Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

Business Ethics Project

Pakistan Afghanistan Relations

Submitted to
Sir Imran Hameed

Submitted by
Javeria Jalil (160034)
Rida Zahid (160023)
Syeda Faiza Hasanat (160013)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. History
3. Pak-Afghan relations Part-1
4. Pak-Afghan relations Part-2
5. Context/Circumstances
6. Stakeholders of Pakistan Afghanistan Relations
7. Stakeholders impact on Pak-Afghan Relations
8. Moral Issues and Moral Judgments regarding Pak-Afghan relations
9. Issues in Pakistan Afghanistan relations
Support of terrorism by Afghan and Pak-Afghan border closed for indefinite period
Pakistan Afghanistan Border Issue and Durand Line issue
Afghanistan and Indias growing relationships
Refugees issue
Water sharing problem
10.Moral Issues with Moral Judgements
11.Islamic Perspective

Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations

Pakistan and Afghanistan both are the Islamic Republic parts of SAARC (South Asian Association For
Regional Corporation). Pakistan and Afghanistan are geographically and ethnically linked with each other.
Afghanistans people belong from different tribes with different languages and cultures. In Afghanistan,
majority of the people are Pushtoons and Uzbeks speaking Pushto but possess a common religion Islam.
Islam provides all groups, the right moral code and ethical values.

Same goes for Pakistan. Besides sharing the same religion Islam, both Pakistan and Afghanistan share
same values, norms ethnicity, and much more. Geographically Pakistan and Afghanistan have common
border Durand Line. Pakistan and Afghanistan are linked together by Khyber pass (connects Peshawar with
Kabul), Khojak Pass( connects Quetta with Kandahar) and Torkham International Border.

During cold war, when soviets invaded Afghanistan, Pakistan with the help of US and Saudi Arabia
trained, equipped and shelter the Afghan. Pakistan trained and equipped the Mujahideen. (The Soldiers Of
GOD). The highly competent Army officers were elected for guiding those Afghan warriors. First they took

on the Soviets and after 8 or 9 years, they forced them out of their country. Some of them were Ghazi and
some of them were Shaheeds.

Upon arriving to Pakistan, Afghan refugees settled in the areas where there was no development at all.
They independently built their homes and transformed the impoverished lands into cities and cultivated
lands. There was a brotherhood, unity among both countries but then the circumstances and blacksheeps
started to debilitate their relation. Their relations are not that strong. With all the threats coming from India,
Afghanistans inhospitable attitude is challenging the Pakistans existence very badly. Afghanistan is being
very cruel towards or country. Problems like Afghan water sharing problem, Pakistan expelling Afghan
refugees, Terrorist attacks by Afghan man towards Pakistan etc. Furthermore, Ian Stephon called this
situation as a pincer movement wishing to destroy the existence of Pakistan.

The whole report is going to explain the history, circumstances/context, information about Pak-Afghans
stakeholders which are termed as primary and secondary, and their impact on Pak-Afghan relations.

There may be inconsistency between two all we have to do is to understand and resolve. As Right and
responsibility are based on actions. Justice and Quality is process based and utilitarianism is based on
collective goodwill and the consequences. Now Afghanistan and Pakistan have to decide which approach to
focus on and bring better solutions to their problems. Rights and Responsibility, Virtue and character,
Justice and Quality, utilitarianism all have to be implemented.

Right and responsibility of both presidents is to carry out legislation. They both have to ensure that all the
nations laws are faithfully executed. Moreover as neighboring countries they have to make sure that each
others rights are not at stake and they are working accordingly legislation. Like for Afghanistan Durand line
is merely a line but according to legislation, Durand line is a border and is internationally recognizable.

Justice and Quality of is process based and includes truth and realities of life. Afghanistan should have to
implement proper justice and Quality keeping their nations as well as Pakistan interest. Same is for
Pakistan. Pakistan and Afghanistan both are Muslim countries and they try their best to bring justice and
quality but now Afghanistan is beguiled by India and that is bringing agonizing relations between
Afghanistan and Paksitan.

Utilitarianism approach is hardly implemented in Pakistan and Afghanistan Relationship. Afghanistan is

now seeking aid from India which is the biggest enemy of Pakistan. Afghansitan is trying to build better
relations with India as they are giving huge amount of aid to Afghanistan. Afghanistan goodwill towards
Pakistan is at stake. As Pakistan open the Chaman Border, Afghanistan attacked FC personnel guarding the
staff conducting consensus intwo villages on the chaman border.


Pakistan-Afghan relations has basically two parts which are as follows:

Part (1)Pakistan Afghanistan Relations: 1947- 2001

Part (2)Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations since 9/11

Part-I: Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations

Phase (1) : 1947-1963

1. Durand Line

In 1893, Pakistan-Afghan boundary was drawn by a famous personality named as Sir Mortimer Durand.
That boundary was acknowledged by Afghanistans king.The boundary is known as a Durand Line. When
Pakistan became Afghanistan claimed on the boundary of Pakistan, they request some territories of Pakistan
which is NWFP and Balochistan.

2. Opposition in UNO

In the beginning Pak-Afghan relations were in a serious and dangerous phase. Furthermore, Afghanistan
stood against Pakistan when Pakistan joined UNO and Afghanistan was only the Muslim state of the world
that considered Pakistan as an enemy. Afghanistan, the enemy of Pakistan had initiated anti Pakistan
resolution in UNO. When Pakistan merged with UNO on 30thSeptemver in 1947, Afghanistan didnt

accepted this reality and eventually didnt consider Pakistan as an independent state in the world.
Afghanistan called Pakistan as a colony of Britishers.

3. Reaction in 1947 war

In December 1947, the plea for Pakhtunistan was made. At that time Indian army was ready to take
advantage to take control over Kashmir which is a part of Pakistans border. Then Afghanistan had attacked
Pakistan from time to time in order to hurt the territories of Pakistan.

4. Exchange and with drawl of Ambassadors

Afghanistans withdrawal of its negative UN Vote and exchange of ambassadors in 1948 from both sides
could not pay much in bringing both of the countries closer. Irregular forces from Afghanistan crossed
Pakistan border to fabricate Pakhtoon uprising in Pakistani tribal areas in 1950-51 were even handedly dealt

by Pakistans security forces. Afghanistan denied its covert involvement in the cross border infiltration.
Pakistan rejected Afghanistans claim of neutrality in the cross border infiltration and both nations withdrew
their ambassadors for few months till those were repositioned.

5. Attack on Pakistan Embassy

In 1955, Pakistan rationalized its executive units on only one unit. The government of Afghanistan was
against the assimilation of the north west province which was dominated by Pathans. In September 1955,
Pakistans flag was again elevated at its embassy and delegations.

6. U-2 Incident

On 1st May 1960, U-2 incident was happened and that was the cold wars time. Since the happening of
U-2 incident USSR supported every Afghan move to separate or harm Pakistans position in any possible

7. Termination of Relations

These movements had directed to the termination of the relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan, and
closure of Afghanistans delegations and trade offices in the cities of Pakistan i.e. Peshawar and Quetta. In
revenge, Kabul closed the border and postponed the transactions of trade with Pakistan.

Phase (2) 1963-1973

1. Reinstatement of Relations

Iran productive for effective bonds with Muslim states i.e Pakistan and Afghanistan generated the certain
1963 Tehrans Conform. Afghanistan and also Pakistan agreed to bring back political links, re-open their
sealed areas started business jewelry.

