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LOAD-TESTS-ON-PILES

Load tests on piles are conducted on completion of 28 days after casting of piles. Two types
of tests namely initial and routine tests, for each type of loading viz. vertical, horizontal
(lateral) pull out, are performed on piles.

Table of Contents [show]

Initial Load Tests on Piles

This test is performed to confirm the design load calculations and to provide guidelines for
setting up the limits of acceptance for routine tests. It also gives an idea of the suitability of
the piling system. Initial Test on piles are to be carried out at one or more locations
depending on the number of piles required.

Load applied for the initial (cyclic) load test is 2.5 times the safe carrying capacity of the pile.
Loading for Initial Tests is conducted as per Appendix A Clause 6.3 of IS-2911 Part IV.

Routine Load Tests on Piles

Selection of piles for the Routine Test is done based on number of piles required subject to
maximum of % of total number of piles required. The number of tests may be increased to
2% depending on the nature / type of structure. The test load applied is 1 times the safe
carrying capacity of the pile.

The Maintained load method as described in Clause 6.2 of IS-2911 (Part IV) 1985 shall be
followed for loading for the Routine Tests.

This test will be performed for the following purposes:

a) To ensure the safe load capacity of piles

b) Detection of any unusual performance contrary to the findings of the Initial Test.

The tests shall be performed at the cut-off level only. A detailed report for the test result is
prepared.

Vertical Load Tests on Piles

This test will be carried out as stipulated in IS-2911 (Part IV) 1995.
Fig: Vertical load test on piles

Pile Head The pile head shall be chipped off till sound concrete is met wherever
applicable. The reinforcement shall be cut and head levelled with Plaster of Paris. A bearing
plate with a hole shall be placed on the head for the jack to rest.

Reaction- Kentledge shall be suitably designed to get the desired reaction on the piles.
Anchor piles (if required) shall be placed at a centre to centre distance of 3 times the pile
diameter subject to a minimum distance of 2 M.

Settlement- 2 dial gauges for a single pile and 4 dial gauges for a group of piles with 0.01
mm sensitivity shall be used. They shall be positioned at equal distance around the piles on
datum bars resting on immovable supports at a distance of 3D (min. of 1.5 m) where D is the
diameter of pile or circumscribing circle for non-circular piles.

Application of load- It shall be applied as specified depending on the type of test (routine /
initial). Each load shall be maintained till the rate of displacement of the pile top is either 0.1
mm in the first 30 minutes or 0.2 mm in the first one hour or 2 hours whichever occurs first.
The next increment in the load shall be applied on achieving the aforesaid criterion.

The test load shall be maintained for 24 hours.

Initial Tests The safe load on a single pile shall be the least of the following:

(i) 2/3rd of the final load at which the total displacement attains a value of 12 mm unless
otherwise required in a given case on the basis of nature and type of structure in which case,
the safe load should be corresponding to the stated total displacement permissible.

(ii) 50% of the final load at which the total displacement equals 10% of the pile diameter in
case of uniform diameter piles or 7.5% of the bulb diameter in case of under reamed piles.
Routine Tests Acceptance

The maximum settlement at test load should not exceed 12 mm.

Lateral Load Tests on Piles

Fig: Horizontal load test on piles

The jack should be placed horizontally, between two piles. The load on the jack shall be the
same on both the piles. The load will be applied in increments of 20% of the estimated safe
load and at the cut off level. The load will be increased after the rate of displacement is nearer
to 0.1 mm per 30 minutes. If the cut-off level is approachable, one dial gauge exactly at the
cut-off level shall measure the displacement. In case the cut-off level is not approachable, 2
dial gauges 30 cm apart vertically, shall be set up and the lateral displacement of the cut-off
level calculated by similar triangles.

The safe load on the pile shall be the least of the following:

a) 50% of the final load at which the total displacement increases to 12 mm.

b) Final load at which the total displacement corresponds to 5 mm.

Pull out Tests on Piles

A suitable set up shall be designed to provide an uplift force to the piles. The load increments
and the consequent displacements shall be as per the case of a vertical load test.
Fig: Pull-out test on piles

The safe load shall be the least of the following:

a) 2/3rd of the load at which the total displacement is 12 mm or the load corresponding to a
specified permissible lift.

b) Half of the load at which the load displacement curve shows a clear break.

Read More on Pile Foundations

CONCRETING-OF-PILE-
FOUNDATIONS
Concreting of pile foundations requires quality and workability of concrete to be maintained
for durable construction of pile foundations with required strength. The grade of concrete, its
workability, consistency and mixing for concreting of pile foundation is discussed in this
article.

Materials and methods of manufacture of cement concrete piles should be in accordance with
the method of concreting under the conditions of pile installation.
The slump for concrete for pile foundation should be as follows:

Sl. No. Types of pile Minimum Maximum


Slump Slump

1 Driven cast-in-situ piles 100 180

2 Cast-in-situ bored piles

a) Water free unlined bore with


100 180
wide space reinforcement

b) Tremie concreting 150 180

3 Under reamed piles

a) Water free unlined holes 100 150

b) Tremie concreting 150 200

Consistency of concrete to be used for the piles must be suitable to the method of
installation of piles. Concrete is so designed or chosen as to have a homogeneous mix having
a slump/workability consistent with the method of concreting under the given conditions of
pile installation.
Fig: Concreting of pile foundation

The grade of concrete to be used for piling should be minimum M25 (or as as required at the
site for load conditions) with the minimum cement content of 400 kg/m3. Mixing is carried
out in mechanical mixer only.

In case of piles subsequently exposed to free water or in case of piles where concreting is
done under water or drilling mud using method other than tremie, 10% extra cement over the
design grade of concrete at the specified slump is used subject to a minimum quantity of
cement specified above.

For the design purpose of bore cast-in-situ piles, the strength of concrete mix using above
mentioned quantities of cement is taken as M20. Concreting for the piles is to be done with
tremie of suitable diameter. Natural rounded shingle of appropriate size may be used as
coarse aggregate. It helps to give high slump with less water cement ratio.

For tremie concreting aggregates having nominal size more than 20mm should not be used.
Weigh Batching: The aggregate is always measured by weigh batching making due
allowance for the water content in the aggregate. Volume batching of aggregate should not be
used. Read more on Pile Foundations
FAILURE-OF-PILE-FOUNDATION-
REMEDIES
Pile foundation is widely used deep foundation for complex geologic conditions with kinds of
load conditions, especially for soft soil foundation. Pile foundation has large bearing
capacity, well stability and small differential settlement compared to other foundation types.
But pile foundations may also get damaged and fail specially during earthquakes.

Fig: Pile foundation failure

The failure of the pile foundation may result from any of the following causes:

1. Lack of adequate boring


2. Inaccurate soil classification
3. Soft strata under tip of pile
4. Inadequate driving formula (wrong data)
5. Improper size of hammer cause insufficient penetration, too light or damaged if too heavy
6. Misinterpretation of load
7. Damaged of encased piles
8. Buckling of piles
9. Breaking of piles
10. Vibration that cause lateral or vertical movement
11. Flowing strata caused by adjacent excavation or bank sloughing
12. Tension failure of concrete pile for lack of reinforcement
13. Eccentricity due to bowing or falling out of plumb
14. Decay due to lower ground water level
15. Insect and marine borer attack and corrosion
16. Disintegration of concrete due to poor quality of concrete or reactive aggregate
17. Collapse of the thin shell of the piles
18. Overweight due to earthfill.

