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# Torsion

## 1. The torsion formula and how to derive the formula.

2. Torque diagram.
3. How to determine shear stress of a shaft under torsion.
4. Power transmission and how to determine torque of a rotating shaft.
5. How to determine the angle of twist.
6. How to solve statically indeterminate problems on shaft under torsion.
7. Torsion of non-circular shaft.
8. Stress concentration.
Torsion
Torque
What will happen when you apply a torsional load to a long straight member.
Torque is a moment that tends to twist a member about its longitudinal axis.

Torque = F x r
F - tangential force
Torsion
Torque
Torque is a moment that tends to twist a member about its
longitudinal axis. Its effect is of primary concern in the design of
axles or drive shafts used in vehicles and machinery. We can
illustrate physically what happens when a torque is applied to a
circular shaft by considering the shaft to be made of a highly
deformable material such as rubber, When the torque is applied,
the circles and longitudinal grid lines originally marked on the
shaft tend to distort.

## Note the following:

1. Twisting causes the circles to remain circles.
2. Each longitudinal grid line deforms into a helix that
intersects the circles at equal angles.
3. Radial lines remain straight during the deformation.

## From these observations we can assume that if the angle of

twist is small, the length of the shaft and its radius will remain
unchanged.
Torsion
Torque
If the shaft is fixed at one end and a torque is applied to its other end,
the dark green shaded plane shown in the figure on the right will distort
into a skewed form as shown.

## Here a radial line located on the cross section at a distance x from

the fixed end of the shaft will rotate through an angle (x). The angle
(x) so defined, is called the angle of twist.

## In order to understand how this distortion strains the material, we

isolate a small element located at a radial distance (rho, ) from the
axis of the shaft. The back face will be rotated by (x) and the front
face will be rotated by (x) + . As a result, the difference in these
rotations , causes the element to be subjected to a shear strain and
the angle of the shear strain is .

Torsion
The torsion formula in solid shaft - derivation
Consider a bar in torsion

## Length of this arc can also be approximated by L.

Torsion
The torsion formula - derivation

We know the relationship between shear modulus (Modulus of Rigidity, G), Shear stress () and
shear strain () (see Lecture 3).

## The torsion formula. If you know the shear stress,

length and radius of a circular shaft, can you
determine what material to use for the shaft?
Torsion
Torsion formula
Assumptions:
1. Shaft has a circular cross section that can gradually vary along its length
2. Material of the shaft is homogeneous
3. Behave in a linear-elastic manner when the torque is applied.
4. Saint-Venants principle: Neglect the localized deformations that occur at points of application
of the torques and where the cross section changes abruptly. These effects occur within small
regions of the shafts length and will have only a slight effect on the shaft.
Torsion
Maximum shear stress in shaft under torsion

## If the material is linear-elastic, then Hookes law applies,

and consequently a linear variation in shear strain will lead to a
corresponding linear variation in shear stress along any radial line
on the cross section. Hence, will vary from zero at the shafts
longitudinal axis to a maximum value max, at its outer surface.

What is the relationship between shear stress and the radius of the
shaft if the modulus of rigidity is not known?
Torsion
Maximum shear stress in shaft under torsion
Consider a shaft with area (A) and radius (r),
A=

r
Shear stress is related to the area by,

Therefore,
F
Since T = Fr

## Replace shear stress by the torsion formula

J

J
Torsion
Maximum shear stress in shaft under torsion
Therefore,

## Shear stress of a shaft in torsion varies along

Torsion
Multiple torques
A shaft can be subjected to several different torques. To find the torques in the shaft, we will use the
right-hand rule, whereby both the torque and angle will be positive, provided the thumb is directed
outward from the shaft when the fingers curl to give the tendency for rotation. The results may be
represented graphically in the torque diagram.
Torsion
Example 1 torsion
A shaft 40mm diameter is made from steel and the maximum allowable shear stress for the
material is 50MPa. Calculate the maximum torque that can be safely transmitted.
G = 90 GPa.

Determine J,

## Determine maximum torque,

Torsion
Example 2 - torsion
The solid shaft is fixed to the support at C and subjected to the torsional loadings shown.
Determine the shear stress at points A and B.
Determine J,

## Determine the torque diagram

4 kNm

6 kNm
c
Torsion
Example 2 - torsion
The solid shaft is fixed to the support at C and subjected to the torsional loadings shown.
Determine the shear stress at points A and B.

## At point B, the torque is 4 kNm,

Torsion
Example 3 torsion *
The copper pipe has an outer diameter of 40 mm and an inner diameter of 37 mm. If it is tightly secured to
the wall at A and three torques are applied to it as shown, determine the absolute maximum shear stress
developed in the pipe.

