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REPUBLIC OF IRAQ

MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION


AND SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

FINDING LOCAL ALTERNATIVES FOR THE


FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

A THESIS
SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF BAGHDAD IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

BY
HAIDER SALIM JASIM
(B.Sc. 1998)

Supervised by
DR. DR.
FALEH H. M. ALMAHDAWI MOHAMMAD N. HUSSAIN

2015 1436
DEDICATION

To my father and mother


The ones who taught me to be the person who I am today
Their love, care, help , encouragement and support
cannot be quantified, ALLAH Mercy Them

To my Family
For those who supports me during my study
and customize their time for me
Acknowledgments

I have pleasure to express my deep gratitude and thanks to my supervisors :

Dr. Faleh Hasan AL-Mahdawi , Petroleum Engineering Department, University

of Baghdad and Dr. Mohammad Nasir Hussain, Petroleum Research and

Development Center/Ministry of Oil, whatever success I have got is due to their

dedication ,encouragement, guidance and enthusiasm. Their knowledge

research and ideas have been invaluable throughout the work.

Thanks to the Lectures and the Staff members of the Petroleum Engineering

Department for their help.

Thanks to Petroleum Research and Development Center for providing necessary

data, especially to Drilling Research Department.

Appreciation and gratefulness to Mrs. Nazik Nouman Mahmood Responsible of

Drilling Research Section and The Crew working in laboratory.

Appreciation and gratefulness to masters Aman, Zeyad, and Amer.

Thank you and Allah bless you all

HAIDER SALIM

I
ABSTRACT

During the last few years cost of oil well drilling increased due to the use of
modern technique including equipment and materials that are used by specialized
companies, where studies and researches were required to decrease costs.

In this study we tried to find some local alternatives for foreign drilling fluid
materials that are aimed to decrease oil well drilling cost as well as the cost of
drilling fluid materials which represent about 30 % of total materials cost for
drilling oil well.

The first part of this study investigated and tested seven local materials
(Tragacanth gum, Albizia lebbeck seeds, Date palm seeds, Date palm leaf rachis,
Date palm fiber, Wheat straw and Plum tree gum) under API Specification13A for
drilling fluids materials.

The second part of this study tested and compared Tragacanth gum and Plum tree
gum with similar foreign materials (filter loss control polymers, viscosifier
polymer and bentonite) for same weight concentrations (0.5,1,1.5, 2.5 and 3 gm) to
show physical and rheological properties.

The third part of this study tested Tragacanth gum and Plum tree gum under
different temperature values and up to 70C (this temperature is close of Mishrif
formation temperature in almost of southern fields) to show temperature effect on
this materials.

The results approved that, the two local alternatives, Tragacanth gum and Plum
tree gum are filter loss control agents and increase viscosity as minimal for filter
loss control. So Tragacanth gum and Plum tree gum can be used as filter loss
control materials and alternative part for Bentonite to prepare water base drilling
fluids, otherwise decreasing solids concentration in drilling fluids that protect rig
equipments and pay-zone.

II
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............. I

ABSTRACT ............. II

TABLE OF CONTENTS.......... III

LIST OF TABLES ... VI

LIST OF FIGURES . VII

NOMENCLATURE.... IX

CHAPTER ONE : INRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION . 2

1.1 DRILLING FLUIDS SELECTION: DATA REQUIREMENT .. 2


1.2 FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF DRILLING FLUIDS ... 3
1.3 THE CHAPTERS OF THESIS ..... 3
CHAPTER TWO : LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 UPGRADING OF MONTMORILLONITE CLAYSTON ..... 6

2.2 IMPROVING LOCAL POLYMERS AND BENTONITE PERFORMANCE

FOR DRILLING FLUIDS APPLICATIONS ............... 10

CHAPTER THREE : DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

3.1 THEORETICAL DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS ......... 16

3.1.1 WEIGHTING MATERIALS .... 16

3.1.2 VISCOSIFIERS............. 17

3.1.3 FILTRATION CONTROL MATERIALS ........... 22

3.1.4 RHEOLOGY CONTROL MATERIALS ..................... 23

3.1.5 ALKALINITY AND PH CONTROL MATERIALS ................... 23

3.1.6 LUBRICATING MATERIALS ................... 24

3.1.7 SHALE STABILIZING MATERIALS ........ 24

3.2 CURRENT DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS IN FIELDS ... 24

3.2.1 MI PAC UL ..... 24

3.2.2 POLY-SAL HT ................. 25

III
3.2.3 DUO VIS .. 26

3.2.4 M-I GEL ........... 28

3.3 LOCAL ALTERNATIVES FOR DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS ........ 29

3.3.1 TRAGACANTH GUM ............ 29

3.3.2 ALBIZIA LEBBECK SEEDS ......... 32

3.3.3 DATE PALM SEEDS ......... 36

3.3.4 DATE PALM LEAF RACHIS .... 38

3.3.5 DATE PALM FIBER .. 39

3.3.6 WHEAT STRAW .... 40

3.3.7 PLUM TREE GUM ..... 42

CHAPTER FOUR : LABATAORY PROCEDURES AND APPARATUSES

4.1 TECHNICAL-GRADE LOW-VISCOSITY CMC (CMC-LVT)...... 46

4.2 TECHNICAL-GRADE HIGH-VISCOSITY CMC (CMC-HVT) ... 51

4.3 STARCH ........ 58

4.4 THE LABORATORY APPARATUS ......... 64

4.4.1 VISCOMETER .............. 64

4.4.2 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ........ 65

4.4.3 LOW PRESSURE FILTER PRESS ...... 72

4.4.4 FILTERATION .... 74

4.4.5 MUD BALANCE .... 77

4.4.6 DENSITY ..... 78

4.4.7 THERMO CUP ....... 79

4.4. 8 PH METER ....... 81

CHAPTER FIVE : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.1 TRAGACANTH GUM TEST . 84

5.2 ALBIZIA LEBBECK SEEDS TEST ..... 94

5.3 DATE PALM RACHIS TEST ... 95

5.4 DATE PALM FIBER TEST ... 96

IV
5.5 DATE PALM SEEDS TEST ...... 97

5.6 WHEAT STRAW TEST ...... 98

5.7 PLUM TREE GUM TEST ..... 99

5.8 TRAGACANTH GUM and PLUM TREE GUM under TEMPERATURE TEST ...105

5.9 TESTS SUMMARY .... 109

CHAPTER SIX : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 CONCLUSIONS ...... 111

6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ...... 113

REFERENCES ... 114

APPENDICES ....118

APPENDIX - A - PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

APPENDIX - B - FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS PRICES

APPENDIX - C - FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS CONSUMPTION FOR


ONE DRILLED WELL

APPENDIX - D - TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH AND


DEVELOPMENT CENTER

V
LIST OF TABLES

Table No. Title Pages

4-1 CMC-LVT Physical Specifications 46


4-2 CMC-HVT Physical Specifications 52
4-3 Starch Physical Specifications 59
5-1 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Tragacanth Gum 84
5-2 CMC HVT Physical Specifications Test of Tragacanth Gum 85
5-3 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Tragacanth Gum 85
The Nine Samples of water base mud with different quantities of Bentonite and
5-4 Additives. 86

5-5 Drilling Fluids Properties of Nine Blank Samples (surface conditions) 87


5-6 Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Tragacanth Gum 88
5-7 Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and M-I PAC UL 89
5-8 Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and DUO-VIS 90
5-9 Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and M-I Gel 91
5-10 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Albizia Lebbeck Seeds 94
5-11 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Albizia Lebbeck Seeds 94
5-12 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Rachis 95
5-13 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Rachis 95
5-14 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Fiber 96
5-15 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Fiber 96
5-16 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Seeds 97
5-17 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Seeds 97
5-18 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Wheat Straw 98
5-19 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Wheat Straw 98
5-20 CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Plum Tree Gum 99
5-21 CMC HVT Physical Specifications Test of Plum Tree Gum 100
5-22 Starch Physical Specifications Test of Plum Tree Gum 100
5-23 Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Plum Tree Gum 101
5-24 Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Polysal HT 102
Test Rheological Properties for Fresh water bentonite (blank sample) with adding
5-25 105
Local Material ,Tragacanth Gum as different temperature
Test Rheological Properties for Fresh water bentonite (blank sample) with adding
5-26 106
Local Material , Plum Tree Gum as different temperature

VI
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Title Page

2-1 Location of Wadi Bashira Montmorillonite Claystone in Iraq 9


2-2 Location of the study area (Tar Al-Najaf area) 12
3-1 Characteristic Atomic Structure of Clays 19
3-2 Structure of Polymers 20
3-3 Tragacanth Gum 29
3-4 Albizia Lebbeck Seeds 32
3-5 Guar plant and its Chemical composition 34
3-6 Date Palm Seeds 36
3-7 Date Palm Leaf Rachis 38
3-8 Date Palm Fiber 39
3-9 Wheat Straw 40
3-10 Plum Tree Gum 42
4-1 The Model 800 8-Speed Electronic Viscometer 64
4-2 Suggested Range of Plastic Viscosity 68
4-3 Suggested Range of Yield Point 70
4-4 Low Pressure Filter Press 72
4-5 Effect of Temperature on Fluid Loss Duo to Change in Filtrate Viscosity 76
4-6 Mud Balance 77
4-7 Thermo Cup 79
4-8 PH Meter 81

5-1 Effect of additives concentrations on filter loss property for Tragacanth Gum and 92
M-I PAC UL
5-2 Effect of additives concentrations on Apparent viscosity (AV) for Tragacanth 92
Gum, M-I PAC UL, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel
5-3 Effect of additives concentrations on plastic viscosity (PV) for Tragacanth Gum, 93
M-I PAC UL, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel
5-4 Effect of additives concentrations on Yield point (YP) for Tragacanth Gum, 93
M-I PAC UL, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel
Effect of additives concentrations on filter loss property for Plum Tree Gum and
5-5 103
PolySal-HT
Effect of additives concentrations on Apparent Viscosity (AV) for Plum Tree
5-6 Gum , PolySal-HT , DUO-VIS and M-I Gel 103

Effect of additives concentrations on plastic Viscosity (PV) for Plum Tree Gum
5-7 ,PolySal-HT , DUO-VIS and M-I Gel 104

5-8 Effect of additives concentrations on Yield Point (YP) for Plum Tree Gum 104
,PolySal-HT, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel

VII
Effect of Temperature on Filter Volume for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum
5-9 107
Effect of Temperature on Apparent Viscosity for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree
5-10 107
Gum
Effect of Temperature on Plastic Viscosity for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree
5-11 108
Gum

5-12 Effect of Temperature on Yield Point for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum 108

VIII
NOMENCLATURE

n Rheological index
k Consistency index
CEC Cation Exchange Capacity
API American Petroleum Institute
CMC-LVT Carboxymethylcellulose Low-viscosity, technical-grade
CMC-HVT Carboxymethylcellulose High-viscosity, technical-grade
R600 Shearing Stress reading at 600 rpm ,
R300 Shearing Stress reading at 300 rpm
R200 Shearing Stress reading at 200 rpm
R100 Shearing Stress reading at 100 rpm
R60 Shearing Stress reading at 60 rpm
R30 Shearing Stress reading at 30 rpm
R6 Shearing Stress reading at 6 rpm
R3 Shearing Stress reading at 3 rpm
10sec GEL Gel Strength at 10 sec , lb/100ft2
10min GEL Gel Strength at 10 min , lb/100ft2
AV Apparent Viscosity , AV=R600/2 , cp
PV Plastic Viscosity , PV=R600-R300 , cp
YP Yield point , YP=PV-R300 , lb/100ft2

IX
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER-1- INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION
The aim of this study is to find local alternatives for foreign drilling fluid materials.
In petroleum industry, drilling muds are one of the most important elements in any
drilling operation. The drilling muds has a number of functions which must all be
optimized to ensure safety and minimum hole problems. The failure of drilling
muds to meet its design functions can prove extremely costly in terms of materials
and time, and can also jeopardize the successful completion of the well and may
even result in major problems such as kicks ,blowouts or stuck pipe.

1.1 DRILLING FLUIDS SELECTION: DATA REQUIREMENT [1] P

There are basically two types of drilling muds: water-based and oil-based,
depending on whether the continuous phase is water or oil. Also, there are a
number of additives which are added to either change the mud density or change
its chemical properties.
Much information should be collected and used to select drilling mud or fluids for
a particular well. It must be noted that it is shared to utilize two or three altered
mud kinds to drill a single well.
Pore pressure /fracture gradient plots to evaluate the maximum / minimum mud
weights to be expended on the whole well.
Offset well files (drilling completion details, mud logs, mud recaps) from a
similar wells in the region to design successful mud systems.
Geological information of the prognoses lithology.
Casing design program and casing seat depths. The casing scheme divides the
well into separate sections; each hole section may have different formation types,
different pore pressure regimes and different reactivity to mud. Basic drilling mud
properties required for each open hole section before it is used.

2
CHAPTER-1- INTRODUCTION

1.2 FUNCTIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF DRILLING FLUIDS


Velocity of cuttings can be careful as the change between the growing velocity of
the mud in the annulus and the velocity of settling of the solids. The velocity of
settling be contingent on the size, figure and bulk of the cuttings; on the rheology
of mud and more chiefly on its viscosity, lowest viscosity value is necessary to get
the top match between the velocity of fluid and the velocity of cuttings.Hanging
the cuttings when rotation is stopped: Drilling mud rotation should be still when
drill pipe length is to be extra. During shut down of pump, the cuttings increasing
in the annulus are no longer transmitted upwards and be able to settle out.The
thixotropic stuff of the drilling mud that saves the cuttings suspended by hang
together when the mud is no longer moving. Almost all sticky fluids are
thixotropic. The features such as viscosity, yield point, gel strength, n and k values
can be computed.