Remedies to prevent failure of pile foundation:


1. Early repair such as encasement or replacement
2. Removal of partial load
3. Underpinning

LOAD-ON-PILES
Piles can be arranged in a number of ways so that they can support load imposed on them.
Vertical piles can be designed to carry vertical loads as well as lateral loads. If required,
vertical piles can be combined with raking piles to support horizontal and vertical forces.

Often, if a pile group is subjected to vertical force, then the calculation of load distribution on
single pile that is member of the group is assumed to be the total load divided by the number
of piles in the group. However if a group of piles is subjected to lateral load or eccentric
vertical load or combination of vertical and lateral load which can cause moment force on the
group which should be taken into account during calculation of load distribution.

Piles arrangement

Normally, piles foundations consist of pile cap and a group of piles. The pile cap distributes
the applied load to the individual piles which, in turn,. Transfer the load to the bearing
ground. The individual piles are spaced and connected to the pile cap or tie beams and
trimmed in order to connect the pile to the structure at cut-off level, and depending on the
type of structure and eccentricity of the load, they can be arranged in different patterns.
Figure bellow illustrates the three basic formations of pile groups.

a) PILE GROUP CONSIST b) PILE GROUP CONSIST c) SYMMETRICALLY


OF ONLY VERTICAL PILES OF BOTH VERTICAL AND ARRANGED VERTICAL
RAKING PILES AND RAKING PILES

Q = Vertically applied load


H = Horizontally applied load

Figure: Basic formation of pile groups

PILE-LOAD-CAPACITY-CALCULATION
Pile load capacity calculation is done to find the ultimate load the pile foundation can support
when loaded. It is also known as the bearing capacity of piles. Pile load capacity calculation
is done for single pile or a group of piles based on the requirement of number of piles for the
given load or size of foundation. We will discuss here the load carrying capacity of both
single pile and group of piles.

SINGLE PILE CAPACITY CALCULATION:

Vertical Load:

The allowable resistance to compression Rac of a single pile is provided by the end bearing,
Feb and the skin friction for each strata,Fsf. Thus,

Therefore, the maximum compressive service load that can be supported by a single pile is its
total resistance less the self weight of the pile, W. Thus

A pile can also resist a tensile load. The maximum tensile service load, that can be resisted
by pile is
Values of the end bearing and skin friction resistance are obtained from soil exploration, pile
driving energy and test loadings. These ultimate values are divided by a partial factor of
safety of between 2 and 3 to give the allowable values Feb and Fsf.

Horizontal Load:

The horizontal capacity of a single pile is limited by maximum deflection that the structure
can accommodate and also by the structural capacity of the pile.

There are several methods of determining the modulus of subgrade reaction (kN/m3) from
which maximum horizontal capacity for a given deflection can be determined.

GROUP PILE CAPACITY CALCULATION:

Piles are generally arranged in groups to support heavy vertical loads. To minimize the size,
and therefore the cost of the pile cap, the piles are arranged as close together as possible.

To provide undisturbed bearing capacity and suitable driving conditions, the recommended
minimum clear distance between the piles is twice the diameter of the pile.
The total vertical service load on a group of piles should not exceed the group capacity,
which is given by:

Group capacity= group friction capacity + group end bearing capacity

= 2D(L+K)k1 + BLk2

Where k1 and k2 are soil coefficients. Individual pile loads within the group are limited to the
single pile capacity.

PILE-FOUNDATION-SELECTION-
BASED-ON-SOIL-CONDITIONS
Pile foundation selection depends on the soil data received from soil exploration bore holes at
different depths.

Selection of pile foundation types and length depends on following conditions:

1. Soil conditions
2. Loads from structures
3. Nature of loads
4. Number of piles to be used
5. Cost of construction

There are three types of pile foundation based on load transfer mechanism:

1. End bearing piles


2. Friction bearing piles
3. Combination of end bearing and friction bearing piles.

Selection of End Bearing Pile Foundation:

End bearing piles also called as point-bearing piles are selected when the depth of hard soil
strata or bedrock at site is within reasonable depth. The length of pile to be used can be easily
computed based on bedrock depth obtained from soil exploration borehole records.
In this case, the loads from structures are directly transferred the hard soil through bearing
action of pile bottom tip and it does not require the use of skin friction to resist loads. The
cost of construction of piles in such cases is optimum.

The ultimate capacity of pile or pile group depends on the bearing capacity of bedrock or
hard strata. Number of piles to be used in this case depends on the loads from structure and
individual capacity of piles.

In this case,

QU = QP

Where QU is the ultimate load capacity of pile foundation

QP is the load carried by the end bearing pile or pile group.

In case when the hard bedrock is not available at reasonable depth and fairly compacted hard
strata of soil exists, then piles should be extended a few meters into the hard soil strata.

Selection of Friction Pile Foundation:

Friction piles resist the loads from structures due its skin friction with soil. This type of pile
foundation is selected when a hard stratum is available at large depth and construction of end
bearing pile becomes uneconomical. Then number of piles in a group is selected to resist the
load from structure through its skin friction. This type of pile foundation also resists loads
due to end bearing but its value is small, thus it is neglected in calculation.

The length of friction pile to be selected in this case depends on the shear strength of soil,
loads from structures and size of piles. The capacity of individual pile is calculated based on
skin friction resistance provided by selected length of pile. Optimum length of this pile
should be used considering economy. The number of piles required in a group can be
calculated from individual pile capacity.

In this case,

QU = QS

Where QU is the ultimate load capacity of pile foundation

QS is the load carried by the friction pile or pile group.

The load is transferred to the soil through friction in case of sandy soil and adhesion in case
of clayey soil. Loose sand and soft clays may not provide sufficient skin friction or adhesion
resistance to heavy loads from structures.
Combined End Bearing and friction Pile Foundation:

This type of pile foundation is mostly used in construction. The advantage of using this pile is
that it can resist loads from structures through both end bearing and friction resistance. This
pile has high pile capacity and is economical.

This pile is used when the soil exploration results shows hard bedrock or fairly compacted
soils at reasonable depth and soil above bed rock supports skin friction resistance.

In this case,

QU = QS + QP

Where QU is the ultimate load capacity of pile foundation

QS is the load carried by the friction pile or pile group

QP is the load carried by the end bearing pile or pile group.

The load is transferred to the soil through friction in case of sandy soil and adhesion in case
of clayey soil.

CASED-CAST-IN-SITU-CONCRETE-
PILES-TYPES-USES
Cased piles consist a shell around it and these piles when casted in site are called cased cast-
in-situ concrete piles. Types and advantages of these piles are discussed.
In case of cased cast in situ piles, the shell is usually made of steel. This type of piles is
suitable for any types of soils.

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Advantages of Cased Cast-in-Situ Concrete Piles

Main advantages of cased cast in situ piles are as follows.

