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Complex numbers, systems of linear equations and matrices, the rank of a matrix. vector spaces, basis

and dimension, linear transformations, the kernel and the image of a linear transformation, inner product

spaces, Gram-Schmidt process, matrix representation of a linear operator and change of basis, detA=0,

inverse matrix, characteristic polynom, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonizable matrices, and

symmetric matrices.

Limits and continuity of a function. differentiation, differentiability and the fundamental theorem of

differential calculus, extremal values, Rolle's theorem, second derivative, curve tracing, l'Hopital's rule,

the differential as a tool for approximated calculations, Taylor's theorem, integral calculus for functions of

one variable: definite integrals, integration methods, generalized integrals, ordinary differential equation

and solution by variable separation, equations of planes and lines.

Vectors and parametric representation, 3D coordinates and vectors, algebra of scalars and vectors.

Vector analysis: line integrals and surface integrals, velocity and acceleration, normal lines and

curvature, representation in polar coordinates. Functions of several variables, basic differential calculus

of such functions, partial derivative, the chain rule and the directional derivative, exact derivative, the

gradient and its properties, extremal problems, multiple integration: definition, applications and

techniques, change of variables., Green's, Stokes' and Gauss' formulas, numerical series, sequences

and series of functions, power series, convergence.

First order differential equations: linear, separable, exact, integrating factors, homogeneous equations,

existence and uniqueness theorem (without proof), linear differential equations of order n, systems of

linear differential equations, solution with matrix calculus, solution of differential equations by power

series, integral transform methods: Laplace and Fourier, Bessel's equation.

Categorization of second order PDEs, canonical forms, existence and uniqueness theorem (without

proof), the wave equation (in brief), the heat equation, the Laplace equation, problems of boundary and

initial conditions, Greens functions, solution methods : characteristic lines, variable separation, Fourier

series, Greens and Bessels functions. Introduction to asymptotical methods: perturbations for obtaining

approximate solution.

Acids and Bases: Titration, hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions, determination of dissociation constant

(Ka) of a weak acid, titration curve of a polyprotic acid. Sparingly Soluble Salts: Determination of the

solubility-product constant (Ksp), solubility and enthalpy (DH) of the dissolution of a sparingly soluble

salt. Oxidation-Reduction Phenomena: General properties, electrochemical cells, determination of

thermodynamic constants (DH, DS, DG). Colorimetric Analysis: Determination of the concentration of a

solution using a spectrophotometer. Chemical Kinetics: Determination of the reaction rate, the order of

reaction and the specific rate constant (k).

Methyl orange synthesis. Caffeine extraction from tea. Chromatography of spinach extract. Oxydation

oleic acid with potassium permanganate. Esterification and hydrolysis. Reduction of vanillin with sodium

borohydride.

Purification and isolation of lysozyme from hen egg yolk. Protein analysis - separation by electrophoretic

methods. Factors affecting enzymatic activity-Alkaline Phosphatase. Covalent immobilization of

phosphatase on Agarose beads. Photophosphorylation in isolated thylakoids. Electronic Biochemical

tools (Computers).

Growth inhibition of bacteria by antibiotics. Staining bacteria. Isolation of bacteria on solid media.

Growth curve of bacteria and the effect of environmental factors. Enrichment and isolation of soil

bacteria (antibiotic producers, chemoheterotrophic bacteria, thermophilic bacteria, nitrogen fixers and

bacteria utilizing aromatic compounds as a carbon source). Bacterial aerobic/anaerobic metabolic

activities (Glycolysis, fermentation, respiration), biochemical identification tests. Regulation of enzymatic

activities (the lactose operon). Life cycle of bacteriophages (lytic and lysogenic cycles. Drug resistance).

Induction of penicillinase.

Cloning of a gene into expression vector and following its expression at the protein

level. Recombinant DNA technology (DNA isolation, digestion with restriction enzymes, ligation, PCR

and analysis in agarose gels) as well as protein separation and immunodetection in Western blots and

colony lifts.

Flow. Heat and mass transfer. Mixing. Monitoring of biological processes. Batch and continuous

reactors. Fermentation. Mammalian bioreactors. Advanced Microscopy (fluorescence). Biosensors.

Methods for quantification of macromolecules in Immunology. Enzymatic immobilization. Mammalian cell

culture. Microbial Processes.

