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solt flowmeter

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7K просмотров

1919 голосов за44 голоса против

solt flowmeter

© All Rights Reserved

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ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................................... 2

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 3

OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................................................... 4

THEORY ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

MATERIAL AND APPARATUS ....................................................................................................................... 12

PROCEDURES............................................................................................................................................... 15

RESULT AND CALCULATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 18

DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................................................ 25

CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 28

RECOMMENDATION ................................................................................................................................... 29

REFFERENCE ................................................................................................................................................ 30

APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................................... 31

ABSTRACT

flowmeter is designed to amount a flow of an incompressible fluid such as water. By doing this

experiment, the flow rates of the water we will measure the flow rates by comparing the

pressure different in three types of flow meter which are orifice, rotameter, and venturi meter.

Meanwhile, the loss coefficient can be determined when fluid flows through a 90 elbow by

measuring flow rate on manometers. The actual flowrates for the water measure by setup fixed

volume divided by time. Then by plotting the graph we can compare the flow rates each meter

and do further discussion. By the end, venturi meter is more accurate compare to orifice meter

which the flow rates of venturi meter is closer to the actual value of the flow rates. On the

whole, our experiment was successfully done because we has achieved the objective of the

experiment.

INTRODUCTION

FM101) apparatus is premeditated together with a hydraulic bench and a water supply. This

allow student to gain more knowledge for themselves with classic methods of flow

measurement an example of incompressible fluid.

types of flow measurement devices, specifically by using a venturi device, orifice device and

rotameter. Later, the data recorded will be used to study against measurement obtained from

the hydraulic bench.

Other feature of the apparatus includes a 90 degree elbow with pressure tappings. This

feature allows students to calculate the total head loss and loss coefficient when fluid flows

through the 90 degrees elbow.

To conclude, the apparatus allows the following experiment to be peform, a comparison of flow

measurement using venturi, orifice, rotameter and bench and determination of total head loss

and loss coefficient of fluid flow through a 90 degree elbow.

OBJECTIVES

1. To observe and compare the flow of the flow measurement between venture, orifice,

rotameter and bench.

2. To determine the total head loss and loss coefficient of fluid flow through a 90 degree

elbow.

3. To determine the total head loss of fluid flow.

4. To verify Bernoullis equation.

THEORY

Venturi Meter

The venturi meter consists of a venturi tube and a suitable differential pressure gauge.

The venturi tube has a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion as shown in the

figure below. The function of the converging portion is to increase the velocity of the fluid and

lower its static pressure. A pressure difference between inlet and throat is thus developed,

where pressure difference is correlated with the rate of discharge. The diverging cone serves to

change the area of the stream back to the entrance area and convert velocity head into

pressure head.

p1 v1 p v

2 2

Z1 2 2 Z 2 ....(1)

2g 2g

p1 p 2 V

2 A 2

Z1 Z 2 2 1 2 ....(2)

2g A1

1 / 2 1/ 2

A 2 p1 p 2

Ideal Q A2V2 A2 1 2 2g Z1 Z 2 ...(3)

A1

However, in the case of real fluid flow, the flow rate will be expected to be less than that given

by equation (2) because of frictional effects and consequent head loss between inlet and

throat. In metering practice, this non-ideality is accounted by insertion of an experimentally

determined coefficient, Cd,termed as the coefficient of discharge. With Z1 = Z2 , equation (3)

becomes

1 2

A 2 p 1 p 2

12

A1

Hence,

1 2

At 2

q Cd At 1 2 g P1 P2 / 1 2 ..... (5)

A

Where,

Cd = Coefficient of discharge (0.98)

D2 = Throat diameter = 16 mm

D1 = Inlet diameter = 26 mm

At = Throat area = 2.011 x 10-4 m2

A = Inlet area = 5.309 x 10-4 m2

g = 9.81 m/s2

= Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

P1 = Inlet pressure (Pa)

P2 = Throat pressure (Pa)

Rotameter

The rotameter is a flow meter in which a rotating free float is the indicating element.

Basically, a rotameter consists of a transparent tapered vertical tube through which fluid flow

upward. Within the tube is placed a freely suspended float of pump-bob shape. When there is

no flow, the float rests on a stop at the bottom end. As flow commences, the float rises until

upward and buoyancy forces on it are balanced by its weight. The float rises only a short

distance if the rate of flow is small, and vice versa. The points of equilibrium can be noted as a

function of flow rate. With a well-calibrated marked glass tube, the level of the float becomes a

direct measure of flow rate.

Scale

Tapered tube

Flow

Orifice Meter

The orifice for use as a metering device in a pipeline consists of a concentric square-

edged circular hole in a thin plate, which is clamped between the flanges of the pipe as shown

in the figure below.

