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HEALTH BENEFITS OF SEAWEED

ERIANNE VYNSCENT M. FRANCO


JHET DAWSON C. CARBONELL
JOSHREY V. MAGNO
JULIUS RIAN A. FIGUEROA
RENEL G. NOVALES
SIDNEY P. DINES
WOO SIK YOON

LORMA COLLEGES
Urbiztondo, San Juan, La Union
SPECIAL SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

MIGUEL ANGELAN B. CORPUZ, JR. LPT.


SEPTEMBER 2017
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Situational Analysis

Algae are relatively simple photosynthetic plants with unicellular reproductive structures.

They range from unicellular organisms to non vascular filamentous or thaloid plants (Druehl,

2000). Seaweeds are large algae (macro algae) that grow in salt water or marine environment and

lack true stems, roots and leaves (Krishnamurthy, 1996). Seaweeds commonly grow on coral reefs

or in rocky landscape or can grow at great depths if sunlight can penetrate through the water

(Mateljan, 2006). Most of the seaweeds can be seen thriving in underwater beds floating along the

sea surface attached to rocks (Collen, 2001). Seaweeds play an important and vital role in the

marine ecosystem, providing food and shelter for host of creatures, such as sea urchins, lobsters

and young fishes.

Types of seaweed Three major groups of seaweeds are recognized according to their

pigments that absorb light of particular wavelengths and give them their characteristic colors of

green, brown or red (Collins, 2001). The green algae (Chlorophyta) are truely green with no

pigments to mask the chlorophyll. The green algae are very diverse and range from microscopic

free-swimming single cells to large membranous, tubular and bushy plants (Davies, 2002). Brown

algae (Phaeophyta) are multi-cellular and are found in a variety of different physical forms

including crusts and filaments. Like all photosynthetic organisms, brown algae contain the green

pigment chlorophyll. They also contain other gold and brown pigments, which mask the green

colour of chlorophyll. The dominant pigment found in brown algae is called fucoxanthin (Bartle,

2005). The red algae (Rhodophyta) in addition to chlorophyll contain the pigments phycocyanin
and phycoerythrin which give the red colouration. Red algae are found in a variety of physical

forms, including simple and branched filaments (Harbo, 1999).

Morphology of seaweeds Seaweeds do not require support structures. Instead of roots

seaweeds have holdfasts, which attach them to the sea floor. A holdfast is not necessary for water

and nutrient uptake, but is needed as an anchor. The stalk or stem of seaweed is called as stipe.

The function of the stipe is to support the rest of the plant. The structure of the stipe varies among

seaweeds and they can be flexible, stiff, solid, gas-filled, very long (20 metres), short or completely

absent (Druehl, 2000). The leaves of seaweeds are called blades. The main function of the blades

is to provide a large surface for the absorption of sunlight. In some species the blades also support

the reproductive structures of the seaweed. Some seaweeds have only one blade, which may be

divided, while other species have numerous blades (Harbo, 1999). Many seaweeds have hollow,

gas-filled structures called floats or pneumatocysts. These help to keep the photosynthetic

structures of the seaweed buoyant so they are able to absorb energy from the sun (Turner, 2003).

Absorption of nutrients takes place directly through the walls of the thallus. The thallus may be

simple filament of cells or columns of cells, a flattened membrane of one or several layers of cells

or a complex set of organs including stipe holding photosynthetic frond and reproductive organs

(Tudge, 2000).

Sea vegetables are full of nutrients. Coming in a multitude of colours, textures, shapes and

sizes, all types contain a rich supply of minerals, most prominently calcium, copper, iodine and

iron. They are also rich in protein, fibre and vitamins, specifically vitamin K and folic acid, while

being low in calories and fat

Thanks to their impressive nutritional profile, seaweeds are beneficial to health, and are

thought to help the body fight illness and disease.


According to Jo Lewin, (2011) review of 100 studies on the benefits of seaweeds, published

in the American Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, reported seaweed may be used to

help lower blood pressure and promote heart health.

In this research we have 3 types of seaweeds that are found in La Union Grass Kelp

(Enteromorpha compressa), Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca), Sea Grapes (Caulerpa lentillifera).

