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Exercise 7: Thermal Design of A Simple Boiler

In this exercise, calculation procedure for boiler design is presented. This simplification is by
no means satisfactory for engineering design of the practical facility, but is a reasonable example
to discuss some of the fundamental thermal processes in the furnaces with considerations on fuel
and combustion.

7.1 Modes of Heat Transfer

The importance of heat transfer in boiler design is self-evident. In the boiler we are concerned
with the conversion of chemical energy in the fuel to thermal/pressure energy of a steam flow
and the effectiveness of this conversion process will be strongly dependant on the heat transfer
processes involved. We can identify three modes of heat transfer
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
all of which have a part to play in the boiler. However, conduction is not considered in simple
boiler calculation.

Heat transfer by convection relies on the bulk movement of a heated fluid in relation to a
surface. It features strongly in the design of plant items such as superheaters and reheaters, where
there are gas-to-metal and metal-to-steam convective heat transfers.

qconv = h(T Tw )Aw

Heat transfer by radiation does not rely on the presence of an intervening medium. Radiation is
the transfer of heat through electromagnetic radiation in the infra-red range. Its contribution may
amount to 95% of total heat transfer in a furnace part and 30% heat transfer in a tube bank.

4
qrad = g (T Tw 4 )Aw

7.2 Heat and Mass Balance

In the control volume, heat and mass balance equation are shown as below.
q + m out hout m air hin ,air m fuel hfuel = 0
= +

From the LHV of a fuel:


+ = 0
Where,


= = ( 0 ) + ( 2 0 2 ) Gas a b
0 2
(J/kg K) (J/kg K2)

Reference temperature T0 is set to 25, or 298K, CH4 1182.8 3.4714


and coefficient a and b can be calculated by
CO2 1170.8 0.09336

= , = H2O 1945.2 0.36366


O2 1027.8 0.07360
(Mj is the mass fraction of each species of
N2 1129.6 0.07016
the combustion gas)

Total heat transfer is the sum of the radiation plus the convection;
q=qconv+qrad

7.3 Example of Simple Boiler Calculation

7.3.1 Boiler Furnace


All heat transfer is assumed to be by radiation in the furnace.
Methane feed rate is 30kg/s at 25. LHV of methane is 4*107J/kg. Air flow is 570kg/s. The excess
air ratio(EAR) is 0.11. The air temperature is 200. The wall temperature is 300. The furnace
area is 3,000m2. The furnace volume is 10,000m3.

Find the temperature of flue gas leaving the furnace and heat transfer in the furnace.
Fuel : Methane
T.?
30kg/s, 25 Furnace
q=?
Hfuel=4x107J/kg
Convection is negligible

Air; 570kg/s Tw=300;


EAR=0.11, 200 A=Aw=3,000m2
V=10,000m3

Where, The emissivity of gas is shown as below:


Use gT=k(pL-0.015)n

H2O:CO2
1:2 1:1 2:1
Partial pressure ratio
T k n k n k n
1000 444 0.34 416 0.34 444 0.34
1500 540 0.42 495 0.40 540 0.42
2000 572 0.51 509 0.48 572 0.51

L=3.6V/A where L is the depth of the gas layer and A is all surface area of gas layer.
p=(H2O partial pressure + CO2 partial pressure) atm

Furnace is considered as well-stirred reactor model.


T=Tout.
T can be draw by the Newton-Rhapson method.


+ 1 =

7.3.2 Tube bank


The flue gas flow is 600kg/s at 1435K. Heat transfer coefficient is 100W/m2K. The wall
temperature is 300. The tube bank area is 3,000m2. The tube bank volume is 250m3.

Find the temperature of flue gas leaving the tube bank and heat transfer in the
furnace.
h=100W/m2K
Flue gas
A=Aw=9000m2
Tin=1435K, T=?
V=250m3
600kg/s q=?
Tw=300
7.4 Solution

7.4.1 Solution For the furnace radiation:

Fuel : Methane
F.O.T.?
30kg/s, 25 Furnace
Hfuel=4x107J/kg
Convection is negligible

Air; 570kg/s Tw=300;


r=0.11, 200 A=Aw=3,000m2
V=10,000m3

(i) Check the air fuel ratio


afr = (2(1+EAR)(32+3.76*28))/16=19.05
afr = 570/30=19
(ii) Exhaust gas composition :
CO2+2H2O+EAR*2O2+(1+EAR)(2*3.76N2)
Total above mass; m total = 1*44 + 2*18 + EAR*2*32 + (1+EAR)*7.52*28 = 321
Mole fraction of the species CO2, H2O, O2, N2 ;
mf CO2 = 44/321 = 0.137
mf H2O= 36/321 = 0.112
mf O2 = 7.04/321 = 0.022
mf N2 = 233.72/321 = 0.728
aout= 0.137*1182.8 + 0.112*1170.8 + 0.022*127.8 + 0.728*1129.6 = 1138.1,
bout= 0.137*0.09336 + 0.112*0.36366 + 0.022*0.0736 + 0.728*0.07016 = 0.1062
Exhaust partial pressures of H2O and CO2 ::
P CO2 = 1 / (1 + 2 + 2*EAR + 2*(1+EAR) *3.76) = 1/11.5672 = 0.086 atm
P H2O = 2 / 11.5672 = 0.174 atm
(iii) The energy equation
Correct following relation