1.3 CHAPTERS OF THE THESIS:

1.3.1 Chapter two:

In this chapter we made a review for many previous literatures which deals with
drilling fluids materials and laboratory works to investigate the new materials in
order to use as a drilling additives.

1.3.2 Chapter three:

In this chapter we divided drilling fluid materials to three types as follow


1- THEORETICAL DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS.
2- CURRENT MATERIALS IN FIELDS.
3- LOCAL ALTERNATIVES FOR DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS.

Many drilling fluid additives shall be used to develop the properties of the drilling
mud. The variety of drilling mud materials as an additive reflects the complexity of
drilling mud systems currently in use. The complexity is usually increased daily as

3
CHAPTER-1- INTRODUCTION

more difficult and challenging drilling conditions are faced. We assess ourselves to
the most common types of additives used in water-based and oil based muds.

1.3.3 Chapter four:

In this chapter, API Specification 13A tests were illustrated and described the
apparatuses that are used to complete the study.

1.3.4 Chapter five:

In this chapter, physical specifications of many materials were tested under API
Specification 13A. At the beginning this material was tested under as CMC
LVT physical specifications in order to test it as Filter-loss-control material like
CMC. Then it was tested as CMC HVT physical specifications to see if it can
increase the viscosity in minimal.
After that the local material was tested as Starch physical specifications.

1.3.5 Chapter six:

In this chapter we listed the conclusions of the outside results and then we gave the
recommendations for the future studies.

4
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE
SURVEY
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

2.1- UPGRADING OF MONTMORILLONITE CLAYSTONE

Grim,1968 [2] : P P

Showed that montmorillonite occupies a prominent position among industrial


minerals. It is the main constituent of bentonite and the detrimental factor of its
properties. Regardless of origin or occurrence, montmorillonite and bentonite are
two names of exactly the same mineral.

Grim,1968;Ainsworth et al. 1994;Bala et al. 2000;and Schenning,


2004:[2][3][4][5] pointed out that montmorillonite belongs to smectite class of clay
P P

minerals, which has 2:1 type of layer structure, that means each layer consists of
three sheets, an octahedral alumina sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral
silica sheets.Because of the isomorphous substitution of Mg+2 and/ or Fe+2for P P P P

Al+3in the octahedral sheet and Al+3 for Si+4 in the tetrahedral sheet, the particle of
P P P P P P

montmorillonite is negatively charged at the surface and positively charged at the


edges. The electrical neutrality is attained by other cations (external to the lattice)
that reside in the inter-laminar region, between the lattice layers.These cations
(usually Na+1or Ca+2) are relatively easily exchangeable, giving montmorillonite
P P P P

high cation exchange capacity phenomenon.

Al-Bassam and Al-Saadi(1985);Khdair and Al-Saady (1987) and Al-Bassam


and Saeed (1989): [6][7][8] P P

Showed in their exploratory works of low grade with montmorillonite content;


averaging about 68 wt%, associated with clay and non-clay impurities including
attapulgite, calcite, quartz, apatite, gypsum, and halite. These impurities account
about for 32 wt% of the deposit. Calcite, however, represents the major impurity, it
averages about 15 wt% of the deposit.

6
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

Keren, 1988; Alther, 2004; and Bowyer and Moine, 2008: [9][10][11]
P P

Pointed out that, in industry, montmorillonite is generally either sodium (Na+1) or


P P

calcium (Ca+2) type. Sodium montmorillonite, where the inter-laminar region is


P P

occupied mainly by sodium ions (dominant exchangeable ion), has very high
swelling capacities and thixotropic properties when added to water, therefore, it is
highly valuable as drilling muds and other uses requiring thixotropic suspension.
The Ca-montmorillonite has no value for such application. It has a very little
swelling ability; flocculation and settling are much more rapid than for sodium
montmorillonite . Therefore, this type is directed largely for bleaching of oils.

Al-Ajeel et al., 1990: [12]


P P

Described that, the montmorillonite claystone deposit, showed a poor response to


sodium activation and failed when tested (API specification) for drilling mud.

Hassan and Abdel-Khalek, 1998: [13] P P

Established that, by exposing Egyptian Ca-bentonite slurry to a hydrocyclone


classifier and giving the ended flow with thinned HCl, led to active removal of
calcite scums.

Al-Ajeel et al., 2003: [14]


P P

Showed that same results were achieved when slurry of Iraqi Ca-montmorillonite
claystone was treated with dilute HCl to remove calcite impurities. The same
authors also claimed that an effective removal of the calcite gangue could be
achieved by carrier flotation (the carrier material used was light polymer beads).

Shaoxian et al., 2005: [15] P

Found that, dispersion and sedimentation processes with sodium phosphate as


dispersant was very effective in beneficiating China Ca-montmorillonite claystone.
The reject from this process was mainly quartz sand.

7
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

Al-Ajeel et al., 2007: [16]


P P

Were also reported that dispersion sedimentation technique with tetrasodium


pyrophosphate was very effective in separating carbonate impurities from Iraqi
attapulgite montmorillonite claystone deposit, and the reject was mainly calcite.

Abdul Wahab A. et al., 2010:[17] P

Presented that, wet beneficiation treating of Ca-montmorillonite claystone in Wadi


Bashira, which fits to the Digma Formation fig (2-1), has been planned using
tetrasodium pyrophosphate as dispersant mediator. The claystone is sited in Iraq in
the Western Desert. It is of a low score, associated with changed amount of clay
and non-clay rock impurities. Calcite (CaCO3) founds the major volume of these
scums. In this study, the result of different limits (slurry solid concentration,
dispersant amount and dispersant / slurry mixing eras) on the capability of the
beneficiation process were investigated and followed through the dimension of
CaO% values of the endorsed claystone. Gravity Sedimentation and centrifugal
were verified to separate the impurities since the clay postponement . The
procedure variables were enhanced and yield of claystone was assessed. It was
exposed that the beneficiation procedure was very real in promotion the
montmorillonite claystone and accomplished of producing a top score
montmorillonite (89% montmorillonite) by CEC of 85 meq/100 gm.
The impartial of the their effort was, to study the beneficiation possible of
montmorillonite claystone in Wadi Bashira , using dispersal sedimentation
technique, and to found the best disorder of the procedure parameters (e.g.
dispersant adding, slurry rousing time, slurry solid attentiveness and centrifugal
parting).

8
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

Figure (2-1) Location of Wadi Bashira Montmorillonite Claystone in Iraq[17]


P

9
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

2.2 IMPROVING LOCAL POLYMERS AND BENTONITE


PERFORMANCE FOR DRILLING FLUIDS APPLICATIONS

Rasheed Abdul Kareem Rasheed, et. al. 2002: [ 18 ]P P

Used a natural product to prepare local decrease filtrate for water base drilling
fluids in the local markets they noted that one of these polymers was available in
large amount accidental resultant from trees and was accumulated on these trees,
they worked on these polymers as a alternatives : For CMC and starch this
alternatives materials considered as one type of polysaccharides which are
prepared by sediments calcium by sodium carbonates then filtrated and evaporated
or from the alternatives reaction with Sodium Hydroxide, also they prepared
alternatives material salt by using ionic exchange by passing solution of
alternatives material through cation exchange resin to prepare potassium, sodium,
lithium, ammonium salts as a partial replacement of bentonite that is gives a
chance by decrease solids concentration in drilling fluids and positive effects on
pay zones and drilling equipment.

Emad S. AL-Homadhi, 2004: [ 19 ]


P

Specified that the present ingesting of bentonite clay of the drilling processes in
Saudi Arabia alone be able to reach above 100 thousand tons a year and all of it is
introduced from USA. The big consumption and the top export cost of this
substantial lead to an effort to find a native substitute. Their work emphases on the
option of the use of native bentonite clay ore as a basic substantial for drilling
fluids cast off to drilling oil and gas wells. The only recognized bentonite crag in
the kingdom is in Khulnas zone, 70 km north Jeddah adjacent to Makkah-
Madinah way. API specifications for satisfactory drilling mud was the center for
assessing the local bentonite The local mud properties can be better frugally by
addition some chirp materials to the arranged mud to improve its viscosity and
filter loss (such as CMC, polymer, extenders). Also shearing speed be able to use

10
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

as an improvement method to enhanced the clay suspension dispersion rate, and


increase viscosity and reduction filter loss. But the used shearing speed should be
incomplete to a practical and inexpensive speed. The bentonite extender can be
either a salt or a polymer, it improves viscosity buildup by somewhat flocculating
the bentonite postponement. Sodium carbonate is an example of a salty that can be
extra as an extender. Drenched raw bentonite by a mix of sodium salt caused,
through ion inter change, in a upper sodium bentonite gratified. More active
extenders than mineral salts are the top molecular mass linear polymers.

Nawfal A.Hammodi, et. al. 2006:[20] P P

Studied the possibility of unravelling and intent of celestite from its native ore
(celestite manner sandstones of the Dibdibba Formation from Tar Al-Najaf area,
Fig(2-2) which contains 56 % SrSO 4 . Also to establish technical route to prepare
R R

concentrate celestite and determine its suitability as an alternative weighting


material for oil well drilling mud. The concentration process included two stages:
Stage( A), devastating the native celestite ore, milling then wet sieving to less than
0.106 mm. The purity of concentrate celestite was of 71.23 %. Stage( B), milling
the concentrate produced from stage (A) to particle size less than 0.075 mm. The
physical tests, which were carried out in the Oil Research and Development Centre
on the concentrate celestite (produced from Stage A) indicated that this concentrate
could be used as a partial substitute for the imported barite ,which is usually used
as weighting material for oil well drilling mud .

11
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

Figure (2-2) Location of the study area (Tar Al-Najaf area)[20]


P

12
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

A. O. Olatunde, et. al. 2011: [21]


P P

Industrialized water based drilling fluid by means of bentonite, Arabic gum, guar
gum and polyanionic cellulose PAC. The rheological behavior and the filter loss
stuff of each drilling fluid industrialized is slow using API suggested standard
process. The developed drilling fluid mixtures are hot bowled by heated air rolling
kiln and aging lockups for 16 hours to learning temperature constancy of the
drilling fluid flavors. They detected that the industrialized drilling fluid organism
has rheological possessions where fluid loss rule is required for minimum
performance in oil well drilling. They also saw that Guar gum displays the
uppermost gel strength and the steadiest rheological properties by very base filter
loss property though Arabic gum had not fixed rheological properties with steady
gel strength and good filter loss property. These consequences display that water
founded drilling fluid be able to use as an replacement for other flavors as it is
willingly available in profitable quantity in the north part of Nigeria.

Mehaysen A. Mahasneh, et al.,, 2012: [22]P P

Investigated the rheological properties and performance of untreated Jordanian


bentonite in order to evaluate its suitability and ability as an agent for water based
drilling fluid materials.They used clay mineral( Bentonite ) as a basic drilling fluid
materials used to drill water, oil and Gas wells. Their work focused on the
evaluation and utilization of Jordanian bentonite (clay minerals) in order to specify
the acceptable drilling mud. The improvement of the properties of bentonite used
as a drilling mud by adding some chemical materials such as (CMC L.V, CMC
H.V). Bentonite extender) where obtained in order to determine the performing of
bentonite as mud substance compared with the standard API specification.The
study was conducted at Ain Al-Baida at Al-Azraq Basin, placed at north eastern of
Jordan, because the place revealed a huge amount of clay minerals. It is found that
Ain AL-Baida bentonite, north of Al-azraq Basin is composed of smectite, illite,

13
CHAPTER-2- LITERATURE SUVREY

kaolonite, with an average ratio of alumina and silica 8.4-15 %, 28-51 %


respectively; however the expandable values of bentonite are more than 70%. it is
also found that the surface area of this bentonite is between 370- 487 cm2/g and the
P P

cation exchange capacity(CEC) of this bentonite is around 42 Meq /100gm. But


there were no studies about evaluation on the rheology performance of this
bentonite.

Ali. A. Rabah et al., 2012: [23] P P

characterized the local bentonite and estimated its potential usage as a mud.
Samples of bentonite sediment from Om Ali, Sudan are composed. The
examples are examined for mineralogical gratified using X-ray deflection (XRD)
and chemical gratified using atomic preoccupation Spectroscopy. The examples
were analyzed as well for dampness content, viscosity and pH. It was found that
the main mineral is montmorillonite and the slight minerals are kaolinite, illite and
quartz. The chemical arrangement shows top silica content (67.90 %) and minor
quantities of Fe+3, Ca+2 and Mg+2 cations. The native bentonite was likened with
P P P P P P

the trade bentonite and standard bentonite required by API 13A. The native
bentonite has meaningfully top silica content in contrast with the trade and API
bentonite (59.22 %). It has too low viscosity in contrast with trade bentonite. The
features of local bentonite type it potential for request as drilling fluid when
exposed to simple beneficiation procedures such as dry or wet techniques.
Therefore, they have a lot of industrial requests such as viscosity refomer in muds,
as foundry sand connecting material and a lot of others and their appliances are
heavily hooked on their structure, physical properties and composition. As a result,
it is very significant to inspect the qualitative properties of bentonite sign of the
accepted performance.

14
CHAPTER THREE

DRILLING
FLUID
MATERIALS
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

In this chapter we divided drilling fluid materials to three types as follow


1- THEORETICAL DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS.
2- CURRENT DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS IN FIELDS.
3- LOCAL ALTERNATIVES FOR DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS.

