397 views

Uploaded by gkarthikeyan

Mechatronics - Transducer - Characteristics

Mechatronics - Transducer - Characteristics

© All Rights Reserved

- SeaQuest 2012
- Geotechnical Laboratory Measurements for Engineers - Germaine, John T - Germaine, Amy v (2009)
- Rev Quality Concept for Official Statistics
- Official Methods de Analisis Ocra
- En Assessment Criteria Group
- EB510 Bro En
- Application of Statistical Concepts in the Determination of Weight Variation in Samples
- tecintex
- met29eng
- There Something About Variance
- Calibration ATechniciansGuide Cable Chapter1
- Measuref
- EMM-IT-1 Key & Question
- SENZOR MONOXID KMD300.pdf
- Frequency measurement using PC.pdf
- Manual 4432
- Lesson 74
- Catatan Pemrograman Dan Metode Numerik - 7 (Numeric Method).pptx
- ME11-064A Blue Book Audit
- Assignment 1 Engine 2017

You are on page 1of 40

Transducer

Basic components in a measurement system

important element for the entire system.

INSTRUMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS

used.

Divided into two categories: static and

dynamic characteristics.

Static characteristics refer to the

comparison between steady output and ideal

output when the input is constant.

Dynamic characteristics refer to the

comparison between instrument output and

ideal output when the input changes.

Static Performance of Instrument

SYSTEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Range

Span

Linearity

Sensitivity

Environmental effects

Hysteresis

Resolution

Death space

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

1. ACCURACY

instrument to show the exact reading.

Always related to the extent of the

wrong reading/non accuracy.

Normally shown in percentage of

error which of the full scale reading

percentage.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Example :

A pressure gauge with a range between

0-1 bar with an accuracy of 5% fs

(full-scale) has a maximum error of:

5 x 1 bar = 0.05 bar

100

Notes: It is essential to choose an

equipment which has a suitable operating

range.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Example :

A pressure gauge with a range between

0 - 10 bar is found to have an error of

0.15 bar when calibrated by the

manufacturer.

Calculate :

a. The error percentage of the gauge.

b. The error percentage when the

reading obtained is 2.0 bar.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Answer :

a. Error Percentage = 0.15 bar x 100 = 1.5%

10.0 bar

b. Error Percentage = 0.15 bar x 100 = 7.5 %

2.0 bar

reading.

Alternative : use gauge with a suitable range.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Example :

Two pressure gauges (pressure gauge A and B) have a

full scale accuracy of 5%. Sensor A has a range of

0-1 bar and Sensor B 0-10 bar. Which gauge is more

suitable to be used if the reading is 0.9 bar?

Answer :

Sensor A :

Equipment max error = 5 x 1 bar = 0.05 bar

100

Equipment accuracy

@ 0.9 bar ( in %) = 0.05 bar x 100 = 5.6%

0.9 bar

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Sensor B :

Equipment max error = 5 x 10 bar = 0.5 bar

100

Equipment accuracy

@ 0.9 bar ( in %) = 0.5 bar x 100 = 55%

0.9 bar

Conclusion :

Sensor A is more suitable to use at a reading of 0.9 bar

because the error percentage ( 5.6%) is smaller compared

to the percentage error of Sensor B ( 55%).

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

2. PRECISION

necessarily accurate.

Defined as the capability of an

instrument to show the same reading

when used each time (reproducibility of

the instrument).

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Example : XXX

XXX

X : result

Centre circle : true value

XXX

XXXX

XXX

X X

Accuracy vs Precision

accuracy.

Accuracy vs Precision (Cont)

High accuracy means that the mean is close to the true value, while high

precision means that the standard deviation is small.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

3. TOLERANCE

equipment where the accuracy of an

equipment is sometimes referred to in

the form of tolerance limit.

Defined as the maximum error

expected in an instrument.

Explains the maximum deviation of an

output component at a certain value.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

4. RANGE OF SPAN

minimum value and maximum value for

the measurement of an instrument.

Has a positive value e.g..:

The range of span of an instrument

which has a reading range of 100C to

100 C is 200 C.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

5. BIAS

measurement of an instrument.

This error is usually rectified through calibration.