Sampling and normal distribution. The sampling distribution of means. Central limit theorem. Point

estimation. Properties and principles of point estimation. Method of maximum likelihood. Interval

estimation. Confidence interval for mean for known and unknown variances. T-distribution. Confidence

interval for proportion. Confidence interval. Properties of confidence interval. Calculation sample size for

given confidence interval. Hypotheses testing. General problem of statistical tests of hypotheses.

Hypotheses and tests. Level of significance. Rejection region. P-value. Type of errors, power of test.

Hypotheses testing for normal model. Calculation of errors and power. Calculation sample size.

Population mean for unknown variance. Population proportion for Bernoulli experiment series.

Comparison of two samples. Hypothesis test about difference between two populations means for

independent samples. Hypothesis test about difference between two populations means for dependent

samples. Analysis of frequencies tables. 2 test. Statistical association between two variables.

Correlation coefficient. Linear regression. One way analysis of variances (ANOVA). Non-parametric

tests. Spearman correlation coefficient. Exact Fisher Test. Test Mc Nemar.

Separation of biological active materials: centrifugation, ultra filtration (membrane), aqueous two-phase

extraction, gel permeation and affinity chromatography, electrophoresis, freeze-drying.

Mathematical models of biological systems, physical models, control theory, feedback systems,

biological receptors, hormone, physiological and neural control, pressure and fluxes, breathing, heat

control.

Basic principles in chemistry: atom, molecule, elements, isotopes, the periodic table, valency, chemical

reactions, compounds, stoichiometry, radioactivity. Atomic structure through the laws of quantum

mechanics, the chemical bond, ideal and real gases, ions, electrochemistry.

369-1-2021 General Chemistry B for Biotechnology

Acids and bases, titration, chemical and ionic equilibrium calculations, Le Chateliers Principle, pH,

buffer solutions, solubility products, chemical kinetics, rates and order of reactions, effect of temperature

and catalyst.

Hybridization of carbon, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, isomers, spectroscopic methods (UV,

IR, NMR, MS) and chromatography, aromatic compounds, resonance, nucleophylic substitutions and

elimination reactions, Grignard Reagent, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, sugars, chemical and

enzymatic reactions.

Optical isomerism, carboxylic acids and derivatives (chlorides, esters, amides, polyesters, polyamides),

nitrogen containing compounds (amines, amides, nitriles, diazo compounds), amino acids, proteins,

natural products, polymers and biopolymers.

Foundations of Biochemistry in Living Organism, Cells and Biomolecules. Water: Structure and

Interactions with Dissolves Biomolecules. Structure of Biomolecules: Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates,

Nucleotides. Enzyme catalysis and application in Biotechnology Biological Membranes and Transport.

Bioenergetics and Metabolism: thermodynamics of Bioenergetic processes; oxidation- reduction

reaction glycolysis and catabolism of hexoses; biochemical cycles; photosynthetic reactions;

macromolecule biosynthesis. Integration of this knowledge into Biotechnology and the production of

biological materials by microbial fermentation. Biochemistry of Information Pathways: Genes and

Chromosomes, DNA and RNA Metabolism; Regulation of Gene Expression; Genetic Engineering;

Recombinant DNA Technology; Application in Biotechnology Engineering.

Chemical Kinetics: introduction, reaction rate, temperature dependence of reaction rate, stationary state,

simultaneous reactions, following reactions, unimolecular reactions, chain reactions, explosions,

heterogeneous reactions. Kinetic theory of gases: Botlzmann distribution, velocity distribution, averaged

properties, pressure, reduced mass, collision rate, reaction rate, temperature dependence of reaction

rate.

Historic background. Single cells & multicellular organisms: survival issues. Cell structure: cell wall, cell

membrane, organelles, cytoplasm & nucleus. Cellular specializations. Cellular components: atoms,

chemical bonds, small molecules: inorganic (water, salts) and organic (sugars, lipids, amino acids,

nucleotides). Polymers: proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids. Physical aspects: pH, temperature,

light, diffusion of solutes. Transport of solutes & osmoregulation. Extreme environments. Cell division in

prokaryotes & eukaryotes, mytosis & meiosis. Intercellular communication.

The plant cell, systematics: from Protista to higher plants, structure and function of cells, tissues and

organs of the higher plant, growth and development, biotechnological aspects in algae and plants.

369-1-3022 Invertebrates

Diversity and classification of invertebrates, body plane, physiology, locomotion, reproduction, nutrition,

defense mechanisms and sensory organs, symbiosis, biomechanics and calcification, architecture and

function, the kingdom of extreme environments terrestrial and aquatic strategies, biotechnological

applications.