3.1 THEORETICAL DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS: [1][24] P P

There are various drilling fluid additives which are consumed to develop the key
properties of the mud. The variety of fluid additives reflects the complexity of mud
systems currently in use. The complexity is also increasing daily as more difficult
and challenging drilling conditions are encountered. The most common types of
additives used in water-based and oil based muds. These are:
3.1.1 WEIGHTING MATERIALS
Weighting materials or densifers are solid material which when suspended or
dissolved in water will increase the mud weight. Greatest weighting materials are
inexplicable and need viscosifiers to enable them to be suspended in a fluid. Clay
is the most common viscosifier. Mud weights higher than water (8.33 ppg) are
obligatory to switch formation pressures and to help overcome the effects of
sloughing or heaving shales that may be met in stressed areas, and under
description of maximum commonly used allowance materials ;
a. Barite
Barite (or barytes) is barium sulphate, BaSO 4 it is consider of the most commonly
R R

used weighting material in the drilling industry. Barium sulphate has a specific
gravity in the range of 4.20 - 4.60. Barite is normally used when drilling fluids
weights in extra of 10 ppg are needed. Barite can be used to attain masses up to
22.0 ppg in together water- based and oil -based drilling fluids.
b. Iron Minerals
Iron ores must specific gravities in extra of 5. They are added erosive than another
weighting substances and may cover toxic materials. The inert iron arises from
some ores sources counting: ilmenite, haematite, siderite and magnetite. The most

16
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

usually used iron reserves are: Iron Oxides: mainly haematite, Fe 2 O 3 . Haematite
R R R R

can be used to reach densities up to 22.0 ppg in together water- based and oil -
based muds.
c. Calcium Carbonates
(CaCO 3 ) is one of the most extensively weighting agents especially in non
R R

harmful drilling fluids. Its main benefit comes from its aptitude to respond and
melt in hydrochloric acid. Later any filter cake shaped on productive areas can be
easily detached thereby improving production. It needs a specific gravity of 2.60 -
2.80 which bounds the maximum density of the mud to about 12.0 ppg calcium
carbonate is readily available as ground limestone, marble or oyster shells.
d. Lead Sulphides
Galena (PbS) has a specific gravity of 7.40 - 7.70 and be able to create mud
weights of up to 32 ppg. Galena is expensive and toxic and is used mainly on very
high pressure wells.
e. Soluble Salts
Soluble salts are used to formulate solids free fluids and are used mainly as
workover and completion fluid. Depending on the type of salt used, fluid densities
ranging from 9.0 - 21.5 ppg (sg =1.08 - 2.58) can be prepared.

3.1.2 VISCOSIFIERS
The ability of drilling fluids to suspend drill cuttings and weighting substances
depends entirely on its viscosity. Without viscosity, all the weighting material and
drill cuttings would settle on the bottom of the hole as soon as circulation is
stopped. One can think of viscosity as a structure built within the water or oil phase
which suspends solid material. In practice, there are many solids which can be used
to increase the viscosity of water or oil. The effects of increased viscosity can be
felt by the increased resistance to fluid flow; in drilling this would obvious itself by
enlarged pressure losses in the rotating system. These materials used to deliver
viscosity to muds is given under and started with clay minerals.

17
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

a. CLAYS
Clays are defined as natural, earthy, fine-grained substance that grows plasticity
when rainy. They are formed from the chemical weathering of igneous and
metamorphic rocks. The major source of commercial clays is volcanic ash; the
glassy component of which readily weathers very readily, usually to bentonite. A
clay particle has a characteristic atomic structure in which the atoms form layers,
fig. (3-1) there is three layers which give the clays their special properties:
Tetrahedral layers: These are made up of a flat honeycomb sheet of tetrahedra
Containing a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygens. The tetrahedral
layers are linked to form a sheet by sharing three of their oxygen atoms with
adjacent tetrahedra.
Octahedral layers: These are sheets composed of linked octahedras, each made
up of an aluminium or magnesium atom surrounded by six oxygens. Again, the
links are made up by sharing oxygen atoms between two or three neighboring
octahedras.
Exchangeable layers: These are layers of atoms or molecules bound loosely into
the structure, which can be exchanged with other atoms or molecules. These
exchangeable atoms or molecules are very important as they give the clays their
unique physical and chemical properties. The nature of the above layers and the
way they are stacked together define the type of clay mineral. For this reason, they
are several types of clays available. The most widely used clay is bentonite.
Bentonite it is considered the most widely used additive in the oil industry. The
name, bentonite, is a commercial name used to market. A clay product is found in
the Ford Benton shale in Rock Creek, Wyoming, USA. Bentonite is consisting
from fine-grained clays that contain not less than 85% Montmorillonite which
belongs to the class of clay minerals known as smectites. Bentonite is classified as
sodium bentonite or calcium bentonite, depending on the dominant exchangeable
cation. In fresh water, sodium bentonite is more reactive than calcium bentonite

18
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

and hence, in terms of performance, bentonite is classed as "high yield" (Sodium


Bentonite) or "low yield" (Calcium Bentonite).

Figure (3-1) Characteristic Atomic Structure of Clays[24]


P

Attapulgite belongs to a quite different family of the clay minerals. In this family,
the tetrahedra in the tetrahedral sheets of atoms do not arranged in the same way,
but some tetrahedra in the sheets are inverted. Instead of crystallizing as platy
crystals, attapulgite forms needle-like crystals. Attapulgite-based muds have
excellent viscosity and yield strength and retain these properties when mixed with
salt water.

19
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

b. POLYMERS
Polymers are used for filtration control, viscosity modification, flocculation and
shale stabilization. When added to mud, polymers cause little change in the solid
content of the mud. Polymers are chemicals consisting of chains made up of many
repeated small units called monomers. Polymers are formed from monomers by a
process called polymerization. The repeating units (monomers) that make up the
polymer may be the same, or two or more monomers may be combined to form
copolymers. Structurally, the polymer may be linear or branched and these
structures, either linear, branched, or both, may be cross-linked, i.e. tied together
by covalent bonds, see Figure (3-2). Types of Reactive Groups, The chemical
reactivity of polymers is mainly dependent on the type of groups that are attached
to the molecule and the number of groups. The groups that can be attached to the
polymer can be divided into three groups:
1. Nonionic or neutral
2. Anionic or negatively charged
3. Cationic or positively charged

Linear Branched Random Graft

Cross linked Block

Figure (3-2) Structure of Polymers [24]


P

20
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

Types of Polymers:
1- Starches
Starch is a natural polymer used in drilling muds primarily to reduce filtrate loss
and to provide viscosity. Starch is the main component of the seeds of cereal grains
(such as corn, wheat and rice) and of tubers (such as potato and tapioca). Starches
are subjected to fermentation by many microorganisms (yeasts, molds, bacteria)
and unless a mud containing starch is saturated with salt or the pH is about 12, a
biocide should be added. Starch disperses in water to form a swollen particle that
physically blocks the pore spaces. This action is independent of the salt level in the
mud. The addition level of starch is relatively high in the region of 3-6 lb/bbl.
Chemical modification of starch can significantly increase its stability to
temperature and mechanical shear and the correct type of starch must be selected to
match the prevailing bottom hole temperatures.
2- Guar Gum
Guar gum is a natural polymer produced from the seeds of guar gum plants. Guar
gum is an nonionic polysaccharide polymer with a molecular weight of about
220,000. Guar gum can also be attacked by microorganisms unless protected by
high pH, high salinity, or a biocide. Guar gum flocculates drilled cuttings when
added in low concentrations while drilling with water.
3- Xanthan Gum
Xanthan gum (Microbial Polysaccharides) is a water-soluble biopolymer produced
by the action of bacteria on carbohydrates, the bacteria are killed after the
fermentation process and the gum extracted by precipitation with isopropyl
alcohol. After the alcohol is recovered, the gum is dried and milled. The polymer
has a molecular weight of around 5,000,000. Xanthan gum can build viscosity in
fresh, sea and salt water without the assistance of other additives. Uniquely the
molecule forms a rigid rod like structure in solution. This gives very high
viscosities or gels at low shear rates. Consequently, xanthan polymer gives
excellent suspension properties that cannot be matched by other polymers at

21
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

equivalent concentrations. Xanthan gum polymer muds are resistant to


contamination by anhydrite, gypsum and salt.
4- Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)
Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (usually abbreviated as CMC) is an anionic
polymer produced by the treatment of cellulose with caustic soda and then
monochloro acetate. The molecular weight ranges between 50,000 and 400,000.
Being anionic, CMC easily adsorbs on clay surfaces. Filtration is sharply reduced
by low concentrations of CMC in clay based drilling fluids. Higher molecular
weight CMC is most effective in filtration control. CMC is used for viscosification
and filtration reduction in heavily weighted muds.
5- Polyanionic Cellulose
Polyanionic cellulose (PAC), is a semi-synthetic polymer which has been modified
to increase its tolerance to salt (up to saturation) and calcium.
6- Hydroxyethyl Cellulose
Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) is made by a similar process to CMC but with
ethylene oxide after the caustic soda. Its main advantage lies in its ability to
hydrate in all types waters. The polymer does not contain any ionic groups and
therefore it is ideally suitable as a viscosifier for clear fluid completion and other
brine- based fluids. The polymer exhibits highly developed thioxotropy or shear
thinning characteristics, but does not exhibit any yield stress or gellation
properties.

3.1.3 FILTRATION CONTROL MATERIALS


Materials of filtration control are compounds which reduce the quantity of fluid
that shall be misplaced from the mud into a subsurface formation affected by the
pressure difference among the formation pressure and the hydrostatic pressure of
mud. Bentonite, thinners, starches, polymers and deflocculants all function as
filtration control agents. Bentonite imparts viscosity and suspension as well as
filtration control. The flat, "plate like" structure of bentonite packs tightly together

22
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

under pressure and forms a firm compressible filter cake, preventing fluid from
entering the formation Polymers such as (PAC) and (CMC) reduce filtrate mainly
when the hydrated polymer chains absorb onto the clay solids and plug the pore
spaces of the filter cake preventing fluid seeping through the filter cake and
formation. Starches function in a similar way to polymers. The free water is
absorbed by the sponge like material which aids in the reduction of fluid loss.
Starches form very compressible particles that plug the small openings in the filter
cake. Thinners and deflocculants function as filtrate reducers by separating the
clay flocks or groups enabling them to pack tightly to form a thin, flat filter cake.

3.1.4 RHEOLOGY CONTROL MATERIALS


When efficient control of viscosity and gel development cannot be achieved by
controlling viscosifier concentration, materials called "thinners", "dispersants",
and/or "deflocculants" are added. These materials cause an alteration in the
chemical and physical connection among solids and melted salts such that the
structure and viscous forming stuffs of the mud are reduced. Thinners are also used
to reduce filtration and cake thickness, to counteract the effects of salts, to
minimize the effect of water on the formations drilled, to emulsify oil in water, and
to stabilize mud properties at elevated temperatures. Materials commonly used as
thinners in clay- based drilling fluids are classified as:
Plant tannins.
lignitic materials.
lignosulfonates.
Low molecular weight, synthetic, water soluble polymers.
3.1.5 ALKALINITY AND PH CONTROL MATERIALS
Additives of alkalinity and pH control contain: NaOH, KOH, Ca (OH) 2 , NaHCO 3
R R R R

and Mg(OH) 2 . These are compounds used to attain a specific pH and to maintain
R R

optimum pH and alkalinity in water base fluids.

23
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

3.1.6 LUBRICATING MATERIALS


Lubricating materials are used mainly to reduce friction between the wellbore and
the drill string. This will in turn reduce torque and drag which is essential in highly
deviated and horizontal wells. Lubricating materials include: oil (diesel, mineral,
animal, or vegetable oils), surfactants, graphite, asphalt, gilsonite, polymer and
glass beads.

3.1.7 SHALE STABILIZING MATERIALS


Essentially, shale stabilization is attained by the deterrence of water
communicating the exposed shale unit. This can happen when the additive
encapsulates the shale or when a specific ion such as potassium actually enters the
exposed shale section and neutralises the charge on it. Shale stablisers include:
high molecular weight polymers, hydrocarbons, potassium and calcium salts (e.g.
KCl) and glycols.

3.2 CURRENT DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS IN FIELDS:[25] P

The following current foreign drilling fluid materials manufactured by M.I


SWACO thats used in southern fields. Laboratory compared this foreign materials
with local alternatives. In appendix (A) showed the other foreign drilling fluid
materials.

3.2.1 MI PAC UL
Additive of filtration control that is making minimal rheology rises MI PAC UL
polyanionic cellulose is considered a lowviscosity, techgrade fluidlosscontrol
polymer. It is intended for situations where filter control is wanted with only
minimal enlarges in rheology. MI PAC UL polymer will act well in all brine
requests, especially saltwaterbase fluids. MI PAC UL polymer might be used at
all densities in either dispersed or nondispersed systems. MI PAC UL polymer

24
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

will summarize solids to rule dispersion of dynamic shale. MI PAC UL polymer


panels fluid loss in freshwater, seawater, KCl and salt water. MI PAC UL
stabilizer aids in the creation of a tough, thin filter cake to minimalize the potential
for discrepancy sticking. MI PAC UL polymer is effective in regions where the
generation of viscosity accumulation should be avoided, but filtration switch is
required. MI PAC UL polymer will create an envelope around unprotected shales
and cuttings for encapsulation that decreases dispersion and recovers wellbore
integrity. Encapsulation keeps the shale from exposure to water that tends to
undermine the shale.
a. Advantages
Actual in controlling filter with minimal rise in rheology
Functions at all pH ranges
Ecologically acceptable
Fights bacterial attack, it doesnt need biocides or preservers
Presents in a wide change of waters.