Example :

A weighing scale always gives a bias reading. This

equipment always gives a reading of 1 kg even

without any load applied. Therefore, if A with a

weight of 70 kg weighs himself, the given reading

would be 71 kg. This would indicate that there is

a constant bias of 1 kg to be corrected.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

6. LINEARITY

Maximum deviation from linear relation between

input and output.

The output of an instrument has to be linearly

proportionate to the measured quantity.

Normally shown in the form of full scale percentage

(% fs).

The graph shows the output reading of an

instrument when a few input readings are entered.

Linearity = maximum deviation from the reading of

x and the straight line.

Linearity

Output

Readings

Measured Quantity

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

7. SENSIVITY

Defined as the ratio of change in output towards

the change in input at a steady state condition.

Sensitivity (K) =

i

: change in output; i : change in input

Example 1:

The resistance value of a Platinum Resistance

Thermometer changes when the temperature

increases. Therefore, the unit of sensitivity for

this equipment is Ohm/C.

Sensitivity

Most sensitive

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Example 2:

Pressure sensor A with a value of 2 bar

caused a deviation of 10 degrees.

Therefore, the sensitivity of the

equipment is 5 degrees/bar.

Sensitivity of the whole system is (k) =

k1 x k2 x k3 x .. x kn

i k1 k2 k3 o

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

Example:

Consider a measuring system consisting of a transducer, amplifier

and a recorder, with sensitivity for each equipment given below:

Transducer sensitivity 0.2 mV/C

Amplifier gain 2.0 V/mV

Recorder sensitivity 5.0 mV/V

Therefore,

Sensitivity of the whole system:

(k) = k1 x k2 x k3

k = 0.2 mV x 2.0 V x 5.0 mV

C mV V

k = 2.0 mV/C

Example :

The output of a platinum resistance thermometer

(RTD) is as follows:

Input(C) Output(Ohm)

0 0

100 200

200 400

300 600

400 800

Answer :

Draw an input versus output graph. From that graph,

the sensitivity is the slope of the graph.

K = graph = (400-200) ohm = 2 ohm/C

i slope (200-100) C

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

8. DEAD SPACE / DEAD BAND

Output

Reading

- +

Measured

Variables

Dead Space

is no change in output (unresponsive system).

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

9. RESOLUTION

that can be traced accurately.

Given in the form % of full scale

(% fs).

Available in digital instrumentation.

Resolution

This is defined as the smallest input

increment change that gives some small but

definite numerical change in the output.

27

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS

10. THRESHOLD

increased from zero, the input reading

will reach a certain value before

change occurs in the output.

The minimum limit of the input reading

is threshold.

Hysteresis and Backlash

block will sometimes reveal different results as the signals

vary in direction of the movement.

Mechanical systems will often show a small difference in

length as the direction of the applied force is reversed.

The same effect arises as a magnetic field is reversed in a

magnetic material.

This characteristic is called hysteresis

Where this is caused by a mechanism that gives a sharp

change, such as caused by the looseness of a joint in a

mechanical joint, it is easy to detect and is known as

backlash.

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

instruments system when the input

signal is changed.

Depends on a few standard input

signals such as step input, ramp

input dan sine-wave input.

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

Step Input

Sudden change in input signal from steady

state.

The output signal for this kind of input is

known as transient response.

Input

Time

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

Ramp Input

The signal changes linearly.

The output signal for ramp input is

ramp response.

Input

Time

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

Sine-wave Input

The signal is harmonic.

The output signal is frequency response.

Input

Time

Response time

measurement system with fast

response.

measurement system on the

measurement should be as small as

possible.

EXAMPLE OF DYNAMIC

CHARACTERISTICS

Response from a 2nd order instrument:

Output

100%

90%

10%

tr

Time

EXAMPLE OF DYNAMIC

CHARACTERISTICS

1. Rise Time ( tr )

Time taken for the output to rise from

10% to 90 % of the steady state value.

2. Settling time (ts)

Time taken for output to reach a steady

state value.

Sensor Performance Characteristics

Transfer Function:

The functional relationship between physical input signal and electrical output signal. Usually,

this relationship is represented as a graph showing the relationship between the input and output

signal, and the details of this relationship may constitute a complete description of the sensor

characteristics. For expensive sensors which are individually calibrated, this might take the form

of the certified calibration curve.