() = g 5.67 108 (T 4 5734 ) 3000 30 4 104


0.07097
570 1105.7 (473 298) + (4732 2982 )
2
0.1066
+600 [1225.2 (T 298) + (T 2 2982 )]
2
() = 6.8 104 3 + 64.07 + 7.35 105
(iv) Iteration
Begin with T1=1500K, Use gT=k(pL-0.015)n
Then from the foregoing table

T k n
1000 444 0.34
1500 540 0.42
2000 572 0.51

L=3.6V/A=12m; p=(0.087+0.174)atm
g(1500K)=540*(0.261*12-0.015)0.42/1500=0.580
& g(1000K)=0.654
1 = 1.284 108 ; 1 = 2.163 106
1.284 108
2 = 1500 = 1441
2.163 106
Using interpolation, g(1441K)=0.589
2 = 1.197 107 ; 2 = 2.026 106
2 = 1435

2 = 1435 4 = 1435(1162)
F.O.T. = 1435K
(v) q=?
q = g 4 4 = 4.15 108
q = q/ = 138/2

7.4.2 For the superheaters

h=100W/m2K
Flue gas
A=Aw=9000m2
Tin=1435K, T=?
V=250m3
600kg/s q=?
Tw=300Coals
b

L=3.6V/A=0.1m
pL=0.0261atm-m (slightly out of range!)
m fuel = 0; m out = m in =600kg/s
4
() = 4 + ( )
2
[ ( ) +
+ ( 2 )]
2
(i) Iteration
1 = 1000, = 0.096, 1 = 7.44 107
1 = 1.96 106 T2 = 961K T3 = 961K
T4 = 961K(688)!
(ii) Heat transfer rate
= 4 4 + ( ) = 3.86 108
qrad : qconv=1:9
APPENDIX 7: Boiler Design Calculation

7.1 Combustion (stoichiometric) calculation

7.1.1 Outline
Combustion (stoichiometirc) calculations provide much of the basic information necessary of the
design of a boiler plant. They help find the amount of fuel to be fed for the required thermal
output of the plant. The specifications of fans and blowers are based on the air required for
burning of gasifying that quantity of fuel. Combustion calculations also give the amount of
limestone required to achieve a certain amount sulfur capture. Finally the solid and gaseous
pollutants produced from the combustion are computed from this. Most of the calculations are
based on overall chemical reactions.

7.1.2 Calculation

Heating value
- HHV=33,823C+144,249(H-O/8)+9,418S(kJ/kg)
- LHV=HHV-22,604H-2581Mf(kJ/kg)
Air flow rate calculation
- Theoretical dry air,Mda
Mda=[11.53C+34.34(H-O/8)+4.34S+AS](kg/kg coal)
For each unit mass of sulfur converted to calcium sulfate, an additional
amount of dry air A, is required. So the extra air for a unit weight of coal is AS,
where A is 2.16 for sulfur capture and is zero when no sulfur is captured as
calcium sulfate.
- Total dry air, Tda
Tda = MdaEAR (kg/kg burned),
- Total wet air, Mwa
Mwa = Tda(1+Xm),
In standard air this weight fraction of moisture Xm, is about 0.013 kg/kg air,
and Xm is the weight fraction of moisture in the air.
- Total flue gas weight
N2 Equation: Nitrogen from fuel and air = N+0.768Mda EAR
H2O Equation: 9H+ EAR MdaXm+Mf+LqXml
CO2 Equation: 3.66C+1.375SR(1+1.19(XMgCO3/XCaCO3))
SO2 Equation: 2S(1-Esor)
O2 Equation: O+0.2314Mda(EAR -1)+(1-Esor)S/2
Fly ash Equation: Ash*ac , ac is the fraction of the ash in coal as it appears as fly ash
(0.1-0.5).
Total flue gas mass, Wc

= 0.2315 + 3.66 + 9 + + + + 2.5(1 )


+1.375(1 + 1.19 3 3 ) + ( )
Sorbent requirement
If the coal ash contains a negligible amount of calcium oxide, the sorbent required Lq, to retain
the sulfur in a unit weight of fuel is found from the following equation:

100
=
32 3

Where S is the weight fraction of sulfur in coal, and XCaCO3, is the weight fraction of CaCO3 in
the sorbent. R is defined as the calcium to sulfur molar ratio in the feed of sorbent and coal
respectively.
Sometimes the coal ash contains an appreciable amount of calcium oxide, which removes a part
fed, the inherent Ca/S ratio is 32XcaO/56S. Therefore the limestone required for removal of same
amount of sulfur (EsorS) will be reduced by the above amount. Thus , R is to be replaced by R as
below :

32
= { }
56
Solid waste Produced

3 = + 2 1830( 3 )

3 = + 2 1183( 3 )

From above reaction we find that the sorbent decomposes into MgO and CaO. Out of this a
part of the CaO is converted into CaSO4. The spent sorbent would thus contain CaSO4,
unconverted CaO, unconverted MgO, and inert components of the sorbent. The weight of spent
sorbent produced per unit weight of coal burned Lw, is the sum of CaSO4, CaO, MgO, and inerts.