3.2.2 POLY-SAL HT
POLY-SAL HT additive is a top-quality, preserved polysaccharide castoff to
provide filter control and rheology constancy in all kinds of water-base muds This
non-ionic, normal polymer is active in all greasepaint waters, including top-salinity
and top-hardness brines for example KCl,NaCl, MgCl 2 and compound brines. R R

a. Typical Physical Properties


Physical appearance................................................. Off-white powder
Specific gravity........................................................ 1.5
pH (1% solution) ..................................................... 4 - 7
Solubility in water ....................................................Soluble
Bulk density ............................................................ 19-44 lb/ft3 (300-700 kg/m3)
P P P P

POLY-SAL HT polymer is intended to decrease fluid loss and raise viscosity in all
water-base drilling fluids. It is specially applicable and inexpensive in brine and

25
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

saturated-salt schemes where other crops are not real. This comprises clear brines
used for workover and completion processes POLY-SAL HT additive encapsulates
elements with a protective polymer covering to function as a defensive colloid. It is
actual as a mud stabilizer in addition to a fluid-loss reducer when drilling vanish
formations such as salt or anhydrite and when drilling hydra table shales POLY-
SAL HT starch covers a preservative; though, it is recommended to treat dynamic
system be treated by additional biocide, especially if the mud system has a little
salinity In low pH, low salinity and freshwater requests, the system should be
checked for the attendance of bacteria and preserved by an appropriate biocide if a
difficulty develops.
b. Advantages
-An economical, one-sack, conserved product for viscosity and filter control
-Active in a wide series of make-up waters, counting high- hardness brines,
high-salinity
-Purposes in NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 and multifaceted brines
R R R R

-Achieves satisfactorily over a varied pH range


-Minimizes filtration harm to production zones
-Pre-gelatinized for big efficiency
-Delivers wellbore constancy through filter control and encapsulation
c. Limitations
- Preservative rapidly damages when exposed to temperatures in excess of
275F (135C)
-Can require the adding of a biocide
-Less active in top-pH/top-calcium, saturated brine systems
-Could not be castoff in zinc brines
3.2.3 DUO VIS
Xanthan gum is a high-molecular-weight biopolymer, dispersible, non-clarified,
used for cumulative viscosity in water-base mud systems. Small amounts provide
weight material and viscosity suspension for altogether water-base mud systems.

26
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

DUO-VIS biopolymer needs the unique able to produce a fluid that is greatly
shear-thinning and thixotropic.
a. Typical Physical Properties:
Physical appearance ...... Cream-to-tan powder.
Specific gravity.................................................................... 1.5
Bulk density.......................................................................... 50 lb/ft3 (800 kg/m3)
P P P P

b. Applications:
The primary function of DUO-VIS biopolymer is to rise viscosity for cuttings
transport and suspension. It performs efficiently in all water-base fluids, reaching
from highly weighted to little-solids systems. This comprises seawater, salt ,
freshwater, and heavy-brine fluid systems. DUO-VIS biopolymer brings an
optimized rheological outline with elevated less-shear-rate-viscosity and top shear-
thinning characteristics. These characteristics frequently result in fluids with
upturned flow properties, i.e., the yield of point is being big than the plastic
viscosity. Shear-thinning fluids have less effective viscosities at the top shear rates
met both inner the drill string and at the bit. This low real viscosity makes for
minimal pressure fatalities and standpipe pressures, thus allowing enhanced
hydraulics and enlarged rates of penetration. Equally, for the low shear rates
skilled in the annulus, DUO-VIS biopolymer allows the fluid to have a top
effective viscosity that sufficiently suspends cuttings and cleanup of the well.
DUO-VIS biopolymer might be added slowly across the hopper to stop lumping
and reduce waste. It should be extra at the rate of around one 25 lb sack each seven
minutes. The time needed for the product to yield its final viscosity is contingent
on salinity, heat and shear. The quantity of DUO-VIS biopolymer required is
contingent upon the desired viscosity. Usual concentrations range as of 0.25 to 2
lb/bbl (0.71 to 5.7 kg/m3) for most mud systems. Especial fluids and hard hole-
cleaning conditions can need higher concentrations of, up to 4 lb/bbl (11.4 kg/m3).

27
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

c. Advantages
Highly effective viscosifier ; with minimal treatments producing significant
results
Shear-thinning rheological profile for improved hydraulics
Lowest frictional pressure fatalities for extra hydraulic horsepower at the bit and
low, high shear-amount viscosity for extreme penetration rates
In the annulus the Viscous laminar flow enhanced wellbore stability with
maximum hole-clean up and suspension capacity
Mixtures easily
d. Limitations
Trivalent ions like chromium and iron might cause biopolymer rain and loss of
viscosity or cross linking
Intolerant of big-pH or big-calcium-ion situations
DUO-VIS systems might be pretreated by either sodium bicarbonate or SAPP
and citric acid before to drilling cement
Topic to bacterial degradation, a biocide might be used to stop fermentation
Somewhat anionic nature of DUO-VIS biopolymer needs special mixing process
when joint with cationic substances

3.2.4 M-I GEL


Best-grade Wyoming bentonite
M-I GEL is a best-grade Wyoming bentonite that yields (91-100)bbl of 15 cp mud
per ton (1.7 m3/100 kg). It is used as a prime filter cake-building, filter-control and
P P

suspension mediator in freshwater systems, and has request in all water-base mud
systems. M-I GEL viscosifier is a big-quality product that encounters the API
terms for bentonite.

28
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

3.3 LOCAL ALTERNATIVES FOR DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

3.3.1 TRAGACANTH GUM : [26][27] P

Figure ( 3-3 ) Tragacanth Gum[26]


P

29
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

Tragacanth gum is a type of natural gum obtained from several class of Middle
Eastern peas of the genus Astragalus, counting A. adscendens, A. microcephalus
A. tragacanthus A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx. About of this class are known
together under the shared names goats thorn and locoweed. The
name TRAGACANTH arises from the arrival of the exuded gum, which inclines
to form ribbons alike in appearance to a goat thorn (from the Greek tragos
meaning goat and akantha meaning Thorn). The gum is occasionally
called Shiraz gum, or gum dragon. The initial source of tragacanth gum is the
desert highlands of western and northern Iran, chiefly the Zagros Mountains
region. Iran is the largest producer of better quality Tragacanth gum. In Iran, the
gum is reaped seasonally by creating an incision on the higher part of the taproot
and gathering the exuding gum. The streamers of gum are carried to trade centers
for dispensation and exportation.
a. Uses of Tragacanth Gum:
Tragacanth gum is a tasteless, odorless, viscous, water-soluble mix of
polysaccharides got from sap which is exhausted from the origin of the dried
and plant.
The gum leaks from the plant in warped ribbons or flecks which can be
ground.
It engrosses water to develop a gel, which can be enthused into a paste.
The gum is castoff in vegetable-tanned pelt working as an edge burnishing
compound and slicking, and is infrequently used as a stiffener in fabrics.
As a mucilage or adhesive, it has been castoff as a topical action for burns.
It is used in medicines and foods as an stabilizer, emulsifier, texturant , and
thickener additive.
Tragacanth gum is too used as a binder to catch all the powdered basils
together. Its water solubility is perfect for ease of employed and an even
feast. Only half as much is wanted, compared to gum arabic or somewhat
similar

30
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

Tragacanth gum is fewer common in produces than other gums, for example
guar gum or arabic gum , largely since most tragacanth is developed in
Middle Eastern countries which have wobbly trade relations with countries
anywhere the gum is to be castoff.
b. Properties of Tragacanth Gum:
Tragacanth covers from 20% to 30% of a water-soluble portion called
tragacanthin (comprised of arabinogalactan and tragacanthic acid).
It also covers from 60% to 70% of a water-insoluble portion called bassorin.
Tragacanthic acid is comprised of D-galacturonic acid, D-galactose, D-
xylose, L-fructose, , and another sugars.
Tragacanthin is calm of uronic acid and arabinose and melts in water to form
a viscous colloidal mix, while bassorin undulations to form a thick gel.
Tragacanthin partly dissolves and partly swells in water yielding a thick
colloid.
The biggest viscosity is touched only after 24 hours at room heat or after
heating for 8 hours at high heats.
The viscosity of these mixtures is generally thought to be the uppermost
amongst the plant gums. The solutions are steady to heat and below a wide
variety of pH levels.

c. The difference between Tragacanth Gum and CMC:


The difference between Tragacanth Gum and CMC is explained below.
Tragacanth Gum the real thing!
Tragacanth Gum is a material which is resulting from the sap of a plant in the
Middle East. The sap is exhausted from the stem of the plant and then dries. This
forms a powder which doesnt taste of anything, smells terrible but is ideal for
thickening up fondant (also known as sugar paste). The crush is a light cream
colour and very fine so you would not need to breathe in too much when sensing it

31
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

or it can reason you to cough as it arrives your lungs. As Tragacanth Gum is a


natural produce, we respect it is the real thing.
CMC
CMC stands for or Carboxymethyl cellulose. In fact, it is the chemical version of
Tragacanth Gum. It looks exactly the same. CMC tends to work a little bit faster
than tragacanth gum.

3.3.2 ALBIZIA LEBBECK SEEDS: [28][29] P

Figure (3-4) Albizia Lebbeck Seeds[28]


P

32
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

Albizia lebbeck is a species of Albizia, native to Indomalaya, New Guina and


Northern Australia and widely cultivated and naturalized in other tropical and
subtropical regions. English names for it include lebbeck, lebbek tree, flea tree, fry
wood, koko and woman's tongues tree. The last name is a show on the through the
seeds kind as they clatter inside the shells. Actuality one of the ulmost widespread
and shared species of Albizia worldwide, it is often simply called "siris" though
this term may mention to any nearby shared member of the type. Its uses include
environmental management, forage, medicine and wood. The present study
evaluates the composition and antioxidant potential of various parts of the Albizia
lebbeck plant. Compositional studies indicated carbohydrates as major components
while siphoning was found as a major ant nutrient in both pods and seeds.
Potassium was found in the highest amount and copper in the lowest. The amino
acid profile indicated that arginine and lysine are present in excessive amounts in
seeds while glutamic acid and aspartic acid are present in the highest
concentrations in pods. While the linoleic acid was detected as the major fatty acid
in pod and seed oil, -tocopherol was determined as the major tocopherol
component in oil. In vitro antioxidant assays such as ferric reducing antioxidant
power, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and Trolox equivalent
antioxidant capacity showed that the examined extracts have potent antioxidant
potential.
Albizia lebbeck was chased so its similar to Guar been and the last not found in
Iraq.

33
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

GUAR GUM : [30][31]


P P

Figure (3-5) Guar plant and its Chemical composition[30]


P

Guar gum, also called guaran , is a galactomannan. the ground endosperm of guar
beans. The guar pits are de husked, milled and screened to find the guar gum. It is
typically shaped as a free-graceful, off-white dust. The globe production of guar

34
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

and its derivatives is 1.0 Million tonnes. Industrial guar accounts for about 70% of
the total demand. Chiefly it is used as transport hanging agent in Hydraulic
cracking Process. In 2012 guar costs augmented by 900-1000 %. The main cause
for this large scale price elevation was inventory form by companies as
Schlumberger and Halliburton, amidst the distress of shortage of guar of drilling
due to ongoing drought in Rajasthan. 2013 was a sturdy year for guar sowing and
creating in India. In 2013 the trade of Guar Gum was so robust that this modest
cash crop of India exceeded the agro trade commodity tilt of INDIA. The total
spreading area design by 21 percent in 2013 to scope 10.6 million acres.
Chemical composition of guar gum, also recognized as Gum cyamopsis or guar
flour, is copied from the ground endosperm of the pits of the guar plant,
tetragonaloba Cyamopsis (L) Taub. (syn. psoraloides Cyamopsis). This seedling
has refined in India and Pakistan countries. Guar splits are found after parting of
the case and the seed. After warmth handling, he hull is easy to discrete by either
attrition milling or various kinds of impact mills. The endosperm is improved by
sifting from the greater germ and body fractions, and formerly crushed to obtain
powder guar gum which may be further purified explained by closure in water,
rainfall and recovery by isopropanol or ethanol. It is named as purified (extracted)
guar gum. Purified guar gum in the market normally standardized with sugars.
Guar gum is mostly consisting of the high molecular weight polysaccharides which
comprised of galactomannans which are containing of a linear series of (14)-
related -D-mannopyranosyl units with (16)-linked -D-galactopyranosyl
remains as side manacles. The mannose: galactose relation is about 2:1. The
molecular weight range is 50,000-8,000,000. The Purified guar gum has top
galactomannans gratified and no longer grips the cell structure. It is a white to
yellowish white, almost odorless, free-graceful powder by a bland palate. Guar
gum is inexplicable in organic thinners. It is soluble in icy water without boiler to
form a greatly viscous liquid. solutions of Guar gum are very fix in the pH 4.0-

35
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

10.5 rate and have defending capacity Addition of a minor quantity of sodium
borate to a water liquid of guar gum shall impact the formation of gel.