2. 1965 war

The particular associations have been improved upon to be able to this kind of level in which through the
1965 Of India Pakistan conflict, Afghanistan sided together with Pakistan which usually empowered
Islamabad to totally pay attention to the conflict together with of India and also get worried a smaller
amount in regards to the safety regarding the American boundary.

3. 1971 war

The king of California Zahir Shah under his control, checked out all matters regarding 1968s incident..
Islamabad selection to be able to disband a single product generated more heat inside Pak-Afghan

associations which includes boost inside monetary assistance and also common comprehending. Afghanistan
the objectivity through the 1971 conflict happened between Pakistan and India.

Phase (3) 1973-1978

1. Doud Support to Separatists in Pakistan

Inside Come July 1st 1973, SardarDaud, a great die hard winner regarding Pakhtoonistan problem,
deposed Californias king Zahir Shah although this individual has been about stop by at The european union
with the aid of leftist makes and also inside connivance with all the Soviets. It absolutely was terrifying the
Daoud comeback would certainly yet again arouse separatist motions between Pakhtoon and also Balochi
dwelling around Durand Series. Plus it would take place inside Balochistan any time Afghanistan offered
sanctuaries for the Murree and also Bugti insurgents inside middle of the 1970's.

2. Pakistans Support to anti Doud forces

The federal government of Pakistan then chose to aid the community of anti Daud. After that, Pakistan
greetedthe Islamic personalities of Afghanistan along with antisocialist as well as anti Doud feelings. These
rebels had been delivered training along with manyaids for his or her intrusions as well as upheavals within

3. Pact

Bhutto consented to launch the particular Countrywide Awami Get together (NAP) management falsely
accused regarding assisting the particular Pukhtoonistan requirement, although Daud consented to
understand the particular Durand Series because the frontier among Pakistan and also Afghanistan.

4. Saur revolution

Eradication associated with Daud through communist causes within 04 1978. Kabul had been engaged
through the Individuals Democratic Celebration related with the country of Afghanistan (PDPA). The nation
had been renamed the actual Democratic Republic associated with Afghanistan (DRA).

Phase (4) 1979-1992

1. Soviet invasion

On Dec, 27th 1979 Soviet intrusion involving Afghanistan, which in turn mortally wounded Hafizullah
Amin along with mounted Babrak Karmal because countrys director. As a result it finished with a new
difficult mess relating to the Islamic state i.e Pakistan.

Pakistani assistance to Mujahidin

President Carter, on May 4, 1980, declared

We will provide military equipment, food and other assistance to help Pakistan defend its
independence and national security against the seriously increased threat from the north.
2. Geneva Pact

As a final point, a Calmness Agreement amongst Pakistan plus Afghanistan appeared to be accepted
around Geneva for August 17, 1988, together with the not one but two superpowers when it has the co-

Phase (5) 1992-9/11-2001

1. Peshawar accord

The Peshawar harmony was the agreement between different leaders of Afghanistan about future
government structure after soviet union elimination at Peshawar.

2. Tahreek e Taliban

Tehreek e Taliban of Afghanistan was and began as a totally new movement. Taliban were lastly able to
device 27 out of 32 provinces within more than two years.

3. US opposition

The policy of United States towards Taliban started shifting, because of Talibans poor and pathetic
conduct towards women.

Part-2: Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations since 9/11

The terrible and pathetic situation related with Sept 11, 2001 distorted the entire world as well as
Pakistan. Pakistan was left with a risky situation between life and death. Pakistan had to join with United
States or to become a strong supporter of Talibans group.

Pakistan was left with an option to suffer the hatred of America or to become the partner of Americans
against war with Al Qaida and Taliban. Pakistan did an excellent job by giving the aircraft passage. Pakistan
also provided recovery to United States martial attack held on October 2001. Furthermore, Pakistan
supported international association in an efficient manner.

Pakistan role For Peaceful solution

The war happening between states of America and community of Talibans were controlled by the
efforts of Pakistan. George Tenet, who was basically a prior head of CIA highlighted the Pakistans efforts
of bringing Taliban to the table and escaping war in his book. George said that Pakistan did a lot of
work in arranging summits between Robert Grenier and Mullah Akhter.

Afghan Interim Government

As being a entrance method to Main Asian countries, the actual geo- proper area associated with
Afghanistan supplies a least and many economical path with regard to channeling huge power assets

associated with Main Asian countries towards the outdoors globe. Nov Taliban within Afghanistan protected
the way in which with regard to international stars in order to get involved within Afghanistan in order to
safe their own proper pursuits.

Pakistan supported Interim

Pakistan reinforced the particular meantime create and also Hamid Karzai paid out the state stop by at
Pakistan inside February 2002 ,in which reconditioned bilateral associations about helpful phrases. Pakistan
supplied almost all type of meaning, politics and also monetary help to be able to improve fresh authorities
inside Kabul beneath the obama administration regarding Mr Karzai. Chief executive Musharrafs stop by at
Afghanistan inside Apr 2002 and also headline regarding 100 thousand money support regarding renovation
regarding Afghanistan needs to be noticed in this kind of circumstance.

Pakistan furthermore offered peaceful behaviour regarding presidential and also parliamentary polls
inside March 2004 and also Sept 2005 and also closed the boundary to shield in opposition to virtually any
incursions throughout the boundary to be able to affect political election method. Chief executive Musharraf
has been the initial brain regarding express to see Afghanistan following your productive achievement
regarding presidential political election.


Historical Contextualization

Since Pakistans creation ,Pakistan has personified the rules of creating and maintaining friendly
relations with every Muslim state.

Pakiistans foreign policy states,

The State shall endeavor to preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based
o Islamic unity, support the common interests of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America, promote
international peace and security, foster goodwill and friendly relations among all nations and encourage
settlement of international disputes by peaceful means("The constitution of Pakistan 1973," 1973).

1. Fault-line in Pre-Colonial Era

The monarchical government in Afghanistan and British colonial master had been at ease till the
partition of the subcontinent despite the cruel fact that British government in South Asia used Afghanistan as
buffer zone against the huge white beer. The partition gave new motivation to the silent hostility building in

It was over the issue of Durand line. The premises upon which the logic of, denying Durand line as
permanent boarder, was built could not be conceived cordially in Pakistan. It was the claim to the
inheritance of all the British pacts signed with neighboring countries by Britain before 1947. The
antagonizing claims over the geographical boarders have diverse interpretations on both sides.

The modern history of Afghanistan dates back to 1747 and Afghan governments believe in the
permanence of Durand line. The creation of Pakistan was not welcomed in the power corridor of

2. Resurgence of Colonial Reflections in the Post 1947 Era

An additional main occasion which triggered unrest within Afghanistan had been the decision associated
with Pakistani federal government in order to amount to 1 device composed of all of the traditional western
provinces within Pakistan such as northern traditional western frontier land. This particular choice asked the
fury associated with bulk demonstration within Afghanistan.

Alternatively Pakistan can by no means take too lightly the particular soviet of India and Afghanistan
nexus in opposition to the growing armed service ties with United states of america. Pakistan has been
combating for the tactical and also acquired to look for close friends. Pakistans neighborhood friends
started out the particular propaganda regarding delivering cool conflict to be able to to the south areas of

It absolutely was with this time in which Soviet Partnership delicately penetrated Afghanistan in the
beginning simply by creating streets and also facilities and essentially penetrated Afghanistans area bodily.
Pakistan with this time started out countertop weighting soviet afghan nexus simply by bettering the ties
with United states of America.

