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Contents

ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................... 2
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3
OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................................... 4
THEORY ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
MATERIAL AND APPARATUS ....................................................................................................................... 12
PROCEDURES............................................................................................................................................... 15
RESULT AND CALCULATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 18
DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................................ 25
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 28
RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................................................... 29
REFFERENCE ................................................................................................................................................ 30
APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................................... 31
ABSTRACT

SOLTEQ Flowmeter Measurement Apparatus (Model: FM101) the combination of a few


flowmeter is designed to amount a flow of an incompressible fluid such as water. By doing this
experiment, the flow rates of the water we will measure the flow rates by comparing the
pressure different in three types of flow meter which are orifice, rotameter, and venturi meter.
Meanwhile, the loss coefficient can be determined when fluid flows through a 90 elbow by
measuring flow rate on manometers. The actual flowrates for the water measure by setup fixed
volume divided by time. Then by plotting the graph we can compare the flow rates each meter
and do further discussion. By the end, venturi meter is more accurate compare to orifice meter
which the flow rates of venturi meter is closer to the actual value of the flow rates. On the
whole, our experiment was successfully done because we has achieved the objective of the
experiment.
INTRODUCTION

The apparatus used in this experiment, SOLTEQ flowmeter measurement (Model :


FM101) apparatus is premeditated together with a hydraulic bench and a water supply. This
allow student to gain more knowledge for themselves with classic methods of flow
measurement an example of incompressible fluid.

By operating this equipment student will be allowed to compare between different


types of flow measurement devices, specifically by using a venturi device, orifice device and
rotameter. Later, the data recorded will be used to study against measurement obtained from
the hydraulic bench.

Other feature of the apparatus includes a 90 degree elbow with pressure tappings. This
feature allows students to calculate the total head loss and loss coefficient when fluid flows
through the 90 degrees elbow.

To conclude, the apparatus allows the following experiment to be peform, a comparison of flow
measurement using venturi, orifice, rotameter and bench and determination of total head loss
and loss coefficient of fluid flow through a 90 degree elbow.
OBJECTIVES

For this experiment, the objectives are given below :

1. To observe and compare the flow of the flow measurement between venture, orifice,
rotameter and bench.
2. To determine the total head loss and loss coefficient of fluid flow through a 90 degree
elbow.
3. To determine the total head loss of fluid flow.
4. To verify Bernoullis equation.
THEORY

Venturi Meter

The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and a suitable differential pressure gauge.
The venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in the
figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity of the fluid and
lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and throat is thus developed,
where pressure difference is correlated with the rate of discharge. The diverging cone serves to
change the area of the stream back to the entrance area and convert velocity head into
pressure head.

Figure 1: Venturi Meter

Assume incompressible flow and no frictional losses, from Bernoullis Equation

p1 v1 p v
2 2
Z1 2 2 Z 2 ....(1)
2g 2g

Use of the continuity Equation Q = A1V1 = A2V2, equation (1) becomes

p1 p 2 V
2 A 2
Z1 Z 2 2 1 2 ....(2)
2g A1
1 / 2 1/ 2
A 2 p1 p 2
Ideal Q A2V2 A2 1 2 2g Z1 Z 2 ...(3)
A1

However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less than that given
by equation (2) because of frictional effects and consequent head loss between inlet and
throat. In metering practice, this non-ideality is accounted by insertion of an experimentally
determined coefficient, Cd,termed as the coefficient of discharge. With Z1 = Z2 , equation (3)
becomes

1 2
A 2 p 1 p 2
12

Actual Q Cd A2 1 2 2 g ... (4)


A1

Hence,
1 2
At 2
q Cd At 1 2 g P1 P2 / 1 2 ..... (5)
A

Where,
Cd = Coefficient of discharge (0.98)
D2 = Throat diameter = 16 mm
D1 = Inlet diameter = 26 mm
At = Throat area = 2.011 x 10-4 m2
A = Inlet area = 5.309 x 10-4 m2
g = 9.81 m/s2
= Density of water = 1000 kg/m3
P1 = Inlet pressure (Pa)
P2 = Throat pressure (Pa)

Rotameter

The rotameter is a flow meter in which a rotating free float is the indicating element.
Basically, a rotameter consists of a transparent tapered vertical tube through which fluid flow
upward. Within the tube is placed a freely suspended float of pump-bob shape. When there is
no flow, the float rests on a stop at the bottom end. As flow commences, the float rises until
upward and buoyancy forces on it are balanced by its weight. The float rises only a short
distance if the rate of flow is small, and vice versa. The points of equilibrium can be noted as a
function of flow rate. With a well-calibrated marked glass tube, the level of the float becomes a
direct measure of flow rate.