3.3.3 DATE PALM SEEDS : [32] P

Figure (3-6) Date Palm Seeds[32]


P

Date palm, (Phoenix dactylifera), tree of the palm family (Arecaceae, or Palmae),
found in the Islands ,Canary, northern Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan, India, and

36
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

the U.S. state of California. raises about 23 meters high. Its stem, strongly patent
with the pruned stubs of old leaf bases, fires in a top of graceful, brilliant, pinnate
leaves about 5 meters long. Floral points branch after the axils of leaves that arose
the previous year. Male and female florae borne on separate plants. Under farming
the female flowers are artificially pollinated.is a one-seeded fruit, or berry, usually
oblong but varying much in shape, consistency, size of flesh , color and quality,
according to the conditions of culture , with economic value of all shares of date
palm yield products.
Date palm seeds contain 0.565.4% [lauric acid]. They can also be treated
chemically as a source of [oxalic acid]. The seeds of two date palm were analyze
for their main chemical conformation. Studies were too conducted on possessions
of oil detached from date pits. The next values were got: protein 5.17 and 5.56 %,
oil 12.67 and 10.19 %, Ash 1.12 and 1.15 % and complete carbohydrate 81.0 and
83.1 %. Gasliquid chromatography uncovered that the main unsaturated greasy
acid was oleic acid (47.7-41.3%), though the major saturated greasy acid was
lauric acid (17.8%) . myristic Capric, stearic , myristoleic, linoleic, palmitoleic ,
and linolenic acids likewise found microstructure and viscosity. Results presented
these could be usage in pharmaceutical, food products and cosmetic.

37
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

3.3.4 DATE PALM LEAF RACHIS:[33] P

Figure (3-7) Date Palm Leaf Rachis[33]


P

To discuss petiole (rachis) blight, a brief outline to palm leaf structure is needed.
There are three types of palm leaves. All own a base, a blade, and a petiole. The
leaf seat is the part that ascribes to the stem though the leaf petiole is the stem of
leaf connecting the leaf base by the leaf blade.
Chemical structure of Rachis was planned and showed that they current amounts of
holocellulose, cellulose and lignin similar to those faced in hardwood and
softwood . Extractives in dissimilar solvents and ash fillings are relatively top.
Moreover, ash arrangement valuation exposed that silicon is the major element
(17.7%) for P. oceanica. High ash quantity may be considered as staid drawbacks
of P. oceanica, in the papermaking and pulping context. Oppositely, the

38
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

possessions of those the ensuing pulp, got from a normal soda-anthraquinone


culinary, demonstrated the aptness of this agrarian by-product for papermaking.
initial tests presented on unrefined tissue suspensions and pointer sheets from date
palm rachis in terms of freeness, Water holding Value and powered properties
permitted confirming the decent quality of rachis fibers of date palm.

3.3.5 DATE PALM FIBER:[34] P

Figure (3-8) Date Palm Fiber[34]


P

Fibers are the solid insoluble portion of date flesh, mostly composed of cellulose,
lignin , insoluble proteins and hemicellulose,. The quantity of these fibers is top in
early stages of fruit life. Though, during the maturing process, cellulose and
pectinase enzymes current in the fruit disruption insoluble polymers to lesser
soluble molecules. The quantity of crude fiber in commercial fruits is range from
26%, though it could be awake to 10% for low-class date fruits. These fibers be

39
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

able to be used as nutritional fibers free to oil and water approval, and swelling
volume. Palm date have several nutritious values such as antioxidant action. The
antioxidant action could be unpaid to its lignin content, since lignin shown to
possess antioxidant and antimicrobial actions .Palm date fibers are composed of
two types of fibers, one with high lignin relaxed (dark color) and the extra with
low lignin tranquil (white color). It is likely to discrete these two elements by
recurrent centrifugation and parting of non-dry date fibers. The conformation of
the high- and low-lignin fibers detached from palm date. High-lignin fibers
comprised 75% lignin , 15.8% polysaccharide, though the low-lignin fibers contain
27.2% lignin , 53.1% polysaccharide. Fiber of Palm date contains of 46% low-
lignin fiber and 54% high-lignin fiber

3.3.6 WHEAT STRAW:[35][36]P

Figure (3-9) Wheat Straw[35]


P

40
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain
and chaff detached. Straw types up about half of the yield of cereal crops such
as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat.
Wheat straw is primarily collected of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The main
pieces of WS are nodes, internodes and leaves. Chemical analysis of WS signs that
it is rich in carbohyderates (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), proteins, minerals
(calcium and phosphorous), silica, acid detergent fibers and ash . Along with these
devices, WS is also rich in bioactive combinations and vitamins .However the
accurate composition of macro and micronutrients can differ from cultivar to
cultivar , stages of plant growth, the nature of soil and fertilizer to be used and
climatic locations . The physical content unprotected that parts of wheat plant like
internodes (68.5%), leaf-sheath (20.3%), leaf-blade (5.5%), grains and debris
(1.5%) nodes and fines (4.2%) shows speckled mass percentage of WS portions .

41
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

3.3.7 PLUM TREE GUM : [37][38][39]


P

Figure (3-10) Plum Tree Gum[37]


P

Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural source, adept of producing a large


increase in a solutions viscosity, even at small absorptions. In the food industry
they are used as thickening agents, emulsifying agents, gelling agents and

42
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

stabilizers. In other, flocculating agents, swelling agents, clarifying agents,


encapsulating agents, foam stabilizers, etc. Most often these gums are found in the
woody elements of plants or in seed coatings.
Natural gums can be branded according to their origin. They can also be
categorized as uncharged or ionic polymers (polyelectrolytes). Examples include
Natural gums found from seaweeds:
Polyelectrolytes:
Agar
Alginic acid and Sodium alginate
Carrageenan
Natural gums obtained from non-marine botanical means :
Polyelectrolytes:
Gum arabic , from the sap of Acacia trees
Gum ghatti, from the sap of Anogeissus trees
Gum tragacanth , from the sap of Astragalus shrubs
Karaya gum , from the sap of Sterculia trees
Uncharged:
Guar gum , from guar beans
Locust bean gum , from the seeds of the carob tree
Beta-glucan, from oat or barley bran
Chicle gum, an older base for chewing gum obtained from the
chicle tree
Dammar gum, from the sap of Dipterocarpaceae trees
Glucomannan , from the konjac plant
Mastic gum, a chewing gum from ancient Greece obtained from
the mastic tree
Psyllium seed husks, from the Plantago plant
Spruce gum, a chewing gum of American Indians obtained
from spruce trees

43
CHAPTER-3- DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS

Tara gum , from the seeds of the tara tree


Natural gums created by bacterial fermentation:
Polyelectrolytes:
Gellan gum
Uncharged:
Xanthan gum
Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with (14) bonds. It can
be made of several thousands of glucose units. It is one of the two components
of starch,the other being amylopectin.Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohhydrate
molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by
glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or
oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly divided. Examples
include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural
polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Polysaccharides are often quite
heterogeneous, containing slight reforms of the repeating unit. Humans have
settled some of these polysaccharides into useful yields, including xanthan gum,
dextran, gellan gum, diutan gum welan gum and pollutant. Most of these
polysaccharides exhibit useful visco-elastic properties when thawed in water at
very little levels.

44
CHAPTER FOUR

LABORATORY
PROCEDURES
AND
APPARATUSES
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

In this chapter API Specification 13A tests was showed and described the
apparatuses that used to complete the research as followed:

4.1 TECHNICAL-GRADE LOW-VISCOSITY-CMC (CMC-LVT):[40] P

a. Principle
1- Technical-grade low-viscosity carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC-LVT) is an
alkali metal salt of carboxy methyl cellulose. The producer shall maintain
documents of the examination of the cellulosic rare material usage.
2- The product is a free-graceful or granulated dust and is not usually purified of
the by-products formed in the reaction.
3- CMC-LVT shall be thought to meet the supplies of this worldwide Standard if a
compound sample representing no extra than one day's manufacture conforms to
the bodily specifications of Table (4.1), signifies the product shaped and is skillful
by the manufacturer.

Table (4.1) CMC-LVT Physical Specifications [40]


P

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivate presence No

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90

Filtrate volume , milliliters Maximum 10

4- CMC-LVT will be free of slightly starch or starch spinoffs. As a result,


qualitative starch willpower will be performed before happening with the CMC-
LVT presentation testing. If starch is located, no further analysis should be
executed and the sample will be disallowed.

46
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

b. Procedure Determination of starch and starch derivatives


1- This test identifies the presence of starch and starch derivatives in water-soluble
polymers, like CMC-LVT, supplied in powder or granular form.
2- An iodine/iodide solution is mixed with a solution of the polymer being
analyzed. In the presence of amylose (linear fraction of starch), a colored complex
is formed.
3- Prepare the iodine/iodide solution using a 100 ml 0.1 ml volumetric flask. Add
10 ml 0.1 ml of the 0.1 N iodine solutions. Add 0.60 g 0.01 g of the potassium
iodide (KI) and dissolve by gently swirling the volumetric flask. Bring to the 100
ml mark with deionized water and mix thoroughly. Record the day of preparation.
Store the prepared iodine/iodide solution in a sealed container, in a dark, cool, dry
place. It may be used for up to three months. After the date of expiry, discard the
solution and prepare again.
4- Prepare a 5 % solution of the water-soluble polymer under examination (CMC-
LVT) by adding 380 g 0.1 g of deionized water to the container. Add 20 g 0.1
g of the water-soluble polymer under examination at an identical rate above a time
intermission of 60 s to 120 s while stirring on the mixer. The water-soluble
polymer shall be added into the vortex away from the impeller shaft to minimize
dusting
5- After stirring for about 5 min 0.1 min, remove the flask from the churn and fix
the sides of the mixing container by the spatula to eliminate or dislodge any
polymer adhering to the container walls. Be sure that the entire polymer clingy to
the spatula is combined into the mixer.
6- Measure the pH. If the pH value is less than 10, raise the pH to 10 by adding,
drop-wise, the dilute NaOH solution.
7- Change the ampule on the churn and continue to mixing. Total mixing time shall
be equal to l 20 min 1 min.
8- Put 2 ml 0.1 ml of the polymer solution in a test tube and add, drop-wise, in
portions of 3 drops at a time, up to 30 drops of the iodine/iodide solution.

47
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

9- Prepare three blank tests using only deionized water with 3 drops, 9 drops and
30drops, respectively, of iodine/iodide solution forcomparison.
10- After every 3 drops addition, swirl the test tube gently and compare the colour
of the solution under examination with the blank tests. The colour comparison
should be made against a white background.
c. Interpretation Determination of starch and starch derivatives
1- The sample under examination gives a yellow color comparable to one of the
blank tests, if and only if, the sample does not contain any starch or starch
derivatives.
2- The development of a light green to dark blue color, either in solution or as a
precipitate, is an indication of the presence of starch (amylose fraction).
3- The development of a light pink to reddish-brown color is an indication of the
presence of a highly substituted starch, dextrin, or starches with a high amylopectin
content.
4- The development of any other color is a strong indication of the presence of
starch or starch derivatives.
5- Instant de-colorizing indicates the presence of a reducing agent. In this case,
continue the drop-wise addition of the iodine/iodide solution and compare the color
obtained with cases 1 through 4
6- The presence of starch or starch derivatives is contrary to the product definition
in Table (4-1) therefore, further testing is abandoned.
d. Procedure Viscometer reading in deionized water
1- Prepare a solution of CMC-LVT. Add 10.5 g 0.01 g of CMC-LVT to 350 ml
5 ml of deionized water on a constant rate above a time period of about 60 s while
stirring on the mixer. The CMC-LVT will be added away from impeller tube to
minimize clean up.
NOTE this is equivalent to 30.0 g/l 0.03 g/l.
2- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container after the mixer then
scrape its edges with the spatula to eliminate or dislodge at all CMC-LVT

48
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

following to the ampule walls. Be certain that all CMC-LVT clingy to the spatula
is combined into the mixing.
3- Change the container upon the churn and carry on to stir. If necessary, the
container may be detached from the mixer then the flanks scraped to remove any
CMC-LVT clingy to the ampule walls after added 5 min and after 10 min. Total
mixing time shall equal 20 min 1 min.
4- Age the solution for 2 h 5 min in a sealed or enclosed container on room
temperature, or in a constant temperature device regulated to 20 C to 25 C (68 F
to 77 F).
5- After ageing, stir the solution on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
6- Decant the fluid into the viscometer mug provided by the direct-representing
viscometer. The dial reading at 600 r/min rotor speed locating of the viscometer
will be recorded after a fix value at 600 r/min is reached. The reading shall be
taken at a solution test temperature of 25 C 1 C (77 F 2 F).
e. Procedure Filtrate volume of suspension
1- Arrange an ample volume of saturated brine solution with thoroughly go
together a suitable container 40 g to 45 g of sodium chloride per 100 ml 1 ml of
deionized water. Allow the solution to stand for approximately 1 h. Decant the
solution or filter it into a storage container.
2- Prepare a clay-based suspension by adding 350 ml 5 ml of the saturated brine
liquid to the churn container. Add 1.0 g 0.1 g of sodium bicarbonate then mix on
the mixer aimed at around 1 min.
3- Gradually enhance 35.0 g 0.1 g of API standard assessment base clay though
stirring upon the churn.
4- After stirring approximately for about 5 min 0.1 min, remove the ampule from
the churn and fix its sides by the spatula to eliminate or dislodge slightly clay
clinging to the container walls. Be sure that all mud clingy to the spatula is
combined into the interruption.