Caulerpa Lentillifera is highly nourishing as it contains vast proportions of minerals and vitamins.

Grass Kelp This seaweed is used in cosmetics primarily because of its skin conditioning effects,

this action is believed to aid dry or damaged, where substantive materials it composed of adhere

to the skin to reduce flaking and to restore suppleness, ingredient induces special cosmetic effects

on the skin that help maintain this vital organ in good condition. And Seaweeds, including sea

lettuce, are good sources of iodine which helps stimulate and maintain the proper functioning of

the thyroid gland. Sea lettuce also contains high amounts of protein and iron.

Framework of the Study

Susun Weed (2002) found that seaweeds are an every day miracle. The benefit of including

seaweeds in our daily diet increases longevity, enhances immune functioning, revitalize the cardiac

system, endocrine, digestive and nervous systems. Seaweed has also been found traditionally

useful to cure a variety of maladies.

Ortega-calvo et al. (1993) reported that seaweed mineral content is higher than that of land

plants and animal products. Ryan drum, (2005) reported that most of the seaweed are excellent

sources of vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K as well as essential fatty acids.

Shirley (2006) reported that a good source of trace minerals such as chromium and iodine

are present in seaweeds. News target (2006) pointed that seaweed contains trace elements
chromium and zinc which influences the way insulin behaves in the body and helps with healing

properties respectively.

Wanatabe et al. (1999) reported that seaweeds contain vitamin B12, which is particularly

recommended in the treatment of ageing, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and anaemia. Noda

(1993) found that Nori contains up to 12.0 - 68.8 g/100g of dry weight of vitamin B12 and this

is roughly comparable to that amount of vitamin B12 from animal sources. Watanabe et al. (1999)

reported that only two or three sheets of Nori (3g) are sufficient to satisfy the recommended daily

intake of vitamin B12 for a normal adult (2g/day).

Jimenez Escring (2000) found that seaweeds contain a high concentration of minerals such

as magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iodine.

Soja (2006) stated that some variety of seaweeds is even richer in calcium than milk and

the human body can utilise nutrients from seaweed without wastage. Burtin (2003) found that

seaweeds are also one of the most important sources of calcium and their content may be as high

as 34 per cent dry weight. Results and Discussion Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Activity and

Therapeutic use of Selected Seaweeds 22 Seaweed consumption may thus be useful in the case of

expectant mother, adolescents and elderly who are all exposed to risk of calcium deficiency.

Le Tutour (1990) stated that lipid extracts of some edible seaweed showed antioxidant

activity and synergistic effect with tocopherol.

Erhart Shep (2001) reported that sea vegetables are good source of magnesium, which has also

been shown to reduce high blood pressure and prevent heart attack. Folic acid in seaweed helps to

remove homocysteine. If present in the human body it can increase the risk of coronary heart

disease (Matelijan, 2006).


Malea et al. (2001) made an analysis of the levels of iron, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead,

sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in three green seaweeds namely Ulva sps, Caulerapa

and Enteromorpha collected from Antikyra Gulf (Viotia, Greece). The minerals namely iron,

potassium, magnesium and sodium was high in Ulva species. Cadmium content was low in all the

three species.

Eun Kyoung et al. (2008) reported that the nutritive value of Capsosiphon fulvescens, a

new developing species of marine macroalgae in Korea was compared with common edible green

seaweed Ulva species collected from Korea and Japan. The main minerals analysed in

Capsosiphon and Ulva were sodium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, aluminium and

cobalamin. The content of sodium and potassium of Capsosiphon were significantly greater than

those of Ulva, while manganese and calcium were significantly lower in Capsosiphon. Ulva had a

higher amount of cobalamin. These results suggest that both Ulva and C. fulvescens has greater

potential to be used as human food and as an ingredient in formulated food.

MacArtain et al. (2007) studied the nutritional aspects of seaweeds in terms of fiber,

mineral, lipids and vitamin contents. The results of the study indicated that Results and Discussion

Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Therapeutic use of Selected Seaweeds 23 a daily

intake of eight gram dry weight of seaweed can be consumed for potential nutrient supply.

Dang et al. (2004) studied the nutrient composition of Vietnamese edible marine. Fifteen

species of edible seaweeds were studied and reported to contain higher levels of ash, protein, lipid,

carbohydrate, fatty acids, vitamins, pigments and minerals.