1. The shell has driving resistance so, it can be easily driven.


2. Concrete filling is not disturbed.
3. Internal inspection can be done after driving shell.
4. Piles can be easily cut or extended in case of cased piles.

Types of Cased Cast-in-Situ Concrete Piles and Uses

Different types of cased cast in situ concrete piles are:

Raymond piles
Mac-Arthur piles
Union metal monotube pile
Swage pile
Western button bottom pile

Raymond Piles

Raymond piles are economical piles of cast in situ piles which are developed by A.A.
Raymond in 1897. There are two types of Raymond piles are available, namely
Standard Raymond pile
Step taper Raymond pile

Standard Raymond Pile

Standard Raymond pile is used as friction pile because of its heavy taper of 1 in 30. Diameter
of Raymond pile gradually decreases from top to bottom. At the top 40 to 60 cm and at the
bottom it varies from 20 to 30 cm. The length of Raymond piles varies between 6 to 12
meters.

The Raymond pile contains corrugated steel shell which is closed at the bottom and is
reinforced with wire. Wire is wounded spirally around the shell with 8 cm pitch.

The shell is driven into the ground by placing core or mandrel in it. After reaching required
depth, mandrel part is removed and is filled with concrete.

Step Taper Raymond Pile

In this case of step taper Raymond pile, the pile consists series of shells, which are placed one
above the other. But each shell is of different size, i.e. shell size is gradually increased from
bottom to top.

To ease driving, bottom shell should be made of heavier gauge and closed at bottom. Then
next shell section is placed on it. The connection between steel shells are done by the screw
connections.

Usually 2.5 cm increase in diameter is provided for shells with respect to their bottom one.
Also, steel mandrel or core is used to driven the shell sections. Step taper random piles can be
driven up to 36 m of depth.

This type of pile can be useful as friction pile as well as end bearing pile. The advantage
compared to standard random pile is that it can be inspected easily, fresh concrete can be
filled and length flexibility.
Mac Arthur Piles

Mac Arthur piles generally in uniform diameter and shell is made of corrugated steel. But
driving is done by the combination of steel casing of heavy gauge consisting core.

After driven to require depth, the core is removed and corrugated steel shell is inserted in
heavy gauge steel casing. Then, concrete is filled in the corrugated steel shell and outer hard
casing is removed.

Union Metal Monotube Pile

Union metal monotube piles consists only shell without any mandrel. The shell is made of
steel and is tapered fluted.
These types of piles are well suitable for most of the soil conditions that is from end bearing
to friction load carrying soils.

The shell is more rigid and watertight and this shell can be driven to larger depth using
hammer. After driving, inspection is done and then concrete is filled in the shell.

Swage Pile

Swage piles are widely used in case of hard soils. Pre-cast concrete plug is attached at bottom
of shell to drive the pile shell. Steel core is inserted in shell and driven and then shell is
swaged out by the taper of the plug and form water tight joint.

Next the whole arrangement is driven into the ground to a required depth. After reaching
desired depth, core is taken out and the pipe or shell is filled with concrete.
Western Button Bottom Pile

Western button bottom piles are widely used in end bearing soils. The pile consists a concrete
button at the bottom which helps the pile to drive into ground.

This concrete button is wider (about 25 mm diameter) and sharp at bottom so, it makes wider
hole and eliminates side friction.

Initially the steel pipe with 12mm thick wall is placed on concrete button and this
combination is driven into the ground. After reaching desirable depth, corrugated steel shell
is placed in the steel pipe. This shell consists steel plate welded at bottom and this plate is
attached to concrete button using long socket wrench.

Finally, the casing is removed and concrete is filled in the shell. This type of piles can be
used up to 23m and for loads up to 50 tons.

DRIVEN-PRECAST-CONCRETE-PILES
Driven precast concrete piles are constructed by hammering the pile into the ground by pile
driving plant. Piles of timber, prestressed concrete and steel are also used in this method. The
piles are cast into any suitable cross-section such as square, hexagonal, rectangular or
circular.

Fig.: Simple Pile Driving Rig

Driven piles are classified as displacement piles, and where the soil can enter during driving
as small displacement piles.
Fig: Driven Precast Concrete Piles

Methods of protecting the head of the pile from shattering must be decided before
commencing the driving process. This can be determined from the end bearing requirements
and driving conditions.

Fig.: Protecting pile head damage during driving

Disadvantage of Driven Precast Concrete Piles Method:

Damage may occur in the pile at a position not visible from the surface during driving
process.
Pile may get laterally displaced if it encounters any obstructions like rocks in the ground.
The length of pile is estimated before driving commences, but the accuracy of this
assumption is only known on site, where short piles can be difficult to extend and long piles
may prove to be expensive and wasteful
A large rig is required for driving piles and hard-standings are required to ensure that the
ground surface is adequate for the pile-driving.

BORED-CAST-IN-SITU-CONCRETE-
PILES
The construction of bored cast in situ concrete piles are formed by drilling and auguring and
then reinforcement is placed and concrete is poured into the hole.

For bored cast in-situ piles foundation in stiff clays, the toe of the hole can be enlarged by
under-reaming to provide greater end bearing capacity for the piles.

Once the pile shaft has been formed, reinforcement is placed and concrete poured into the
hole. To combat difficulties caused by groundwater during piling, the hole can be lined with a
casing which is driven ahead of the bore.

Fig.: Simple Percussion Rig

The method of boring of cast in-situ piles tends to be restricted to clayey soils, and like the
driven cast-in-situ pile, care must be exercised to prevent necking of the concrete.
Bored piles can be installed in very long lengths and be of large diameter. The on-situ cost of
boring is relatively small in comparison to driven piles, thereby offering a more economic
piling opportunity for smaller sites.

Bored piles are not economic in granular soils where loosening and disturbance of
surrounding ground can cause excessive removal of soil and induce settlement in the
surrounding area.

There are three types of pile foundations


according to their construction methods:
1. Driven piles,

2. Cast-in-situ piles, and

3. Driven and cast-in-situ piles.

Driven Pile Foundations:

Driven pile foundations can be made from concrete, steel or timber. These piles are
prefabricated before placing at the construction site. When driven piles are made of concrete,
they are precast. These piles are driven using a pile hammer.

When these piles are driven into the granular soils, they displace the equal volume of soil.
This helps in compaction of soil around the sides of piles and results in the densification of
soil. The piles which compact the soil adjacent to it is also called as compaction pile. This
compaction of soil increases its bearing capacity.
Saturated silty soils and cohesive soils have poor drainage capability. Thus these soils are not
compacted when driven piles are drilled through it. The water have to be drained for the soil
to be compacted. Thus stresses are developed adjacent to the piles have to be borne by pore
water only. This results in increase in pore water pressure and decrease in bearing capacity of
the soil.

Cast-in-situ Pile Foundations:

Cast-in-situ piles are concrete pile. These piles are constructed by drilling holes in the ground
to the required depth and then filling the hole with concrete. Reinforcements are also used in
the concrete as per the requirements. These piles are of small diameter compared to drilled
piers.

Cast-in-situ piles are straight bored piles or with one or more bulbs at intervals are casted.
The piles with one or more bulbs are called as under-reamed piles.