Scale

Tapered tube

Flow

Figure 1: The Rotameter

Orifice Meter

The orifice for use as a metering device in a pipeline consists of a concentric square-
edged circular hole in a thin plate, which is clamped between the flanges of the pipe as shown
in the figure below.

A2

A1
Figure 3: Orifice Meter

Pressure connections for attaching separate pressure gauges are made at holes in the pipe
walls on both side of the orifice plate. The downstream pressure tap is placed at the minimum
pressure position, which is assumed to be at the vena contracta. The centre of the inlet
pressure tap is located between one-half and two pipe diameters from the upstream side of the
orifice plate, usually a distance of one pipe diameter is employed. Equation (4) for the venturi
meter can also be applied to the orifice meter where

1 2
A 2 12
p1 p2
Actual Q Cd A2 1 2 2 g . (6)
A1

The coefficient of discharge, Cd in the case of the orifice meter will be different from that for
the case of a venturi meter.

1 2
A 2
Q Cd At 1 t 2 g h7 h8 1 2 .(7)
A

Where,
Cd = Coefficient of discharge (0.63)
D7 = Orifice diameter = 16 mm
D8 = Orifice upstream diameter = 26 mm
At = Orifice area = 2.011 x 10-4 m2
A = Orifice upstream area = 5.309 x 10-4 m2
(h7 h8) = Pressure difference across orifice (m)

90o elbow

Figure below shows fluid flowing in a pipeline where there is some pipe fitting such as
bend or valve, and change in pipe diameter. Included in the figure is the variation of
piezometric head along the pipe run, as would be shown by numerous pressure tappings at the
pipe wall.
Figure 2 : Piezometric head along a pipeline

If the upstream and downstream lines of linear friction gradient are extrapolated to the
plane of fitting, a loss of piezometric head, h, due to the fitting is found. By introducing the
velocity heads in the upstream and downstream runs of pipe, total head loss, H can be
determined in which

V1 V2
2 2
H h (8)
2g 2g

Energy losses are proportional to the velocity head of the fluid as it flows around an
elbow, through an enlargement or contraction of the flow section, or through a valve.
Experimental values for energy losses are usually expressed in terms of a dimensionless loss
coefficient K, where

H H
K or 2 ..(9)
V1 / 2g V2 / 2g
2
For results of better accuracy, long sections of straight pipe are required to establish
with certainty the relative positions of the linear sections of the piezometric lines. However, in
a compact apparatus as described in this manual, only two piezometers are used, one placed
upstream and the other downstream of the fitting, at sufficient distances as to avoid severe
disturbances. These piezometers measure the piezometric head loss, h between the tapping.
Thus

h h'h f ..(10)

L V
2
Where h f 4 f
D 2 g

hf = friction head loss which would be incurred in fully developed flow


along the run of pipe between the piezometer tappings
f = friction factor
L = distance between the piezometer, measured along the pipe center line
D = pipe diameter
V = average velocity of fluid flow in pipe

The friction head loss is estimated by choosing a suitable value of friction factor, f for fully
developed flow along a smooth pipe. The method used in this manual to determine the friction
factor is the Prandtl equation

1
f

4 log Re f 0.4 (11)

Typical values derived from this equation are tabulated in the table below:

Re, x 104 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5


f, x 10-3 9.27 7.73 6.96 6.48 6.14 5.88 5.67

In determination of the fraction factor, f, it is sufficient to establish the value of f at just


one typical flow rate, as about the middle of the range of measurement due to the fact that f
varies only slowly with Re, and the friction loss is generally fairly small in relation to the
measured value of h.
Characteristic of flow through elbow and at changes in diameter

90o Elbow

Figure below shows flow round a 90o elbow which has a constant circular cross section.

D V

Figure 3 : 90o Elbow

The value of loss coefficient K is dependent on the ratio of the bend radius, R to the pipe inside
diameter D. As this ratio increase, the value of K will fall and vice versa.