Spent sorbents = calcium sulfate + calcium oxide + magnesium oxide + inert

3 40 3
= 136 + 56 + +
32 100 32 84

Where Lq is sorbent fed per unit weight of coal burned and is given by Lq equation.

The total solid waste contains, in addition to the spent sorbent Lw, coal and ASH, and unburned
carbon (1-Ec), less the CaO content XCaO, of coal converted to CaSO4 and included in Lw. The
solid waste produced per unit weight of fuel burned is thus:
Wa=[Lw+ASH+(1-Ec)-XCaO]
Where, Ec is the combustion efficiency expressed as a fraction.

7.2 Heat balance on the basis of higher heating value of coal, HHV
(Boiler efficiency calculation by heat loss method)

EFFICIENCY
Output= Input Losses
INPUT
Output
100 =
Efficiency %
Input
Input Losses
Boiler = 100
OUTPUT Input

LOSSES
1. Dry flue gas loss through stack

2. Moisture losses( in sorbent, fuels, air, and hydrogen burning)

3. Calcination losses

4. Sulfating credit it is a negative loss

5. Unburnt carbon loss

6. Convection radiation loss

7. Sensible heat loss in fly ash and bottom ash

8. Fan credit it is also a negative loss

9. Unaccounted loss

7.2.1 Outline
The combustion heat generated in the furnace is equal to the sum of all heat losses and the
enthalpy gain of water/steam in the boiler. Heat losses are usually expressed as a fraction of
percentage of the potential combustion heat. They are expressed in terms of the heat losses
associated with the burning of 1 kg coal and its higher heating value (HHV).
The following components of the loss are discussed below:
1. Dry flue gass loss through stack
2. Moisture losses( in sorbent, fuels, air, and hydrogen burning)
3. Calcination losses
4. Sulfating credit it is a negative loss
5. Unburnt carbon loss
6. Convection radiation loss
7. Sensible heat loss in fly ash and bottom ash
8. Fan credit it is also a negative loss
9. Unaccounted loss

7.2.2 Calculations
Dry flue gas heat loss
Tf is the temperature of the flue gas leaving the stack
Ta is the ambient temperature
Mdf is dry flue gas mass per kg fuel burned .

Moisture losses
A. Loss due to moisture in Air

[] { (100 ) + + }
, =

We assume that the saturation temperature of water is 100 at stack pressure.


Qlatent is the latent heat of vaporization.
QSH is the enthalpy of superheating equal to Cg(Tf-100)
Mda is the stoichiometric amount of dry air required for 1 kg of fuel fired.
Xm is the moisture fraction in the air.
EAC is the execss air coefficient(= 1 + excess air fraction).
Cm is the specific heat of water.
B. Moisture loss from Coal

[2 ]{ (100 ) + + }
, =

C. Moisture loss from burning hydrogen in coal

9[]{ (100 ) + + }
, =

Calcination Loss
When the boiler uses limestone to capture sulfur, two additional terms, calcinations loss,
and sulfation credit are considered in the heat balance.

3 1830
3 =

3 1183
3 =

Sulfation Credit
The calcined limestone (CaO) reacts with sulfur dioxide producing calcium sulfate (CaSO4)
according to the following exothermaic reaction:
1
2 + + 2 = 4 + 15,141 kg
2

The resulting heat gain is


15,141
= = 15,141/

Esor is the fraction of the sulfur content.


S convered into CaSO4
Unburnt Carbon loss
Ash contains carbon * Solid waste produced * Carbon reaction heat / HHV
Other heat loss
Other heat losses have to be estimated according to previous experience as they cannot
be calculated directly. These losses include convective-radiation loss, ash sensitive heat
loss, fan credit, and other unaccounted losses.
Lothers = convection radiation loss + ash sensitive loss + <fan credit> + unaccounted loss

7.3 Mass balance on the basis of higher heating value of coal, HHV
The mass balance specifies important items such as the division of fuel ash and spent limestone
between the particulate collectors and bed drain. This also requires special attention in a CFB
boiler, especially with sulfur-capture capability.

- Fuel heat input Qi,: Qi=Thermal capacity/Boiler efficiency(MW)


- Coal feed required mc: mc=Qi/HHV
- Total airflow: mc*Mwa
- Coal ash: Ma=ASH*mc
- Total air: Mwa(Total wet air)*mc
- Flue gas wt: mc*Mwa