Driven and Cast-in-situ Piles

Driven and cast-in-situ piles have the advantages of both driven and cast-in-situ piles. The
procedure of installing a driven and cast-in-situ pile is as follows:

A steel shell of diameter of pile is driven into the ground with the aid of a mandrel inserted
into the shell. After driving the shell, the mandrel is removed and concrete is poured in the
shell.

The shell is made of corrugated and reinforced thin sheet steel (mono-tube piles) or pipes
(Armco welded pipes or common seamless pipes). The piles of this type are called a shell
type piles.

The shell-less type is formed by withdrawing the shell while the concrete is being placed. In
both the types of piles the bottom of the shell is closed with a conical tip which can be
separated from the shell. By driving the concrete out of the shell an enlarged bulb may be
formed in both the types of piles. Franki piles are of this type. In some cases the shell will be
left in place and the tube is concreted. This type of pile is very much used in piling over
water.

Pile-Driving-Equipment-Types-Uses
There are several machines and equipment which are employed for pile driving during
construction. These machines and tools will be explained in the following sections.

Fig.1: Pile Driving Equipment


Fig.2: Pile Driving Equipment

Table of Contents [show]

Types of Pile Driving Equipments

Piling rigs
Piling winches
Hanging leader
Hammer guides
Piling hammer
Helmet, driving cap, dolly, and packing

Piling Rigs

It composed of a series of leaders, which are consist of tabular element or hard box, placed
and fixed on a crane base as it can be seen from Figure-3.Not only does the leaders support
the hammer and the pile but also guide them when the pile is forced into the ground.

Fig.3: Pile Driving Rig

The leader can be sloped forward and backward using screw or hydraulic adjustment and
attachment at the base of the equipment as shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5. It is possible to
install a series of piles, without the need to move the equipment, through turning around base
machine and positioning leaders.
Fig.4: Backward Raked Pile Driving Rig

Fig.5: Forward Raked Pile

Regarding pile installation in water, pile driving rig can be used to install piles in water by
placing it on pontoon or leader are fixed on braced frames that mounted on pontoon as shown
in Figure-6.
Fig.6: Pile Driver Mounted on Pontoon

Moreover, it is considerably crucial to pay adequate attention to the position and alignment of
the leader since any disposition would lead to hammer eccentric blows eventually the pile
will be either damages or displace from its original position.

Furthermore, efforts have been made to improve the efficiency of driven pile machine and the
Delmag MDT 0802, which possess broad range of adjustments with great movement
capacity, is compelling example.

The machine on which Delmag MDY 0801 is fixed on is a wheeled hydraulic excavator that
its rams provided sideway, forward, and backward sloping leader, in addition to arrange the
location of the rig in relation to the equipment.

Finally, not only does the leader operation height can be changed thought leader telescoping
but also it could be folded onto the base while the machine it moved from and to the
construction site.
Fig.7: Delmag Pile Driving Rig

Fig.8: Pile Driver Rig

Piling Winches

The prime goal of piling winches is to left the hammer and piles in addition to support tools
that responsible for leader raking and rotation. It functions with pile frames and different
powering sources such as hydraulic power, stream; diesel; or petrol engines, and occasionally
electric motors could be applied for powering winches.

There are different piling winches with different capacity for instance winches with double or
triple drums possess satisfactory controlling and pile driving speed whereas one drum winch
does not have that advantage. So, the former type would be favored provided that handing
and driving piles with great speed is required.

Hanging Leader

Hanging leaders are specifically designed to be hanged from the jib of a crane as shown in
Figure-9. A steel strut, which its length can be varied as per requirements of construction site,
provides a stiff connection from the leader foot to the machine bed frame.
Fig.9: Hanging Leader

Moreover, crane or excavator winch units are utilized to left the hammer and piles using
separate drums. Regarding hammer application, either drop hammer with friction winch is
considered or it may be operated using stream or hydraulic power or compressed air which
are provided by different units.

Finally, it is substantially crucial to practice utmost precaution to hanging leader stiffness


particularly in the case of long sloped pile driving since intolerable deformation would lead to
eccentric hammer blow and possibly cause pile fracture.

Hammer Guides

When it is intended to remove hanging leaders or piling frames completely, rope suspended
leaders which are commonly guided by timber or steel formwork, would be considered.

In this technique, an independent crane needed to control the pile and establishing the guide
and hammer. it is necessary to set and secure the guide properly in order to avoid movements
specifically in the during raking pile installation. This is because serious fatigue stress would
generate if the thrust is not centered properly and the guide might deteriorate.

Finally, it is required to prevent disproportionate bending stress development in guide and


piles because it leads to undesired results. for example, when heavy hammer is attached to the
upper end of a long pile which is driven at flat angle of rake, excessive bending stress may be
generated at support point in the guide. This problem might be tackled by providing suitable
support for the pile at proper position.
Fig.10: Hammer Guided and Rope Suspended Leader for Delmag Diesel Pile Hammer

Piling Hammer

There are several factors that greatly influence the decision to choose suitable piling hammer.
For example, pile size and weight, the resistance of the ground which should be overcame in
order to obtain specified penetration, construction site space availability, noise limitation that
might be imposed at certain areas, and availability of cranes.

Previously, the combination of a dynamic equation result and extensive experiences were
employed to select piling hammer, but this has changed nowadays and drivability analysis
results, which is conducted using computer program based on Smith wave equation, is
considered for the piling hammer determination.

As for input data required for drivability analysis, piling hammer producer provided
necessary data about efficiency and energy feature of the piling hammer. It should be bore in
mind that piling hammer efficiency is not a constant and it is affected by number of factor for
example mechanical condition of the hammer and operation temperature.
It should be known that the mechanical condition is not influence the efficiency of piling
drop hammer. That is why dynamic pile analysis is carried out and its results would be used
to assess the influence of different factor on the piling hammer efficiency.

There are various types of piling hammer with different energy characteristic and each is
suitable for specific construction condition. different common types of piling along with their
description, application, and advantages are provided in Table 1:

Table-1: Different types of hammer piling along with their description, application,
advantages, and disadvantages

Drop hammer, Figure 11

Pile hammer description Application Advantages Disadvantages

it is a forged steel with solid Applied to install Its application The height of hammer
mass ranges from 1000 to test piles removes the need to dropping cannot be
5000Kg, and it is fitted with employ steam boiler controlled properly at
lifting eye and lugs for sliding or air compressor to project site, and it is
in the leaders power the hammer, so possible to use
it is economical choice substantial dropping
when driving becomes
tough and hence the
pile damage is
possible

Single acting steam or compressed air hammer, Figure 12

Description Application Advantages Disadvantages

Consist of massive weight Used for placing Drop height and Pile fracture is
ranges from 2500 to 20000Kg piles with different frequency of each possible is the
with a cylinder shape, and weights in different drop can be controlled specified hammer
the power source would lift types of soils and by operator, height is exceeded
the hammer to specified suitable for pile
height then the power is cut installation in
to drop the hammer and hit marine
pile helmet. Maximum environment
hammer height is 1.37m and
no higher 1.2m in case of
heavy pile

Double acting pile hammer, Figure 13

Description Application Advantages Disadvantages


Double acting pile hammer is Applied to install It is specifically It is needs
powered by steam or sheet piles and designed to impart maintenance and
compressed and its mass suitable for numerous blows at lubrication
rages from 90 to 2300Kg. providing rapid short time. 300 blows
Vulcan hammer is an succession of per minute for
example of double acting blows. It can be lightweight hammer
hammer. The pile is guided used to demolish and 100 blow/ minute
by timber frame. rocks for extracting for heavyweight
piles hammer

Diesel pile hammer, Figure 14

Description Application Advantages Disadvantages

It is powered through self- It properly drives It is economical and It might damage


ignition of compressed fuel pile in soft soil self-contained. It precast concrete pile
and air mixture. There are condition provides sustained when strong layer
various types of such blow which more come up while driving
hammer with different efficient that ordinary through soft ground It
weights ranges from 4500 to blows is not suitable for all
15000Kg. Lastly, it is ground condition.
considerably reliable type of
hammer and different pile
types such as sheet pile,
batter pile, and H-beams.