369-1-3023 Vertebrates

Characterization of the chordata, phylogenesis and classes of the vertebrata, breathing, transport

systems, excretion and reproduction systems, embryonic development, skeletal structure and function,

sensory organs.

Mendels laws: First law the existence distinct genes in pairs, independent segregation; Second law

interaction between genes. Genes and Chromosomes: Mitosis meiosis (Quick repetition); Sex

determination; Chromosomal basis of heredity; Crossing over, genetic and molecular; Chromosomal

aberrations. Gene Mapping: Gene linkage, linkage to the X chromosome; Recombination; Classic gene

mapping. Genes in organelles: Cytoplasmic inheritence; Maternal inheritence; Mitochondrial gene

structure (in comparison to nuclear genes). Basic prokaryotic genetics: Chromosome structure;

Operons; Gene transfer methods; Molecular basis of dominant and recessive characters. Environmental

effects. Genetics of quantitative traits. Population genetics.

Historic background. Cell structure & function: eukaryotes & prokaryotes, Cell wall & cell membrane

structure, nucleus & cytoplasm, transport mechanisms, osmoregulation, organelles. Chromosome

structure & cell division. Transcription & translation in eukaryotes & prokaryotes. Energy metabolism:

heterotrophic & chemolithotrophic processes (aerobic & anaerobic), bacterial photosynthesis. Anabolic

& catabolic processes. Growth characteristics of microorganisms, batch & continuous cultures. Bacterial

habitats and the transformations of organic matter, extreme environments, the archaebacteria. Viruses:

structure, systematics, reproductive cycle & lysogeny. Microbiogeochemistry. Genetics of

microorganisms & metabolic control mechanisms. Symbiosis & pathogenesis. Biotechnology (industrial

syntheses, antibiotics, food fermentations).

DNA: structure, genetic code, replication, organization. RNA: various types of RNA, structure and

function, degradation. Transcription: RNA polymerase, factors involved in transcription. Translation and

protein synthesis: ribosome structure and function, stages of protein synthesis. Regulation of gene

expression: various levels of regulation.

This course focuses on studying the principles and applications of genetic engineering techniques. It

includes: Production of recombinant DNA, restriction enzymes, plasmids, gene isokation, cDNA library,

genomic library, southern blot, northern blot, western blot, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

technology, gene structure and regulation, genetic transformation and gene expression in prokaryotic

cells.

Descriptive statistics. Population and sample. Classification of variables. Data presenting: statistical

tables, frequencies, frequencies types, graphical representation. Measures of central tendency. Mode,

Median, Mean. Measures of dispersion. Range, Variance, Standard Deviation. Basic terms of Theory

of Probability. Random experiment, sample space, events, events operations, complementary events.

Definition of probability of event for symmetric sample space. Basic formulas for calculation probabilities

of events. Conditional probability, Bayes rule. Independent events. Random variables. Definitions,

discrete and continuous random variables, distribution of random variables, mean and variance of

random variable. Special types of random variables. Main properties of special distributions.

Introduction: basic concepts : system, surroundings, system boundaries, temperature, pressure, heat,

work, energy (kinetic, potential, internal), units (intensive and extensive) state, state function, process,

reversibility, reversible work, properties of pure substances. The First Law: conservation of energy, non-

flow and steady flow equations, liquid, vapor, gas, diagrams (P-V, P-T, T-V), equations of state, ideal gas

equation, non- ideal gas (van der Waals equation, virial equation of state, cubic equation of state),

reversible non flow processes- constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic Irreversible processes,

reversible flow processes, non steady flow processes. The Second Law: entropy, entropy of the

universe, entropy changes for ideal gases, heat engine, reversible processes on the T-s diagram,

entropy and irreversibility, availability, heat engine cycles- Carnot, Joule, Tds relations, phase

equilibrium, mixtures, chemical potential. The third Law: temperature dependence of S, S for phase

transition, Gibbs free energy, temperature dependence of G. Kinetic Theory of Gases: postulates,

temperature, pressure, effusion, diffusion, velocity distribution, equations of state.

369-1-4041 Mechanics of Fluids for Biotechnology

Flow phenomena and physical properties of fluid, viscosity, dimensional analysis and similarity. Laminar

and turbulent flow. Friction and drag, Darcy law. Macroscopic balance, mass, momentum and energy

conservation, Bernoulli equation, applications. Microscopic balance, continuity, stress tensor, Navier-

Stockes equations and boundary conditions. Poiseuille flow. Flow in pipes. Boundary layer and jets/

Flow in porous media.

