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Orientalism.

In its strict sense, the dialects of musical EXOTICISM within Western art music that evoke the East or the orient; in a

broader sense, the attitude toward those same geo-cultural regions as expressed in certain Western musical works, regardless of whether a given work evokes the music of the region or not. The ‘orient’ in the term ‘orientalism’ is generally taken to mean either the Islamic Middle East (e.g. North Africa, Turkey, Arabia, Persia), or East and South Asia (the ‘Far East’, e.g. India, Indochina, China, Japan), or all of these together. (Other uses of the term ‘orientalism’ are discussed at the end of this article.) The strict definition and broad definition of ‘orientalism’, mentioned at the beginning of this paragraph, correlate with two paradigms – one primarily style-focused, the other more comprehensive – for studying any exotic musical work; see EXOTICISM.

Musical orientalism occurred from time to time in the late Renaissance. A widely performed dance called the Moresca was associated, correctly or incorrectly, with the Moors of North Africa and was often performed with dark skin makeup and with jingles around one’s legs. French ballets de cour and Venetian intermedi sometimes included dances for costumed representatives of ‘Asia’ (Christout, 1987; De La Gorce, 1997; Alm, 1996).

Musical orientalism began to flourish extensively in 17th- and 18th-century opera. Many operas were set in such places as Turkey, Persia, India and China, most often in ancient days or even in some vaguely timeless or legendary time-frame. At times these works echoed, directly or indirectly, Europe’s imperial exploits (e.g. Britain’s increasing control of India and North America) and missionary efforts; and/or cultural features that were ‘reported’ (accurately or not) in travelers’ reports and in tales from the Thousand and One Nights (see Coelho, 1997; Harris, 2006; Locke, ‘Alien Adventures’, 2009; and Locke, Musical Exoticism, 2009, pp. 87–110). The best-known exotic opera from before 1800 – Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail (1782) – is set in recent times and specifically reflects the centuries-long struggles between the Ottoman Empire and European countries (in this case Spain) over control of the Mediterranean. Die Entführung and other works of the late eighteenth century make occasional use of a startling style derived from – or imagined as deriving from – the musical traditions of the Ottomans’ Janissary troops (see TURCA, ALLA and Locke, Musical Exoticism, 2009, Fig. 6.1, pp.

114–26).

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, with the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the Middle East became a prime target for the colonization efforts of the Western powers and, accordingly, a much-favoured locale in which to set operas and other musical works. Various standard ‘Middle Eastern’ musical gestures were first established in the popular Le désert of the French composer Félicien David, who had lived in Egypt for two years, and were then exploited by other composers, such as Bizet (Les pêcheurs de perles), Verdi (Aida), Massenet (Thaïs) and Richard Strauss (Salome). This heavily imaginary ‘Middle East’ was also a favoured setting for ballets (La source, with music by Delibes and Minkus) and modern-dance works (e.g. by Ruth St Denis). Many successful works were also set in East Asia, notably Puccini’s Madama Butterfly and Turandot. In recent decades, popular music in Western countries has evoked East Asia and East Asians – especially women of the region – for a variety of expressive purposes, some of them arguably denigrating (see Hisama, 1993, and Scott-Maxwell, 1997).

The frequent decision to place ‘oriental’ opera and (in the Baroque era) dramatic oratorios in an ancient time-frame, or else in a quasi-timeless, ‘legendary’ one, heightened the sense of escapism and also avoided the risk of having an opera comment in too parochial or potentially uncomfortable a manner on current-day political or imperial realities. Social ideology was nonetheless strongly conveyed. Operas and dramatic oratorios of Handel, for example, often featured Byzantine, Persian, Mongol, or Indian rulers who embody stereotypical traits of the ‘Eastern’ male (e.g. violent temper or unrestrained womanizing).

Beginning in the nineteenth century, we regularly encounter what might be called the archetypal orientalist opera plot: a Western male becomes romantically involved with a local female, who is portrayed as sexually inviting and thereby at once attractive and threatening. (Bizet’s Carmen played this story out on European soil. (Dark-skinned Gypsies – more

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correctly known as Roma – were understood to have migrated from vaguely eastern regions such as Egypt or India.) How such love relationships were worked out in the course of a given opera depended on attitudes at the time towards the possible mingling or inherent incompatibility of different ‘races’ (see Parakilas, 1993–4).