However the actual economic climate associated with property secured Afghanistan began going down
hill because Afghanistan grew to become completely determined by soviet union with regard to transport.

3. Post 9/11 Scenario

The actual beat associated with Taliban routine within the consequences associated with Ough. Utes
intrusion associated with Afghanistan totally transformed the actual local politics as well as protection
atmosphere with regard to Pakistan. The actual support associated with North connections centered routine
through america, the actual staunch competitors from the professional Pakistan Taliban routine, place
Pakistan in an exceedingly the unclear scenario because Pakistan by itself had been a good friend within
toppling the actual Taliban routine as well as therefore assisting the actual increase associated with factions
along with recognized professional Indian leanings.

Pakistan however confronted imposition associated with sanctions on her behalf nuclear plan, The actual
vacuum cleaner might after that end up being stuffed through the Indian native impact because Pakistan
already been actively playing an extremely energetic part within Afghanistan using the tacit purpose
associated with countering Pakistans impact in the united kingdom.

4. The Refugee Dilemma

Pakistan, like a border express regarding Afghanistan continues to be offering being a desired spot for
the refugees inside instances regarding battles and also huge level inside thrashing movements(Conrad,
2004). It really is hence simply no ponder in which Pakistan started to be sponsor for some 3.5million
refugees of within 340 camps over the Afghanistan-Pakistan boundary.

5. Cross Border Terrorism

The particular common displeasure among Pakistan and also Afghanistan has been a really significant
problem. The particular geographical boundary alone just isn't the particular root central problem somewhat
the particular ethnic and also racial overlapping regarding Pakhtun identity is obviously on the middle
regarding anxious boundary associations. Pashtuns exist about equally factors with the boundary, they will
discuss identical racial identity, linguistic uniformity, any homogenizing religious beliefs and also especially
an atmosphere in which Pashtun identity will be beneath danger as a result of diplomatic discords regarding
Pakistan and also Afghanistan. Combination boundary terrorism in today's circumstance provides suspected
the particular setting regarding biased common pin the consequence on video game among the nations
around the world.

6. The Intermittent Bleak Future

Irrespective of creating a jerking connection, equally Pakistan and also Afghanistan discuss robust
frequent aspects and also the declares are already wanting to equilibrium the particular two-sided
negotiations. Pakistan on this consider has brought the particular stage and contains recently been buying
Afghanistan to be able to add on the continuous reconstruction method inside the conflict ripped express.

Pakistan provides accomplished the particular Torkham- Jalalabad path design method in addition to the
benefits in several some other jobs just like design regarding Jinnah Clinic Intricate, Kabul and also
institution regarding Allama Iqbal School regarding Martial arts styles on the Kabul School.

Apart from, Pakistan had provided scholarship grants with regard to a large number of Afghan college
students. Pakistan had additionally demonstrated good mindset within assisting Afghanistan on her transit
industry since the second option was really a property secured nation as well as Pakistan acts since the
closest sea-lane hallway on her. Afghanistan was the 3rd biggest marketplace with regard to Pakistani
exports as well as there's a higher space with regard to growing the actual industry quantity. Afghanistan has
additionally proven maturation within the modern times through assisting Pakistan within seeking out the
actual terrorists desired within Pakistan.

The actual putting signature on associated with MoU with regard to cleverness discussing between Inter-
Services Cleverness (ISI) and also the Afghan cleverness ensemble Nationwide Directorate associated with
Protection (NDS) is recognized as like a landmark within improving the actual bilateral co-operation as well
as making sure serenity within each nations.

Stakeholders of Pak-Afghan relations

Stakeholders are playing an important role and affecting directly and indirectly to Pakistan Afghanistans
relations. Basically there are two categories of stakeholders. First one is Primary stakeholders and second
one is secondary stakeholders which are as follows:

Primary Stakeholders

1. Nawaz Shareef
2. America
3. United Kingdom
4. India
5. China
6. Afghan Taliban
7. Nicholas Haysom, chief of United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)
8. President Ashraf Ghani
9. Taliban leader Mullah Omar

10. Mullah Akthar Mansoor

11. Mullah Rasool Akhund
12. Former Afghan Interior Minister Umar Daudzai
13. Karim Sadjadpour
14. Hizb-e-Islami leader Gulbadin Hikmatyar
15. Al-Qaeda
16. Maulana Fazlur Rahman
17. Pakistan armed forces
18. Pashtun nationalists such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan
19. Ahmad Shah Durrani
20. USSR
21. Ayub Khan
22. Yahya Khan
23. Ishak Khan
24. Afghan President- Daud Khan
25. Foreign Mujahideen
26. Yusaf Raza Gillani
27. Jan Muhammad Khan
28. Gulam Ehmad Hamidi
29. Pakistani Commerce Minister-Makhdoom Amin Fahim
30. Hillary Clinton
31. Ashraf Ghani

Secondary Stakeholders

1. Afghanistan government
2. Pakistan government
3. NATO countries
4. Pakistani citizens
5. Afghanistans citizens

Stakeholders Impact on Pak-Afghan Relations

Stakeholders have either a direct or indirect impact on Pak-Afghan relations. Pakistan relations with the
Muslim state Afghanistan were in a pathetic condition. Pakistans remedy advertising closer fellowship and
also co-operation involving Muslim international locations specially as well as Afghanistan would not figure
out while organized within just their exact detect and also mother nature.

Pakistan has been successful within cherishing really friendly relationships along with each and every
Muslim nation baring Afghanistan. Using the single exclusion from the 4 many years associated with
Taliban guideline (1997-2001), effective government authorities within Kabul possess shown different
examples of antagonism in the direction of Islamabad.

Durand Line Issue

Durand Outlines can be expressed as a substantial issue through Asian music heritage that kept onto
hounding often the Pak-Afghan organizations going back fifty nine twenty-four and perhaps. Is in reality the
de jure border outlines associated with Pakistan & Afghanistan.

Most of the financial transaction ended up being generally in the long run reaffirmed subsequently by
Afghan rulers during totally different authorized documents let alone treaties. Amir Abul Rehmans have got
autobiography locations in which boundary traces has been fundamentally set up as a result of Chitral not
forgetting Baroghil Shun toward Peshawar, not forgetting thence around Koh-i- Malik Siyah.

Pakhtoonistan Issue

Afghanistan really don't undertaken Pakistan by just would mean of all of the any place's territorial looks
considering that it all believed Pakhtoon industrial sectors for NWFP in addition to Balochistan like an
significant a natural part of are saying related to Afghanistan the fact that powerfully pre-occupied while
Terms South east asia. Most of the most important structure related to Afghanistans beat produced in opt
for was first that Pakhtoons daily life affordable any Durand Tier are really a locale and therefore the
Durand tier arbitrarily spaces the region right into very few.

Afghanistan for no reason know that most of any Durand tier is not any arbitrarily established also the
best natural or simply psychologically established in addition to undertaken nationalized bounds since then
1893. Frights related to Pashtunistan led Pakistan that can assist Jihadist surrogates over the Afghan
reluctance ordinarily during the Soviet vocation over the 1980s in addition to, down the line, in an effort to
cultivate most of the Taliban. Ironically, when any place's laws and regulations meant for Kabul most of the
Taliban turned down to guarantee everyone help support most of the Durand Tier facing worry right from
Islamabad. Afghan Chief executive Hamid Karzai has additionally resisted, mobile the solution "a one of a
kind line of despise which always exalted the best option throughout very few mates.