Energy conservation for non- isothermal systems, heat capacity. Mechanism ot heat transfer, conduction

and convection. One dimensional systems, boundary conditions, thermal resistance, fins. Two-

dimensional systems. Unsteady- state conduction. Convective heat transfer, dimensional analysis,

boundary layer, forced and netural convection. Radiative heat transfer.

Mechanical properties; mechanical fractures; plasticity; stess-strain curves; Young modulus; Poison

ratio. Types of materials: metals; ceramics; polymers; composites.

Crystalline and amorphous materials. Basics of crystallography; x-ray and electron diffraction. Natural

biological materials: biopolymers, biominerals. Advanced materials.

Annual Engineering project conducted in the senior year. The project is about 250 hours. Various topics

will be offered by faculty members as well as R&D personnel from industry.

369-1-4081 Bioreactors

Heat and mass balances. Batch and continuously stirred reactors. Residence time distribution.

Biotechnological processes. Kinetics of microbial growth. Product and medium utilization. Transfer

phenomena in microbial systems. Non-Newtonian flow. Desgin and analysis of biological reactors.

Analysis of complex microbial populations. Stability f bioreactor operation with complex population.

Introduction to computer system and overview of the NT operating system. Working with Electronic mail

and the Internet. Working with Word processor Word 2000 and the Electronic sheets - Excel 2000.

Using the Presentation software Power Point. Creating Simple drawings, photos manipulation and using

compression software. Connecting via Telnet and ftp to Unix OS.

369-1-4141 Bioinformatics

Genome sequence analysis (homology searching, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, genome

mapping and assembly). Functional genomics : array technology & uses (gene discovery, disease

diagnosis, drug discovery, toxicological research); data analysis (error analysis, clustering-PCA,

decision trees, correlations, SOM). Gene networks- logic based models, qualitative methods quantitative

methods. Metabolic pathways- measurements and analysis. The genomics and proteomics projects,

data basis on the web.

Introduction to statistical thermodynamics. Introduction to complex fluids: polymers, surfactant and

phospholipid solutions, and more. Mathematical-physical modeling of biological systems. The relation

between active and passive behavior. Architecture and function of biological membranes and the

cytoskeleton. Actin and microtubule networks. Kinetics and stability of polymerization of microtubules

and actin filaments. Dynamics of DNA. Kinetics of reactions in DNA. Cell adhesion. Biological model

systems.

Introduction to process control. Modeling: mathematical description of processes, modeling

considerations for control purposes. Dynamic analysis: numerical solutions and linearization, Laplace

transform and its use for solution of differential equations, transfer function, dynamic behavior of first-

and second- order systems and of higher order systems. Feedback control: dynamic behavior of

feedback controlled systems and their stability, design of feedback controllers and troubleshooting,

frequency response analysis and its use for design of feedback control. Advanced control: systems with

"dead time" or "inverse response", multiple loops. There will be many examples from biotechnological

processes.

Mathematical models of biological systems. Various models. Stochastic and deterministic approaches.

Elements of construction biological models. Statistical methods for determination of parameters in

biological models.

Introduction to applied and industrial microbiology. Regulation mechanisms in microorganisms and their

role in the production of primary and secondary metabolites. Introduction to fermentations. Alcoholic

fermentations and the production of beer, Wine and distilled spirituous liquors. Lactic acid fermentations

and its application in dairy products. Microbial processes for the production of energy from agricultural

Waste. Production of chemical solvents by microorganisms the acetol- butanol fermentation.

Production of biochemical from microalgae.

Antibiotics Discovery, activity, biosynthetic and semi-synthetic production and biochemical regulation

of production processes. Production of therapeutic metabolites by microorganism: hormones, interferon.

Microbial production of vitamins, polysaccharides, enzymes and amino acid. Microbial antagonism and

its use for biological control of plant diseases production of biopesticides. Biological Warfare. Patents

and proprietary rights in biotechnology.

New concepts in food biotechnology; functional foods, genetically modified foods. Functional foods:

special dietary foods: dietary supplement; infant formulas, medical foods and weight control foods. Dairy

ingredients as a source of functional foods. Pre- and Pro biotics. Fats, oils and there effects on health

and disease. The soybean as a source of bioactive molecules. Dietary fiber and its physiological

effects. Antioxidants and their effect on health. Genetically modified foods: aspects need to consider.

Regulations.

Main groups of biological materials of structural significance Supramolecular structures: cellulose, chitin,

collagen, lignin etc. Hierarchical structures biological composites. Biological mineralized composites.