Russians and Poles showed a special fascination with relatively nearby (to them) portions of the ‘greater Middle East’, e.g. Central Asia (Borodin’s In the Steppes of Central Asia and Prince Igor) or the Arabian peninsula or Persia (Rimsky- Korsakov’s Sheherazade; Szymanowski’s Symphony no.3 ‘Pieśń o nocy’, ‘Song of the Night’).

Musical works about the Middle Eastern ‘orient’ often show striking parallels to the portrayals of the region in travel journals or other literary works describing the region (see Hunter, 1997) or in paintings by ‘orientalist’ artists (for example Ingres and Gérôme; see Locke, 1991) are particularly striking. The stereotyped characters seen in these writings and paintings, including the (male) tyrant or Muslim fanatic and the seductive almée (dancing woman), find repeated echoes in musical works – for example in Beethoven’s Die Ruinen von Athen (with its Turkish March and Chorus of Dervishes) and in Saint-Saëns’s Samson et Dalila and Strauss’s Salome (each of which features an extended dance that alternates sultry languor and violent pounding).

As a more general term within musical and other writing, ‘orientalism’ can carry a variety of meanings. The noun ‘orientalist’ is the traditional label for a scholar of Middle Eastern languages, culture and archeology; but the term ‘orientalism’ and the adjective ‘orientalist’ have frequently been applied (since Said, 1978) to the entire imperialist system that in the past few centuries has defined, ruled, or ‘spoken for’ the Middle East. The diverse manifestations of orientalism are often now understood as including not just scholarly treatises but also Western colonial regulations, journalistic writings, school textbooks, travel posters, poetry, paintings and operas (see Macfie, 2002, and Irwin, 2006). The term has also been used to refer to European or European-derived attitudes towards any other culture, not just one located in North Africa or Asia. Lipsitz, for example, speaks of Paul Simon’s and David Byrne’s ‘orientalist’ fascination with the musics of sub-Saharan Africa or of the Caribbean; Kramer (1995) does the same for Ravel’s evocation of ancient Greece (the very cradle of Western civilization) in Daphnis et Chloé. In such writings, the term becomes a near-synonym for ‘exoticist’, coloured at times by the implication (or outright accusation) that the resulting musical product is exploitive and demeaningly Eurocentric or – to include North America – West-centric (see Bellman, Introduction, in Bellman, 1997; Head, 2003; and Locke, Musical Exoticism, 2009, pp. 34–8). For the sake of clarity, the word should probably be used only with regard to geographical regions long regarded (by Westerners) as being located ‘in the East’. It should also not be used as a dismissive epithet: if a work does (or did at the time) convey ethnocentric attitudes, this is a point worth making explicitly and in detail.

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<http://www.echo.ucla.edu.proxy.bib.ucl.ac.be:8888/Volume9-Issue1/brett/brett1.html>

> R.P. Locke : ‘Alien Adventures: Exoticism in

R.P. Locke: ‘Alien Adventures: Exoticism in Italian-Language Baroque Opera’, MT, cl (2009), 53–69

R.P. Locke: Musical Exoticism: Images and Reflections (Cambridge, 2009)

Exoticism: Images and Reflections (Cambridge, 2009 ) J. Thym , ed.: Of Poetry and Song: Approaches
Exoticism: Images and Reflections (Cambridge, 2009 ) J. Thym , ed.: Of Poetry and Song: Approaches

J. Thym, ed.: Of Poetry and Song: Approaches to the Nineteenth-Century Lied (Rochester, NY, 2010) [incl. A.C. Fehn and J. Thym,

Orientalism in Oxford Music Online

http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.bib.ucl.ac.be:8888/subs

‘Repetition as Structure in the German Lied: The Ghazal’; H.E. Seelig: ‘Hugo Wolf and Goethe’s “Duodrama”: Toward a “Better Understanding” of the Problematic Divan-Trinity of Life, Love, and Spirit’ and ‘Hugo Wolf’s Ghazal Settings from “Das

Schenkenbuch” of Goethe’s West-östlicher Divan’]

Schenkenbuch” of Goethe’s West-östlicher Divan’] M. Nilsson : ‘The Musical Cliché Figure Signifying the

M. Nilsson: ‘The Musical Cliché Figure Signifying the Far East: Whence, Wherefore, Whither?’

<http://chinoiserie.atspace.com.proxy.bib.ucl.ac.be:8888/>

Ralph P. Locke

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