## To determine maximum stress developed in the pipe.

Torsion
Example 4 - torsion
The solid 30-mm-diameter shaft is used to transmit the torques applied to the gears. Plot the torque
diagram of the shaft and determine the absolute maximum shear stress on the shaft.
Torsion
Torque - Power transmission
Shafts and tubes with circular cross sections are often used to transmit power developed by a machine.
When used for this purpose, they are subjected to a torque that depends on the power generated by the
machine and the angular speed of the shaft. Power is defined as the work performed per unit of time.
Also, the work transmitted by a rotating shaft equals the torque applied times the angle of rotation.
Therefore, if during an instant of time dt, an applied torque T causes the shaft to rotate, then the
instantaneous power is

Since

## Where, P = Power, (W)

T = Torque, (Nm)

P = Power (Watts)
T = Torque (Nm)
N = Speed (Revolutions per minute)
Torsion
Example 1: Torque - Power transmission
The pump operates using the motor that has a power of 85 W. If the impeller at B is turning at 150
rev/min, determine the maximum shear stress developed in the 20-mm-diameter transmission shaft at A.

T = 5.41 Nm

## To determine the maximum shear stress,

Torsion
Example 2: Torque - Power transmission*
A shaft is made from tube. The ratio of the inside diameter to the outside diameter is 0.6. The material must
not experience a shear stress greater than 500 kPa. The shaft must transmit 1.5 MW of mechanical power at
1500rev/min. Calculate the shaft diameters.

To determine the torque, Since shear stress cannot be greater than 500 kPa,
Maximum shear stress = 500 kPa.

## Note that since d/ D = 0.6, d = 0.6D

Torsion
Example 3: Torque - Power transmission
The 25-mm-diameter shaft on the motor is made of a material having an allowable shear stress of 75 Mpa. If
the motor is operating at its maximum power of 5 kW, determine the minimum allowable rotation of the shaft.

## To determine the moment of inertia, J To determine the minimum

allowable rotation of the shaft,

## To determine the torque,

Torsion
Angle of twist
What is the angle of twist? Is the angle of twist
similar to shear strain?

## - measured in rad, angle of twist of one

end of the shaft with respect to the other
end.
T- Torque. Dependent on the length of
shaft.
J - Polar moment of inertia.
G - Shear modulus of elasticity of material
Why do we need to understand the angle of twist?

Occasionally the design of a shaft depends on restricting the amount of rotation or twist when
a shaft is subjected to a torque.
The angle of twist is also important when analysing the reaction torques of statically indeterminate
shaft.
Torsion
Angle of twist
If a shaft is subjected to several different torques, or the cross-sectional area or shear modulus changes
abruptly from one region of the shaft to the next, the angle of twist equation can be applied to each
segment of the shaft where these quantities (e.g. Cross-sectional area, shear modulus) are all constant.
The angle of twist of one end of the shaft with respect to the other is then found from the vector addition
of the angles of twist of each segment.

In order to apply this equation, we must develop a sign convention for both the internal torque and the
angle of twist of one end of the shaft with respect to the other end. This can be summarized by the
torque diagram.

Remember the right-hand rule! Whereby both the torque and angle will be positive, provided the thumb
is directed outward from the shaft when the fingers curl to give the tendency for rotation.
Torsion
Example 1. Angle of twist
Find the total angle of twist for the following shaft.

## Step 1: Determine torsion load on

structure. Usually, it is useful to
draw the torsion diagram.

## Step 2: Apply the right hand rule

and use the following equation,

## Torque in anti-clockwise direction is

positive and torque in the clockwise
direction is negative.
Torsion
Example 2. Angle of twist
The propellers of a ship are connected to a steel shaft that is 60 m long and has an outer diameter of 340
mm and inner diameter of 260 mm. If the power output is 4.5 MW when the shaft rotates at 20 rad/s
determine the maximum torsional stress in the shaft and its angle of twist. G = 75 Gpa.

## To determine the angle of twist,

Torsion
Example 3. Angle of twist *
The 20-mm-diameter steel shaft (G = 75 GPa) is subjected to the torques shown. Draw the torque
diagram and determine the angle of twist of the end B.

60Nm
90 Nm

## To determine the angle of twist,

Torsion
Example 4. Angle of twist *
The assembly is made of steel (G = 75 Gpa) and consists of a solid rod 20 mm in diameter fixed to the
inside of a tube using a rigid disk at B. Determine the angle of twist at D. The tube has an outer diameter
of 40 mm and wall thickness of 5 mm.

## To determine the moment of inertia of the solid rod

(section BD) and tube (section AB),

## To determine the angle of twist at D,

Torsion
A torsionally loaded shaft may be classified as statically indeterminate if the moment equation of
equilibrium, applied about the axis of the shaft, is not adequate to determine the unknown torques acting
on the shaft similar to the statically indeterminate problems we have learn in previous lecture (axially

## The compatibility equation requires that the angle of twist of one

end of the shaft with respect to the other end to be equal to
zero, since the end supports are fixed. Therefore,

## The reactive torques at A

and B are both unknown!
Since,
Torsion
Example 1. Statically indeterminate torque load members
The following steel shaft has a diameter of 50 mm and is fixed at its ends A and B. If it is subjected to the
torque, determine the maximum shear stress in regions AC and CB of the shaft.