Interference into each others internal affairs

Sardar Daud years while Defence minister along with Leading Minister, via 1947 to 1963 can be
duplicated using amount of rate involving Afghanistans effort throughout interior hindrance throughout
Pakistan. King Karim offered the 1st network insurgency versus Pakistan in 1948 which consists of starting
throughout Afghanistan. ninety King Karim Khan ended up being after apprehended by simply Pakistans
stability allows along with ended up being sentenced for you to the penitentiary. Effort involving Indo-
Afghan and in many cases Russians side ended up being evident guiding Balochi revolts involving 1958,
nineteen sixties along with 1970s.

Foreign hand and particularly Indian Factors

Indias plus Russias aid for any North Connections arose out of it has the aspire to build a strong anti-
Taliban, anti-Pakistan administration around Afghanistan. Talibans profits ended in The ussr furnishing
fists when China started off airlifting non-military supplies to your North Connections troopers as a result
of Iran. Around quick 2001, the nation as well become a member of a triad with China, The ussr plus Iran
when its 4 .significant other around helping out North Connections for their offer to swap Taliban strategy

Afghanistan in addition has did not gratify Pakistan about the countertop claims that numerous Native
indian consulates inside Afghanistan look like partaking inside undesired routines in opposition to Pakistan.

Issues in Pak-Afghan relations

There are many moral issues that are totally against with the universal principles i.e. Utilitarianism,
Universalism, Rights and Duties, Justice and Fairness and Virtue/Character. Some of the moral issues of
Pak-Afghanistan relations are as follows:

1. Support of terrorism by Afghan and Pak-Afghan border closed for indefinite period

Indian, Afghan agencies support terrorism in Pakistan. Intelligence Bureau (IB) director general Aftab
Sultan, in Senate standing committee had claim that large number of terrorist arrested during the last 3 years
had connections with and were working for the Indian and Afghan intelligence agencies.

Out of 865 terrorists arrested during the last 3 years, a significant number had connections with Indias
RAW and Afghan NDS, he also said that China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is endangered by
anti state elements. India is financing Afghan militants to sabotage peace in Pakistan.

The United States needs to re-evaluate its policy of using drones as a major tool to fight militants in
Pakistans tribal region, as it has fuelled rather than suppressed insurgency. The political cost of the drone
strikes far exceeds the tactical gains. There are also legal and ethical questions involved in the killing of
people just on suspicion of being terrorists.

Pakistan has closed Pak- Afghan border with immediate effects till further orders over security reasons
after recent wave of terror in which more than 100 people were martyred. After the suicide attack on the
shrine of Sufi Saint Hazrat Lalshahbaz Qalandar in sehwan Shareef , Sindh. Afghanistan based Pakistani
Taliban faction Jamaatul Ahrar has claimed responsibility major attacks in Pakistan.

Moral issue

Supporting terrorism is surely not acceptable by Pakistan. A bomb goes off in a market place, suicide
bombing taking place and a lot of destruction and lose of lives, moreover the defame of both countries.
Terrorism is the root cause of all those destruction and notoriety of both of the countries Pakistan and

Prior to March, on February 8, JuA kicked off operation Ghazi, which was named after the deceased
leader of Islamabad famous Red mosque Mulana Abdur Rasheed Ghazi, who was killed in Pakistan Army
operation in 2007. Pakistan concerns over the incident was urged the Afghan government to investigate this
incident and take strong action against the terrorists operating from its own soil but after double suicide
bombing s in Punjab and Sindh, tension between neighboring countries have mounted. After deep
investigation Anwar-ul-Haqdis close in his confessional video that suicide bomber was an Afghan national
and resident of Kunar province. And then in Feburary 16, Sufi shrine of Lalshabaz Qalandar at Sehwan,
Sindh, by Afghan militant lead to the decision of closing the Pak- Afghan borders.

The attack in the Army Public school in 2014 at Peshawar, was orchestrated by Khalifa Mansoor of the
Pakistani Taliban, who was monitoring and dealing the situation sitting in the Afghanistan. Telephone calls,
communicating with the suicide attackers inside the school, were intercepted.

After ISIS, there is another khorasan branch of Islamic state ISKP (region comprises Pakistan,
Afghanistan and Iran), that was formed in Afghanistan in 2015 headed by the commander of TTP. ISKP are
using local militants to achieve their targets. They just like TTP and JuA has found a haven in Afghanistans
Nangarhar province.

On March 7 and 8, Islamabad reopened the borders at Torkham and Chaman crossings only for 2 days,
for making it easy for the national of both countries who have valid visas to return home, but no trade or
American and NATO forces cargo was allowed to pass.

Moral Judgment

Integrity and credibility both are important. Opportunity comes from the credibility, and by loosing
opportunity one can lose the economic gain. Afghanistan is unaware of the fact that they are being deceived
by the India and the Afghanistan puppets. Afghanistan is joining hand with India and trying to defame
Pakistan. The values, beliefs and interest of many people are at risk in this issue of endorsing the militants.
Afghanistan at one side says that militants are their enemy and on the other hand, some of their sold Afghani
leaders or Afghan puppets foster the terrorists.

Being honest you are the custodian of someones right. Afghanistan should not have to pursue
dishonesty by fostering militants at the back of Pakistan and by joining hands with Pakistan enemy India.
Afghanistan, some of their natives are against Pakistan because they consider Pakistan as the cause of
destruction of their land. According to some of the citizen of Afghanistan, they never desired for the
religious state and they claim that Pakistan in cold war bring people from their own land and cause the
destruction. Some of the groups in Afghanistan are against Pakistan and they are trying to buy the Afghan
authorities and use power against Pakistan.

Pakistan and Afghanistan can get rid of the terrorism and its name can appear in the peaceful regions of
the world. In any alliance, as long as countries have common interests, they coordinate their work. But when
their interests diverge, nations should have to give priority to serve their own national interests, and can no
longer use their instruments of power in support of eachother. Sometimes the alliance dissolved without
making aware to the nations. Since 2004 Pakistan has carried out several military operations in the
territories and most of them ended in failure. The tribesmen considered the military action to be an attack on
their autonomy and an attempt to subjugate them.

The military offensive against al Qaeda militants turned into an undeclared war between the Pakistani
military and the rebel tribesmen. A major challenge for Pakistani government and the military is to enforce
their control over the lawless territories. But military action alone does not offer a long-term solution to the
complex problem. Pakistan needs to take urgent measure to end the alienation and backwardness of the
tribal region as well. The ongoing military operation provides an opportunity to push for the long delayed
integration of the region with rest of the country ending its ambiguous semi- autonomous status.

2. Pakistan Afghanistan Border Issue and Durand Line issue

Pakistan has been engaged upon stronger border management including the recent proposal for the
construction of a gate at the Torkham crossing. However, all the border related initiatives has been strongly
opposed by Afghan government. In June 2016, Pakistan had proclaimed plans for implementing new border
rules including the construction of a gate at Torkham for cross-border movement facilitation, to check and
verify all those crossing the border and stop militants from crossing into Pakistan. Pakistans foreign
office stated that Pakistan initiatives at Torkham had raised the issue between Pakistan and Afghan as this
initiative intimate the Afghan authorities, the Afghans resorted to unprovoked firing which resulted in the
death of Major Jawad Ali Changezi well as an Afghan soldier.