Hydraulic operated hammer, Figure 15

Description Application Advantages Disadvantages

Hydraulic hammer is It suitable for piling It creates less noise


manufactured in different in land and in and vibration
and large sizes ranges from water to a depth of compared with diesel
moderate loading to heavy 1000m hammer and it does
loading. Hydraulic fluid raises not release fumes
the pile and then release it to
fall freely on the pile in
addition to have power
activated downstroke. Not
only can hammer be
operated manually but also
automatically.
Fig.11: Drop Hammer Operation

Fig.12: Single Acting Hammer Operation


Fig.13: Double Acting Hammer
Fig.14: Diesel Pile Hammer

Fig.15: Hydraulic Operated Hammer

Helmet, Driving Cap, Dolly and Packing

Helmet is a cast steel that placed over the pile to hold the dolly that placed between the pile
and the hammer to avoid pile head deterioration that may cause by pile driving hammer.

Dolly, which is square at the bottom and round at the top, is placed in a square recess at the
top of the helmet. There are different types of dollies for example Elm dollies, hardwood like
oak; greenheart and pyinkado, and their selection is dependent on the driving force.
As far as packing is concerned, it is placed between pile top and the helmet in order to protect
the former from the hammer blow. Different types of packing include paper sacking, thin
timber sheet, coconut mapping, and sawdust in bags.

Regarding driving cap, it is provided as a protection for steel bearing piles. It is necessary to
place the driving cap tightly otherwise the pile cap would suffer deterioration. That is why it
is fitted with a recess for hardwood or plastic dolly and with steel wedges to fix the cap
tightly on its position.

Lastly, serious pile head damage and hammer breakage cannot be avoided unless appropriate
material and suitable thickness is selected for dollies and packing.

Fig.16: Placed Helmet, Driving Cap, Dolly and Packing


Fig.17: Installed Helmet, Dolly and Packing

Tiang pancang adalah suatu pondasi yang memanfaatkan tiang yang dipancangkan ke dalam
tanah sebagai penyangga beban utamanya. Pembuatan pondasi tiang pancang dikerjakan
dengan menyatukan pangkal yang terletak di bawah konstruksi dan tumpuan pondasi. Prinsip
kerjanya yaitu menahan gaya orthogonal (tegak lurus) ke sumbung tiang lewat penyerapan
terhadap lenturan yang timbul.

Biasanya metode pelaksanaan pondasi tiang pancang dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan


hammer diesel. Ini merupakan alat semacam palu/martil yang digerakkan memakai tenaga
diesel. Sistem kerjanya yakni alat ini akan melakukan pemukulan terhadap tiang pancang
selama beberapa kali sampai tiang tersebut tertancap sempurna ke dalam lapisan tanah yang
keras. Sayangnya proses ini juga menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan sekitar
seperti menyebabkan getaran dan suara berisik.

Ukuran Tiang Pancang


Berdasarkan ukurannya, pondasi bangunan berjenis tiang pancang dapat dibedakan menjadi 2
macam yaitu mini pile dan maxi pile. Tiang pancang mini pile merupakan tiang yang
berukuran kecil dan umumnya digunakan dalam pondasi bangunan rendah serta tanah yang
kokoh. Sedangkan tiang pancang maxi pile adalah tiang pancang yang bisa diandalkan untuk
pondasi bangunan bertingkat dan tanah yang agak labil.

Tiang pancang mini pile memiliki penampang berbentuk segitiga dan persegi. Tiang pancang
segitiga berukuran 28 mampu menahan beban bangunan seberat 25-30 ton, sedangkan tiang
berukuran 30 sanggup menopang beban 35-40 ton. Sementara itu, tiang persegi berukuran 20
x 20 dapat menyangga beban 30-35 ton dan tiang persegi berukuran 25 x 25 bisa menahan
beban 40-50 ton.

Tiang pancang maxi pile ialah tiang yang mempunyai ukuran besar dan mampu menahan
beban yang sangat berat. Bahkan tiang maxi pile yang berukuran 50 x 50 mampu menyangga
beban dengan bobot mencapai 500 ton. Adapun tiang pancang maxi pile tersedia dengan
bentuk penampang persegi dan lingkaran. Sementara itu, panjang tiang pancang di pasaran
umumnya berkisar antara 3-12 meter.

Spesifikasi Tiang Pancang

Perlu diketahui, spesifikasi tiang pancang yang ada di pasaran bergantung pada pabrikan
pembuatnya. Di bawah ini salah contoh spesifikasi tiang pancang yang umum digunakan.

Tiang Pancang (Mini Pile) :

Uk = 28x28x28 cm

Tulangan Besi Ulir = (10/13) mm

Panjang = 3000 mm dan 6000 mm

Mutu Beton = K-450


Uk = 32x32x32 cm

Tulangan Besi Ulir = (13) mm

Panjang = 3000 mm dan 6000 mm

Mutu Beton = K-450


Uk = 2020 cm

Tulangan Besi Ulir = (10/13) mm

Panjang = 3000 mm dan 6000 mm

Mutu Beton = K-450


Uk = 2525 cm

Tulangan Besi Ulir = (13) mm


Panjang = 3000 mm dan 6000 mm

Mutu Beton = K-450

Spesifikasi Tiang Pancang (Maxi Pile) :

Uk = Square Pile 3030 cm (Prestressed Concrete)


Uk = Square Pile 3535 cm (Prestressed Concrete)
Uk = Square Pile 4040 cm (Prestressed Concrete)
Uk = Square Pile 4545 cm (Prestressed Concrete) \

Cara Memancang Tiang Pancang yang


Benar
Pondasi tiang pancang adalah pondasi yang memanfaatkan suatu tiang yang dipancangkan
sebagai penahan utamanya. Tiang tersebut ditancapkan sedemikian rupa ke dalam tanah
hingga mencapai lapisan terdalam yang memiliki daya dukung lebih kuat. Prinsip kerjanya
yaitu beban bangunan yang disangga oleh pondasi beton kemudian disalurkan ke tiang
pancang dan diteruskan ke lapisan tanah keras sehingga kedudukan dan keamanan bangunan
tersebut menjadi lebih terjamin.