Sensitivity:

The sensitivity is defined in terms of the relationship between input physical signal and output

electrical signal. The sensitivity is generally the ratio between a small change in electrical signal

to a small change in physical signal. As such, it may be expressed as the derivative of the transfer

function with respect to physical signal. Typical units : Volts/Kelvin. A Thermometer would

have "high sensitivity" if a small temperature change resulted in a large voltage change.

Span or Dynamic Range:

The range of input physical signals which may be converted to electrical signals by the sensor.

Signals outside of this range are expected to cause unacceptably large inaccuracy. This span or

dynamic range is usually specified by the sensor supplier as the range over which other

performance characteristics described in the data sheets are expected to apply.

Sensor Performance Characteristics

Accuracy:

Generally defined as the largest expected error between actual and ideal output signals. Typical

Units : Kelvin. Sometimes this is quoted as a fraction of the full scale output. For example, a

thermometer might be guaranteed accurate to within 5% of FSO (Full Scale Output)

Hysteresis:

Some sensors do not return to the same output value when the input stimulus is cycled up or

down. The width of the expected error in terms of the measured quantity is defined as the

hysteresis. Typical units : Kelvin or % of FSO

Nonlinearity (often called Linearity):

The maximum deviation from a linear transfer function over the specified dynamic range. There

are several measures of this error. The most common compares the actual transfer function with

the `best straight line', which lies midway between the two parallel lines which encompasses the

entire transfer function over the specified dynamic range of the device. This choice of

comparison method is popular because it makes most sensors look the best.

Sensor Performance Characteristics

Noise:

All sensors produce some output noise in addition to the output signal. The noise of the sensor

limits the performance of the system based on the sensor. Noise is generally distributed across the

frequency spectrum. Many common noise sources produce a white noise distribution, which is to

say that the spectral noise density is the same at all frequencies. Since there is an inverse

relationship between the bandwidth and measurement time, it can be said that the noise decreases

with the square root of the measurement time.

Resolution:

The resolution of a sensor is defined as the minimum detectable signal fluctuation. Since

fluctuations are temporal phenomena, there is some relationship between the timescale for the

fluctuation and the minimum detectable amplitude. Therefore, the definition of resolution must

include some information about the nature of the measurement being carried out.

Bandwidth:

All sensors have finite response times to an instantaneous change in physical signal. In addition,

many sensors have decay times, which would represent the time after a step change in physical

signal for the sensor output to decay to its original value. The reciprocal of these times

correspond to the upper and lower cutoff frequencies, respectively. The bandwidth of a sensor is

the frequency range between these two frequencies.

- SeaQuest 2012Uploaded byIrina Munteanu
- Geotechnical Laboratory Measurements for Engineers - Germaine, John T - Germaine, Amy v (2009)Uploaded byMuhammad Yunus
- Rev Quality Concept for Official StatisticsUploaded byРадомир Мутабџија
- Official Methods de Analisis OcraUploaded bynmiguel24
- En Assessment Criteria GroupUploaded byembededodin
- EB510 Bro EnUploaded bygus289
- Application of Statistical Concepts in the Determination of Weight Variation in SamplesUploaded byBuiHope
- tecintexUploaded bynanoteraCH
- met29engUploaded byghost2011
- There Something About VarianceUploaded byterrabyte
- Calibration ATechniciansGuide Cable Chapter1Uploaded bySrikant Suru
- MeasurefUploaded byYogesh Jain
- EMM-IT-1 Key & QuestionUploaded bysrajapraty
- SENZOR MONOXID KMD300.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 23m34QEiu
- Frequency measurement using PC.pdfUploaded byJuber Shaikh
- Manual 4432Uploaded byZahid Garcia
- Lesson 74Uploaded byNanda Nabilah Ubay
- Catatan Pemrograman Dan Metode Numerik - 7 (Numeric Method).pptxUploaded byWong Pening
- ME11-064A Blue Book AuditUploaded byGothamSchools.org
- Assignment 1 Engine 2017Uploaded byHARITH NAJMI BIN ABD RASHID
- 30QKA20CP002Uploaded bybebe moe
- TR1_ReviewMidterm (1).docxUploaded byTeflon Slim
- 1A_reem_v02Uploaded byMITFall2010Studio
- 1B_Reem AbuzeidUploaded byMITFall2010Studio
- ch06Uploaded byOmkar Kongari
- fosgenoUploaded byAbraham Bongò
- kjkhkjhuhuUploaded byKim Deiparine
- 711499.pdfUploaded bybejan
- Metanalisis2015Uploaded byPitu Minvielle
- manual enflish iot.docxUploaded bySifa Novwidia Agni