Bones, teeth, sea-shells etc. Characterization: microscopy methods, elements of spectroscopy.

Biomimetics materials. Biocomatability.

369-1-6041 Bioelectronics

This course is an introduction to some newer fields in biotechnology, namely biosensors, biochips and

nanobiotechnology. Biosensors include a study on biospecific entities, transducers (optical fibers

(chemiluminescent, fluorescent and bioluminescent), piezoelectric crystals, micro- and ultra-electrodes),

chemical immobilization of sensor surfaces and their analysis. Examples studied will be

immunosensors, whole-cell bioreporter sensors, amperometric enzyme biosensing and mass acoustic

sensing. Micro-array and biochip technologies will be studied in the context of gene discovery,

bioinformatics, proteomics and drug discovery. Nanobiotechnology, will include atomic force

microscopy, DNA-scaffolds, polymer nano-electronics and nano-colloids.

Basic ecological principles of aquatic and terrestriel habitats and their effects on microbial communities.

Positive and negative interactions among microbial communities. Water microbiology and public health.

Methods for measurements of microbial numbers, biomass and activity in natural habitats.

Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Effects of abiotic factors and

extreme habitats on microorganisms. Microbial interaction with xenobiotics and pollutants. Microbial

treatments of liquid and solid wastes. Plant-microbe interactions: symbiosis, plant diseases. Microbial

pesticides and biological control of plant pathogens.

Water sources: groundwater and surface water; Water quality parameters and standards; Water

consumption and supply; Water treatment: gravitational sedimentation, flocculation, filtration;

Wastewater characterization; Collection and disposal of wastewater; Mass balance of oxygen and

organic matter in a river; Wastewater treatment: Primary treatment, biological treatment; the Activated

Sludge system.

Classification of enzymes. Method of production/isolation of enzymes. Enzymes as Catalysis in water

and organic solvents. Immobilization of enzymes and/or Microorganisms. Reaction engineering for

enzyme-catalyzed biotransformations. Study of processes catalyzed by hydrolyses, oxidoreductaces,

glycosidases, tranferases and lyases. Design of new catalysts by site-selective modification, catalytic

antibodies.

The course imparts comprehensive know-how in basic and applied aspects of secondary metabolite

production in plants by biotechnological means. Topics covered are role and variation of secondary

metabolites in the plant kingdom; preparation of cell and root cultures and their growth in bioreactors;

effect of physical and nutritional factors on growth of cells and roots and on the production of secondary

metabolites; production in a two-phase system; biotransformation.

The course imparts comprehensive know-how in basic and applied aspects of plant breeding using

tissue culture methodologies. Topics covered are organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis as

essential tools in in vitro breeding; protoplast production and somatic hybridization; embryo rescue and

in vitro fertilization; cell culture and somaclonal variation; haploid and triploid plants; methodologies for

genetic transformation.

Equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanics of complex fluids:

polymers, surfactant and phospholipid solutions, colloidal dispersions, and more. Wetting of Interfaces.

Interactions between rigid interfaces. Flexible interfaces. The connection to biological systems.

Biological model systems: vesicles and liposomes, membranes, actin and microtubule networks, folding

and packing of DNA, adhesion of cell-like vesicles. The emphasis will be on the use of statistical

thermodynamics to describe the above systems.

Animal Cell. Growth of attachment dependant and suspended cells. Cell lines Identification of

biological materials by cells. Introduction of genes. Hybridoma preparation. Plant cells. Growth methods.

Medium composition. Production of secondary metabolites. Regeneration and differentiation. Somatic

embrio cultures. Clonal propagation. Virus-free plant. Selection.

Protein structure and dynamics. Determination of protein structure. Protein purification. Fractionation of

crude extracts. Separation of protein by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Separation of

protein by gel filtration, ion-exchange, hydrophobic, covalent, affinity and HPL- chromatography. Large

scale purification. Chemical modification of protein. Modification by oligonucelotide-directed

mutagenesis. Post-transnational modification of protein. Application of enzymes in biotechnology.

Protein recovery. Protein separation. Precipitation (salting out). Coagulation and floculaton.

Sedimentation. Filrtation chromatography (adsorption, ion-exchange, gel filtration, affinity

electrophoresis). Two-phase aqueous separation. Reverse micellar extraction of proteins. Principles and

development of novel methods for protein separation. Cell separation and sorting. Scaling up of

separation processes.