Pakistans army chief, Gen. QamarJavedBajwa, announced last Saturday that work has begun, with the
first priority on border areas in Bajaur and Mohmand agencies because they are considered high threat

Ignoring the Durand Line, Afghanistan government tries to create ambiguity and fuss regarding the
issue, as various governments of Afghanistan remained desirous to get access to the Arabian Sea through
Pakistans province of Baluchistan, where they are supporting insurgency. Pakistan considers Durand Line
as the recognized border, whereas for Afghanistan Durand line doesnt matter. This Line divides Pashtun
people between Afghanistan and Pakistan, splitting tribes, clans and families. It is also the reason for the
difficulties faced by the West in its current struggle against terror. India is following Americas double game
and trying to ingress in Afghanistan. Therefore, they both have joined hands to exploit and defame Pakistan.
However, it is suggested that Islamabad should take a firm stand and deny it to be a dispute, because the
Durand Line has already been endorsed by various Afghan governments in the past.

A line of hatred which raised a wall against two brothers

Moral Issue

Developing appropriate and define border between Pakistan and Afghanistan can act in the best interest
of and for the benefit of its security, authorities and can also reduce suicide bombing and movement of
militants across the borders. On the other hand this will affect lots of people on both side of Durand Line,
Syed Ishaq Gillani, the head of the National Solidarity Movement of Afghanistan and a member of the
Afghan Parliament, told VOAs Urdu service. It will create division among families. Pakistan should have
not done this in haste. Both Pakistan and Afghanistan should have resolved this issue through dialogue.

1. Line divides Pashtun families, clans and tribes living on both sides of line.
2. As part of the dual strategy of America, India, Israel and the Afghan puppet rulers are exploiting the
Durand Line issue so as to obtain aims to defame Pakistan, Iran and Russia including Afghanistan.
3. By creating instability both in Pakistan and Afghanistan through terrorism, NATO are jeopardizing
their political and economic interests in the region, which are part of their global interests, while they
have already been facing defeatism in Afghanistan Coupled with heavy cost of war, all these
problems are the result of the NATOs prolonged war in Afghanistan and Americas fake global war
on terror which continue unabated.
4. Similarly, New Cold War of the US-led NATO powers with Russia is proving fruitless, which has
been bringing multiple internal and external crises by badly affecting the foreign policies and
ordinary citizens of these anti-Russian powers, including those of the other Western countries.
5. Neither the Afghan government nor the people living on both sides of the imaginary Durand Line
can allow Pakistans unilateral actions, said Javed Ahmed Wafa, a spokesman for Afghanistans
ministry for tribal affairs and border regions.

6. Last June, at least four people were killed when Pakistan and Afghanistan exchanged artillery fire
over Pakistan building a formal border control mechanism at Torkham, the main border crossing
between the two countries.
7. It will also affect tribesmen (on both sides). The Durand Line passes through villages, where
families live straddling the border.
8. If we invest in security, its a long-term investment. It will have better impact on
business,Haswani said. But this fencing should not have an impact on people-to-people contacts
and bilateral businesses. Amin Akbar Haswani.

Moral Judgement

Islamabad demands Kabul to stop militants from using its soil against Pakistan. Pakistan has once again
demanded Afghanistan to cooperate with Pakistan for a secure and safe border management.

These voicing against Durand line or in favour of Pakhtun ethnicity needs to be aware of the realities.

1. There are more Pashtuns living on Pakistani side of the Durand Line than in Afghanistan.
2. The referendum of 1947 and the decision of tribal Jirga of FATA are the strongest and undeniable
facts to judge the affinity of Pashtuns.
3. Todays Pakhtuns from KPK, Baluchistan and FATA have a appreciate able participation in all
national and federal institutions including Armed Forces, sports, education, politics and all other
walks of life and stand with Pakistan. They have rendered huge sacrifices in war against terror and
entire nation respects their sacrifices.
4. Muhammed Ali: Many people cross the border from there (Afghanistan), spread terror and go back.
Many of our Pak Army men and innocent people are killed in these incidents. This is unacceptable.
5. I think, on the Pak Afghan border, security measures need to be taken said Khalid Mahmood.
Because from there, the wrong kind of people terrorists come into our country. I think its a
very good thing. It should already be in place. I think we are already late. No country allows anyone
to enter in his or her country without a visa.
6. In an interview on Tuesday night, Foreign Spokesperson Nafees Zakaria said that terrorists are the
common enemy and both the countries should adopt joint strategy to eliminate them.
7. It is also important that Kabul must not reopen the issue of the Durand Line and to respect it as
international boundary. This border needs to be better controlled, so as to not allow any side to be
used as sanctuaries for each others insurgents. The settlement of the border issue could remove a
major source of conflict between Afghanistan and Pakistan and help build the trust that is essential
for Afghan peace process and regional stability.

8. Afghanistan must not get entangled in Pakistans Baluch insurgency and allow its territory to be used
for cross border activities. The alleged cooperation between Afghan and Indian intelligence in
support of Baluch separatists has contributed in fueling mistrust between Kabul and Islamabad.
9. The Durand line may not be a hot issue at the moment, but it continues to flare up whenever Pakistan
suggests fencing or mining it to stop cross border insurgent movement. The opposition comes not
only from the Afghan government, but also from tribesmen on the Pakistani side.

He said that some elements in Afghanistan are playing in the hand of peace-enemies and Pakistan has
presented proof regarding such elements to Afghan government He said that Pakistan is playing its due role
for a secure border and Afghanistan is responsible to take concrete measure for this purpose on 2600
kilometers long borders between the two countries. NafeesZakaria said that the purpose of border fencing is
to provision of protection to the armed forces and the general public. He said that Afghan government
should not allow any terrorist to use it soil against Pakistan.

3. Afghanistan and Indias growing relationships

Historically, India has shared close cultural and political ties with Afghanistan and maintained cordial
relations with successive governments in Kabul until the emergence of Taliban rule in 1996. Like most
countries, India never recognized the Islamic emirates and had actively backed anti-Taliban resistance, and
the Northern Alliance comprising Tajik, Uzbeks and other non-Pashtun ethnic groups.

Salma Dam

Salma Dam also known as Afghan-India friendship dam, is a hydroelectric and irrigation dam project
located in Chisti Sharif District of Heart province.

Chahabar Port

It is located on the Arabian Seas Makran coast in Sistan and Baluchistan Province. It has been termed as
the Golden Gate to the land locked countries.

Ghani hailed the dams the bilateral ties with India. Afghanistan has cultivated closer ties with India in
recent years as balance to neighboring Pakistan, which has been accused of supporting the Taliban
insurgency. India has poured more than $1 billion into Afghanistan reconstruction and humanitarian aid,
make it one of the largest donor to the war torn country. A new national assembly building in Kabul and
major Power line and road construction have been among the main projects funded by India.

Indias goals in Afghanistan are to deny Pakistan strategic depth and the ability to block India from trade
and other connections to central Asia and beyond. US congressional report.

