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232 Mobile 2006

Boom and Arm Control

Bosch Rexroth AG

Bosch Rexroth AG

Increasingly stringent demands placed on boom and arm controls range from more precise positioning to an increase in the working speed during handling operations. The interaction of components offered by Rexroth allows movements to be controlled in nearly all applications and opera- tional states.m C o n t r o l Bosch Rexroth AG Bosch Rexroth AG Function The

Function

The modular principle for pumps, valves and electronics in conjunction with application-specific features of individual products allow a holistic examination of the individual systems and therefore represent the eco- nomic basis of competitive machines.nearly all applications and opera- tional states. Function Cost Boom and Arm Control Mobile 2006 233

Cost

represent the eco- nomic basis of competitive machines. Cost Boom and Arm Control Mobile 2006 233

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233

Compact, stable and integrated – Modular Boom and Arm Control

The principle of boom and arm control can be found in completely different fields of mobile applications. The basic principle is the same for all applica- tions. The working point is located at the end of the arm and must be moved in the three coordinate directions X, Y and Z. This movability is achieved with a slew function and several folding and/or extension functions. Nevertheless, depending on the machine type, the requirements differ so strikingly that dif- ferent technical solutions may be required. But the commercial aspect must also not be neglected with these technically optimized systems. For this rea- son, Rexroth developed the M4 valve family for arm and boom control. Struc- tured according to the modular principle, the valves can be used as standard components for optimized solutions and can hence cover the required func- tionality of the individual machine types.

Andreas Wolf

Lohr (D)

234 Mobile 2006

Boom and Arm Control

Bosch Rexroth AG

1 Arm control

applications

1.1 Forestry machines

(Cut-to-Length system) Harvesters and forwarders (Fig. 1) are high-tech machines that are operated by intensively trained personnel. High performance, optimum efficiency and best possible comfort are the key re- quirements. Moreover, under extreme climatic conditions, applications in the forest put stress on the mechanics and control technology of the ma- chine, which must also be examined under environmental aspects. For for- estry machines that perform handling functions, energy savings and high dynamics are as important as load pressure-independent control, which gives the operator the perception that he or she has the machine always un- der control.

1.2 Concrete boom pump

The boom of a concrete pump (Fig. 2) is used on construction sites. At the beginning of work, the machine must be leveled on its outriggers. For the hydraulic system this means that the pump flow must be switched between the outriggers and the distributor boom. For safety reasons, this must be realized with a selection feature that renders the parallel operation of the outrigger and the boom impossible.

The operation of the distributor boom places stringent demands on the accuracy of movements, since persons always stay at the end of the distributor arm boom at the hose. The hose must be guided with low clear- ance above the concrete placing area.

with low clear- ance above the concrete placing area. Fig. 1: Forestry harvester: Harvester head at

Fig. 1: Forestry harvester: Harvester head at the boom arm.

Fig. 1: Forestry harvester: Harvester head at the boom arm. Fig. 2: Concrete distribution boom, positioning

Fig. 2: Concrete distribution boom, positioning of the hose.

Here, sensitivity and the direct re- sponse of the control have priority, whereas dynamics are less important.

Bosch Rexroth AG

1.3 Arm control for drilling rigs

Drilling rigs (Fig. 3) are pioneers. They are often operated on undevel-

oped areas, rough terrain or under ground. Every drilling process is a leap

in the dark. The entire knowledge of

the soil to be drilled is only valid until

the drilling process reveals the actual conditions on site. Performance, fast- ness and precision are the prerequisite for a great output of the drill. This requires the interaction of completely different components such as pump, control and safety valves that feature the necessary ruggedness and dynam- ics, while offering cost-effective sys- tem integration. Safety aspects must also not be overlooked here.

A precise drill hole is the result of

an exact orientation of the drill arm

– and automated positioning saves

cost here. This can be accomplished by integrating the arm controls simply via CAN bus into the control concept of the entire system. This allows the automation of complete functional sequences and relieves the operator sustainedly from high workload.

1.4 Shoulder mowers

Shoulder mowers (Fig. 4) are work- ing equipment, which is continuingly

in use in the summer season. When

traveling on roads to the next loca- tion, the arm is folded in. Making the equipment ready for mowing should

be accomplished as swiftly as possible

to avoid unnecessary idle times. When

the machine is at a standstill, the boom arm, at the end of which the mower head is fitted, is brought to the working position. After positioning the boom is hydraulically unloaded and mowing can be started.

