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You are on page 1of 15

9.1 Under what noise conditions will signal averaging fail to improve the SNR?

Ans.

Signal averaging has decreased SNR improvement if signal and noise are

uncorrelated.

initially 16 times as large as the signal amplitude. How many sweeps must

be averaged to give a resulting signal-to-noise ratio of 4:1?

mS/(m)^0.5N = mS/(m^0.5)*16*S=(m)^0.5/16 =S/N

Ans.

4096 sweeps

9.3 After signal averaging 4096 EEG evoked responses, the signal-to-noise ratio

is 4. Assuming that the EEG and noise sources are uncorrelated, what was

the SNR before averaging?

Ans.

1

SNR =

16

large as the signal amplitude. How many sweeps must be averaged to give a

! resulting signal-to-noise ratio of 4:1?

Ans.

256 sweeps

9.5 In a signal averaging application, the signal caused by a stimulus and the

noise are slightly correlated. The frequency spectra of the signal and noise

overlap. Averaging 100 responses will improve the signal-to-noise ratio by

what factor?

Ans.

Less than 10.

50

Chapter 10

10.2 Given the following data: {15, 10, 6, 7, 5, 3, 4, 7, 15, 3}, produce the data

points that are stored using the TP algorithm.

Ans.

{15, 6, 7, 3, 15}

10.9 Does the TP algorithm (a) produce significant time-base distortion over a

very long time, (b) save every turning point (i.e., peak or valley) in a signal,

(c) provide data reduction of 4-to-1 if applied twice to a signal without

violating sampling theory, (d) provide for exactly reconstructing the original

signal, (e) perform as well as AZTEC for electroencephalography (EEG)?

Explain your answers.

Ans.

(a) No, only local distortion.

(b) No.

(c) Yes, if the final sampling rate still is higher than twice the highest

frequency present in the signal.

(e) Better than AZTEC for an EEG. Since the EEG is a randomly varying

signal, straight line approximations cannot effectively represent the

signal.

(a) Guarantees more data reduction on an ECG than AZTEC; (b) Cannot

perfectly reconstruct the sampled data points (within some designated error

range); (c) Is a variable-length code; (d) Is derived directly from Morse

code; (e) Uses ASCII codes for the most frequent A/D values; (f) Requires

advance knowledge of the frequency of occurrence of data patterns;

(g) Includes as part of the algorithm self-correcting error checks.

Ans.

(c), (f)

51

10.11 After application of the TP algorithm, what data sequence would be saved if

the data sampled by an analog-to-digital converter were:

(b) {50, 40, 50, 20, 30, 40}

(c) {50, 50, 40, 30, 40, 50, 40, 30, 40, 50, 50, 40}

(d) {50, 25, 50, 25, 50, 25, 50, 25}

Ans.

(a) {20, 40, 20, 40}

(b) {50, 40, 20}

(c) {50, 40, 30, 50, 30, 50}

(d) {50, 25, 50, 25}

10.12 After application of the TP algorithm on a signal, the data points saved are

{50, 70, 30, 40}. If you were to reconstruct the original data set, what is the

data sequence that would best approximate it?

Ans.

{50, 60, 70, 50, 30, 35, 40}

52

10.13 The graph below shows a set of 20 data points sampled from an analog-to-

digital converter. At the top of the chart are the numerical values of the

samples. The solid lines represent AZTEC encoding of this sampled signal.

(a) List the data array that represents the AZTEC encoding of this signal.

(b) How much data reduction does AZTEC achieve for this signal?

(c) Which data points in the following list of raw data that would be saved if

the Turning Point algorithm were applied to this signal?

with the following four bit patterns as part of the set of codes, indicate

which amplitude value you would assign to each pattern.

(e) How much data reduction does each algorithm provide (assuming that no

coding table needs to be stored for Huffman coding)?

53

Ans.