H KV 2 / 2 g ..(12)

Where,
K = Coefficient of losses
V = Velocity of flow
g = 9.81 m/s2
MATERIAL AND APPARATUS

Part Identification

3
7
8
4 9

Figure 4: Part Identification Diagram

1. Manometer Tubes 6. Rotameter

2. Discharge Valve 7. 90 Elbow

3. Water Outlet 8. Orifice

4. Water Supply 9. Venturi

5. Staddle Valve
Sketch of apparatus and devices

Discharge valve
Rotameter

90 elbow
Venturi
Orifice
Meter
Water
Supply

Figure 5: Sketch of apparatus and devices

Specification of dimensions

Venturi meter

A B C D E F
Figure 6: Specification of the Venturi Meter

Tapping A = 26 mm

Tapping B = 21.6 mm

Tapping C = 16 mm

Tapping D = 20 mm

Tapping E = 22 mm

Tapping F = 26 mm

Orifice
G H

Figure 7: Specification of the Orifice Plate

Orifice upstream diameter (G) = 26 mm

Orifice diameter (H) = 16 mm


PROCEDURES

General Start-up Procedures

1. The flow control valve of hydraulic bench is fully closed and the discharge valve
are fully open.
2. The discharge hose is properly directed to volumetric tank of fibreglass before
starting up system. The volumetric drain valve also had been ensure left open to
allow flow discharge back into sump tank.
3. Once step (2) is confirmed start up the pump supply from hydraulic bench. the
bench valve are slowly open. At this point, the observation show the water
flowing from the hydraulic bench through to the flow apparatus and discharge
through into the volumetric tank of hydraulic bench and then drained back into
sump tank of hydraulic bench.
4. The flow control valve then open fully. When the flow in the pipe is steady and
there is no trapped bubble, the bench valve were closed to reduce the flow to the
maximum measurable flow rate.
5. The water level in the manometer board will begin to display different level of
water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is too high where it is
out of visible point, adjust the water level by using the straddle valve. With the
maximum measurable flow rate, retain maximum readings on manometer.
6. The flow discharge valve were slowly reduce to reduce the flow until it fully
closed
7. Water level in the manometer board begin to level into a straight level. This level
maybe at the lower or maybe at the higher end of the manometer board range.
8. Trapped Bubbles in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube been lookout. The
bubble removed from the system for better accuracy.
Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic types of
flowmeter.

Procedures:

1. The apparatus placed on bench, the inlet pipe connected to bench supply and
outlet pipe into volumetric tank.
2. The bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully opened, the pumped
switched on from the hydraulic bench.
3. The bench valve closed when the flow in pipe is steady and there is no trapped
bubble to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
4. The water level in the manometer board adjusted by using the air bleed screw.
Maximum readings retained on manometers with the maximum measurable
flow rate.
5. The readings on manometers (A - J), rotameter and measured flow rate
recorded.
6. Step 5 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be adjusted by
utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
7. To demonstrate similar flow rates at different system static pressures, adjust
bench and flow control valve together. Adjusting manometer levels as require

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow

Procedures:

1. The apparatus placed on the bench, inlet pipe connected to bench supply and
outlet pipe into volumetric tank.
2. The bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully opened, The pump
supply from hydraulic bench switch on.
3. The bench valve were slowly opened until it is fully opened.
4. When the flow in the pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, the bench
valve closed to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.
5. The manometer board adjusted by using the air bleed screw. Retain maximum
readings on manometers with the maximum measurable flow rate.
6. The readings on manometers (I and J) and measured flow rate were recorded.
7. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates adjusted by utilizing
both bench valve and discharge valve.
8. The tables data were complete

V
2

9. The graph H against s for 90 degree elbow to determine the coefficient of


2g
losses were plotted.

General Shut-down Procedures

1. The water supply valve and venturi discharge valve closed.

2. water supply pump was turned off.