Bahan pembuatan tiang pancang biasanya berasal dari bahan kayu, beton, atau baja. Daya
dukung tiang pancang baja tentu jauh lebih baik daripada tiang kayu maupun tiang beton.
Sehingga tiang pancang baja ini cocok diaplikasikan di segala macam kondisi lahan
pembangunan, terutama untuk mendukung bangunan bertingkat di tanah yang labil.

Pada umumnya, ukuran tiang pancang yang sering untuk membuat pondasi rumah berkisar
antara 10-30 meter. Bentuk penampangnya ada yang berupa lingkaran, persegi, dan segitiga.
Saat pelaksanaannya, pemancangan dilakukan dengan penuh perhitungan agar tidak terjadi
kesalahan ataupun kerusakan. Agar lebih mudah, para pekerja biasanya memakai bantuan
mesin hidrolyc hammer yakni sejenis alat berat berwujud palu besar yang berkerja menurut
sistem hidrolik.
Metode Pemancangan Tiang Pancang yang Baik

Di bawah ini urutan langkah-langkah kerja yang perlu dilakukan untuk memancangkan tiang
pancang dari Arafuru :

1. Buatlah penanda berupa titik-titik lokasi pengerjaan pemancangan tiang pancang.


Periksa sekali ketepatan penanda yang sudah dibuat tersebut.
2. Seperti yang sudah disebutkan di atas, manfaatkan hidrolyc hammer untuk
menancapkan tiang pancang ke dalam tanah hingga mencapai tingkat kedalaman yang
diharapkan. Perlu diperhatikan, pemukulan terhadap tiang pancang dilakukan pada
bagian atasnya.
3. Guna mencegah kerusakan bagian atas tiang pancang akibat dipukul berkali, lindungi
bagian kepala tersebut packing berbahan plywood yang memiliki ketebalan 5 cm.
Selama proses pemukulan tiang berlangsung, lapisan packing ini harus diganti secara
berkala supaya daya proteksinya tidak menurun.
4. Pekerjaan pemancangan wajib dilaksanakan hati-hati dan dipantau terus agar tidak
timbul kesalahan contohnya tiang pecah, posisinya salah, atau agak miring. Oleh
karena itu, diperlukan seorang surveyor yang bertugas memastikan ketepatan hasil
pemancangan dengan memonitornya langsung menggunakan theodolit.
5. Proses pemancangan dilakukan sampai ujung tiang pancang mencapai tingkat
kedalaman tanah yang telah direncanakan. Kemudian, perlu dilakukan kontrol
terhadap final set atau kalendering serta lakukan pula tes PDA untuk menguji daya
dukung tiang pancang tersebut.
6. Langkah terakhir yaitu memotong bagian tiang pancang yang berada di atas
permukaan tanah sesuai dengan penanda yang sudah dibuat. Jangan lupa sisakan
sedikit tulangan untuk stek yang akan disambungkan ke pile cap.

Cara Memasang Paku Pasak Bumi/Tiang


Pancang Gedung
Setiap bangunan bertingkat membutuhkan pondasi yang kuat sebagai penopangnya. Ada
banyak cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kekuatan pondasi. Salah satunya yang
paling sering digunakan ialah memasang pondasi paku pasak bumi alias pondasi tiang
pancang.

Pondasi pasak bumi adalah suatu jenis pondasi bangunan yang bekerja dengan menahan gaya
akibat bidang tegak lurus (orthogonal) ke sumbu tiang dengan meredam lenturan yang
timbul. Keunggulan dari pondasi ini antara lain mutunya terjamin, bisa mencapai tanah yang
keras, didukung ujung dan sekeliling tiang, daya topangnya sangat kuat, serta harga relatif
murah. Sebaliknya kelemahan dari pondasi pasak bumi yaitu menimbulkan getaran dan
kebisingan yang sangat mengganggu serta dapat merubah struktur tanah di sekelilingnya.

Umumnya, paku pasak bumi berbentuk silindris memanjang dengan ukuran 10-30 meter.
Paku tersebut diangkut dari pabrik ke lokasi proyek menggunakan truk tronton yang
dilengkapi crane. Sedangkan proses pemasangannya memakai diesel hammer yakni memukul
paku tiang pancang tersebut sampai kedalaman tertentu. Saat ini juga sudah tersedia alat
pemasang pasak bumi yang menerapkan sistem hidrolik hammer.

Berikut ini tahap-tahap dalam pemasangan paku pasak bumi versi Arafuru selengkapnya!

1. Pemeriksaan terhadap jenis dan karakteristik tanah di lokasi proyek. Dilakukan pula
pengecekan kedalaman lapisan tanah yang keras.
2. Penghitungan struktur pondasi pasak bumi yang diperlukan. Faktor-faktor yang perlu
diperhatikan meliputi ukuran paku pasak bumi, kedalaman pemancangan, dan
spesifikasi material bahan bangunan yang dipakai.
3. Pembuatan paku pasak dikerjakan di pabrik dengan menyesuaikan kualitasnya
terhadap spesifikasi yang dibutuhkan. Setelah itu, paku tersebut dibawa ke lokasi
proyek.
4. Pengangkutan paku pasak bumi atau tiang pancang dilakukan menggunakan truk
tronton yang dilengkapi crane. Perhitungkan posisi titik angkat paku tersebut supaya
tidak mengakibatkan patah.
5. Lakukan pengukuran di lokasi proyek untuk menentukan titik-titik pemasangan paku
sesuai dengan gambar perencanaan. Berikutnya paku pasak bumi diangkat tegak
lurus, lalu letakkan ujung diesel hammer dinaikkan dan topi paal disambungkan ke
dalam kepala paku.
6. Tingkat ketegakan posisi paku dapat dikontrol memakai teodilit yang dipasang di dua
lokasi. Pastikan posisi tiang tersebut tegak lurus dengan melakukan kontrol
kemiringan setiap dua meter.
7. Paku dipukul memakai diesel hammer sampai menancap ke kedalaman yang
diharapkan. Pemukulan dianggap selesai bilamana di sepuluh kali pukulan terakhir,
paku tersebut masuk dengan kedalaman kurang dari 2 cm.
8. Permukaan paku pasak bumi yang masih berada di atas kedalaman tanah yang
direncanakan dikupas bagian betonnya. Dengan demikian tersisa besi tulangan yang
bisa dimanfaatkan sebagai tiang stek untuk disambungkan dengan pile cap pada
konstruksi bangunan.
Dalam proses pemasangan paku pasak bumi pada bangunan gedung perlu memperhatikan
hal-hal tertentu. Di antaranya kualitas bahan bangunan, spesifikasi material, posisi
pengangkatan tiang, tingkat ketegakan pemancangan, dan keterampilan pekerja. Kesalahan
dalam memasang paku pasak bumi ini akan menimbulkan akibat yang sangat fatal karena
kekuatan pondasi yang dihasilkan tidak sesuai dengan perencanaan awal pembangunan
gedung.