Abulude et al. (2009) studied the phytate and mineral content of twenty two different

varieties of aquatic seaweeds using standard methods. Phytate contents expressed on a dry matter
(DM) basis ranged from 394-490mg/100g. The seaweeds also contained sodium (168-32

mg/100g), potassium (408-1110 mg/100g), magnesium (102-401 mg/100g) and calcium (223-460

mg/100g). Ruprez (2002) stated the mineral content of several brown (Fucus vesiculosus,

Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Chondrus crispus, Porphyra tenera) edible marine

seaweeds. The selected red seaweeds had high content of ash (21.139.3 per cent) and sulphate

(1.35.9 per cent). Brown seaweeds had ash content (30.139.3%) higher than that of red algae.

Ash content of selected marine seaweeds had higher amounts of both macro and micro minerals

and trace elements than those reported for edible land plants. Cristina Taboada et al. (2009)

reported that the commonly consumed algae Ulva rigida had good quality protein since it contains

all the essential amino acids

Teas, Jane. 04 Aug (2009). The dietary intake of laminaria, a brown seaweed, and breast

cancer prevention Based on epidemiological and biological data, Laminaria, a brown kelp

seaweed, is proposed as an important factor contributing to the relatively low breast cancer rates

reported in Japan. Several possible mechanisms for the influence of Laminaria on breast cancer

are proposed: Laminaria is a source of nondigestible fiber, thereby increasing fecal bulk and

decreasing bowel transit time; it changes the post hepatic metabolism of sterols; it contains an

antibiotic substance that may influence fecal ecology; it contains 13 beta glucan, which alters

enzymatic activity of fecal flora; and it stimulates the hostmediated immune response. It is

suggested that Laminaria may play a role in preventing either the initiation of breast cancer or its

promotion by endogenous physiological factors.

According to Joel Fleurence, (1999). Seaweeds are traditionally used in human and animal

nutrition. Their protein contents differ according to the species and seasonal conditions. Little

information is available on the nutritional value of algal proteins and, especially, on the compounds
that decrease their digestibility. This paper is a short review of the biochemical and nutritional

aspects associated with seaweed proteins. Some perspectives on the potential uses of algal proteins

for the development of new foods or additives for human or animal consumption are also

discussed.

Albertus, J. Smit. (2004). Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of seaweed natural products

In the last three decades the discovery of metabolites with biological activities from macroalgae

has increased significantly. However, despite the intense research effort by academic and

corporate institutions, very few products with real potential have been identified or developed.

Based on Silverplatter MEDLINE and Aquatic Biology, Aquaculture & Fisheries Resources

databases, the literature was searched for natural products from marine macroalgae in the

Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta with biological and pharmacological activity.

Substances that currently receive most attention from pharmaceutical companies for use in drug

development, or from researchers in the field of medicine-related research include: sulphated

polysaccharides as antiviral substances, halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchraas

antifouling compounds, and kahalalide F from a species of Bryopsis as a possible treatment of

lung cancer, tumours and AIDS. Other substances such as macroalgal lectins, fucoidans,

kainoids and aplysiatoxins are routinely used in biomedical research and a multitude of other

substances have known biological activities. The potential pharmaceutical, medicinal and

research applications of these compounds are discussed.

According to ChristineDawczynski, RainerSchubert, and GerhardJahreis,(2006). that there

are Amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary fibre in edible seaweed products The nutritional

compositions of 34 edible seaweed products of the Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, Hizikia

fusiforme and Porphyra sp. varieties were analyzed.


This study determined amino acid and fatty acid (FA) distributions and contents of protein, fat,

and total fibre of these seaweed varieties.