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mowing can be started. Boom and Arm Control Mobile 2006 235 Fig. 3: Core drilling rig.

Fig. 3: Core drilling rig.

and Arm Control Mobile 2006 235 Fig. 3: Core drilling rig. Fig. 4: Shoulder mower. Fig.

Fig. 4: Shoulder mower.

2006 235 Fig. 3: Core drilling rig. Fig. 4: Shoulder mower. Fig. 5: Fire brigade rescue

Fig. 5: Fire brigade rescue platform.

1.5 Fire ladders and rescue plat- forms The transport or rescue of persons by means of fire ladders and rescue plat- forms (Fig. 5) necessitates a high level of machine safety. This is also reflect- ed in the corresponding standards. The classification of the machine is based on European standard EN 954 (safety-related parts of controls) and IEC 61508 (functional reliability of electrical/electronic/programmable electronics for safety-relevant sys- tems). During operation, the outrig- ger and the ladder or arm must not be actuated simultaneously. The indi- vidual functions must be monitored, either by sensors on the actuators or by position sensors on the hydraulic control units. Reliability, stability and controllability are further vital criteria for operation.

During mowing, it is always required to drive around obstacles, for which ease of operation is a must. This is also supported by a load pressure-in- dependent hydraulic system.

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1.6 Truck-mounted cranes Truck-mounted cranes (Fig. 6) are machines that feature the widest ap- plication spectrum. The installation on the chassis of a truck requires the use of outrigger systems in order to ensure stability during operation. The systems are supplied via a hydraulic selection axis, which is regarded as the pillar of safety technology on a truck mounted crane. Fitting a lifting work basket turns the truck-mounted crane into a “person lift”, which must also meet the relevant safety requirements (see also section 1.5).

The great flexibility of the truck mounted crane machine concept is significantly supported by versatile attachments. A loader fork or grip- per system allows the use for han- dling construction materials or in municipal or forestry applications. The utilization of hoist winches, for example in the carpentry trade, satis- fies the market’s needs with regard to positioning operations. All of these demands of the applications described before are placed on the truck mount- ed crane.

What the machine types described have in common is the mechanics (the arm) on the one hand, and the hydraulic control technology on the basis of the M4 valve on the other.

2 Classification of the machine requirement

The types of machine operation can generally be classified in three main categories.

can generally be classified in three main categories. Fig. 6: Truck-mounted crane performing positioning tasks.

Fig. 6: Truck-mounted crane performing positioning tasks.

2.1 High working speed during handling operation This operating mode is very com- mon for heavy-duty machines in forestry applications as well as for truck-mounted cranes for construc- tion material handling and in the field of loading and handling. The task is to load or unload goods as quickly as possible and then to change the loca- tion. The shorter the loading time, the higher the efficiency of the ma- chine. The objective of “high working speeds” is expressed in the following requirements for the machine control:

High dynamics of the machine and hence short response times of the control system: The operator must feel that the machine responds im- mediately to his control signals.

Stability: The operator can only work trouble-free and consequently increase his efficiency with a non- vibrating machine.

• High power density and good sys- tem efficiency: Both have a direct effect on the operating cost of the machine and form the basis for ev- ery customer’s decision to buy.

2.2 Positioning accuracy Concrete distributor booms and truck-mounted cranes are two classic examples of applications with posi- tioning operations. Here, the focus is clearly on accuracy. The kinematic relation between the hydraulic cylin- ders and the arm, which can have a reach of more than 60 meters, result in a high transmission ratio between the movement of the cylinder and the attachment at the end of the arm. Translated to control technology, this results in the following requirements for the hydraulic system:

Sensitive control and accuracy during positioning: Both can be achieved with a progressive charac- teristic curve of the control spools.

Bosch Rexroth AG

Independent movements: Here, Load-Sensing systems (LS) allow the load pressure-independent, parallel operation of all actuators thanks to the use of individual pressure com- pensators.

Short response times: Possible thanks to Rexroth components that are matched to each other within the system.

2.3 Safety during operation The topic of safety plays a role when- ever persons stay or work within the working range of a machine. A typical application is the operation of lift- ing work baskets on lifting platforms or as attachment on truck-mounted cranes and tele-handlers. The require- ments are even more stringent when it comes to saving lives such as with rescue platforms or turntable ladders. The standards mentioned before are also applicable here and describe the operating principles for achieving the various safety levels. But the technical details and the execution are left to the machine manufacturer. Based on these requirements, the following is valid for the control system:

Monitoring of the individual func- tions: The central control must recognize whether malfunction has occurred in order that countermea- sures can be initiated.