49
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

5- Exchange the container upon the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the
container may be detached from the churn and the flask scraped to remove any
clay clingy to the ampule walls after added 5 min and after 10 min. Total mixing
time shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
6- Add 3.15 g 0.01 g of CMC-LVT towards the suspension though stirring on the
mixer, adding at a uniform rate over about 60 s. The water-soluble polymer shall
be added into the vortex away from the impeller shaft to minimize dusting.
NOTE this is equivalent to 9.01 g/l 0.03 g/l.
7- After stirring 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and fix its
sides by the spatula to eliminate or dislodge slightly CMC-LVT holding to the
container walls. Remain sure that all substantial clingy to the spatula is combined
into the interruption.
8- Change the container on the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the
container might be detached from the churn and the sides scraped to remove any
CMC-LVT clingy to the ampule walls after additional 5 min and then 10 min.
Total admixing time shall equivalent 20 min 1 min.
9- Age the suspension for 2 h 5 min in a closed or covered ampule at room
temperature, or in a constant-temperature device. Record the storage temperature.
10- After ageing, stir the suspension on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
11- Immediately decant the CMC-LVT-preserved suspension addicted to a filter
press cell. Before adding the suspension, be sure that each part of the filter cell is
dry and that none of the gaskets is distorted or worn. The temperature of the
suspension shall be 25 C 1 C (77 F 2 F). Pour the suspension to within 13
mm (0.5 in) of the top of the cell. Complete the assembly of the filter press cell.
Home filter cell in the edge and handy the relief regulator. Place a container under
the drain tube.
12- Set one timer for 7.5 min 0.1 min and the second timer for 30 min 0.1 min.
Start both timers and adjust the pressure on the cell to 690 kPa 35 kPa (100 psi

50
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

5 psi). Together of these stages shall be finished in less than 15 s. checking shall be
supplied by compressed air, nitrogen or helium.
13- At 7.5 min 0.1 min on the first timer, remove the container and any liquid
adhering to the drain tube and discard. Place the dry 10 ml progressed cylinder
below the drain tube then continue gathering the filtrate to the finish of the second
regulator set at 30 min. Eliminate the graduated tube then record the bulk of filtrate
collected.
f. Calculation Filtrate volume of the suspension
Calculate the filtrate volume, V, in milliliters, of the clay suspension

4.2 TECHNICAL-GRADE HIGH-VISCOSITY CMC (CMC-HVT):[40] P

a. Principle
1- Technical-grade high-viscosity carboxy methylcellulose (CMC-HVT) is an
alkali metal salt of carboxy methylcellulose. The manufacturer will maintain
certification of the examination of the cellulosic rare material castoff.
2- The product is a free-graceful or granulated dust and is not usually purified of
by-crops formed in the response.
3- CMC-HVT will be supposed to see the necessities of this International ordinary
if a composite example on behalf of no more than one day's manufacture imitates
to the physical terms of Table (4.2), signifies the product produced and is measured
by the constructer.

51
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

Table (4.2) CMC-HVT Physical Specifications[40]


P

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivate presence No

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In deionized water Minimum 30

- In 40 g/l salt solution Minimum 30

- In saturated brine water Minimum 30

- Filtrate volume , milliliters Maximum 10

4- CMC-HVT shall be free since any starch or starch spinoffs. As a result,


qualitative starch willpower shall be achieved before proceeding by the CMC-HVT
performance examining. If starch is originate, no further testing must be achieved
and the example shall be disallowed.
b. Procedure Determination of starch and starch derivatives
1- This test identifies the presence of starch and starch derivatives in water-soluble
polymers, like CMC-HVT, supplied in powder or granular form.
2- An iodine/iodide solution is mixed with a solution of the polymer being
analyzed. In the presence of amylose (linear fraction of starch), a coloured
complex is formed.
3- Prepare the iodine/iodide solution using a 100 ml 0.1 ml volumetric flask. Add
10 ml 0.1 ml of the 0.1 N iodine solution. Add 0.60 g 0.01 g of potassium
iodide (KI) and dissolve by gently swirling the volumetric flask. Bring to the 100
ml mark with deionized water and mix thoroughly.Record the day of preparation.
Store the prepared iodine/iodide solution in a sealed container, in a dark, cool, dry

52
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

place. It may be used for up to three months. After the date of expiry, discard the
solution and prepare again.
4- Prepare a 1 % solution of the water-soluble polymer under examination (CMC-
HVT) by adding 396 g 0.1 g of deionized water to the container. Add 4 g 0.1 g
of the water-soluble polymer under examination at a unchanging rate above a time
intermission of 60 s to 120 s while stirring on the mixer. The water-soluble
polymer shall be added into the vortex away from the impeller shaft to minimize
dusting.
5- After stirring 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and fix
the sides of the mixing container by the spatula to eliminate or dislodge any
polymer adhering to the container walls. Be sure that all of the polymer clingy to
spatula is combined into the liquid.
6- Measure the pH. If the pH value is less than 10, raise the pH to 10 by adding,
drop-wise, the dilute NaOH solution.
7- Replace the ampule on the churn and continue to mix. All mixing time shall be
equal to 20 min 1 min.
8- Put 2 ml 0.1 ml of the polymer solution in a test tube and add, drop-wise, in
portions of 3 drops at a time, up to 30 drops of iodine/iodide solution.
9- Three blank tests using only deionized water with 3 drops, 9 drops and 30 drops,
respectively, of iodine/iodide solution shall be prepared for comparison.
10- After every 3 drop addition, swirl the test tube gently and compare the color of
the solution under examination with the blank tests. The color comparison should
be made against a white background.
c. Interpretation Determination of starch and starch derivatives
1- The sample under examination gives a yellow color comparable to one of the
blank tests, if and only if, the sample does not contain any starch or starch
derivatives.
2- The development of a light green to dark blue color, either in solution or as a
precipitate, is an indication of the presence of starch (amylose fraction).

53
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

3- The development of a light pink to reddish-brown color is an indication of the


presence of a highly substituted starch, dextrin, or starches with a high amylopectin
content.
4- The development of any other color is a strong indication of the presence of
starch or starch derivatives.
5- Instant decolorizing indicates the presence of a reducing agent. In this case,
continue the drop-wise addition of the iodine/iodide solution and compare the
colour obtained with cases 1 through 4.
6-The presence of starch or starch derivatives is contrary to the product definition
in Table (4-2), therefore, further testing is abandoned.
d. Procedure Viscometer reading in deionized water
1- Prepare a suspension of CMC-HVT. Add 2.20 g 0.01 g of CMC-HVT to 350
ml 5 ml of deionized water on a uniform ratio over a time intermission of about
60 s though stirring upon the mixer. CMC-HVT shall be extra away from impeller
tube to minimize cleaning. NOTE this is equivalent to 6.29 g/l 0.03 g/l.
2- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and
fix its sides by the spatula to eliminate or dislodge slightly CMC-HVT adhering to
the container walls. Be sure that all CMC-HVT clingy to spatula is combined into
the interruption.
3- Change the ampule on the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the container
may be detached from the churn and the flasks scraped to remove any CMC-HVT
clinging to the container walls after another 5 min and after 10 min. Total mixing
time shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
4- Age the solution for awake to 16 h inside a closed or covered ampule at room
temperature, or in a constant temperature device [20 C to 25 C (68 F to 77 F)].
Record the storage temperature and storage duration.
5- After ageing, stir the solution on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
6- Decant the liquid into viscometer cup providing with the straight-indicating
viscometer. The dial reading at 600 r/min rotor rates setting of viscometer will be

54
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

logged when a stable value at 600 r/min is reached. The reading shall be taken at a
solution test temperature of 25 C 1 C.
e. Procedure Viscometer reading in 40 g/l salt water
1- Prepare a 40 g/l salt solution by adding 40 g 0.1 g of sodium chloride to a
1000 ml volumetric flask and diluting with deionized water to the inscribed mark
on the flask. Mix thoroughly.
2- Prepare a solution of CMC-HVT. Add 2.70 g 0.01 g of CMC-HVT to 350 ml
5 ml of the 40 g/l brine solution at a same rate above a time period of 60 s while
stirring on the mixer. Add deformer if necessary.
NOTE: This is equivalent to 7.72 g/l 0.03 g/l.
3- After stirring 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container after the mixer then
scrape its flasks by the spatula to eliminate or remove any CMC-HVT adhering to
the container walls. Be sure that all CMC-HVT clinging to the spatula is
incorporated into the suspension.
4- Replace the container on the mixer and continue to stir. If necessary, the
container may be removed from the mixer and the sides scraped to dislodge any
CMC-HVT clinging to the container walls after another 5 min and after 10 min.
Total mixing time shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
5- Age the interruption for top to 16 h in a closed or covered ampule at room
temperature, or in a constant-temperature device regulated to 20 C to 25 C (68 F
to 77 F) Record the storage temperature and storage duration.
6- After ageing, stir the solution on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
7- Pour the suspension interested to the viscometer cup supported with the direct-
signifying viscometer. The gage reading at 600 r/min rotor speed locating of the
viscometer will be recorded once a fix value at 600 r/min is reached. The reading
shall be taken at a solution test temperature of 25 C 1 C (77 F 2 F).
f. Procedure Viscometer reading in saturated salt water
1- Prepare an ample volume of a saturated brine solution by carefully mixing in a
proper container 40 g to 45 g of sodium chloride per 100 ml 1 ml of deionized

55
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

water. Allow the solution to stand for approximately 1 h. Decant solution or filter it
into a storage container.
2- Prepare a suspension of CMC-HVT. Add 2.50 g 0.01 g of CMC-HVT to 350
ml 5 ml of saturated brine water at a constant rate above a time rate of 60 s while
stirring on the mixer. Add deformer if necessary.
3- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and
fix its sides by the spatula to eliminate or remove any CMC-HVT adhering to the
container walls. Be sure that all CMC-HVT clinging to spatula is combined into
the interruption.
4- Change the container upon the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the
container may be eliminate from the churn and the flasks scraped to remove any
CMC-HVT clinging to the container walls after another 5 min and after 10 min.
Total mixing time shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
5- Age the suspension for above to 16 h inside a closed or covered ampule at room
temperature, or in a constant-temperature device regulated to 20 C to 25 C (68 F
to 77 F). Record the storage temperature and storage duration.
6- After ageing, stir the suspension on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
7- Pour the interruption into viscometer cup delivered by the direct-representative
viscometer. The dial reading at 600 r/min rotor rate setting of viscometer will be
logged when a fix value at 600 r/min is reached. The reading will be taken on a
suspension exam temperature of 25 C 1 C (77 F 2 F).
g. Procedure the suspension of Filtrate volume
1- Prepare an ample volume of saturated brine solution by methodically mixing a
suitable container 40 g to 45 g of sodium chloride per 100 ml 1 ml of deionized
water. Allow solution to stand for approximately 1 h. Decant solution or filter it
into a storage container.
2- Prepare a clay-based suspension by adding 350 ml 5 ml of saturated brine
solution to mixer ampule. Add 1.0 g 0.1 g of the sodium bicarbonate then mix
on the churn for about 1 min.

56
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

3- Slowly add 35.0 g 0.1 g of API standard assessment base mud while mixing
on the mixer.
4- After stirring 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and fix its
flasks with spatula to eliminate or dislodge any mud adhering to ampule walls. Be
certain that all mud clinging to spatula is combined into the interruption.
5- Change the ampule on the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the container
may be eliminate from the churn and the sides fix to dislodge any mud clinging to
the ampule walls after another 5 min and after 10 min. Total mixing time shall be
equal to 20 min 1 min.
6- Add 3.15 g 0.01 g of CMC-HVT to suspension while mixing on the mixer,
adding at a uniform rate over about 60 s. The water-soluble polymer shall be added
into the vortex away from the impeller shaft to minimize dusting.
NOTE : This is equivalent to 9.01 g/l 0.03 g/l.
7- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and
fix its sides by the spatula to eliminate or dislodge any CMC-HVT adhering to the
container walls. Be sure that all substantial clinging to spatula is combined into the
suspension.
8- Change the ampule on the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the container
may be eliminate from the churn and the flasks scraped to remove any CMC-HVT
clinging to the container walls after another 5 min and after 10 min. Total mixing
time shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
9- Age the suspension for 2 h 5 min in a closed or covered ampule at room
temperature, or in a constant-temperature device. Record the storage temperature.
10- After ageing, stir the suspension on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
11- Immediately pour the CMC-HVT-treated suspension into a filter press cell.
Before adding the suspension, be sure that each part of the filter cell is dry and that
none of the gaskets is distorted or worn. The temperature of the suspension shall be
25 C 1 C (77 F 2 F). Pour the suspension to within 13 mm (0.5 in) of the

57
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

top of the cell. Complete the assembly of the filter press cell. Position the filter cell
in edge and close release valve. Place a container under the drain tube.
12- Set one timer for 7.5 min 0.1 min and the second timer for 30 min 0.1 min.
Start together timers and regulate pressure on cell to 690 kPa 1 kPa (100 psi
0.5 psi). Both of these steps will be finished in fewer than 15 s. Pressure shall be
supplied by compressed air, nitrogen or helium.
13- At 7.5 min 0.1 min on the first timer, remove the container and any liquid
adhering to the drain tube and discard. Place the dry 10 ml progressed cylinder
under the gutter tube and renew collecting the filtrate to ending of the instant timer
set at 30 min. Eliminate the progressed cylinder and logged volume of filtrate
composed.
h. Calculation Filtrate volume of the suspension
Calculate the filtrate volume, V, in milliliters, of the clay suspension

4.3 STARCH: [40]


P

a. Principle
1- Drilling-rating starch can be manmade from several types of native starches.
starch will be made cold-water hydratable (pre-gelatinized) and can be treated
further in such a way that it is suitable for use as a filtrate-reducing agent in water-
base drilling fluids.
2- Drilling-rating starch will be free-running and free since lumps. Drilling-rating
starch shall be deemed to light the wants of this International usual if a composite
model representing no above than one day's production follows to the natural
specifications of Table (4.3), denotes the creation produced and is orderly by the
creator.