3. The water from the unit drained off when not in use.
RESULT AND CALCULATIONS

MANOMETER READING ( mm )
NO. A B C D E F G H I J
1 281 280 277 278 279 280 280 272 275 275
2 284 282 265 277 276 277 277 241 258 255
3 302 298 262 283 289 294 293 205 240 238
4 328 319 256 297 308 315 313 158 220 216
5 360 347 250 313 329 344 342 92 190 183

NO. ROTAMETER VOLUME TIME FLOWRATE,Q FLOWRATE USING


( L/MIN ) (L) ( MIN ) ( L/MIN ) BERNOULLI EQUATION
ORIFICE Venturi
1 4 2 0.58 3.45 3.83 10 -5 5.42 10-5
( m3/s ) ( m3/s )
2 8 2 0.27 7.41 8.35 10-5 1.15 10-4
( m3/s ) ( m3/s )
3 12 2 0.17 11.76 1.21 10-4 1.81 10-4
( m3/s ) ( m3/s )
4 16 2 0.13 15.38 1.62 10 -4 2.40 10-4
( m3/s ) ( m3/s )
5 20 2 0.10 20.00 2.01 10-4 3.04 10-4
( m3/s ) ( m3/s )

NO Time Flow Rate, Qt Rotameter Flow Rate, Qa Timed Flow Rate


( m3/s ) ( m3/s ) Squared,Qt2
1 5.75 10-5 6.67 10-5 3.30 10-9
2 1.23 10-4 1.33 10-4 1.51 10-8
3 1.96 10-4 2.00 10-4 3.84 10-8
4 2.56 10-4 2.67 10-4 6.55 10-8
5 3.33 10-4 3.33 10-4 1.11 10-7

NO Variable Area Head Loss Orifice Plate Head Loss Venturi Meter Head Loss
,Ha ( m ) ,Ho ( m ) ,Hv ( m )
1 -0.001 0.008 0.004
2 0.001 0.036 0.019
3 -0.006 0.089 0.040
4 -0.011 0.157 0.072
5 -0.016 0.252 0.110
Q,flowrate (L/min)
actual orifice venturi rotameter
3.45 2.30 3.25 4.00
7.41 5.01 6.90 7.98
11.78 7.26 10.86 12.00
15.38 9.72 14.40 16.02
20.00 12.10 18.24 19.98

Comparism of flowrates between flowmeter


25
calculated flowmwtre, Q actual

20

15 actual

10 orifice
venturi
5
rotameter

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Q rotameter (L/min)

The graph shows the comparism of the flow rates between the flowmeters, Based on the
experiment from trial no 1 untill 5, the graph that indicates the higher the flow rates of the
rotameter, the higher the flowrates of the venture and orifice. However ,since the coefficient of
discharged for orifice meter is smaller than venture meter, the graph shows that venture
meters shows that its flow rates calculated using Bernoullis equation is nearer to the actual
value of flow rates.

Determination of loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 elbow

NO VOLUME TIME FLOWRATE.Q DIFFERENTIAL V V2/2g


(L) ( sec ) ( L/min ) PIEZOMETER ( mm/s ) ( mm )
HEAD, ( mm )
ELBOW ( hi-hj )
1 10 175.00 3.43 1 5.7143*10-3 1.6642*10-9
2 10 79.70 7.53 3 3.7642*10-2 7.2218*10-8
3 10 52.25 11.48 2 3.8278*10-2 7.4679*10-8
4 10 38.73 15.49 4 1.0328*10-1 5.4367*10-7
5 10 29.13 20.60 7 2.4030*10-1 2.9431*10-6

Graph of delta h against v2/2g


10
Differential Piezometer Head (mm)

9 y = 1.3x - 0.5
8 R = 0.7972
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
v2/2g x 10-6 (mm)

The graph shows that the differential pizometer head is increasing as the v 2/2g increasing.
Therefore, is increasing linearly with the v2/2g. From the graph, we obtained can obtained
the coefficient of losses which is the slope of the graph.

