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Subject: Philippine Politics and Governance Section: Grade 11-HUMSS

November 20, 2017 (Monday) covers activities and actions that are
Topic: Introduction to Concepts of Politics and sanctioned by the state, for example,
Governance elections.
Learning Objectives: Associated with political party and /or
At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to: electoral politics
. The learners Elections = serve as the mechanism whereby
Define the meaning of politics. citizens get the chance to be involved in the election
articulate definitions of politics of individuals who will hold public office either at
differentiate the various views on politic. the national or local levels.

Introduction Citizens= who vote in elections, both exercise their

What is Politics? right of suffrage and perform their civic duty as a
It is present everywhere citizen-to choose who will hold public office, who
at home, in schools or universities, in will represent them, and who will be called to
organizations and workplaces, in social and account.
political -Vote-buying misses its true purpose
movements, and without doubt, in Process Approach
governments. - comprehensive view of politics
manifestation of politics are not the same. - extend to include other institutions within
- Can be the society such as the family, the church,
a. Loud and visible or and other parts of the society.
b. Can be latent , subtle and discreet - how decisions are made and executed for a
a. Loud and visible It encompasses 2 broad types of actions or
-when lawmakers debate intensely over a activities
bill in Congress or when President declares the - those that are authorized by the state
country in a - those that challenge the state.
state of emergency or when local As Huckfeldt and Sprague (1993),
governments enforce curfews. Politics is about winners and losers,
b. Can be latent, subtle and discreet influence and coercion, exchange and
- Paying goods and services that we bargaining, coalitions and factions, conflict
purchase, accepting rules that we are not and compromise.
even aware of their making, and complying - the first defined politics as the
without necessarily understanding why. authoritative allocation of values for a
Politics is desirable because it is important - study of politics as who gets what, when,
to the functioning of any society or and how
Politics is undesirable as it is associated 2nd Activity Video Viewing /News Update
with undesirable practices and outcomes. Instruction:
For example: corruption, violence, fraud, Based on the news you have researched,
partisanship, discrimination, etc. Answer the following question:
1.What is issue or problem?
What is Politics? 2. Is it important to solve or address the problem?
It affects everyone----from all walks of life. Why or why not?
3. Whose responsibility is it to solve the problem?
Politics: Arena vs. Process Why?
A. Arena approach 4. Who are likely to benefit once the problem is
-where politics happens (the venue) solved? Why?
B. Process approach 5. Do these people deserve to benefit from the
-how politics happens (activity/process) resolution of the problem? Why or why not?