58
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

Table (4.3) Starch Physical Specifications[40]


P

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

b. Procedure Viscometer reading in 40 g/l salt water


1- Prepare a 40 g/l salt-water solution by adding 40 g 0.1 g of sodium chloride to
a 1000 ml volumetric flask and diluting with deionized water to the mark inscribed
on the flask. Mix thoroughly.
2- Prepare a clay-based suspension by adding 350 ml 5 ml of the 40 g/l salt-
water solution to the container. Add 1.0 g 0.1 g sodium bicarbonate and mix on
the churn for about 1 min.
3- Slowly adding 35.0 g 0.1 g of API standard assessment base mud while
stirring upon the mixer.
4- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container since the mixer and
fix its sides by the spatula to remove any mud adhering to the ampule walls. Be
sure that all mud clingy to spatula is combined into the interruption.

59
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

5- Change the ampule on the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the container
may be eliminate from the churn and the flasks scraped to remove any mud
clinging to the ampule walls afterward another 5 min and another 10 min. Total
stirring time after adding the clay shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
6- Add 3.50 g 0.01 g of starch to the postponement while mixing on the mixer
add at a uniform rate over about 60 s.
NOTE: This is equivalent to 10.0 g/l 0.03 g/l.
7- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the ampule from the churn and
scrape its flasks with spatula to remove any starch adhering to the container walls.
Be sure that altogether starch clingy to spatula is combined into the postponement.
8- Exchange the ampule on the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the
container may be eliminate from churn and the flasks scraped to eliminate any
starch clinging to the container walls after another 5 min and another 10 min. Total
stirring time after adding the starch shall equal 20 min 1 min
9- Age the suspension up to 24 h in a closed or covered churn at room temperature
or in a constant temperature device. Record the storage temperature and storage
duration.
10- After ageing, stir the suspension on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
11- Immediately pour the interruption into viscometer cup providing by the direct-
representing viscometer. The control reading at the 600 r/min rotor speed location
of viscometer will be recorded once a constant rate for 600 r/min is reached. The
600 r/min dial reading will be occupied at a suspension exam temperature of 25 C
1 C (77 F 2 F). Record the 600 r/min dial reading.
c. Procedure Filtrate volume of 40 g/l salt solution
1- Pour the suspension from 16.3 into the filter press cell. Before adding the
suspension, be sure each part of the filter cell is dry and that none of the gaskets is
distorted or worn. The temperature of the suspension shall be 25 C 1 C (77 F
2 F). Pour the suspension to within about 13 mm (0.5 in) of the top of the cell.

60
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

Complete the assembly of the filter press cell. Home the filter cell in edge and
close the relief valve. Place a container under the drain tube.
2- Set one timer for 7.5 min 0.1 min and the second timer for 30 min 0.1 min.
Start both timers and adjust the pressure on the cell to 690 kPa 35 kPa (100 psi
5 psi). Both of these stages will be completed in fewer than 15 s. Pressure shall be
supplied by compressed air, nitrogen or helium.
3-At 7.5 min 0.1 min on the first timer, remove the container and any liquid
adhering to the drain tube and discard the filtrate. Place a dry 10 ml progressed
cylinder below the gutter tube and renew gathering the filtrate to the ending of the
second timer fixed at 30 min. Eliminate the progressed cylinder and logged the
volume of filtrate composed.
d. Calculation Filtrate volume of the 40 g/l salt solution
Calculate the filtrate volume, V, in milliliters, of the clay suspension
e. Procedure Viscometer reading in the saturated salt solution
1- Prepare an ample volume of a saturated brine solution by methodically mixing
in a appropriate container 40 g to 45 g of sodium chloride per 100 ml 1 ml of
deionized water. Allow the solution to stand for approximately 1 h. Decant the
solution or filter it into a storage container.
2- Prepare a clay-based suspension by adding 350 ml 5 ml of the saturated salt
solution to a container. Add 1.0 g 0.1 g sodium bicarbonate and mix on the churn
for about 1 min.
3- Slowly add 35.0 g 0.1 g of API standard evaluation base clay to the container
while stirring on the mixer.
4- After stirring for 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the ampule from the churn and fix
its sides by the spatula to remove any mud adhering to the ampule walls. Be sure
that all mud clinging to spatula is combined into the postponement.
5- Exchange the container upon the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the
container may be eliminate from the churn and the sides fix to dislodge any mud

61
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

clingy to the ampule walls after added 5 min and another 10 min. Total stirring
time after adding the clay shall equal 20 min 1 min
6- Add 3.50 g 0.01 g of starch to postponement while stirring on the mixer,
adding at a uniform rate over about 60 s.
NOTE: This is equivalent to 10.0 g/l 0.03 g/l.
7- After stirring 5 min 0.1 min, eliminate the container from churn and fix its
sides by the spatula to dislodge any starch adhering to the container walls. Be sure
that all starch clingy to spatula is combined addicted to the suspension.
8- Exchange the container upon the churn and continue to mix. If necessary, the
container may be eliminate from churn and the flasks scraped to remove slightly
starch clinging to the container walls after another 5 min and another 10 min. Total
stirring time after adding the starch shall be equal to 20 min 1 min.
9- Age the suspension up to 24 h in a closed or covered ampule at room
temperature or in a constant temperature device. Record the storage temperature
and storage duration.
10- After ageing, stir the suspension on the mixer for 5 min 0.1 min.
11- Immediately decant the suspension addicted the viscometer cup providing by
the direct-representative viscometer. The gauge reading at the 600 r/min rotor
speed location of the viscometer will be recorded once a constant rate at 600 r/min
is reached. The 600 r/min dial reading will be taken at a postponement test
temperature of 25 C 1 C (77 F 2 F). Record the 600 r/min dial reading.
f. Procedure Filtrate volume of the saturated salt solution
1- Pour the suspension from 16.6 into a filter press cell. Before adding the
suspension, be sure that each part of the filter cell is dry and that none of the
gaskets is distorted or worn. The temperature of the suspension shall be 25 C 1
C (77 F 2 F). Pour the suspension to within about 13 mm (0.5 in) of the top of
the cell. Complete the assembly of the filter press cell. Home filter cell in the edge
and close the release valve. Place a container under the drain tube.

62
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

2- Set one timer for 7.5 min 0.1 min and the second timer for 30 min 0.1 min.
Start both timers and adjust the pressure on the cell to 690 kPa 35 kPa (100 psi
5 psi). Together of these stages will be finished in less than 15 s. Pressure shall be
supplied by compressed air, nitrogen or helium.
3- At 7.5 min 0.1 min on the first timer, remove the container and any liquid
adhering to the drain tube and discard the filtrate. Place a dry 10 ml graduated
cylinder below the drain pipe and renew collecting the filtrate to ending of the
instant timer fixed at 30 min. Eliminate the progressed cylinder and logged the
volume of filtrate gathered.
g. Calculation Filtrate volume of the saturated salt solution
Calculate the filtrate volume, V, in milliliters, of the clay suspension
h. Procedure Residue greater than 2000 m
1- Weigh 25 g 0.1 g starch and transfer to the 2000-m sieve.
2- Shake for a maximum of 5 min.
3- Record the presence or absence of residue.
NOTE:
The Reagents and Apparatuses of all above Tests you can see in references [40]
P

63
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

4.4 THE LABORATORY APPARATUS

4.4.1 VISCOMETER: [41][42]


P

Figure (4.1) The Model 800 8-Speed Electronic Viscometer[41]


P

The Model 800 8-Speed Electronic Viscometer is extensively used worldwide in


both the field and laboratory for the precise measurement of rheological properties
of fluids. The classical 800 Viscometer fixes the flow features of oils and drilling
fluids in footings of shear rate and shear stress ended various period and heat
ranges at impressive pressure. Hurries are easily altered with a control handle, and
shear stress rates are showed on a lighted exaggerated dial for comfort of reading.
The viscometers motorized RPM is always monitored and routinely adjusted by
the beat-Power electric speed watchdog to maintain a endless shear rate under
variable input rule and drilling fluid shear settings. The eight exactly regulated
exam speeds (shear rates in RPM) are as surveys: 3 (Gel), 6, 30, 60, 100, 200, 300,

64
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

and 600. A higher stirring speed is also provided. Speeds may be changed with a
control knob selection, without stopping the motor. The Model 800 is appropriate
for together field and workshop use and uses a motor-motivated electric package to
deliver drilling fluid engineers with an awfully accurate and useful tool. The
electronic watchdog continuously screens and robotically adjusts the turning speed
to keep a constant shear rate below varying fluid shear situations and enter power
changes that are normally found on-location.
- Procedure for test process for AV, PV and YP Determination
1. Seal the test cup to the engraved line with the mud model
2. Gauge the heat of the mud example and noted it.
3. Untie the leg latch nut and increase the rheometer building.
4. Home the cup full with mud under the rotor sleeve.
5. Lower the rheometer pending the rotor sleeve is deep exactly to the engraved
streak on the rotor sleeve.
6. Tighten the limb lock nut.
7. Start the motor by placing the change in the high-speed location with the gear
move all the method down. Wait for a stable pointer dial value, and measured the
600 RPM value. Change gears lone when motor is going.
8. Alteration switches to the 300-RPM hurry. Wait for a fixed value and measured
300-RPM value.
- Procedure for Gel Strength Determination
Locked motor off and delay10 seconds.Casual switch to the low-speed place and
measured top deflection units in lbf/100 ft2 as primary gel.If the dial pointer does
P P

not gain to zero with motor off, do not move. Recap 1 and 2, but allow 10 minutes,
then state switch in the low-speed station and read top deflection items as the 10-
minute gel. Account record temperature.
4.4.2 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES:[43][44] P P

The flow (or rheological) possessions of a drilling fluids are those possessions
which label the flow features of a drilling fluids under various current conditions.

65
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

In a drilling fluids circulating system, current occurs at a variety of taxes in


conduits of unlike shapes and sizes. So as to know or predict the effects of this
flow, we need to know the current behavior of the drilling fluids at the various
facts of interest in the circulating system. To abridge the measurement process, we
make only an incomplete amount of measurements. Once a fluid flows, it usages a
frictional effort called shear stress on the channel surface. The greatness of the
shear stress rest on the frictional drag between adjacent sheets of fluid itinerant
at different speeds, and the change in velocities of head to head sheets next to the
wall of the channel. The difference in velocities between adjacent sheets is called
the shear rate. In fluids that cover solids which link composed to form a
construction, flow will halt when the shear stress is shortened to a point which is
fewer than the structure shear strength. This fact is called the crop stress of the
liquid. These non-Newtonian liquids, when allowable to continue still for a period
of time, last to develop this semi-rigid construction and the shear stress obligatory
to pledge flow increases. It is called gel strength. The construction becomes extra
rigid by time, producing the gel strength to rise with time. Essentially, in the
drilling fluids circulating system, we are absorbed in the current behavior of the
drilling fluids at the bit where shear taxes are extremely tall, in the annulus where
shear taxes are relatively little, and in the pits where shear taxes are nearly zero.
We are too absorbed in the current conduct inside the drill collars and drill pipe,
since this panels the quantity of hydraulic horsepower that a pump can bring to the
bit.
Plastic Viscosity, though calculated from measurements at relatively little shear
Taxes, the plastic viscosity is a pointer of top shear rate viscosities. Therefore, it
tells us rather about the predictable behavior of the drilling at the bit. One of our
design standards was to minimalize the top shear rate viscosity. To achieve this, we
should minimalize the plastic viscosity. A reduction in plastic viscosity must signal
a consistent decrease in the viscosity at the bit, subsequent in top penetration rate.

66
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

Rising plastic viscosity isnt a required means of raising the hole-cleaning ability
of a mud. In fact, the rise in pressure drop depressed the drill string, produced by
an rise in PV, would decrease the obtainable current tend and rate to offset any rise
in exciting ability. In general, high plastic viscosity is not ever desirable and should
be upheld as low as applied. The plastic viscosity is chiefly a purpose of the bulk
of solids and the viscosity of the liquid phase contained in a drilling fluids. The
Liquid phase viscosity is rise by addition of slightly solvable substantial. A lot of
the water-solvable polymers used for fluid-loss change are quite real in rise the
plastic viscosity. Soaked salt water has double the fresh water viscosity. Usually
Diesel oil which is used by way of the liquid stage of oil-base drilling fluids has
three eras the fresh water viscosity. Together salt water muds and oil drilling fluids
tend to have high plastic viscosities. The volume of solids in a drilling fluid is the
dry bulk of solids desirable the rise in volume unpaid to hydration. The water of
hydration actually develops a portion of the solid as distant as its result on
viscosity is worried. Otherwise, the plastic viscosity rise by adding of any type of
solid; then solids such as muds, which hydrate, shall further rise the plastic
viscosity as their bulk is rise by hydration. This brands the dispersal and hydration
of shale particles chiefly detrimental. Providing these grains is big and relatively
anhydrate, their result on viscosity is small. However, temperature, time and
agitation tend to disperse and let hydration of the individual clay platelets, which
consequences in increased viscosities.
Smallest plastic viscosities can be attained only to the grade that the mud is kept
allowed of drilled grains. Figure (4.2) displays guidelines for water-base muds
plastic viscosity at various drilling fluid weights. The lower curve represents
drilling fluids that cover only sufficient bentonite and barite to hang the barite.
This curve should signify minimum plastic viscosities for good drilling water
concert. The higher curve is an mean for many field drilling fluids that have been
patterned. Note that these curves are based on capacities at 120F. Plastic viscosity
decreases by rising temperature, due to retreating of water. If the drilling fluid is

67
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

checked at 130F, the PV should be about 10 % lower than at 120F; if it is


checked at 110F, it should be about 10 % greater. For this cause, all drilling fluid
tests will be made at the similar temperature, 120F.