A2

A1

Figure 3: Orifice Meter

Pressure connections for attaching separate pressure gauges are made at holes in the pipe

walls on both side of the orifice plate. The downstream pressure tap is placed at the minimum

pressure position, which is assumed to be at the vena contracta. The centre of the inlet

pressure tap is located between one-half and two pipe diameters from the upstream side of the

orifice plate, usually a distance of one pipe diameter is employed. Equation (4) for the venturi

meter can also be applied to the orifice meter where

1 2

A 2 12

p1 p2

Actual Q Cd A2 1 2 2 g . (6)

A1

The coefficient of discharge, Cd in the case of the orifice meter will be different from that for

the case of a venturi meter.

1 2

A 2

Q Cd At 1 t 2 g h7 h8 1 2 .(7)

A

Where,

Cd = Coefficient of discharge (0.63)

D7 = Orifice diameter = 16 mm

D8 = Orifice upstream diameter = 26 mm

At = Orifice area = 2.011 x 10-4 m2

A = Orifice upstream area = 5.309 x 10-4 m2

(h7 h8) = Pressure difference across orifice (m)

90o elbow

Figure below shows fluid flowing in a pipeline where there is some pipe fitting such as

bend or valve, and change in pipe diameter. Included in the figure is the variation of

piezometric head along the pipe run, as would be shown by numerous pressure tappings at the

pipe wall.

Figure 2 : Piezometric head along a pipeline

If the upstream and downstream lines of linear friction gradient are extrapolated to the

plane of fitting, a loss of piezometric head, h, due to the fitting is found. By introducing the

velocity heads in the upstream and downstream runs of pipe, total head loss, H can be

determined in which

V1 V2

2 2

H h (8)

2g 2g

Energy losses are proportional to the velocity head of the fluid as it flows around an

elbow, through an enlargement or contraction of the flow section, or through a valve.

Experimental values for energy losses are usually expressed in terms of a dimensionless loss

coefficient K, where

H H

K or 2 ..(9)

V1 / 2g V2 / 2g

2

For results of better accuracy, long sections of straight pipe are required to establish

with certainty the relative positions of the linear sections of the piezometric lines. However, in

a compact apparatus as described in this manual, only two piezometers are used, one placed

upstream and the other downstream of the fitting, at sufficient distances as to avoid severe

disturbances. These piezometers measure the piezometric head loss, h between the tapping.

Thus

h h'h f ..(10)

L V

2

Where h f 4 f

D 2 g

along the run of pipe between the piezometer tappings

f = friction factor

L = distance between the piezometer, measured along the pipe center line

D = pipe diameter

V = average velocity of fluid flow in pipe

The friction head loss is estimated by choosing a suitable value of friction factor, f for fully

developed flow along a smooth pipe. The method used in this manual to determine the friction

factor is the Prandtl equation

1

f

4 log Re f 0.4 (11)

Typical values derived from this equation are tabulated in the table below:

f, x 10-3 9.27 7.73 6.96 6.48 6.14 5.88 5.67

one typical flow rate, as about the middle of the range of measurement due to the fact that f

varies only slowly with Re, and the friction loss is generally fairly small in relation to the

measured value of h.

Characteristic of flow through elbow and at changes in diameter

90o Elbow

Figure below shows flow round a 90o elbow which has a constant circular cross section.

D V

The value of loss coefficient K is dependent on the ratio of the bend radius, R to the pipe inside

diameter D. As this ratio increase, the value of K will fall and vice versa.

H KV 2 / 2 g ..(12)

Where,

K = Coefficient of losses

V = Velocity of flow

g = 9.81 m/s2

MATERIAL AND APPARATUS

Part Identification

3

7

8

4 9

5. Staddle Valve

Sketch of apparatus and devices

Discharge valve

Rotameter

90 elbow

Venturi

Orifice

Meter

Water

Supply

Specification of dimensions

Venturi meter

A B C D E F

Figure 6: Specification of the Venturi Meter

Tapping A = 26 mm

Tapping B = 21.6 mm

Tapping C = 16 mm

Tapping D = 20 mm

Tapping E = 22 mm

Tapping F = 26 mm

Orifice

G H

PROCEDURES

1. The flow control valve of hydraulic bench is fully closed and the discharge valve

are fully open.

2. The discharge hose is properly directed to volumetric tank of fibreglass before

starting up system. The volumetric drain valve also had been ensure left open to

allow flow discharge back into sump tank.