NO Variable Area % Flow Rate Orifice Plate % Flow Rate Venturi Meter % Flow
Error Error Rate Error

1 16.00 -5.74 -33.39


2 8.13 -6.50 -32.11
3 2.04 -7.65 -38.27
4 4.30 -6.25 -36.72
5 0 -9.6 -39.64
AVERAGE 6.09 -7.15 -36.03
CALCULATIONS

Experiment 1

Timed Flow rate, Qt ( m3/s )


=

= (0.002m3/34.8s )

= 5.75 10-5 m3/s

Variable Area Flow Rate, Qa ( m3/s )



( )
=
60 000

4( )

=
60 000

= 6.67 10-5 m3/s

Orifice Plate Flow Rate, Qo ( m3/s )

2( )
= Cd A2( 2 )
1( 2 )
1
2(9.81)(0.008)
= ( 0.63 ) ( 2.01 10-4 ) ( 2 )
2.01 104
1( )
5.31 104

= 5.42 10-5( m3/s )

Venturi Meter Flow rate, Qv ( m3/s )

2( )
= Cd A2( 2 )
1(2 )
1

2(9.81)(0.004)
= ( 0.98 ) ( 2.01 10-4 ) ( 2 )
2.01 104
1( )
5.31 104

= 3.83 10-5( m3/s )

Velocity of the water , v(mm/s)

,()
=
()

V = 1 mm/ 175 s

V = 5.7143 x 10-3mm/s

Sample calculation for v2/2g

= 5.7143 x 10-3mm/s / 2(9810mm/s2)

= 1.6642*10-9 mm
Sample calculation variable Area % Flow Rate Error


=( ) 100

6.67 105 5.75 105


=( ) 100
5.75 105

= 16%

Orifice Plate % Flow Rate Error


=( ) 100

5.42 105 5.75 105


=( ) 100
5.75 105

= -5.74%

Venturi Meter % Flow Rate Error


=( ) 100

3.83 105 5.75 105


=( ) 100
5.75 105

= -33.39%

Variable Area Head Loss ( Ha ) = hD hE

= 0.277m 0.278m

= - 0.001m

Orifice Plate Head Loss ( Ho ) = hF hH


= 0.280m 0.272m

= 0.008m

Venturi Meter Head Loss ( Hv ) = hA hC

= 0.281m 0.277m

= 0.004m

Timed Flow Rate Squared ( Qt2 ) = ( Timed Flow Rate )2

= ( 5.75 105 )2

= .
DISCUSSION

Based on the experiment, we successfully obtained the flow rate measurement by comparing of
pressure drop by using three basic types of flow measuring techniques which is Orificemeter,
Rotameter and Orifice Meter. Flow rates from the rotameter used as the factor to gain to flow
rates for venturi meter and the orifice meter. Besides, we also determined the actual flow rates
for the water using the constant volume and the time taken for the water to reach the specific
volume experiment.

Comparism of flowrates between flowmeter


25
calculated flowmwtre, Q actual

20

15 actual
orifice
10
venturi
5 rotameter

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Q rotameter (L/min)

Referring to the graph, the data from all the flow meter show the same trend which
increase lineary. As the flow rates increases, all reading from the all types of the flow meter
increase. Though use rotameter as the reference, in case the actual value for flow rates that we
got turns from the rotameter flow rates. Besides, the flowrates for venturi meter and orifice
also turn from the actual flow rates. Among the factor could be due to the friction and the no
slip condition as water flows through each of the flowmeters.

Q rotameter > Q actual > Q venturi> Q orifice


The graph shows that when comparing between orifice and venturi, venturi meter is
more accurate since the flow rate obtained from the orifice meter is closer to the actual value
of the flow rate. Due to its streamlined design, its gradual contraction and expansion prevent
flow separation and whirling, and minor friction losses on the inner wall surfaces. The meter
consist on streamlined shape and the system has a steady change in diameter. The flow
streamline does not have drastically change in diameter like orifice and do not obstructed by a
float like rotameter. Thus pressure disturbed are less likely.

While, for orifice, it has the simplest design and it occupies minimal space. The sudden
change in the flow causing the swirl and the velocity increase, the vena contracta decreases.
The smaller the vena contracta gets the greater the pressure difference, thus higher energy and
pressure loss. In overall orifice meter have highest minor loss coefficient, while venture meter
has the lowest.

For rotameter, it should be used if large pressure drop is acceptable, when comparing
between the three flow meter, the energy loss for rotameter are the higher than venturi and
orifice. If large pressure change, the most suitable are venture meter cause it will damage the
pipes. However its large and expensive to produce. To install it in resident pipeline it requirebig
space. Vice versa, orifice meter is very inexpensive for it is just a flat plate and a thin orifice
plate and because of that easy to install.