Safety circuits: to deactivate a faulty function.

Reliability: Failures during op- eration must be avoided (example:

rescue platform) or emergency operation must ensure the further operability.

Stability: It is a precondition for op- eration in this field.

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eration in this field. Boom and Arm Control Mobile 2006 237 Fig. 7: KFA fixed displacement

Fig. 7: KFA fixed displacement pump for direct mounting to the power take-off.

displacement pump for direct mounting to the power take-off. Fig. 8: KVA variable displacement pump for

Fig. 8: KVA variable displacement pump for system with stringent efficiency requirements.

pump for system with stringent efficiency requirements. Fig. 9: A11VO high pressure variable displace- ment pump.

Fig. 9: A11VO high pressure variable displace- ment pump.

Fig. 9: A11VO high pressure variable displace- ment pump. • Controllability and positioning: Re- quired to

Controllability and positioning: Re- quired to have the machine always under control.

The machine descriptions and clas- sifications of the operating principles show that a clear distinction is not possible. For this reason, different ap- proaches to solutions have to be made for the individual machine types.

3 Application-related solutions

Rexroth defines the different machine requirements in its Application Cen- ters and pools them in the Product Management. This structure allows the utilization of experience gained with the entirety of applications.

3.1 Pumps for boom operation Depending on the application and machine size, the oil is supplied by a fixed or variable displacement pump. A decisive factor for the selection of the pump type is on the one hand the required pressure and on the other hand the installation space situation on the machine. In the field of trucks, for example, KFA fixed displacement pumps (Fig. 7) or KVA variable dis- placement pumps (Fig. 8) are mainly used. On drills, forestry and concrete machines, swashplate units of types A11VO (Fig. 9) and A10VO (Fig. 10) are common solutions. Together with valves from the modular M4 system, LS controllers are employed, which can be combined with hydraulic horse power controllers, if required.

Fig. 10: A10VO medium pressure variable displacement pump.

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However, the trend here is towards electrically adjustable pumps. The power consumption of the pump can be determined with the help of the following data:

• Control signal of the pump, which corresponds to the swivel angle or the displacement.

Signal of the BODAS pressure sen- sor PR2 (Fig. 11).

• Speed of the pump or the diesel en- gine, respectively (including trans- mission ratio).

The hydraulic power of the boom can be electrically limited depending on the application or load cycle so that the power made available by the die- sel engine can be shared with other hydraulic actuators in line with the requirements.

other hydraulic actuators in line with the requirements. Fig. 11: BODAS pressure sensor PR2. Shock/Anti-cavitation

Fig. 11: BODAS pressure sensor PR2.

Shock/Anti-cavitation valves Adjustable / fixed Two port sizes G1/2, G3/4 Pilot Cover (B) Hand lever
Shock/Anti-cavitation valves
Adjustable / fixed
Two port sizes
G1/2, G3/4
Pilot Cover (B)
Hand lever
End elements
Tongue
LS-unloading
Standard
P-, T-, LS-ports
Pilot cover (A)
Electrohydraulic
with integrated
electronics
Mechanic
Electrohydraulic
Inlet elements
Hydraulic
Closed Center
Open Center
Central inlet
LS pressure relief valves
Fixed / electroproportional

Fig. 12: Modular M4 valve system.

/ electroproportional Fig. 12: Modular M4 valve system. Fig. 13: Hydraulic pilot control device 4TH6. Fig.

Fig. 13: Hydraulic pilot control device 4TH6.

valve system. Fig. 13: Hydraulic pilot control device 4TH6. Fig. 14: Control block M4-15 with on-board

Fig. 14: Control block M4-15 with on-board electronics EPM2 of protection class IP69K.

3.2 Modular M4 valve system The sum of experience has led to the modular valve system M4 (Fig. 12), which is the core element of the arm and boom control. The modular con- struction kit was structured so that all types of operation can be implement- ed individually or in combination:

Purely mechanical operation by means of a tongue.

• Encapsulated hand lever in two ver- sions (following, non-following).

Hydraulic actuation by means of joystick TH6 (Fig. 13).

Electrohydraulic operation by means of RC control electronics.

Integrated electronics EPM2

(Fig. 14).