(a) {4, 0, 4, 50, 3, 30, 3, 0, 5, 0}

(b) 2 : 1

(d)

Amplitude

Code value

1 0

01 1

001 1

0001 20

10.14 AZTEC encodes a signal as {2, 50, 4, 30, 4, 50, 4, 30, 4, 50, 2, 50}.

How many data points were originally sampled?

Ans.

20

10.15 After applying the AZTEC algorithm to a signal, the saved data array is

{2, 0, 3, 80, 3, 30, 3, 0, 3, 0}. Draw the waveform that AZTEC would

reconstruct from these data.

Ans.

80

40

0

30

54

10.16 AZTEC encodes a signal from an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter as

{2, 50, 4, 30, 6, 50, 6, 30, 4, 50, 2, 50}. (a) What is the amount of data

reduction? (b) What is the peak-to-peak amplitude of a signal reconstructed

from these data?

Ans.

(a) 2 : 1

(b) 20

{3, 100, 5, 150, 5, 50, 5, 100, 2, 100}. The TP algorithm is applied to the

same original signal. How much more data reduction does AZTEC achieve

on the same signal compared to TP?

Ans.

Same amount of data reduction.

10.18 The graph below shows a set of 20 data points of an ECG sampled with an

8-bit analog-to-digital converter.

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

Amplitude

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

-5

-10

-15

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Sample time

55

(a) Draw a Huffman binary tree similar to the one in Figure 10.9(b)

including the probabilities of occurrence for this set of data.

(b) (5 points) From the binary tree, assign appropriate Huffman codes to the

numbers in the data array.

Number Huffman

code

10

0

10

20

60

(c) Assuming that the Huffman table does not need to be stored, how much

data reduction is achieved with Huffman coding of this sampled data

set? (Note: Only an integral number of bytes may be stored.)

(d) Decode the following Huffman-coded data and list the sample points

that it represents:

01010110001

56

Ans.

(a)

1.0

1 0

0.50 0.50

1 0

0

0.30 0.20

1 0

20

0.15 0.15

1 0

10

0.10 0.05

10 60

(b)

Data Huffman Number of Total

point code points number of

bits

10 0101 2 8

0 1 10 10

10 011 3 9

20 00 4 8

60 0100 1 4

Total = 39 bits

57

39 bits

= 5 bytes

8 bits per byte

! (d) 10 10 20 Last two bits have bit error-no code.

58

Chapter 11

Draw the approximate frequency spectrum of the new digital signal obtained

after sampling, and label important points on the axes. (b) On the same

graph, draw the approximate spectrum that would be averaged from a set of

normal QRS complexes.

Ans.

(a)

f

100 400 500 600 900 1000 1100

(b)

f

5 10 15

59

Chapter 12

complex have shown that the largest spectral energy of the QRS complex

occurs at approximately what frequency?

Ans.

10 Hz

2

12.10 A filter with the difference equation, y(nT ) = [ y(nT " T )] + x(nT ) , is best

described as what traditional filter type?

Ans.

! with the linear mathematics that we are using.

It is nonlinearnot definable

12.11 The center frequency of the optimal QRS bandpass filter is not at the

location of the maximal spectral energy of the QRS complex. (a) What

function is maximized for the optimal filter? (b) What is the center

frequency of the optimal QRS filter for cardiotachometers? (c) If this filter

has the proper center frequency and a Q = 20, will it work properly? If not,

why not?

Ans.

(a) Signal-to-noise ratio

(b) 17 Hz

(c) No, too high a Q factor leads to excessive ringing in the output.

12.12 In addition to heart rate information, what QRS parameter is provided by the

QRS detection algorithm that is based on the first and second derivatives?

Ans.

QRS width

12.13 The derivative algorithm used in a real-time QRS detector has the difference

equation: y(nT ) = 2x(nT ) + x(nT " T ) " x(nT " 3T ) " 2x(nT " 4T ) . (a) Draw

its block diagram. (b) What is its output sequence in response to a unit step

input? Draw the output waveform.

!

60

Ans.