Yay Chuk (2006) opined that seaweeds provides organic chlorine component that are

important in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mucilage in seaweed is

soothing to the intestinal tract and promotes peristalsis. The gel in sea vegetables are nutritious

and provide roughage as well. Vitamin A, D and C found in seaweeds help to rebuild the mucous

membranes of the intestinal tract. Recent studies showed that phycobiliproteins present in

seaweeds are beneficial in the prevention or treatment of neuro-degenerative diseases caused by

oxidative stress (Gonzalez et al., 1999; Padula et Boiteux 1999 and Remirez et al., 1999). Erhart

Shep (2001) reported that seaweeds have traditionally been used in Asia to treat heart disease,

hypertension, cancer and thyroid problems. Seaweed consumption may be useful for expectant

mothers, adolescents and elderly to overcome the risk of calcium deficiency (Gonzates et al., 1999;

Padula and Boiteux, 1999). Richards (2010) revealed that consuming seaweeds helps to boost

health and immune system of an individual. Brenden et al. (2008) reported that use of extract from

algae is beneficial for enhancing the skin barrier and act as a photo protector for skin and prevents

skin cancer. Seaweeds are also used in the treatment of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) and called

as poor mans HAART (Jane et al.1981).

According to Brownlee Iain, Fairclough Andrew Hall Anna and Paxman, Jenny (2012)

Edible seaweeds have historically been consumed by coastal populations across the globe. Today,

seaweed is still part of the habitual diet in many Asian countries. Seaweed consumption also

appears to be growing in popularity in Western cultures, due both to the influx of Asian cuisine as

well as notional health benefits associated with consumption. Isolates of seaweeds (particularly

viscous polysaccharides) are used in an increasing number of food applications in order to improve
product acceptability and extend shelf-life. Epidemiological evidence suggests regular seaweed

consumption may protect against a range of diseases of modernity. The addition of seaweed and

seaweed isolates to foods has already shown potential to enhance satiety and reduce the

postprandial absorption rates of glucose and lipids in acute human feeding studies, highlighting

their potential use in the development of anti-obesity foods. As seaweeds and seaweed isolates

have the potential to both benefit health and improve food acceptability, seaweeds and seaweed

isolates offer exciting potential as ingredients in the development of new food products. This

review will outline the evidence from human and experimental studies that suggests consumption

of seaweeds and seaweed isolates may impact on health (both positively and negatively). Finally,

this review will highlight current gaps in knowledge in this area and what future strategies should

be adopted for maximising seaweed's potential food uses.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to know the health benefits seaweeds that will help the human improve
the human health.

1. Is there a significant difference before and after eating seaweed for a month?
2. What are the changes that you feel after eating seaweed for a month?
3. What are the benefits of eating seaweed?

Hypothesis

If we use seaweed in a way that will help us it is very useful specially for health purposes.

The benefits are seaweeds are full of nutrients contain a rich supply of minerals, most prominently
calcium, copper, iodine and iron. They are also rich in protein, fibre and vitamins, specifically

vitamin K and folic acid, while being low in calories and fat

Significance of the Study

This study will convince us that seaweed is not just plants at the bottom of the sea that it is

actually very useful and good for our health. That Sea vegetables are full of nutrients. Coming in

a multitude of colours, textures, shapes and sizes, all types contain a rich supply of minerals, most

prominently calcium, copper, iodine and iron. They are also rich in protein, fibre and vitamins,

specifically vitamin K and folic acid, while being low in calories and fat.

References:

JaneTeas, (2009) The dietary intake of laminaria, a brown seaweed, and breast cancer

prevention from:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01635588209513760

Sea lettuce benefits, (2017) from:

http://www.seavegetablesinfo.com/sea-lettuce-benefits

Benefit of grass kelp, (2016) from:

https://www.doctormahers.com/benefits-of-grass-kelp/

Caulerpa-lentillifera benefits (ar-arsep), (2012) from:


http://www.onlyfoods.net/caulerpa-lentillifera.html

Joel Fleurence, (1999) Seaweed Proteins from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224499000151

Albertus J. Smit, (2004) Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of seaweed from:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:JAPH.0000047783.36600.ef

Serge Mabeau and Jorge Fleurence , (1993) Seaweed in food products from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/092422449390091N

ChristineDawczynski, RainerSchubert, and GerhardJahreis, (2007) Fibres in seaweed

from:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814606007655

Health Benefits Of seaweed, (no year) from:

https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/health-benefits-seaweed

Brownlee Iain, Fairclough Andrew Hall Anna and Paxman, Jenny , (2012) health benefits

of seaweed and seaweed extract from:

http://shura.shu.ac.uk/4980/