Afghanistan seeks close ties with India because it wants access to India large and rapidly growing
economy without alarming Pakistan. In 2011, Afghanistan and India announced a strategic partnership
agreement that demonstrated Indias support for US efforts to better integrate Afghanistan into regional
political, economic and security structures and in October 5, Hamid Karzai signed the pact in New Delhi,
giving India a right of formal role in Afghan security. Under this agreement India will train 600 Afghan
military personnel every year. In 2014 Hamid Karzai visited India twice to buy Indian artillery, aircraft to
better defend its border with Pakistan.

Moral Issue

1. Despite warming ties with Pakistan, which have been proving Afghanistan shelter food and security.
Afghanistan is committing to its close relationship with India.
2. India has stayed away from engaging militarily in the 13 year long war, but now has invested over $2
billion in infrastructure projects and the social sector in the country.
3. India has been trying to gain hold strategically on Afghanistan since US led forces ousted the Taliban in
2001, mainly to access trade and gas routes from Iran and grab a share of its post war development.
4. Afghanistans strategic partnership agreement with India in October 2011, involving New Delhi in the
training of Afghan security forces, has reinforced Pakistans apprehension. It is the first time Kabul has
signed such a pact with another country.
5. Indian companies are now involved in building highways and other important infrastructure projects
along the border, and have implemented some 50 development projects, including a highway to Iran and
transmission line to Uzbekistan. There are currently 4000 to 5000 Indian workers and security personnel
working on scores of high profile development projects across Afghanistan. For India, Afghanistan is
also a potential route to access Central Asian markets and to meet its increasing energy demand.

Moral Judgment

Pakistan needs to move away from the Pakistani Big Brother rhetoric in Pakistan-Afghanistan
relationship, to speak as equals, if we want Afghans to take the Pakistani Governments formal requests of
the regional intelligence cooperation seriously. In turn Afghanistan should also have to realize the
importance of its relationship with the Pakistan, a neighbor that has been there to support in the Past, rather
than demonstrate an obvious shift towards India.

1. The US and other Western powers should also play their role in conflict resolution. Improvement in
Pakistan-India relations would have the most positive influence on the Afghan peace efforts.
2. The Afghan Transit Trade Agreement allows Afghanistan to import goods free of duty through the
Pakistani port of Karachi, which is key to Afghanistans economy. Pakistan is also the largest
exporter to Afghanistan.
3. For India, Afghanistan is also a potential route to access Central Asian markets and to meet its
increasing energy demand
4. Measures are also needed to prevent Afghanistan becoming the center of a new proxy war between
India and Pakistan

5. Indias interest in Afghanistan is not just to help rebuild the war torn country, but also to counter
Pakistans ambition to gain influence there.
6. The Pakistani military establishment views the expanding Indian presence in its backyard as a
serious threat to their countrys own security.

4. Refugees issue

After the invasion of Soviets, Afghan refugee started to pur into Pakistan. A large part of the registered
Afghani refugees have lived in KPK. And Baluchistan province and the rest are scattered all across the
country. In 2002, Pakistan signed an agreement with the UNCHR and Afghanistan for voluntarily
repatriation of Afghan refugees. Undoubtedly, the Afghan refugees presence has changed the Pakistan
political, economic, social and security situation to a great extent. Around three million Afghan refugees
(registered and unregistered) seem to be a liability both for Pakistan and Afghanistan. A humanitarian
problem is being associated with other issues like border management and terrorism etc.

Moral Issue
1 Islamabad is now abandoning the spirit of Muslim brotherhood and asking refugees that enough is
enough. Afghans are blamed for the countrys law and order situation, terrorism and
unemployment. Kabul is not willing to accept its own people Afghans have encroached upon one
million jobs.
2 Stakeholders are not on the same page and unilateral action against refugees will have serious
implications for the country, said the source, who is dealing with the refugees for the last two

3 Like other countries Pakistan can integrate Afghans too. Almost 70 per cent of the refugee
population is between the age of 15 and 25. They are born and brought up in Pakistan and do
businesses here so why not give them citizenship, said one senior functionary.

Moral Judgment

Although Pakistan has been notorious because of fueling the militants but Pakistan has also Performed a
deeply decent act on the world stage by providing shelter to the refugees of war torn city Afghanistan
because of the same religion, same ethnicity and brotherhood but Afghanistan doesnt seems to be thankful
or grateful of Pakistan instead they are fueling the militants and not taking strong action against them.
People who were given with shelters and came as refugees to Pakistan are now became the natives of

They now consider and see Pakistan as their homeland and thousands of them are enjoying the lifestyle,
culture etc of Pakistan. Most of them are going to schools, jobs and are friends with Pakistani people. They
dont want to leave the country as for them Pakistan is their homeland. So according to me, I dont think so
one should have to act as a stereotype and should not have to send all the refugees back to Afghanistan
instead the black sheep among them should be take into account and should be taken to strong Punishment
and by sending refugees back to Afghanistan will weak the Pakistan and Afghanistan relationship. Moreover
India is opening its gates for Afghanistan refugees and trying to foster its Relation with Afghanistan and
trying to defame Pakistan.

5. Water sharing problem

Over the water resources of Afghanistan, both the Iran and Pakistan had historical claims. In 2006, a
joint Treaty on the Kabul River basin was raised by the World Bank but failed to an optimal outcome.
Ministry of Water and Power of Pakistan asked for the intervention of the US and World Bank in achieving
a water treaty with Kabul to avoid dispute on water sharing issues but once again the Negotiation failed.
Afghanistan water resources are not fully consumed by its people or even others in fact they are underused.

As Pakistan is depending for land irrigation and development on water flowing out of Afghanistan. As
Afghanistan is working on its new project of dam, it is clear that there will be decrease in water availability
in future and it may threatened the communities of Pakistan.

Moral Issues
1. Deep- water port in Iranian city of Chabahar would give land locked Afghanistan a route to the sea
other than through Pakistan. Although its a plus point serves the interest of its nation but the interest
of Pakistan is at risk in this decision.

2. Pakistan and Iran both are dependent on water flowing out of Afghanistan to irrigate their territories
and surely they do not want Afghanistan hydro projects to be the cause of lack of their irrigation.
3. Afghanistan is building dams on Kunar and Kabul rivers, which are the branch of Indus and are the
source of income for the people living in less developed areas in KPK. the construction of 12
hydropower projects was concluded with the help of Indian experts. When operational, these dams
will be squeezing the flow in the river reaching Pakistan. River Chitral which originates from
Pakistan then enters Afghanistan in Kabul river and then re enter in Pakistan .
4. In absence of a formal water-sharing agreement, Afghanistan can tighten its control over the flow of
these rivers.

Moral Judgment

These issues can easily be solved if actors commit themselves to regional corporation and collective
action. These issues can raise socioeconomic, environmental and hydro logic challenges that will threaten
Pakistan. I think that these issues should have to be resolved in the interest of the nation but this will risk the
interest of the neighbor countries now Afghanistan should have to make the neighboring countries sure that
this will not harm the irrigation and not be the obstacle in the development of Pakistan and Iran. Otherwise it
will create distrust and it will stake the credibility and honesty of Afghanistan in its relation with Pakistan.

A water-sharing treaty between Pakistan and Afghanistan would be an important development in the
relationship between the two countries, particularly to maintain regional stability and minimize socio-
political tension. While bilateral arrangements are not without their challenges, in an increasingly water-
stressed world, both states have much to lose if they cannot co-operate to create a fair and formalized
riparian agreement

A comic illustrating one popular perspective of Pakistan-Afghan relationships.