3. Once step (2) is confirmed start up the pump supply from hydraulic bench. the

bench valve are slowly open. At this point, the observation show the water

flowing from the hydraulic bench through to the flow apparatus and discharge

through into the volumetric tank of hydraulic bench and then drained back into

sump tank of hydraulic bench.

4. The flow control valve then open fully. When the flow in the pipe is steady and

there is no trapped bubble, the bench valve were closed to reduce the flow to the

maximum measurable flow rate.

5. The water level in the manometer board will begin to display different level of

water heights. If the water level in the manometer board is too high where it is

out of visible point, adjust the water level by using the straddle valve. With the

maximum measurable flow rate, retain maximum readings on manometer.

6. The flow discharge valve were slowly reduce to reduce the flow until it fully

closed

7. Water level in the manometer board begin to level into a straight level. This level

maybe at the lower or maybe at the higher end of the manometer board range.

8. Trapped Bubbles in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube been lookout. The

bubble removed from the system for better accuracy.

Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic types of

flowmeter.

Procedures:

1. The apparatus placed on bench, the inlet pipe connected to bench supply and

outlet pipe into volumetric tank.

2. The bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully opened, the pumped

switched on from the hydraulic bench.

3. The bench valve closed when the flow in pipe is steady and there is no trapped

bubble to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.

4. The water level in the manometer board adjusted by using the air bleed screw.

Maximum readings retained on manometers with the maximum measurable

flow rate.

5. The readings on manometers (A - J), rotameter and measured flow rate

recorded.

6. Step 5 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be adjusted by

utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.

7. To demonstrate similar flow rates at different system static pressures, adjust

bench and flow control valve together. Adjusting manometer levels as require

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow

Procedures:

1. The apparatus placed on the bench, inlet pipe connected to bench supply and

outlet pipe into volumetric tank.

2. The bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully opened, The pump

supply from hydraulic bench switch on.

3. The bench valve were slowly opened until it is fully opened.

4. When the flow in the pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, the bench

valve closed to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow rate.

5. The manometer board adjusted by using the air bleed screw. Retain maximum

readings on manometers with the maximum measurable flow rate.

6. The readings on manometers (I and J) and measured flow rate were recorded.

7. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates adjusted by utilizing

both bench valve and discharge valve.

8. The tables data were complete

V

2

2g

losses were plotted.

3. The water from the unit drained off when not in use.

RESULT AND CALCULATIONS

MANOMETER READING ( mm )

NO. A B C D E F G H I J

1 281 280 277 278 279 280 280 272 275 275

2 284 282 265 277 276 277 277 241 258 255

3 302 298 262 283 289 294 293 205 240 238

4 328 319 256 297 308 315 313 158 220 216

5 360 347 250 313 329 344 342 92 190 183

( L/MIN ) (L) ( MIN ) ( L/MIN ) BERNOULLI EQUATION

ORIFICE Venturi

1 4 2 0.58 3.45 3.83 10 -5 5.42 10-5

( m3/s ) ( m3/s )

2 8 2 0.27 7.41 8.35 10-5 1.15 10-4

( m3/s ) ( m3/s )

3 12 2 0.17 11.76 1.21 10-4 1.81 10-4

( m3/s ) ( m3/s )

4 16 2 0.13 15.38 1.62 10 -4 2.40 10-4

( m3/s ) ( m3/s )

5 20 2 0.10 20.00 2.01 10-4 3.04 10-4

( m3/s ) ( m3/s )

( m3/s ) ( m3/s ) Squared,Qt2

1 5.75 10-5 6.67 10-5 3.30 10-9

2 1.23 10-4 1.33 10-4 1.51 10-8

3 1.96 10-4 2.00 10-4 3.84 10-8

4 2.56 10-4 2.67 10-4 6.55 10-8

5 3.33 10-4 3.33 10-4 1.11 10-7

NO Variable Area Head Loss Orifice Plate Head Loss Venturi Meter Head Loss

,Ha ( m ) ,Ho ( m ) ,Hv ( m )

1 -0.001 0.008 0.004

2 0.001 0.036 0.019

3 -0.006 0.089 0.040

4 -0.011 0.157 0.072

5 -0.016 0.252 0.110

Q,flowrate (L/min)

actual orifice venturi rotameter

3.45 2.30 3.25 4.00

7.41 5.01 6.90 7.98

11.78 7.26 10.86 12.00

15.38 9.72 14.40 16.02

20.00 12.10 18.24 19.98

25

calculated flowmwtre, Q actual

20

15 actual

10 orifice

venturi

5

rotameter

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

Q rotameter (L/min)

The graph shows the comparism of the flow rates between the flowmeters, Based on the

experiment from trial no 1 untill 5, the graph that indicates the higher the flow rates of the

rotameter, the higher the flowrates of the venture and orifice. However ,since the coefficient of

discharged for orifice meter is smaller than venture meter, the graph shows that venture

meters shows that its flow rates calculated using Bernoullis equation is nearer to the actual

value of flow rates.

