Labor Organisation: Convention Concerning Seafarers
Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships ILO Convention No. 180. 92,
133, 140, 141 and 147. Each introduces minimum habitability requirements (e.g. noise
control and air conditioning) on board ships.
International Maritime Organisation: International Convention on Standards of Training
Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 as amended in 1995 (STCW
Convention)2; Seafarers Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Code (STCW Code)
PartsA: Part A of the Code requires posting of the watch schedules.
Part B of the Code recommends that record keeping is useful as a means of promoting
compliance with the rest requirements.
International Safety Management Code (ISM Code)5; This Code introduces safety
management requirements on shipowners to ensure that conditions, activities, and tasks
(both ashore and afloat) that affect safety and environmental protection are planned,
organized, executed and verified in accordance with company requirements. The fatigue
related requirements include:
1. manning of ships with qualified and medically fit personnel;
2. familiarization and training for shipboard personnel; and
3. issuance of necessary support to ensure that the shipmasters duties can be adequately
and various guidelines/recommendations
71. Definition of seaworthiness as per merchant shipping act.