300 = TA + TB

## By solving the two equations,

Torsion
Example 2. Statically indeterminate torque load members *
The steel shaft has a diameter of 60 mm and is fixed at its ends, A and B. If it is subjected to the torques
shown, determine the absolute maximum shear stress in the shaft.

stress,

## From the compatibility equation,

Torsion
Solid non-circular shaft
When a torque is applied to a shaft with a circular cross section, the
shear strains vary linearly from zero at its center to a maximum at its
outer surface. Furthermore, due to the uniformity of the shear strain
at all points on the same radius, the cross sections do not deform,
but rather remain plane after the shaft has twisted.

## Shafts that have a noncircular cross section, however, are not

axisymmetric and the torsional analysis of noncircular shafts (square
shaft) becomes considerably more complicated. Using a
mathematical analysis based on the theory of elasticity, it is possible
to determine the shear-stress distribution within a shaft of square
cross section. Examples of how this shear stress varies along two
radial lines of the shaft are as shown. Because these shear-stress
distributions vary in a complex manner, the shear strains they create
will warp the cross section.

Note that the corner points of the shaft must be subjected to zero
shear stress and therefore zero shear strain.
Torsion
Solid non-circular shaft
The results of the analysis for square cross sections, along with other
results from the theory of elasticity, for shafts having triangular and
elliptical cross sections, are reported in the table. In all cases the
maximum shear stress occurs at a point on the edge of the cross
section that is closest to the center axis of the shaft. These points are
indicated as dots on the cross sections. Also given are formulas for
the angle of twist of each shaft. By extending these results to a shaft
having an arbitrary cross section, it can also be shown that a shaft
having a circular cross section is most efficient, since it is subjected
to both a smaller maximum shear stress and a smaller angle of twist
than a corresponding shaft having a noncircular cross section and
subjected to the same torque.
Torsion
Example 1. Solid non-circular shaft
If a = 25mm and b = 15mm, determine the maximum shear stress in the circular and elliptical shafts when
the applied torque is T = 80 Nm. By what percentage is the shaft of circular cross section more efficient at
withstanding the torque than the shaft of elliptical cross section?

## To determine the maximum shear

stress for the circular shaft,

## To determine the maximum shear

stress for the elliptical shaft,
Torsion
Example 2. Solid non-circular shaft
Segments AB and BC of the shaft have circular and square cross sections, respectively. If end A is
subjected to a torque of , determine the absolute maximum shear stress developed in the shaft and the
angle of twist of end A. The shaft is made from A-36 steel (G = 75 Gpa) and is fixed at C.

## To determine shear stress at segment BC,

Torsion
Example 2. Solid non-circular shaft
Segments AB and BC of the shaft have circular and square cross sections, respectively. If end A is
subjected to a torque of 2 kNm, determine the absolute maximum shear stress developed in the shaft and
the angle of twist of end A. The shaft is made from A-36 steel (G = 75 Gpa) and is fixed at C.

## To determine the angle of twist at end A,

Torsion
Stress concentration
The torsion formula, cannot be applied to regions of a shaft having a sudden change in the cross section
(e.g. step). Here the shear-stress and shear-strain distributions in the shaft become complex and can be
obtained only by using experimental methods or possibly by a mathematical analysis based on the theory of
elasticity. Three common discontinuities of the cross section that occur in practice are shown: They are at
a ) couplings, which are used to connect two collinear shafts together
b ) keyways, used to connect gears or pulleys to a shaft,
c ) and shoulder fillets, used to fabricate a single collinear shaft from two shafts having
different diameters.

In each case the maximum shear stress will occur at the point (dot) indicated on the cross section.
Torsion
Stress concentration
The necessity to perform a complex stress analysis at a shaft discontinuity to obtain the maximum shear
stress can be eliminated by using a torsional stress-concentration factor, K. As in the case of axially
loaded members, K is usually taken from a graph based on experimental data. An example, for the shoulder-
fillet shaft. To use this graph, one first finds the geometric ratio to define the appropriate curve, and then
once the abscissa is calculated, the value of K is found along the ordinate. Note from the graph that an
increase in fillet radius r causes a decrease in K. Hence the maximum shear stress in the shaft can be
reduced by increasing the fillet radius.

## Here the torsion formula is applied to the smaller of the

two connected shafts, since occurs at the base of the
fillet.
Torsion
Stress concentration
Example 1. Stress concentration
The steel shaft is made from two segments: AB and BC, which are connected using a fillet weld having a
radius of 2.8 mm. Determine the maximum shear stress developed in the shaft.

## Determine the maximum shear stress in segment AB,

Torsion
Stress concentration
Example 2. Stress concentration
The steel used for the shaft has an allowable shear stress of 8 Mpa. If the members are connected together
with a fillet weld of radius r = 2.25mm, determine the maximum torque T that can be applied.