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Environmental Impact


Prepared by
Dr Pradheeps
Assistant Professor
Centre for Geoinformatics
Jamsetji School of Disaster Studies
Tata Institute of Social Sciences
Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the
environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan,
policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move
forward with the proposed action.

CBD Convention on Biological Diversity - Environmental Impact

Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely
environmental impacts of a proposed project or development,
taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and
human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.

UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool

used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts
of a project prior to decision-making.
MoEF - Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an important
management tool for ensuring optimal use of natural resources for
sustainable development.

EPA- Environmental Protection Agency - Environmental Impact

Assessment (EIA) is the process of examining the anticipated
environmental effects of a proposed project - from consideration of
environmental aspects at design stage, through consultation and
preparation of an Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR),
evaluation of the EIAR by a competent authority, the subsequent
decision as to whether the project should be permitted to proceed,
encompassing public response to that decision.
Environmental impact assessments commenced in the
1960s Silent Spring Rachel Carson Pesticides
1969 NEPA- National Environmental Policy Act
enactment -formal status for EIA
India WPA Wildlife Protection Act -1972,
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act -1974
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981
Environmental Protection Act 1986
Biodiversity Act -2002
Stages in EIA
Assessment and evaluation of impacts and
development of alternatives
Reporting the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or
EIA report,
Review of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
Monitoring, compliance, enforcement and
environmental auditing
Why is it important?
to ensure that development is planned and implemented with
biodiversity and environment in mind

to apply impact assessment to projects, programmes, plans and

policies with a potential negative impact on biodiversity.

to promote the establishment of clear conservation targets

to facilitate collection of environmental data and preparation of

management plans

to provide for a high level of protection of the environment and to

promote sustainable development by contributing to the integration of
environmental considerations into the preparation and adoption of
specified Plans and Programmes