(L) ( sec ) ( L/min ) PIEZOMETER ( mm/s ) ( mm )

HEAD, ( mm )

ELBOW ( hi-hj )

1 10 175.00 3.43 1 5.7143*10-3 1.6642*10-9

2 10 79.70 7.53 3 3.7642*10-2 7.2218*10-8

3 10 52.25 11.48 2 3.8278*10-2 7.4679*10-8

4 10 38.73 15.49 4 1.0328*10-1 5.4367*10-7

5 10 29.13 20.60 7 2.4030*10-1 2.9431*10-6

10

Differential Piezometer Head (mm)

9 y = 1.3x - 0.5

8 R = 0.7972

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

v2/2g x 10-6 (mm)

The graph shows that the differential pizometer head is increasing as the v 2/2g increasing.

Therefore, is increasing linearly with the v2/2g. From the graph, we obtained can obtained

the coefficient of losses which is the slope of the graph.

NO Variable Area % Flow Rate Orifice Plate % Flow Rate Venturi Meter % Flow

Error Error Rate Error

2 8.13 -6.50 -32.11

3 2.04 -7.65 -38.27

4 4.30 -6.25 -36.72

5 0 -9.6 -39.64

AVERAGE 6.09 -7.15 -36.03

CALCULATIONS

Experiment 1

=

= (0.002m3/34.8s )

( )

=

60 000

4( )

=

60 000

2( )

= Cd A2( 2 )

1( 2 )

1

2(9.81)(0.008)

= ( 0.63 ) ( 2.01 10-4 ) ( 2 )

2.01 104

1( )

5.31 104

2( )

= Cd A2( 2 )

1(2 )

1

2(9.81)(0.004)

= ( 0.98 ) ( 2.01 10-4 ) ( 2 )

2.01 104

1( )

5.31 104

,()

=

()

V = 1 mm/ 175 s

V = 5.7143 x 10-3mm/s

= 1.6642*10-9 mm

Sample calculation variable Area % Flow Rate Error

=( ) 100

=( ) 100

5.75 105

= 16%

=( ) 100

=( ) 100

5.75 105

= -5.74%

=( ) 100

=( ) 100

5.75 105

= -33.39%

= 0.277m 0.278m

= - 0.001m

= 0.280m 0.272m

= 0.008m

= 0.281m 0.277m

= 0.004m

= ( 5.75 105 )2

= .

DISCUSSION

Based on the experiment, we successfully obtained the flow rate measurement by comparing of

pressure drop by using three basic types of flow measuring techniques which is Orificemeter,

Rotameter and Orifice Meter. Flow rates from the rotameter used as the factor to gain to flow

rates for venturi meter and the orifice meter. Besides, we also determined the actual flow rates

for the water using the constant volume and the time taken for the water to reach the specific

volume experiment.

25

calculated flowmwtre, Q actual

20

15 actual

orifice

10

venturi

5 rotameter

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

Q rotameter (L/min)

Referring to the graph, the data from all the flow meter show the same trend which

increase lineary. As the flow rates increases, all reading from the all types of the flow meter

increase. Though use rotameter as the reference, in case the actual value for flow rates that we

got turns from the rotameter flow rates. Besides, the flowrates for venturi meter and orifice

also turn from the actual flow rates. Among the factor could be due to the friction and the no

slip condition as water flows through each of the flowmeters.

The graph shows that when comparing between orifice and venturi, venturi meter is

more accurate since the flow rate obtained from the orifice meter is closer to the actual value

of the flow rate. Due to its streamlined design, its gradual contraction and expansion prevent

flow separation and whirling, and minor friction losses on the inner wall surfaces. The meter

consist on streamlined shape and the system has a steady change in diameter. The flow

streamline does not have drastically change in diameter like orifice and do not obstructed by a

float like rotameter. Thus pressure disturbed are less likely.

While, for orifice, it has the simplest design and it occupies minimal space. The sudden

change in the flow causing the swirl and the velocity increase, the vena contracta decreases.

The smaller the vena contracta gets the greater the pressure difference, thus higher energy and

pressure loss. In overall orifice meter have highest minor loss coefficient, while venture meter

has the lowest.

For rotameter, it should be used if large pressure drop is acceptable, when comparing

between the three flow meter, the energy loss for rotameter are the higher than venturi and

orifice. If large pressure change, the most suitable are venture meter cause it will damage the

pipes. However its large and expensive to produce. To install it in resident pipeline it requirebig

space. Vice versa, orifice meter is very inexpensive for it is just a flat plate and a thin orifice

plate and because of that easy to install.

