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(ARTICLES 2047 TO 2084)

Article 2047. By guaranty, a person, called the guarantor,
binds himself to the creditor to fulfill the obligation of the principal debtor in case the
latter should fail to do so.

If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor, the provisions of Section 4,
Chapter 3, Title I of this Book shall be observed. In such case, the contract is called a suretyship.

> Contract between the guarantor and creditor
> In a broad sense, it includes pledge and mortgage because the purpose of guaranty may be
accomplished not only by securing the fulfillment of an obligation contracted by the
principal debtor through the personal guaranty of a third
person but also by furnishing to the creditor for his
security, property with authority to collect the debt from the proceeds of the same in case of

1. Accessorybecause it is dependent for its existence upon the principal obligation
guaranteed by it
2. Subsidiary and conditionalit takes effect only when the principal debtor fails in his
obligation subject to limitation
3. Unilateral
a. Gives rise only to the duty on the part of the
guarantor in relation to the creditor and not vice versa
b. It may be entered into even without the intervention of the principal debtor
4. Contract, which requires that the guarantor be a distinct person from the principal debtor
because a person cannot be the personal guarantor of himself

1. Guaranty in the broad sense
a. Personalguaranty properly so-called or guaranty
in the strict sense. The guarantee given is the
credit given by the person who guarantees the fulfillment of the principal obligation.
b. Realthe guaranty is property, movable or immovable
2. As to its origin
a. Conventional
b. Legal
c. Judicial
3. As to consideration
a. Gratuitous
b. Onerous
4. As to persons guaranteed
a. Single
b. Double or sub-guarantyone constituted to secure the fulfillment of a guarantee in another
5. As to its scope and extent
a. Definiteone where the guaranty is limited to the
principal obligation only, or to a specific portion
b. Indefinite or simpleone where the guaranty
includes not only the principal obligation but also
all its accessories

> A relation which exists where one person has undertaken an obligation and another person
is also under a direct and primary obligation or other duty to a third person, who is entitled to but
one performance, and as between the two
who are bound, the one rather than the other should perform
> Contractual relation resulting from an agreement whereby
one person, the surety, engages to be answerable for a
debt, default, miscarriage of another known as the principal
> Second paragraph
> If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor, the contract is called
suretyship and the guarantor is called the SURETY

Guaranty and Suretyship

Wednesday, February 15, 2012
in Civil, Law
A guaranty is a contract where a person (the guarantor) binds himself to the
creditor to fulfill the principal debtor's obligation in case the principal debtor can't
do it. It must be in writing (Art. 1403, Civil Code) or it can't be enforced. It also
cannot be presumed. In case of a married woman, she binds herself with her
separate property with 2 exceptions: if she binds the conjugal property or if in
cases which benefits the family -in both cases, her husband's consent is required.

A guaranty isn't presumed. It requires the guarantor's consent for the assurance
that the guarantor will bind himself and to make certain that when it is made, the
guarantor will proceed accordingly.

A guaranty is generally gratuitous except it there is a stipulation to the contrary.

Also, the guarantor's liability can't exceed the amount of the principal obligation
but can be lesser than the principal obligation's amount. The exceptions are the

1.) Interest, judicial costs and attorney's fees may be recovered as part of
damages. Creditors suing on a surety bond can recover legal interest, attorney's
fees and judicial costs from the surety if appropriate, even if there is no stipulation
and even if the surety would become liable for more than the amount in the bond.
This is because the surety is made to pay, not by virtue of the contract, but his
failure to pay when demanded by the creditor resulted in the filing of a case. The
interest starts to accumulate either (a) when the complaint is filed (upon judicial
demand) or (b) the time demand was made on the surety until the principal
obligation is fully paid (upon extra-judicial demand.)

2.) The penalty may be provided in the bond and the surety can be held liable for
the violation so penalized.

A guaranty is personal if it's the credit given by the person who guarantees the
fulfillment of the principal obligation and real if the guaranty is movable or
immovable property. It is conventional if agreed on by the parties, legal if
imposed by law or judicial if ordered by the court to guarantee the eventual right
of one of the parties to the case. If the guarantor doesn't receive any payment
for acting as a guarantor, it's gratuitous; if he does, it's onerous. A single guaranty
is constituted solely for the purpose of securing the principal obligation; a double
guaranty, on the other hand, is constituted to secure the fulfillment by the
guarantor of a previous obligation. It is definite if secured only for the principal
obligation or a part of it and indefinite/simple if the guaranty includes the
principal's accessory obligations.

A surety is a contract where a person engages himself to answer for the debt,
default or miscarriage of the principal debtor.

Nature and Extent of the Guaranty

1.) Consensual
2.) Accessory to a principal obligation (can't exist without the principal obligation)
3.) Makes the guarantor subsidiarily liable
4.) Unilateral (may be entered into even without the principal debtor's consent)


This happens when another guarantor is bound to answer for the first guarantor.
It should not be confused with several guarantors being bound to guarantee the
same obligation.

A guaranty may be made to secure the performance of a voidable contract, an

unenforceable one or a natural obligation, but not a void one. If the contract is
void, there is no guaranty. The rules are:

1.) Voidable contract -binding until annulled by a proper court action.

2.) Unenforceable contract -binding simply because it isn't void.
3.) Natural obligation -the creditor can proceed against the guarantor even if he
has no right of action against the principal debtor because the principal debtor
obligation isn't civilly liable. If the debtor himself offers a guaranty for his natural
obligation, he impliedly recognizes his liability and his obligation changes from
natural to civil.
Copyright by Enrico. Follow me on facebook. Posted at at 12:44 AM