PEKERJAAN PONDASI MINI PILE


Posted by Helmy Riza | 14.24 |

BAHAN

Beton untuk tiang pancang kecil / mini pile adalah beton prategang pracetak dengan mutu
beton minimal fc = 40 Mpa (setara dengan K. 500) dan kawat baja prategang diameter 9
mm dengan mutu kawat baja fy = 1600 Mpa dan spiral diameter 5 mm dengan mutu baja U
32 fy = 320 Mpa dan harus mengikuti syarat-syarat yang tertera dalam pasal-pasal
peraturan Standar Beton 1991.

PENGUJIAN BETON

BETON

Tiap tiang pancang harus diambil 1 test kubus beton umur 14 hari untuk pengujian
dilaboratorium dengan mutu setelah dikolerasikan mencapai kekuatan karakteristik 500
kg/cm2.

Kubus beton yang akan diujikan sebelumnya harus harus diberi kode yang jelas serta
disimpan oleh Direksi Lapangan.

Pengangkatan harus dilakukan pada tempat-tempat yang telah ditentukan dan hati-hati
guna menghindari terjadinya lenturan-lenturan maupun kejutan-kejutan yang mungkin
terjadi.

MESIN / ALAT PANCANG


Mesin pancang yang digunakan adalah jenis Diesel Hammer dengan berat pemukul/ palu
minimum 3500 kg untuk tiang dia. 400 mm.

Pemborong harus dapat menunjukkan bahwa alat yang digunakan telah tersedia dan dapat
digunakan pada waktu yang telah ditentukan.

Pada waktu pemancangan kepala tiang harus dilindungi dengan bantalan yang cukup kuat
dan tidak mudah lepas serta disetujui terlebih dahulu oleh Direksi Lapangan.

PENETRASI TIANG PANCANG

Pada waktu pemancangan, penetrasi dari tiang pancang harus dicatat dengan baik sesuai
dengan pengarahan dari konstruktor / perencana untuk menentukan daya dukung tiang.

Apabila tiang yang disambung terpancang masuk hanya 1.00 m dari muka tanah, maka
tiang pancang tersebut dapat dipotong pada sambungan dan dapat digunakan untuk
penyambungan akhir tiang lain dengan posisi yang tidak baik berada dibagian atas.

Pada waktu pencatatan ini, harus dicatat penetrasi total pertama lalu pelenturan kembali (
rebound ) untuk mendapatkan penetrasi yang permanen.

Seandainya terjadi penghentian pemancangan sebelum tercapai angka penetrasi akan


dilakukan kembali setelah penetrasi mencapai 30 cm, atau setelah minimum 90 pukulan
pasa waktu melanjutkan pemancangan.

Pemancangan dapat dihentikan apabila penetrasi total 3 kali berturut-turut menunjukkan


penetrasi yang sama atau lebih kecil.

Penetrasi akhir tiang pancang K35 < 10 mm / 10 pukulan untuk tiang dia. 40.

Panjang tiang pancang 18.00 m

Penyambungan dengan las penuh 2x dengan kawat las > 3,2 mm

PEMANCANGAN TIANG
Kontraktor diwajibkan mengadakan pengukuran lokasi daripada letak tiang pancang dengan
menggunakan alat ukur Theodoliteh.

Pemancangan harus dilakukan betul-betul vertikal tegak lurus seperti yang disyaratkan dan
pada waktu pemancangan harus dicegah terjadinya gerakan-gerakan lateral horizontal.

Tiang-tiang yang dipancang secara tidak baik menurut garis vertikal dan dianggap bisa
membahayakan atau mengurangi kegunaan tiang pancang, maka tiang pancang tersebut
harus diperbaiki atau harus ditambah tiang pancang lain.

Tiang-tiang pancang yang rusak / dianggap rusak sehingga mengurangi kegunaannya,


maka tiang-tiang tersebut harus diganti dengan yang baik/baru atau diperbaiki pada bagian-
bagian yang rusak dimana biaya keseluruhan ditanggung Kontraktor.

Perbaikan hanya diperkenankan apabila terdapat bagian yang rusak/retak dari sebagian
kecil dari penampang tiang, perbaikan harus sesuai dengan prosedur dan material untuk
perbaikan beton.

Tiang pancang spun dia. 40 cm dengan Panjang tiang pancang yang diperlukan 18.00 m
dan mencapai lapisan tanah keras dengan qc > 250 kg/cm2.

Cut Off Level minimum berada pada level 1.525 m.

Beton tiang pancang harus masuk minimum 7.5 cm dalam pilecap.


Pondasi Tiang Pancang

Pondasi tiang pancang adalah suatu konstruksi pondasi yang mampu menahan gaya orthogonal ke
sumbu tiang dengan jalan menyerap lenturan. Pondasi tiang pancang dibuat menjadi satu kesatuan
yang monolit dengan menyatukan pangkal tiang pancang yang terdapat di bawah konstruksi dengan
tumpuan pondasi.

Pelaksanaan pekerjaan pemancangan menggunakan diesel hammer. Sistem kerja diesel Hammer
adalah dengan pemukulan sehingga dapat menimbulkan suara keras dan getaran pada daerah
sekitar. Itulah sebabnya cara pemancangan pondasi ini menjadi permasalahan tersendiri pada
lingkungan sekitar.

Permasalahan lain adalah cara membawa diesel hammer kelokasi pemancangan harus
menggunakan truk tronton yang memiliki crane. Crane berfungsi untuk menaikkan dan menurunkan.
Namun saat ini sudah ada alat pancang yang menggunakan system hidraulik hammer dengan berat 3
7 ton.

Pekerjaan pemukulan tiang pancang dihentikan dan dianggap telah mencapai tanah keras jika pada
10 kali pukulan terakhir, tiang pancang masuk ke tanah tidak lebih dari 2 cm.

Berikut ini cara sederhana untuk menghitung kebutuhan pondasi tiang pancang dan
penampang tiang pancang yang akan digunakan :
Misalnya didapat brosure produk tiang pancang segitiga ukuran 25/25. Jika daya dukung setiap
tiangnya mencapai 2 ton maka berapakah jumlah tiang dalam setiap kolomnya?

Adapun tahap perhitungannya adalah sebagai berikut:

Denah bangunan dibagi-bagi di antara kolom-kolom untuk mengetahui berat yang harus
dipikul setiap pondasi. Dapat juga semua luas denah bangunan dijumlahkan kemudian
dibagi ke dalam beberapa titik pondasi dalam setiap kolomnya. Cara kedua ini memiliki
kelemahan karena beban di pinggir kolom tentu saja berbeda dengan beban di tengah.
Selanjutnya total volume beton dikalikan dengan berat jenis beton, volume lantai dikalikan
berat jenis lantai, demikian seterusnya untuk tembok, kayu, genteng, dan sebagainya.
Hasilnya dijumlahkan sehingga diperoleh berat = X ton.
Selain itu juga dihitung jumlah beban hidup untuk jenis bangunan tersebut. Misalnya beban
rumah tinggal 200 Kg/m2. Sehingga diperoleh 200 kg dikalikan dengan seluruh luas lantai,
misalnya Y ton.
Jumlah semua beban tersebut yaitu : X ton + Y ton. Misalnya, hasil penjumlahannya 48 ton.
Dengan demikian kebutuhan tiang pancang adalah 48 ton : 25 ton atau sekitar dua buah
tiang pancang pada satu titik kolom. Jadi jumlah tiang pancang untuk bangunan tersebut
adalah hasil perkalian antara jumlah kolom dengan dua titik pancang.
Hasil tersebut hanya untuk sebuah tiang pancang yang ukurannya 6 meter setiap batangnya.
Bila kedalaman tanah keras adalah 9 meter, maka diperlukan dua buah tiang pancang per
titiknya.
Hitungan sederhana tersebut mengabaikan daya dukung tanah hasil laboratorium dan daya
lekat tanah si sepanjang tiang pancang. Bila hal tersebut dihitung, jumlah tiang pancang
tentu akan berkurang. Bahkan cara perhitungannya tidak sesederhana hitungan di atas.