Islamic Perspective
Islam, state and politics are separate but interactive

1. OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference)

Organization of Islamic Conference is intergovernmental organization grouping 56 states. Pakistan and

Afghanistan are the part of OIC. The organization aims is to build

1. Unity.
2. Cooperation.
3. Brotherhood.

between its member states and works to improve econom ic, cultural, scientific and other cooperation among

them. In case of wars and armed conflicts that one of OIC members is involved in, OIC will cooperate with

UN and provide consultation to it. OIC was established in Rabat, Morocco for the wake of criminal arson

implemented by Zionist against Al-Aqsa Mosque situated in occupied Jerusalem. Pakistan and Afghanistan

was the founding member of OIC in 1969.


During the Arab Israel war AFGHANISTAN support the Arabs and OIC provided aids to

Afghanistan during Cold war. Afghanistan was the active member of OIC and the relationship between

Afghanistan and Pakistan were good. After the withdrawal of Soviet forces, Pakistan along with OIC tried

its best to resolve the civil war but failed in its efforts and after the collapse of Taliban regime US attacks on

Afghanistan and did not declare its stance .Moreover, during Cold war Some Islamic countries were on the

side of capitalist block, some others were on communist block and several others had formed non- alignment

movement. Thus they were unable to act unified.

2. Islamic Economic System

Following are the salient features of Islamic Economics System

1. Islam provides complete guidance in the domain of Shariah, So, Economic syatem is regulated by


2. It includes concept of Halal and Haram. No money should be spent on prohibited things.

3. Honest earning is encouraged

4. Islam provides ethical code for the Businessmen.

5. Riba (usuary) has been banned.

6. No hoarding on coener marketing.

7. Islam ordains free circulation of wealth.

8. System encourages spending in the way of Allah.


9. Islam prohibits Israf and tabdhir i-e expending on items which are banned and prohibited.

10. Islam provides economic and social justice. The basic function of an Islamic State is to eradicate

poverty and to establish a welfare state.

11. Private ownership is allowed unlike the communist system

12. System of Zakat, Sadaqat and distribution of property by law of inheritance

3. Ethical System

1. Relativism.

2. Utilitarianism.

3. Universalism.

4. Rights.

5. Distributive Justice.

6. Eternal Law.

7. Islamic Ethical System.

4. Axioms of Islamic Ethical Philosophy


It is related to the cocept of Oneness of Allah. Segregation is not acceptable in Islam. Pakistan and

Afghanistan should have to overcome the misconception and have to be unified.


It is related to the concept of Adl: To produce best social order. Pakistan and Afghanistan should have

to maintain equlibrium in order to promote peace.

Free will

It means to a certain degree, man has been granted the free will to steer his/her own life as Gods

vicegerent on earth: Our political obligation that is treaty between Pakistan and Afghanistan.


Free will is constraint by the concept of responsibility that is implimented on each and every Muslim on

Earth. Muslims should not have to limited to their boundry but have to fulfill the responsibility of every

Muslim on Earth.


Benevolence is same as care and Ihsan, as Pakistan did to Afghanistans refugees in their dark period.

5. Mujahideen Support

There were about about 15 million people in Afghanistan before the soviets arrived and after the

invasion there were around 8 million people with 2 million dead and 5 million refugees in Pakistan and Iran.

6. Afghan Character

Physical Courage is centered to Afghan character. Afghans have the ability to bear the pain stoically

and silently without fuss. It was deemed unmanly for an afghan to cry or scream, if gravely injured.

Mujahideen wounded in the war, they faced the most laborious and daunting journeys, as they were

really following their purpose of making an independent nation. In the search of medical treatment they

were strapped on the back of the horses, for days, sometimes weeks on end, over the mountains to

Pakistan. Mujahideen were the most ardent and brave soldiers. Mujahideen knew fear but not the fear of

death. For them living by depending on someone else was infinitely more frightening than death on the


7. Religious beliefs

Their ardent and fervent religious belief and courage combine in the cause for which they fought,

made the Mujahideen formidable warriors to defeat. For them they were fighting JIHAD against Kafirs,

as they were called. They were the devout muslims and were following the teachings of Islam. Once

Muslim leaders declared the JEHAD, it was taken as the responsibility by every men to protect their

belief, their faith, their honour, their independence and guard their families and land. To get enrolled in

JEHAD ,age was of no importance. Boys of thirteen fourteen and men in their sixties seventies fought

side by side. JEHAD was the major unifying factor that held together the different tribes. The Holy

Quran states that

A man killed in Jehad is Shaheed

And it is an honour for Muslim to fight in JEHAD. Commanders of mujahids they never stated that

they had had killed so many in the operations but God be praised we have five shaheeds , Mujahideen

desire to die as a shaheed stems from the promise by Allah that;

Shaheed go immediately to paradise.

Reward is also promised with those who fight and live, such person is called a GHAAZI. and Allah

promises with a great reward to those who are the ghazis. According to Muhammad (SAWW)

A mujahid who spends one night on guard duty, has performed equally with the

ordinary man who prays for thousand nights.

Reward is also promised with those who fight and live, such person is called a GHAAZI. and Allah

promises with a great reward to those who are the ghazis. According to Muhammad (SAWW)

A mujahid who spends one night on guard duty, has performed equally with the

ordinary man who prays for thousand nights.

8. The Battle cry of Mujahideen

The battle cry of Mujahideen is ALLAH O AKBAR. After, they rush forward and fire their

weapons. Aspects of Afghan code: vengeance and hospitality

BADAL a pushto word for vengeance. Throughout their history revenge has been a part of Afghan

life. For them a killing must be avenged by killing and it goes on from generation to generation. And

hospitality is one of the best quality they possess. Even a bitter enemy seek or ask for the hospitality, he

cannot be refused. Afghan, they provide the safety to their guest and would even fight (if needed) to protect

them. They will give their guest with the choicest food and will deal him as the closest member of their


9. The valued Possessions of an Afghan Man

During the Cold War: For an Afghan man the rifle is the part of his body, A weapon to a man is like a

jewellery to a western woman. For Afghan man rifle is a symbol of manhood. In their life, rifle is mightier

than a pen. Their children give great practical value to shoot straight, than to be able to write. Next most

valued thing for them is blanket. They use that blanket for different practices , for shielding themselves from

cold and use that blanket as prayer mat.

10. Brotherhood

They largely share a common religious sect, Sunni or Hanafi Islam. These tribes have been living

together for centuries and even todays Pak-Afghan border has only symbolic significance for them and tens

of thousands travel across it on a near daily basis. According to Pakistans ambassador to Afghanistan

Muhammad Sadiq, some 52,000 Afghans crossed the border into Pakistan everyday in 2009 for business,

jobs, medical treatment, education or in order to visit their relatives. More visitors are now undertaking

documented travel between the two countries by obtaining visas or visit permits.

There is also considerable goodwill towards Pakistan among the Afghan people for helping them in their

hour of need cause there are some requirements on which Muslims have to work.

Without doubt the believers are brothers of one another so then make peace and

harmony between your brothers and have consciousness of Allah so that maybe He will

show you mercy.


In Islam there is a admirable success in creating strong and durable bonds of love and brotherhood

between human beings. Islam is the religion of love and affection. The entire world is a brotherhood of

Allahs people. Love and be loved is the wisdom which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) preached and practiced.