Arena Approach
Formalistic conception
limits politics to the state and all its
instrumentalities and related institutions,
its hierarchy of offices and personal, laws,
and policies.
Subject: Philippine Politics and Governance Section: Grade 11-HUMSS
Who Gets What, When and How
Politics Politics as Who Gets What, When and How
exists and extends even outside of the understanding that politics is a BATTLEFIELD
government Harold Laswell
"polis" "The influential are those who get the most of
city-state what there is to get."
"politika" Positivism
things concerning the polis; first book written empirical research, backed up with data
by Aristotle Normativism
Government facts arent enough, values are facts
formal institutions Power
Governing the ability to influence an outcome to achieve
other organizations/institutions, ex. an objective or ability to influence someone to
Corporations, Universities, Church act contrary to the way he/she would choose to
Organizations etc. Latent
Governance hidden
system, process, or framework that solves self- Manifested
interest and collective-interest shown
Self-Interest and Collective Interest The Four Typologies of Power
what are the two elements of politics? Force, Persuasion, Manipulation and
Politics as Arena Exchange
within the government's parameters Force
Arena Approach the exercise of power by physical means
formalistic conception of politics Persuasion
Process Approach non-physical way, using power makes its
considers both formal political arena and the intentions known
informal processes surrounding it Manipulation
Politics as Process non-physical, conceals intentions
"everything is politics" Exchange
Institutionalism the use of incentives
government, organizations and systems. Decision-making
constitutional studies, public administration power is to those whose opinions sway those
and new institutionalism of others
Behaviorism Agenda-setting
observable behavior of people. what do the selection of what is and what is not subject to
actors do? how we could explain their reason. public consideration and political deliberation
Easton's definition of Politics Preference-shaping
The Authoritative Allocation of Values for subverting actual interests of others
The Authoritative Allocation of Values for governance-prelims-flash-cards/
Society Political predicament
Occurs when people need a common policy or when the people
understanding politics as a set of interactions propose mutually exclusive and problematic suggestions for the
David Easton common policy.
Political rest
understanding politics as a set of interactions A situation where all agree on the action. All are satisfied, but
Inputs not all are happy.
it includes demands and supports Politics
A special exercise on power involving some problems. It
Inputs: Support chooses an action.
favorable political environment (enabling laws, Government
public suppo A formal institution of a politically organized society with the
authority to take and implement bound decisions. It also is a
Inputs: Demands group of people that governs the community by setting and
it is whats asked for; the government should administering public policy.
respond To be able to achieve what one wants. The source of this are
Outputs wealth, reputation, relationships and networks.
decisions and policies made by the state Influence
The ability to persuade or convince others to behave in a certain
Feedback Loop way.
the means to communicate the response of the Coercion
public Control by force.
Laswell's definition of Politics
Subject: Philippine Politics and Governance Section: Grade 11-HUMSS
The right to influence behavior. Based on a recognized Deconcentration
obligation to obey instead of any form of coercion or The transfer of functions to lower level administrative units
manipulation. designed by the central office.
Political authority Devolution
The right to make and enforce rules or laws. The transfer of powers and authorities to lower level political or
Sources of authority local government units.
Traditional authority, charismatic authority, and rational-legal Debureaucratization
authority. The transfer of powers and authorities to units not within the
Legitimacy purview of government.
Denotes a general belief that the powers of the state to make Local government unit
and enforce rules are justified and proper. A territorial and political subdivision of the state which are
Tirany constructed by law and have substantial control of local affairs
A political system when one governor or sovereign rules. with officials elected or otherwise locally selected.
Oligarchy Judicial activism
A political system when a few governors or sovereign rule. Courts actively seek cases where the judges can and should
Democracy creatively re-interpret the texts of the constitution and the laws in
A political system when many governors or sovereign rule. order to serve the judges' own considered estimates of the vital
Monarchy needs of contemporary society when the elected political
A political system when one rules all. branches of the federal government and/or the various state
Aristocracy governments seem to be failing to meet these needs.
A political system when a few rules all. Lupong Tagapambayapa
Constitutional government A peace officer in the barangay.
A political system when many rules all. Issues in the judicial branch
It combines ignorance with numbers. Clogged dockets, delays, lack of personnel, nature of the judicial
Aristotle says democracy a worst form of government because... system, and human failures.
Constitutional liberalism Powers in the judiciary branch
Coincided with the growth and development in the western Adjudicatory, judicial review, and incidental.
hemisphere. Combination of liberty to protection of certain Adjudicatory power
natural rights and obedience to a system based on an objective A first power in the judicial branch for courts of justice to settle
and impartial law. actual controversies.
Constitutionalism Judicial review power
Refers to the obedience to a system based on an objective and A power in the judicial branch to determine whether a law is
impartial law. Adds the system of checks and balances designed constitutional or not. This power may be abused.
to prevent accumulation of power and abuse of office. Incidental power
Liberalism Related to the effective discharge of the judicial functions such
Refers to liberty and the protection of certain natural rights. as the power to punish persons held in contempt.
Liberal democracy Judicial and Bar Council
Emerges while constitutional liberalism when democracy A group in the judicial branch that presents a list of judges and
combines into the system. ombudsmen able to enter the field, later appointed by the
Components of liberal democracy president.
Just and free elections, set of rights, and rule of law. Civil case
Illiberal democracy A case brought up against another party.
A system which does not have just and free elections, set of Criminal case
rights, and rule of law. A case brought up by the government against someone
Political culture suspected of breaking the law.
The system of empirical beliefs, expressive symbols and values Public trust
that define a situation that political action occurs. A position of rendering service to the public.
Political socialization Impeachable officials
A process by which political culture is transmitted, is maintained, President, vice president, members of the Supreme Court,
is transformed and is created. commission on civil service, elections, and audit and the
Agents of political socialization ombudsman, are subject to the process.
Family, education, mediums of communication, and the church. Impeachment
Constitution A constitutional process for the removal of certain public officials
Direct legislation from the people. A familiar convention redacts from office.
it. Indicates the general scheme. Basis for impeachment
Statute Treason, bribery, other high crimes, graft and corruption,
Legislation from the representatives of the people. Usually goes betrayal of public trust, culpable violation of the Constitution
specific. Sandiganbayan
State A court that has jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases
A community of people that is more or less numerous that involving graft and corruption.
occupy a definite territory that is free from external control and Ombudsman
possesses an organized government to which a huge group of Officers charged with representing the interests the public by
inhabitants render habitual obedience. Comprises of the investigating violation of rights.
population, territory and government. Also a political concept, a Governance
fiction or legal entity. The process whereby elements in society wield power, authority
Sovereignty and influence and enact policies and decisions concerning
Supreme and legal authority of the state to enforce the will on public life.
the members by coercive sanctions. Internal revenue allotment
Nation The national taxes of the country.
A ethnic concept or sociological collection of individuals that
possesses on non-political common characteristics.
Public policy and-governance-flash-cards/
To resolve or prevent a public problem. Comes from public
Effect of the central government delegating powers to the local
government. It also refers to a state or condition in a
governmental system where there is dispersal of power or
authority from the center. Allows maximum participation of the
citizens to governmental and community activities.