- Lesson 5Uploaded byhk_scribd
- UGC Regulations 2016Uploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Automobile Engineering.M1Uploaded bygkarthikeyan
- me2354 auUploaded byChandra Mohan
- ECOTRONS Oil Pump Technical SpecificationUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Finite Element Analysis - 2 Marks - All 5 UnitsUploaded byMohan Prasad.M
- ME6602 2M REJINPAULUploaded byfahamith ahamed
- Automobile Engineering[May2014].pdfUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Chapter 02 Multiple Choice Questions With AnswersUploaded byKuldeep Kushwaha
- How the InternetUploaded bySalih Hassen Anwar
- Renewable Energy SourcesUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Machine Design_ Lesson 14 Design of ShaftsUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Ultrasonic SensorUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- AE206Uploaded bykumaravel07
- Signal Processing for MechatronicsUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Automobile Safety NotesUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Kom Two MarksUploaded byDeepankumar Athiyannan
- komUploaded bySasi Kumar
- FEAUploaded bySsheshan Pugazhendhi
- Finite Element Analysis[May2014].pdfUploaded byjeroldscd
- 0354-98361300062ZUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Hazardous ingredientsUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Natural gas engines modeling: combustion and NOx emissions predictionUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- COMBUSTION MODEL FOR SPARK IGNITION ENGINES OPERATING ON GASOLINE-ETHANOL BLENDS.Uploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Cylinder air/fuel ratio estimation using net heat release dataUploaded bygkarthikeyan
- Medical Certificate for LeaveUploaded bygkarthikeyan

- Rtu Info PacketUploaded byZujali Valopi
- EML224 Compact OpInMan Ver 1.20 2018-02-02Uploaded byEnder Bolat
- Lecture 2 Biomedical ElectronicsUploaded bynyashaalbert
- Mark 3E1 Service.pdfUploaded bymapsengineering
- Senko Catalog - Pt Betamaksi MitratamaUploaded byRizqi D. Kurnianto
- Mpx2100Uploaded byahm_ad
- MMY 30Uploaded byMargaret Daugherty
- Liquid Analytics Standard Configurations_2_0Uploaded byknchn
- Chigo Code ErrorUploaded byfloriantudor
- Trenchless product and process development - a European perspectiveUploaded byArgle bargle
- Communications Foundation Fieldbus for Level InstrumentsUploaded byYoga San
- Jumbo Bar289Uploaded bygparis@telefonica.net
- Jumo Dtrans CR02Uploaded byeliasnasr
- Fast Detection of Replica Node Attacks in mobile sensor networkUploaded byDattaprasad Vispute
- 60791519-TH220B-TH330B.pdfUploaded byOctavio Ramos
- The ways in which ict is usedUploaded byboss_7amoud
- more_on_transducers_sensors_actuators.pdfUploaded byOlaoluwa Ayodeji Omo-Akin
- NFS2 3030 NotifierUploaded byAmr El-Deeb
- Catalogo Generacion Aerosol PalasUploaded byMurray Bookchin
- HydrologyUploaded byEmmanuel Sto Tomas
- Brochure MEDUSAUploaded byLindgren
- Caldina ElectricalUploaded byАльказар Рагнару
- 1305 - Laboratory Quality Control Based on Risk Management (1)Uploaded byDayledaniel Sorveto
- Automatic Wheelchair for Physically Disabled PersonsUploaded byPeaceMaker Amirah
- Smart Cane ProposalUploaded bySethbaldovino
- DMK 33G445 Technical Reference ManualUploaded byKevan
- Cfm Abb SmartpositionersUploaded byzalziza
- Heatflow Experiment Courseware Sample for MATLAB UsersUploaded bypinkpanter
- Spesifikasi Babyleo TN500.docxUploaded byMeta Dwi Fitriyawati
- AUTOMATIC SORTING MACHINEUploaded byJournal 4 Research