1. Ukuran Tiang Pancang


Berbagai ukuran tiang pancang yang ada pada intinya dapat dibagi dua, yaitu :
MINIPILE dan MAXIPILE.

a. Minipile (Ukuran Kecil)


Tiang pancang berukuran kecil ini digunakan untuk bangunan-bangunan bertingkat rendah dan
tanah relative baik. Ukuran dan kekuatan yang ditawarkan adalah:

Berbentuk penampang segitiga dengan ukuran 28 dan 32.


Berbentuk bujur sangkar dengan ukuran 20x20 dan 25x25.

- Tiang pancang berbentuk penampang segitiga berukuran 28 mampu menopang beban 25 30 ton
- Tiang pancang berbentuk penampang segitiga berukuran 32 mampu menopang beban 35 40 ton.
- Tiang pancang berbentuk bujur sangkar berukuran 20x20 mampu menopang tekanan 30 35 ton
- Tiang pancang berbentuk bujur sangkar berukuran 25 x 25 mampu menopang tekanan 40 50 ton.

b. Maxipile (Ukuran Besar)


Tiang pancang ini berbentuk bulat (spun pile) atau kotak (square pile). Tiang pancang ini digunkan
untuk menopang beban yang besar pada bangunan bertingkat tinggi. Bahkan untuk ukuran 50x50
dapat menopang beban sampai 500 ton.

2. Kelebihan dan Kekurangan


Kelebihan :
- Karena dibuat dengan system pabrikasi, maka mutu beton terjamin.
- Bisa mencapai daya dukung tanah yang paling keras.
- Daya dukung tidak hanya dari ujung tiang, tetapi juga lekatan pada sekeliling tiang.
- Pada penggunaan tiang kelompok atau grup (satu beban tiang ditahan oleh dua atau lebih tiang),
daya dukungnya sangat kuat.
- Harga relative murah bila dibanding pondasi sumuran.
Kekurangan :
- Untuk daerah proyek yang masuk gang kecil, sulit dikerjakan karena factor angkutan.
- Sistem ini baru ada di daerah kota dan sekitarnya.
- Untuk daerah dan penggunaan volumenya sedikit, harganya jauh lebih mahal.
- Proses pemancangan menimbulkan getaran dan kebisingan.

3. Keuntungan dan Kerugian menurut teknik pemasangan

a. Pondasi tiang pancang pabrikan.


Keuntungan:

Karena tiang dibuat di pabrik dan pemeriksaan kwalitas sangat ketat, hasilnya lebih dapat
diandalkan.
Pelaksanaan pemancangan relative cepat, terutama untuk tiang baja. Walaupun lapisan
antara cukup keras, lapisan tersebut masih dapat ditembus sehingga pemancangan ke
lapisan tanah keras masih dapat dilakukan.
Persediaannya culup banyak di pabrik sehingga mudah diperoleh, kecuali jika diperlukan
tiang dengan ukuran khusus.
Untuk pekerjaan pemancangan yang kecil, biayanya tetap rendah.
Daya dukungnya dapat diperkirakan berdasar rumus tiang pancang sehingga
pekerjaankonstruksinya mudah diawasi.
Cara pemukulan sangat cocok untuk mempertahankan daya dukung beban vertical.

Kerugian :

Karena pekerjaan pemasangannya menimbulkan getaran dan kegaduhan maka pada daerah
yang berpenduduk padat akan menimbulkan masalah di sekitarnya.
Untuk tiang yang panjang, diperlukan persiapan penyambungan dengan menggunakan
pengelasan (untuk tiang pancang beton yang bagian atas atau bawahnya berkepala baja).
Bila pekerjaan penyambungan tidak baik, akibatnya sangat merugikan.
Bila pekerjaan pemancangan tidak dilaksanakan dengan baik, kepala tiang cepat hancur.
Sebaiknya pada saat dipukul dengan palu besi, kepala tiang dilapisi denga kayu.
Bila pemancangan tidak dapat dihentikan pada kedalaman yang telah ditentukan, diperlukan
perbaikan khusus.
Karena tempat penampungan di lapangan dalam banyak hal mutlak diperlukan maka harus
disediakan tempat yang cukup luas.
Tiang-tiang beton berdiameter besar sangat berat, sehingga sulit diangkut atau dipasang.
Karena itu diperlukan mesinpemancang yang besar.
Untuk tiang-tiang pipa baja, diperlukan tiang yang tahan korosi.

b. Pondasi Tiang yang Dicor di Tempat


Keuntungan:

Karena pada saat melaksanakan pekerjaan hanya terjadi getaran dan keriuhan yang sangat
kecil maka pondasi ini cocok untuk pekerjaan pada daerah yang padat penduduknya.
Karena tanpa sambungan, dapat dibuat tiang yang lurus dengan diameter besar dan lebih
panjang.
Diameter tiang ini biasanya lebih besar daripada tiang pracetak atau pabrikan.
Daya dukung sstiap tiang lebih besar sehingga beton tumpuan (Pile cap) dapat dibuat lebih
kecil.
Selain cara pemboran di dalam arah berlawanan dengan putaran jam, tanah galian dapat
diamati secara langsung dan sifat-sifat tanah pada lapisan antara atau pada tanah
pendukung pondasi dapat langsung diketahui.
Pengaruh jelek terhadap bangunan di dekatnya cukup kecil.
Kerugian :

Dalam banyak hal, beton dari tubuh tiang diletakkan di bawah air dn kualitas tiang yang
sudah selesai lebih rendah dari tiang-tiang pracetak atau pabrikan. Disamping itu,
pemeriksaan kualitas hanya dapat dilakukan secara tidak langsung.
Ketika beton dituangkan, dikawatirkan adukan beton akan bercampur dengan reruntuhan
tanah. Oleh karena itu, beton harus segera dituangkan dengan seksama setelah penggalian
tanah dilakukan.
Walaupun penetrasi sampai ke tanah pendukung pondasi dianggap telah terpenuhi,
terkadang tiang pendukung kurang sempurna karena ada lumpur yang tertimbun di dasar.
Karena diameter tiang cukup besar dan memerlukan banyak beton, maka untuk pekerjaan
yang kecil dapat mengakibatkan biaya tinggi.
Karena pada cara pemasangan tiang yang diputar berlawanan arah jarum jam menggunakan
air maka lapangan akan menjadi kotor. Untuk setiap cara perlu dipikirkan cara menangani
tanah yang telah dibor atau digali.