Bosch Rexroth AG

The requirement of manual override can therefore be met for safety-rel- evant applications. Moreover, the use of load-lowering valves (Fig. 15) also contributes to safety and controllabil- ity of the machines.

to safety and controllabil- ity of the machines. Fig. 15: Load-lowering valves by Rexroth. Fig. 16:

Fig. 15: Load-lowering valves by Rexroth.

of the machines. Fig. 15: Load-lowering valves by Rexroth. Fig. 16: VRBC load-lowering valve for meter-

Fig. 16: VRBC load-lowering valve for meter- out control on the boom.

Flow control

Flow control by means of LS valves has become a widely accepted solu- tion in all types of boom controls. The load pressure-independent control by means of individual pressure compen- sator of the M4 series offers known advantages:

• Sensitive control through progres- sive spool characteristics.

Parallel, load pressure-independent movements of the arm.

Supply pressure relief function by means of pressure control valves in the LS circuit and hence energy

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savings during operation in the maximum pressure range.

Reduction of losses for operation with variable displacement pumps.

The functions of the boom are sub- jected to constantly differing loads. Due to the kinematic situation, this results also in pulling loads. These cannot be handled by a pure meter-in control. The specifications laid down in the Machinery Directives for the individual machine types allow dif- ferent solutions for coping with pull- ing loads. For forestry applications there are no valid safety regulations in force, since no additional personnel is allowed to work within a range of about 70 meters around the machine. Controlling of the load can be accom- plished with the help of adjusted tank pre-loads by means of the control spool of the M4 block.

For all other machines, a load lower- ing valve is prescribed for safety rea- sons that provides additional protec- tion in the event of a pipe burst.

A novelty here is that the load lower-

ing valves have been supplemented by

a meter-out function. They continue

to assume the function of a pipe

burst safety valve, but the control of the outflowing fluid is separated in functional terms. The task of load lowering valve type VRBC (Fig. 16)

is to compensate for the pressure in

the cylinder in order that the pressure applied to the control valve remains constant. By changing the cross-sec- tion of the control spool in the M4, the oil is metered out. In this way, the function is controlled by way of the outflow fluid ( Fig. 17 ). In order

to avoid an unnecessary pressure

restraint due to simultaneously act- ing meter-in controls, the control spool must be adjusted accordingly. This system results in a significant improvement in the control charac- teristics and hence greater stability, in particular for truck-mounted cranes.

charac- teristics and hence greater stability, in particular for truck-mounted cranes. Fig. 17: Sequence control chart.

Fig. 17: Sequence control chart.

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Pressure control

For some machines, a pure flow con- trol is not the optimum solution. In forestry applications, for example, the pressure must be perceivable for some functions, which can be achieved with a special pressure control spool. Here, the load pressure opposes the pilot pressure of the directional valve via a small PIN spool. As the load pressure increases, the pilot spool opening is reduced, which results in a lower ve- locity of the actuator. The characteris- tic curves (Fig. 18) show that the pres- sure perception and consequently the torque control can be influenced with different control spools. This solu- tion is employed already today in slew controls and remarkably reduces the slew’s susceptibility to vibration. The combination of the pressure percep- tion through a 6-way system with the controllability of the LS system offers the following advantages:

Elimination of the stick-slip effect on the slew.

• Sensitive controlling of the func- tion.

Simple optimization of machines by changing the PIN spools.

This hydraulic solution can also be realized very elegantly electronically by means of an LS system. The ar- rangement of the pressure compensa- tor upstream of the control spool and signaling of the section load pressure to the pressure compensator offers the possibility of influencing the section load pressure. This is also possible by fitting an electroproportional pressure relief valve of type KBPS (Fig. 19).

pressure relief valve of type KBPS ( Fig. 19 ). Fig. 18: Hydraulic pressure control of
pressure relief valve of type KBPS ( Fig. 19 ). Fig. 18: Hydraulic pressure control of
pressure relief valve of type KBPS ( Fig. 19 ). Fig. 18: Hydraulic pressure control of

Fig. 18: Hydraulic pressure control of valve series M4 by means of PIN spool.

As the control signal of the directional valve rises, the control signal of the pressure relief valve increases as well. This causes the hydraulic effect of moment control as described before and offers additional advantages:

Free adjustability of the relation between the control signal of the di- rectional valve and of the KBPS.

Ease of optimization of the machine function without having to convert the hydraulic system.

function without having to convert the hydraulic system. Fig. 19: Pressure control through overriding

Fig. 19: Pressure control through overriding electroproportional pressure setting on the section pressure compensator.