(a)

(b) {2, 3, 3, 2, 0, 0, }

3 3

2 2

-2T -T 0 T 2T 3T 4T 5T time

12.14 Write the equations for the amplitude and phase responses of the derivative

algorithm used in a real-time QRS detector that has the transfer function

H(z) =

8

Ans.

2 sin (2"T ) + sin ("T )

(a) H("!

T) =

4

$

(b) "H(#T ) =

2

!

12.15 A moving window integrator integrates over a window that is 30 samples

wide and has an overall amplitude scale factor of 1/30. If a unit impulse (i.e.,

! 1, 0, 0, 0, ) is applied to the input of this integrator, what is the output

sequence?

61

Ans.

"1 1 1 % 1

# , ,, ,,0,0,0,& Starts with total of 30 outputs of value,

$ 30 30 30 ' 30

12.16 A moving window integrator is five samples wide and has a unity amplitude

scale factor (i.e., N = 1). A pacemaker pulse is described by the!sequence:

! (1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, ). Application of this pulse to the input of the moving

window integrator will produce what output sequence?

Ans.

{1,2,3,4,4,3,2,1,0,0,0,}

12.17 The transfer function of a filter used in a real-time QRS detection algorithm

is

!

(1" z "6 )2

H(z) =

(1" z "1 )2

For a sample rate of 200 sps, this filter eliminates input signals of what

frequencies?

!

Ans.

33.3, 66.7, and 100 Hz

62

Chapter 13

13.1 In the modern version of the portable arrhythmia monitor, the arrhythmia

analysis is based on mapping what two variables into two-dimensional

space?

Ans.

RR interval and QRS duration

correctly detect approximately what percentage of the QRS complexes in a

standard 24-hour database?

Ans.

More than 99.3%

13.3 In arrhythmia analysis, the RR interval and QRS duration for each beat are

mapped into a two-dimensional space. How is the location of the center of

the box marked Normal established?

Ans.

It is an average of the RR interval and QRS duration for the most-recent past

8 beats recognized as normal.

13.4 Which of the following best describe the portable arrhythmia monitor

developed at UW: (a) is a distributed processing approach, (b) selects

important signals and stores them on magnetic tape for subsequent playback

to a central computer over the telephone, (c) stores RR intervals and QRS

durations in its memory so that a 24-hour trend plot can be made for these

variables, (d) uses ST-segment levels as part of the arrhythmia analysis

algorithm, (e) saves 30 16-second ECG segments in its memory, (f)

transmits over the telephone using a separate modem that fits in a shirt

pocket, (g) currently uses an CMOS 8088 microprocessor but will be

updated soon, (h) always stores the ECG segment that preceded an alarm,

(i) is being designed as a replacement for a Holter recorder, (j) uses the new

medical satellite network to send its data to the central computer by

telemetry, (k) has a built-in accelerometer for monitoring the patient's

activity level, (l) includes 256 kbytes of RAM to store ECG signals, (m) uses

two features extracted from the ECG in the arrhythmia analysis, (n) does

near-optimal QRS detection so it will be produced commercially by a com-

63

pany early next year, (o) saves all the sampled two-channel ECG data for 24

hours, (p) stores the single ECG segment that caused an alarm, (q) analyzes

the 12-lead ECG.

Ans.

(a), (i), and (p)

13.6 Describe the QRS detection technique that is used most in high-performance

commercial arrhythmia monitors such as in the intensive care unit.

Ans.

Template matching

13.7 Explain how you would approach the problem of writing software to do 12-

lead ECG interpretation by computer so that it would be commercially

accepted.

Ans.

The commercially-accepted software mimics the decision logic of the

physician. Thus physicians can see how the interpretation is arrived at.

13.8 What are some other techniques of measuring the ST-segment level? Give

any advantages or disadvantages as compared to the windowed search

method.

Ans.

Normally ST-level is measured at a fixed interval after a fiducial point such

as the R-peak or the J-point.

64

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