Islam establishes human brotherhood on the basis of faith

O, mankind! Surely we have created you of a male and female and make you tribes and

families that you know each other, surely the noblest among you unto Allah is one who

fears him .Lo! Allah is Knower Aware Al-Hujurat [49.13]

This verse of the Glorious Quran indicates that the whole human race originated from a single pair .

Islam teaches that all mankind is but one family, as such all man and women are brothers and sisters. This

verse also clarifies that the criteria for judgement in the sight of Allah does not depend on caste, colour,

creed, gender or wealth, but on Taqwa_God consciousness, piety and righteousness. Any one who is

righteous, pious and God-conscious, is honoured in the sight of Allah.

Moreover, it is sufficient evil for a Muslim that he looks down upon his brother. Prophets teachings in the

regard is as follows:

It is sufficient evil for a Muslims that he looks down upon his brother.

[Al Tirmizi, Muhammad Bin Eesa Al Jamae Ul Sahih Kitabul Bir o Silah Ann Rasullallah(S.A.W), Bab

Ma Jaa fee Shafqatul Muslim Ala Muslim 1927 Vol .4, Pg 325 ]

This brotherhood was established in Madina between the emigrants from Makkah (Muhajirin) and

the helpers of Madina (Ansars).The Muhajirin (emigrants) had come to Madina empty handed and had left

all their possessions and property in Makkah. They had no source of income and were living a life of

extreme poverty and hunger. The Prophet therefore instituted a pact of brotherhood between the Muhajirin

and the Ansar (helpers) according to which they become brothers in Faith. He appealed to them,

Let each of you take a brother in God.[Afzalur Rehman Encyclopaedia of Seerah

Vol. 1, Pg 643]

The relationship between Muhajerin and Ansars still Amazed the Orientalists.This brotherhood was

indeed unique in the history of the world. As Muhammad Ali states:

Each of the Refugee was bound to one of the Helpers in a bond of brotherhood. Fellow-felling and

love on which this new brotherhood was founded, found wonderful expression. Each one of the Helpers took

a brother Refugee home with him, placed half his house at his disposal and equally divided all his goods and

chattels with him[4. Muhammad Ali, Maulana Muhammad The Prophet Pg 204, 205]

For example Sad bin Rabi, a Helper said to his fellow brother Abd al-Rehman

I am the richest man amongst the Helpers. This is my property, I am glad to share my
property half and half with you. I have two wives select the one you like, I shall divorce
her and after the expiry of Iddah, you may marry her.

11. Conclusion- For Islamic Perspective in terms of Pakistan Afghanistan Relations

But in the present era, the spirit of brotherhood is found absent among Muslims.Today, the Muslims

are not united. There was a time when we ruled the world, but now we are being ruled. It was the feeling of

togetherness that made Islam extends its boundaries to the gates of Vienna in the West. But now, we have

forgotten the golden principle, the principle of brotherhood, and consequently have fallen into slavery and


Pakistan Afghanistan relations are at stake even though both are muslim states and need to be taken

into account but they are ignoring the Islamic teachings of Brotherhood and becoming the victim of kafirs.

As we learned some quranic verses and Hadith in which importance was given to the Muhajirens or

Refugees and brotherhood and firm relationship among Mslims but in Present era its totally different

Pakistan Afghnaitan both are fueling their own interests.

Muslims must keep in mind that there are numberless hostile tribes which are ready to attack the

commodity of believers. Thats why Allah warns us against their evil designs and forbade us to take them

as our friends. It is clearly stated in Holy Quran.

Let not the believers take disbelievers for their friends in preference to believers. Who so
do that has no connection with Allah unless (it be) that ye but guard yourselves against
them; taking (as it were) security. Allah biddeth you beware (only) of Himself unto Allah
is the journeying. Al-Imran [3:28]

Especially, after the event of 9/11, there hostility against Muslims has become clearly visible. They

are the strong preachers of Nationalism but for their common interest, they forget their geographical

boundaries and get united. They made a so-called coalition against terrorism which proved to be a coalition

against the Muslims. At first, they attacked at Afghanistan and then the poor people of Iraq had to face

humiliation in their hands.

Innocent Muslims, weak women and children are being tortured, killed and persecuted, globally. As

brothers in Islam, we need to take immediate action, to stop the genocide of Muslims. We should take up

defensive positions against the hostile tribes by supporting each other and it is a thing which fits for people

of faith. In contrary, Afghanistan and Pakistan both facilitates the assault of the enemy and have opened the

gates for them and are facilitating biased partisanship and hostility.

These have reduced our strength to such a degree that we can be defeated by the slightest force. It is

evident that if two champions are fighting with each other, even a child can beat them. If two mountains are

balanced in the scales, even small stone can disturb their equilibrium, causing one to rise and the other to


In short, if we want to regain our lost glory we should forget our self-made differences and be united

as we are being directed by Allah in the Holy Quran:

And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you) and be not

divided among yourselves; and remember Allahs favour on you.



1. Durani, M. U., & Khan, A. (2002). Pakistan-Afghan Relations: Historic Mirror. The Dialogue, 4(1).

2. Hussain, S., & Latif, M. I. (2012). Issues and challenges in Pakistan-Afghanistan relations after

9/11. South Asian Studies, 27(1), 89.

3. Hussain, S., & Latif, M. I. (2012). Issues and challenges in Pakistan-Afghanistan relations after

9/11. South Asian Studies, 27(1), 89.

4. Sultana, R. (2015). Major Threats to Pakistan in the Wake of US Withdrawal from Afghanistan: The

Case of FATA and KP. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 64.

5. Akbar, M. (2015). A Critical Analysis of Talibans Emergence in Afghanistan. Pakistan Journal of

Social Sciences (PJSS), 35(1), 213-224.

6. Vanda Felbab- Brown (2015). Pakistans relationships with Afghanistan and implications for

religious politics.

7. Ahmad Bilal Khalil (2017). Pakistan , Islamism, and the fear of Afghan Nationalism.

8. McNally, L., Amiral, A., Weinbaum, M., & Issa, A. (2016). The Islamic State in Afghanistan:

Examining Its Threat to Stability. Middle East Institute Policy Focus Series, May. Washington,


ghan_web. pdf.

9. Sial, S. (2015). Emerging dynamics in Pakistani-Saudi relations. NOREF Report.

10. Monsutti, A. (2008). Afghan migratory strategies and the three solutions to the refugee problem.

Refugee Survey Quarterly, 27(1), 58-73.

11. Shayeq Qassem, A. (2007). AfghanistanPakistan relations: border controversies as counter-terrorist

impediments. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 61(1), 65-80.

12. Omrani, B. (2009). The Durand line: History and problems of the Afghan-Pakistan border. Asian

Affairs, 40(2), 177-195.

13. Gossman, P. (2001). Afghanistan in the Balance. Middle East Report, 31(4; ISSU 221), 8-15.

14. Fair, C. C., Malhotra, N., & Shapiro, J. N. (2012). Faith or doctrine? Religion and support for

political violence in Pakistan. Public Opinion Quarterly, nfs053.

15. Riaz, A. (2005). Global jihad, sectarianism and the madrassahs in Pakistan.

16. Eades, D. (2005). Applied linguistics and language analysis in asylum seeker cases. Applied

Linguistics, 26(4), 503-526.

17. Sachdeva, G. (2006). Indias attitude towards Chinas growing influence in Central Asia. In China

and Eurasia Forum Quarterly (Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 23-34).