Bosch Rexroth AG

Utilization of the returning oil

In view of the fuel prices today, energy saving is an increasingly important topic. This is valid in particular for machines employed in handling operations. The question is how to reduce the power requirement with- out restricting the performance of the machines. One possibility is the utilization of the oil flow returning from the actuator. In this context, the modular M4 construction kit includes a regenerative spool. The returning oil is fed via the control spool to the supply side so that the pump has to provide a smaller oil flow, which re- duces the energy requirement of the machine as a whole.

ATEX version for potentially explo- sive atmospheres

Especially drills and mining machines are operated in potentially explosive atmospheres. In this area, the require- ment profile of machines is extended by the topic of explosion protection, which is specified in detail in stan- dards. Rexroth supplemented its mod- ular M4 system to cover these require- ments (Fig. 20) so that it complies with Explosion Protection Directives and types of explosion protection ac- cording to EN 13463:

Field of application according to Directive 94/9/EC IM2, II2D and

II2G.

Type of explosion protection: De- sign safety “c” according to EN 13463-5 for mechanical and hy- draulic controls.

Bosch Rexroth AG

The M4 directional valve in the standard version complies with the Directives. The actuating assemblies are adjusted in accordance with the standard. With the electrohydraulic version the user has the possibility of realizing a multitude of system de- signs.

possibility of realizing a multitude of system de- signs. Fig. 20: ATEX variant of M4-15. Safety

Fig. 20: ATEX variant of M4-15.

Safety circuits

To increase safety, very simple means are sufficient. The modular M4 sys- tem offers the possibility of switching the LS signal off. The 3/2 directional on/off valve is integrated directly in the inlet elements (OC and CC) (Fig. 21). The LS connection of the control block to the variable displace- ment pump or the 3-way pressure compensator, respectively, of the OC inlet is normally closed and the load signal unloaded to the tank. In this case, the system is automatically set to stand-by pressure. However, the hy- draulic system should be designed so that the stand-by pressure cannot ini- tiate any movements of the machine.

In the case of concrete distribution booms, this cannot always be realized in the interaction with load lowering valves. Moreover, the outrigger and the boom control must not be oper- able simultaneously. The modular M4 system meets this requirement with

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For variable displacement pumps

LS-block
LS-block
For fixed displacement pumps LS-block
For fixed displacement pumps
LS-block

Fig. 21: Safety circuit, which shuts down the central LS controller.

Outrigger Main functions
Outrigger
Main
functions

Technical data

– For variable and fixed displace-

ment pumps

– All types of operation

– Emergency stop via hand lever

– Maximum flow, adjustable via stroke limitation on covers

– OC or LS consumer on external C-port possible

– Position in control block is free choosable

Fig. 22: Selection axis for supplying the outrigger control, the boom control and for emergency shutdown.

a selection axis. In principle, this is a directional valve axis which features

a different connection internally. The

pump flow is applied to this section. Depending on the position of the di- rectional valve spool, the flow is made available internally to the M4 sections

or externally to outrigger output ‘C’ (Fig. 22). In the neutral position, both outputs are unloaded to the tank, that is, neither flow nor pressure are avail- able. Since the identical actuating kits are used, emergency operation is pos- sible by means of a hand lever control.

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Requirements with regard to safety are more stringent, as soon as it comes to the carriage of passengers. These requirements are laid down in the standards mentioned before. Depend- ing on the system design, it is required not only to switch the flow off, but also to monitor this deactivation pro- cess. In summary, the modular M4 system offers the following advan- tages:

Integration of the safety function in the control block and hence reduced piping effort.

Combination solutions for cost-op- timized systems.

Position signal of shutdown as a ba- sis for a SIL2 system.

On-board electronics of the second generation

On-board electronics (type EPM1) have proven in many applications. For example, M4 control blocks with OBE have been in use in an aluminum mill for more than two years. Even the high electromagnetic radiation of the melting furnaces has not resulted in any failures, which underlines the quality of the electronics.

Meanwhile, Rexroth offers the sec- ond generation of OBE, type EPM2 (Fig. 23). It substitutes EPM1, is compatible and offers the following advantages:

Supply voltage from 9 to 32 volt, and therefore no different versions for 12- or 24-volt board voltage.

Type of protection IP69K due to the use of a plug that has proven in the automotive sector.

Signal inputs:

– CAN bus (2.0B, ISO11898).