The discharge coefficient are the minimum required flow calculated based on the design
flow rate and expected pressure drop across the valve, and valve must have a flow coefficient
higher than calculated value. The value of constant are different because discharge coefficient
valve for liquid are smaller than gas due the expansion of the gas.

For 90 elbow, the observation we made from fluid flowing, the element disturb the
smooth flow of the fluid and cause additional loss of pressure(head loss) because of the flow
mixing and separation the element induced. Thus the experiment is carried out to resolute
minor losses which usually represent by discharge coefficient and resistant coefficient.
After successfully doing the investigation for the coefficient discharge, the relationship
can be show based on the graph versus v2/2g .

Graph of delta h against v2/2g


10
Differential Piezometer Head (mm)

9
8
7
6
5
4 y = 1.3x - 0.5
R = 0.7972
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
v2/2g x 10-6 (mm)

The graph above shows the differential of piezometer head increases as the value of
v2/2g increases. Therefore, is increasing linearly with the v2/2g. From the slope of the
graph, we obtained the loss coefficient which was the gradient k = 1.3. As for the result, there
were error in plotting the graph. As we can observe the slope slightly change at v 2/2g = 3. This
shouldnt happen as the graph should be linearly increase.

For better accuracy result, long sections of the pipe are require to establish with
certainty each position of the point of the linear sections of piezometer line. A sufficient
distance to avoid severe disturbance because in this experiment only use 2 piezometer as the
equipment already compact.
CONCLUSION

Theoretically state that flowrate that is quantity of a gas or liquid moving through a pipe
which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol Q. The SI unit is m3/s (cubic
metres per second). In this test, flowrate was measured by using orifice meter, venturi meter
and the rotameter. This measuring technique operation and characteristics are to be
determined by comparing pressure drop that will be calculated that related to the velocity of
the fluid in the pipe using the Bernoulli and Continuity equations.

The data recorded show that orificemeter has higher pressure drop and cannot be
recovered due to flow rates increases at the opening of the orifice plate and the energy lost are
not much. For the rotameter the energy value that loss higher than venture and orifice, due to
large drop in pressure due to friction.

For venturi meter, the value are closer to the actual flow rate due to the lower pressure
drop that came from its shape which are streamlined and do not have boundary- layer
separation and thus form drag is assumed negligible. Although it has a converging and
diverging and diverging part which we know will cause pressure loss at the converging part, but
it properly designed until some percentage of pressure loss is covered back at the diverging
part. This is good when handling high pressure and energy recovery. To conclude venturi meter
was choosen as the more accurate then rotameter and orifice meter.
RECOMMENDATION

For recommendation, as student based on the experiment there are a few ways of
improving way to increase the level of safety among the student. For the safety precaution and
maintenance, It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The
apparatus should be stored properly to prevent damage. Any manometer tube, which does not
fill with water or slow fill, indicates that tapping or connection of the manometer is blocked. To
remove the obstacle, disconnect the flexible connection tube and blow through. The apparatus
should not be exposed to any shock and stresses. Always wear protective clothing, shoes,
helmet and goggles throughout the laboratory session. Always run the experiment after fully
understand the unit and procedures.

Next, to increase the efficiency of the experiment data make sure to remove the air
bubbles to increase the accuracy and avoid reading error. Depress the stadle valve at the top
right side of manometer board. Depress staddle valve ligthtly to allow fluid and trapped air to
escape out. Allow enough time for bleeding to allowing all bubbles escape.

Besides that, when taking readings from the manometer, make sure the eye level
perpendicular to eyes to avoid parallax error. Removing parallax error to get the accurate data
and result. Addition the water level in the manometer board must be monitor which if the level
rise to high until out of visible point, adjust the water level by using the staddle valve. With the
maximum measurable flow rate, retain the maximum reading on manometer .

Lastly, to increase the accuracy, the experiment should be conducted at least three
times to get average. This will reduce the deviation data from the result.
REFFERENCE

Web

1) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html

2) http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/flowmeters.html

3)http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-us/brands/rosemount/flow/dp-flow-
products/compact-orifice-flowmeters/pages/index.aspx

4) http://www.lmnoeng.com/venturi.php

5) http://www.lmnoeng.com/orifice.php

6) https://www.scribd.com/doc/96259752/SOLTEQ-Flowmeter-Measurement-Apparatus
APPENDIX