Characteristic features of surfactants. Adsorption of surface-active agents at interfaces (solid-liquid,

liquid-gas, and liquid- liquid). Micelle formation by surfactants. Solubilization of surfactants and organic

media. Reduction of surface tension by surfactants. Wetting and effects of surfactants on wetting of solid

surfaces. Foaming of aqueous media by surfactants. Structured liquids: emulsions, microemulsions,

miniemulsions and liposomes. Application of surface-active agents in Biotechnology.

369-2-6611 Biosensors

Definitions, history and market needs. Target analytes. Sensors based on: enzymes, affinity and whole-

cells. Transducers: electrodes, photometric and acoustic. Immobilizations techniques: thin films, micro &

nano-structures. Invasive, non- invasive, and disjointed sensors . Continuous vs. discontinuous

monitoring . Pitfalls. Quality control. Signal processing. Case studies: immunosensors. Novel

transducers and synthetic receptors. Clinical, environmental, industrial and military applications. Future

prospects. Patents issues. Commercialization. (create your own biosensor).

369-2-6621 Nanobiotechnology

Nano-biotechnology is the manipulation of matter at the molecular level to create new products with

atom by atom precision. This technological revolution will be described in the context of biotechnology.

The course will describe the principles of scanning probe microscopy: molecular resolution of bio/in-

organic materials, chemical imaging by scanning force microscopy, the quantification of adhesion forces

between molecules, positioning signal atoms using proximal probes and finally either destructive or

constructive molecular manipulations. We will elaborate on the problems and constraints of

nanobiotechnology and discuss how these effect the future of molecular lithography. Molecular sensors,

molecular manufacturing, biochips and bioelectronics.

This course will summarized all existing state-of-art microarray technologies as well as introduce new

ideas on the subject. This technology has roots in rapid and efficient diagnostic as well as molecular

recognition such as DNA hybridization and sequencing analyses. The course will include: molecular

probes, surface functionalization, two-dimentional addressing, molecular recognition, optoelectronic

fingerprint detection, genetic analysis and sequencing, diagnostics, combinatorial technologies,

amplifications technology, automation strategies, microfluidics.

Materials properties, elements of crystallography, elements of spectroscopy. Main groups of biological

materials of structural significance. Supramolecular structures: cellulose, chitin, collagen, lignin etc.

Biological mineralizes composites. Technological aspects.

The aquatic environment and main oceanic recourses and processes - oceanic medium, motion and

circulation, marine habitats and biodiversity. Long-term patterns of human usage of marine resources,

aquaculture, biomineralization - the appreciative aspects, extreme environments, marine natural and

pharmacologically-active products, gene pulls and genetic manipulation of marine organisms, biofilms

and biofouling, human impacts, pollution and bioremediation.

The basis of algal classification, algal reproduction, life cycles and evolution, carbon metabolism,

extreme environments and adaptation mechanisms, production of bioactive materials, mass culturing,

exploitation and biotechnology.

Introduction to human Physiology Regulation of metabolism, growth, and energy balance. Membrane

transport mechanisms (1). Membrane transport mechanisms (2). Membrane transport (3). Plasma

composition, fluid balance, concentration-dilution. Glomerular filtration. Tubular transport. Renal failure

hemodialysis and Kidney transplantation. Exocytosis. Endocrine regulation (1). Endocrine regulation

(2). The autonomic nervous system (1). Structure and function. Secretion and Absorption. Neural

regulation of the GI tract. Blood cells- structure and function. Gas transport. Lungs structure and

function, elastic and non-elastic properties. Pressure volume relationship, Work of breathing.

Ventilation perfusion. Asthma. Reproduction (1). Reproduction (2). Channels in membranes. The

action potential. Cable theory passive and active properties of membranes.

The skeletal muscle contraction. The smooth muscle. Introduction and terms. The electrical activity of

the heart. The contractile activity of the heart (1). The contractile activity of the heart (2). Artificial

pacemaking. Organization and terms, cellular components. Electrical activity of the nerve cells. Synaptic

release (1). Synaptic release (2). Postsynaptic mechanisms excitation and inhibition modulation.

Integration of synaptic inputs. Sensory transduction (1). Sensory transduction (2). Vision General

organization, optics, ocular dominance. Receptive field properties, associative areas. Question in

audition. Spinal reflexes. Movement planning and generation. Motor pathologies tremor, paralysis ect.

Synaptic plasticity learning and memory. Cortical plasticity, possible mechanisms. Brain rhythms, sleep

and epilepsy.

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