The discharge coefficient are the minimum required flow calculated based on the design

flow rate and expected pressure drop across the valve, and valve must have a flow coefficient

higher than calculated value. The value of constant are different because discharge coefficient

valve for liquid are smaller than gas due the expansion of the gas.

For 90 elbow, the observation we made from fluid flowing, the element disturb the

smooth flow of the fluid and cause additional loss of pressure(head loss) because of the flow

mixing and separation the element induced. Thus the experiment is carried out to resolute

minor losses which usually represent by discharge coefficient and resistant coefficient.

After successfully doing the investigation for the coefficient discharge, the relationship

can be show based on the graph versus v2/2g .

10

Differential Piezometer Head (mm)

9

8

7

6

5

4 y = 1.3x - 0.5

R = 0.7972

3

2

1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

v2/2g x 10-6 (mm)

The graph above shows the differential of piezometer head increases as the value of

v2/2g increases. Therefore, is increasing linearly with the v2/2g. From the slope of the

graph, we obtained the loss coefficient which was the gradient k = 1.3. As for the result, there

were error in plotting the graph. As we can observe the slope slightly change at v 2/2g = 3. This

shouldnt happen as the graph should be linearly increase.

For better accuracy result, long sections of the pipe are require to establish with

certainty each position of the point of the linear sections of piezometer line. A sufficient

distance to avoid severe disturbance because in this experiment only use 2 piezometer as the

equipment already compact.

CONCLUSION

Theoretically state that flowrate that is quantity of a gas or liquid moving through a pipe

which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol Q. The SI unit is m3/s (cubic

metres per second). In this test, flowrate was measured by using orifice meter, venturi meter

and the rotameter. This measuring technique operation and characteristics are to be

determined by comparing pressure drop that will be calculated that related to the velocity of

the fluid in the pipe using the Bernoulli and Continuity equations.

The data recorded show that orificemeter has higher pressure drop and cannot be

recovered due to flow rates increases at the opening of the orifice plate and the energy lost are

not much. For the rotameter the energy value that loss higher than venture and orifice, due to

large drop in pressure due to friction.

For venturi meter, the value are closer to the actual flow rate due to the lower pressure

drop that came from its shape which are streamlined and do not have boundary- layer

separation and thus form drag is assumed negligible. Although it has a converging and

diverging and diverging part which we know will cause pressure loss at the converging part, but

it properly designed until some percentage of pressure loss is covered back at the diverging

part. This is good when handling high pressure and energy recovery. To conclude venturi meter

was choosen as the more accurate then rotameter and orifice meter.

RECOMMENDATION

For recommendation, as student based on the experiment there are a few ways of

improving way to increase the level of safety among the student. For the safety precaution and

maintenance, It is important to drain all water from the apparatus when not in use. The

apparatus should be stored properly to prevent damage. Any manometer tube, which does not

fill with water or slow fill, indicates that tapping or connection of the manometer is blocked. To

remove the obstacle, disconnect the flexible connection tube and blow through. The apparatus

should not be exposed to any shock and stresses. Always wear protective clothing, shoes,

helmet and goggles throughout the laboratory session. Always run the experiment after fully

understand the unit and procedures.

Next, to increase the efficiency of the experiment data make sure to remove the air

bubbles to increase the accuracy and avoid reading error. Depress the stadle valve at the top

right side of manometer board. Depress staddle valve ligthtly to allow fluid and trapped air to

escape out. Allow enough time for bleeding to allowing all bubbles escape.

Besides that, when taking readings from the manometer, make sure the eye level

perpendicular to eyes to avoid parallax error. Removing parallax error to get the accurate data

and result. Addition the water level in the manometer board must be monitor which if the level

rise to high until out of visible point, adjust the water level by using the staddle valve. With the

maximum measurable flow rate, retain the maximum reading on manometer .

Lastly, to increase the accuracy, the experiment should be conducted at least three

times to get average. This will reduce the deviation data from the result.

REFFERENCE

Web

1) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html

2) http://www.omega.com/prodinfo/flowmeters.html

3)http://www2.emersonprocess.com/en-us/brands/rosemount/flow/dp-flow-

products/compact-orifice-flowmeters/pages/index.aspx

4) http://www.lmnoeng.com/venturi.php

5) http://www.lmnoeng.com/orifice.php

6) https://www.scribd.com/doc/96259752/SOLTEQ-Flowmeter-Measurement-Apparatus

APPENDIX

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