– Voltage (0 to 10 volt).

– PWM (8 to 200 Hz)10 volt.

Daisy-chain cabling of the CAN version and hence reduced cabling effort on the machine.

Callable characteristic curves and ramp times.

Plug-and-play function for servic- ing and repairs.

Integrated position sensor for safety monitoring and closed-loop con- trol.

sensor for safety monitoring and closed-loop con- trol. Fig. 23: EPM2 on-board electronics of the second

Fig. 23: EPM2 on-board electronics of the second generation.

Bosch Rexroth AG

The functions integrated additionally can meet future requirements already today. The selection of CAN protocols was extended to include the following versions:

J

1939.

CAN Bosch Rexroth.

CANopen:

– Device profile CiA DSP401 (I/O).

– Device profile CiA DSP408 (hydraulics).

– SIL application specific (EPM2).

The electrification of machines goes on. The requirement of retrieving in- formation from the hydraulic system is increasing and can be met by the wider use of sensors for pressure or position monitoring. These are usu- ally analog sensors. Because the num- ber of analog inputs of digital central control devices is limited, depending on the system, additional I/O convert- ers are required, which means extra expenditure. Here, the EPM2 offers the possibility of reading in analog signals via a 4-pin plug-in connector and making them available via the CAN bus. An I/O converter is there- fore not required.

Bosch Rexroth AG

Special features of the modular M4 system

In summary, the modular M4 system offers the following options, which are, at present, unique on the market:

Non-following, encapsulated hand lever and hence reduced hysteresis.

Identical actuating kits for both sizes, 12 and 15, and consequently reduced spare parts stocking for the user.

Application-related elements from compact hydraulics.

Overriding pressure control in hy- draulic or electrohydraulic version.

• Highest electrical protection class of OBE: IP69K.

Plug-and-play function for simple replacement of the OBE in the case of repairs or servicing.

Integrated two-color LED for trou- bleshooting.

Analog input on the integrated EPM2 electronics.

• TÜV-tested hardware and software for safety-oriented applications (SIL).

3.3 Electronic systems The BODAS system (Fig. 24) allows the very swift and cost-efficient real- ization of comprehensive electronic controls for a multitude of applica- tions on a modular basis. This can be illustrated by the example of a drill control based on the BODAS control device RC6-9. The software variant VACE extends the scope of functions of the BODAS standard software VAC specifically for drilling equipment.

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for drilling equipment. Boom and Arm Control Mobile 2006 243 Fig. 24: BODAS system: A part

Fig. 24: BODAS system: A part of the compre- hensive hardware program. The photo shows RC control devices, the DI2 display, sensors and EJ manual control device.

While positioning the boom, the valves are controlled so that the erec- tion and orientation process is con- trolled continuously through to the automatic adjustment in the vertical position. This prevents possibly dan- gerous maloperation during the erec- tion phase. Controlling of the slew has been extended by an automatic return function that allows the drill rods to be returned automatically and pre- cisely to the drilling hole position. An integrated depth measuring feature for the bore round off the functional- ity of the BODAS standard solution VACE. All of the data acquired in the control device during the entire drill- ing process are made available for evaluation via the CAN bus. They can be conveniently represented graphically on the BODAS display DI2. Thus, Rexroth offers a com- prehensive standard solution “off the shelf”, which can be individually adapted and extended thanks to the BODASdesign module.

4 Conclusion

This paper presents only an excerpt

of the modular M4 system. Each ap-

plication has its own requirements, which can be met by means of special inlet and end elements. The modular system is therefore extended project by project.

In the future, the functionality of machines will increase mainly with the help of electrohydraulic systems.

A first step is the disconnection of the

hydraulic LS connection between the control block and the variable dis- placement pump. In the future the LS signal can be electrically transmitted and fed to the pump. This will open up further possibilities of optimizing the machine. In a next step, “electro- hydraulic flow matching” (EFM) will follow, with which a variable displace- ment pump with swivel angle control (EP) and a directional valve with OBE will be combined. The pump flow will be adjusted on the basis of a calculated flow that is demanded by the directional valve. Preconditions for such systems are powerful central computers that are suitable for mo- bile applications – and are offered by BODAS.

Additional information on this is available in the specialist article regarding “Electrohydraulic Flow Matching”.

Rexroth’s application know-how in the field of controls and the custom- er’s expertise in the field of the ma- chines form the best basis for future cooperation and common success on the market.