Figure (4.2) Suggested Range of Plastic Viscosity[43]


P

Yield Point, The yield point, intended since the Bingham equation, isnt the right
yield stress essential to maintain current, but is a value which is slightly higher.
Actually it is normally handy to the shear stress value at annular shear duties.
Anything that reasons changes in the low shear taxes viscosities will be reproduced
the yield point. Aimed at this reason, it is a decent pointer of current conduct in the
compositional and annulus exchanges that affect the current behavior in the
annulus. When a fluid covers colloidal particles or big molecules, these particles
incline to "bump" addicted to one another rising the resistance to current. If these
particles are quite long likened to their thickness the inter particle meddling will be

68
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

quite large when they are arbitrarily concerned with in the current spurt at little
shear rates. Though, by way of the shear rate is rise, the particles should in the flow
spurt and the score of particle interface decreases. If grains are electrically
complicated to one extra, the effect is rather similar, at little shear rates the grains
relation composed, increasing the opposition to flow; at top shear taxes the
connecting bonds are wrecked and the fluid develops more like water. These two
properties syndicate to detect the yield point of a drilling fluid. The electrical
interaction of solids is skillful by the mechanical interaction and biochemical
treatment is controlled by regulating the type and total of solids before polymer in
mud. Clay platelets are together electrically charged and extended connected to
their thickness. This scripts them quite decent for raising the yield point. Their able
to relate collected (flocculate) be able to be neutralized by the adding of certain
biochemical for example phosphates, tannins, and ligno sulfonates. When this is
talented, the yield point will be compact to that caused by the mechanical relation
of the grains. Further biochemical addition should not renew to decrease the yield
point previous this point. Whole deflocculating is finest recognized with the
occurrence of nearby zero gel strength. Removal of colloidal grains is another
method to decrease the yield point. This reductions both the bent to connection and
the mechanical meddling of the atoms.
In summary, great yield facts are produced with flocculation of clay grains or top
attentions of colloidal grains. Flocculation may be voluntary to lack of adequate de
flocculent, great temperature, or pollutants such as bicarbonate, salt, carbonates
and calcium. A great grains concentration will worsen flocculation propensities
from any reason. yield point is chiefly related with two drilling fluid functions; the
hole scrubbing competence and the pressure controller characteristic of a drilling
fluid . A greater yield point rise the carrying capability of a drilling fluid and
increases the circulating pressure drop in the annulus. Related with increased
circulating pressure drop is rise pressure flow and swab after pipe drive. Since an
increased yield point aids hovel cleaning nonetheless is harmful to problems of

69
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

missing swabbing and circulation, a compromise necessity be reached. Aimed to


this reason, no total guide streak for yield point rates can be assumed. High mud
weights recuperate hole cleaning abilities of a mud.
Therefore, greater yield points are usually not necessary in great weight muds to
protect good cutting loud capacity. Similarly, pressure control is frequently critical
where great-weight muds are required. Consequently, the need to minimalize yield
point typically outweighs slightly advantages of upholding a great yield point in
great density drilling fluid. A yield point range for various weights drilling fluids is
shown in Figure (4.3).

Figure (4.3) Suggested Range of Yield Point[43]


P

Gel Strength, it is a measurement of the shear stress essential to initiate current of


a fluid that has been inactive for a period of time. It is produced by electrically
charged particles that linkage together to form a rigid construction in the fluid. The
strength of the construction shaped is a purpose of the quantity and type of grains
in suspension, temperature, chemical environment and time. Otherwise, whatever

70
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

which inspires or prevents the connecting of particles will rise or reduction the
gelation bent of a drilling fluid . Gel strength is measured with beginning to go the
V-G meter on a very little reading and speed the peak dial ricochet. This signifies
the shear stress essential to rest the gel erection and is recorded by way of gel
strength around lb/100 sq. ft. The gel fortes noted on the drilling fluid checked
sheet are slow after set periods of 10 minutes and 10 seconds. These set periods are
chance and have remained selected just to provide standard base of contrast of gel
structure characteristics of drilling fluids. The difference in the two capacities is a
sign of the ratio of gelation. It is essential for a weighted drilling fluid to must gel
strength of around (2 - 4 lb/100 ft2) in order to suspend barite. The barite will settle
P P

in a drilling fluid that has no gel strength. Irrespective of its viscosity. A gel
strength of 2 to 4 lb/100 ft2 is necessary In water-base muds, flocculation increases
P P

gel strength and deflocculation decreases gel strength. An increase in gel strength
is normally the first indication of the beginning of flocculation. In fact, the 10
minute gel strength will usually begin to increase before the initial gel strength

71
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

4.4.3 LOW PRESSURE FILTER PRESS: [41][42] P

Figure (4.4) Low Pressure Filter Press[41]


P

The low pressure filter press aides determine filtration and wall cake-building
possessions of muds. The filter press plan structures a cell body to grip the drilling
fluid example, a pressure bay, and a improper cap by screen and filter paper. The
pressure cell is intended so that a 3 in (9 cm) sheet of filter paper can be located in
the bottom of the chamber to eliminate particles from the fluid. The filtration area
is 7.1 0.1 in2 (4.580 60 mm2). Pressure might be applied by any non-risky fluid
P P P P

medium, also gas or liquid. Multi-element filter presses faultless for lab
environments when several tests must be run simultaneously. These units come
complete with manifolds and all necessary air tubes and bleed-off valves. Suitable
for field and laboratory usage, Filter Presses have converted the industry standard
for low pressure/low temperature filtration testing.

72
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

Procedure:
1. Before starting a test, make sure each part of the cell is clean and dry,
particularly the screen. Inspect the gaskets for distortion and wear. Brand sure the
screen is free of sharp boundaries, burrs, or tears.
2. Measure the initial temperature of the drilling fluid sample and record it for
later examination.
3. To collect the exam cell, initiate by rotating the seat cap upside down and
insertion a rubber seal inside it. Next, position the screen, one sheet of filter paper,
and another gasket. Finally, residence the cell body into the seat cap and go it to
latch it in place.
4. Pour the freshly moved sample fluid into the cell, leaving 0.5"(13 mm) of
space at the top.
5. Place a rubber seal inside the upper cap. be sure it is sited all the way around the
cap. Then abode the topmost cap onto the cell body and place the entire cell into
the frame. Protected the cell with the T-screw.
6. Place a clean, dry progressed cylinder under the filtrate tube.
7. be sure that all of the regulators greater than the exam cells are locked by turning
the knobs clockwise. Be sure all of the pressure respite valves are locked by
pushing them in.
8. Attach a regulated pressure foundation to the inlet port on the pressure manifold
and apply100 5 PSI (690 34.7 kPa).Sweeping the valve above the cell (s) to be
tested. The test period initiated at the time of initial pressurization
9. After 30 minutes, ration the volume of filtrate composed. Close the valves above
the test cells.
10. Record the volume of filtrate composed in cubic centimeters to the nearest.
1cm3. Label this value API Filtrate. Record the time interval and the initial
P P

drilling fluid temperature. Excluding the filtrate for chemical analysis.


11. Pull the pressure relief valve out to release pressure from the cell. Remove the
cell from the frame and strip it. Discard any remaining drilling fluid.

73
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

12. Carefully save the filter paper and deposited cake. Wash the extra filter cake on
the paper with a gentle stream of water. If you are testing oil mud, use diesel to
clean the filter cake.
13. Record and gauge the width of filter cake to the adjacent to 1/32"
(0.8 mm).A cake thickness less than 2/32" is typically considered acceptable.
record and Observe the quality of the cake: hardness, toughness, slickness
,softness, rubberizes ,flexibility, firmness, sponginess, etc.
14. After each test, undo the exam cell and methodically fresh all surfaces with
soap and water. be sure all portions are clean and dry before storage the unit.
The threaded insert provides a presenter for the T-screw in the filter press frame.
The supplement is held in position by a set screw if the set screw is damaged or
lost, it will be necessary to eliminate the eased insert and swap the set screw.
1. Remove the set screw and let the eased insert fall out of the frame.
2. Position the eased supplement into the hollow in the edge with the collar jagged
down. The threaded insert must be injected from below the hole in the frame.
Fixing it from above will not afford enough strength to grip the pressure inside the
test cell.
3. Fit the insert till the hole is allied with the set screw hole in the frame.
4. Bolt the edge until it involves by the threaded supplement .The screw shouldnt
extend into the inner portion of the eased insert. This will avoid the T-screw from
screwing all way in.
4.4.4 FILTERATION:[43][44]
P P

Filtration happens any time a permeable creation is exposed to a drilling fluid at a


pressure greater than the creation pressure. The pressure reasons filtrate to current
into the rock and deposit drilling fluid solids on the ramparts of the borehole. Thus,
filtration motives two distinctly different methods of problems-those unpaid to
filtrate attack and those unpaid to filter cake deposition. The problems shaped with
filtrate attack are not drilling glitches, but formation estimation and completion
problems. Unnecessary fluid loss may be reason of flushing of the zone about a

74
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

wellbore to the degree that sorting and formation test is incorrect. This is normally
not a tricky with weighted drilling fluids where filtration switch is necessary for
switch of filter cake statement. In clear water or low solids drilling fluids,
excessive flushing may extant problems. Additional problem is invasion of a
creation by a liquid that will seriously decrease the formation permeability.
Almost of the resistance to current happens close to the wellbore unpaid to the
radial geometry. Therefore, the volume of losing filtrate is not as important as type
of filtrate. When a drilling fluid with non-damaging filtrate which cast off to drill
a well, equal care should take on subsequent actions such as cementing or
acidizing to avoid damage from these liquids. From the stance of the drilling
operation, then filter cake is of more alarm of filtrate volume. The cake of filter has
a direct bearing on such difficulties as differential pressure stabbing, drag and
torque, lost circulation, and poor cement jobs. Our basic goal is to minimize the
wideness and permeability of the placed cake. Two kinds of filtration: static and
dynamic. Dynamic filtration happens when the fluid is presence circulated and
static filtration happens when the liquid is at break. Dynamic filtration varies from
static filtration in that the current of drilling fluid tends to corrode away the cake as
it is placed by the filtration process. The strainer cake shapes until the ratio of
statement equals the ratio of erosion. While it spreads an symmetry thickness, the
ratio of filtration develops constant. This is in difference to static filtration
anywhere the cake renews thicker in grow with time, causing the amount of
filtration to continually decrease. After equal filtration times, a static cake will be
heavier than a active cake and the static ratio of filtration should be small than the
dynamic rate. Therefore, we should switch static filtration in order to filter cake
wideness and dynamic filtration should be measured in order to switch filtrate
invasion.
Figure (4-5) show the effect of temperature on losing fluid. Fluid-loss exams be
able to be run on a drilling fluid at two different degree of temperatures, however
at the similar filtration pressure, and the ratio of the two values related with the rate

75
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

of the comparative values after this curve. If exam value shows a greater change in
temperature than projected from the curve, the drilling fluid is probably thermally
unbalanced. This is the best tests for thermal constancy. Inappropriately, the little-
temperature and great-temperature API exams cannot be linked in this usual since
they are track at different pressures. Also Pressure has an result on losing liquid,
contingent on filter cake compressibility. Usually, the 500 psi -300F fluid loss
should be 2 - 4 times more than the little temperature- fluid loss near 100 psi. If the
issue is larger than four, temperature-persuaded flocculation or termination of one
of the drilling fluid components is probable. If the factor is small than two, a
mistake in measurement was designated .that mean the volume of filtrate in the
great temperature exam was not copied by two before reportage. This is necessary
meanwhile the filtration part of HTHP unit is half that of the little-temperature
unit. The temperature when the little-temperature exam is done also makes a
difference. For water-base drilling fluid in the temperature range of 70F to 140F,
losing fluid will increase about 10 percent for each 15 increase in temperature. An
effort should be ended to run all tests at approximately the similar temperature.

Figure (4.5) Effect of Temperature on Fluid Loss Duo to Change in Filtrate Viscosity [43]
P

76
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

[41][42]
4.4.5 MUD BALANCE: P

Figure (4.6) Mud Balance[41]


P

The density or weight of a given bulk of liquid is detected by use up a mud


balance. The arm is graduated and permits accurate measurements to within 0.1
pounds per gallon. The balance is built so that the permanent volume cup at lone
end of the sunbeam is balanced with a fixed weight at the opposed end, with a
gliding weight provision free to change along the advanced scale. A equal bubble
straddling on the beam designates when the system is in stability.
Procedure:
1. Before beginning, squared calibration (calibration mark obtainable on scale
aimed to fresh water (8.33 lb/gal or 1.0 S.G.) and make certain that the cup is dry
and clean.
2. Remove the top from the drilling fluid cup and fill the cup to swarming with the
drilling fluid to be tested. If air bubbles been surrounded in the drilling fluid, tap
the cup briskly on the side till air bubbles break out.
3. Replace the top on the rotate and cup it pending it is firmly position. Avoid

77
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

cover the hole by your finger. Make sure that some mud squeezes out the opening
hole in a cup.
4. Wipe and Wash excess mud after the external of the mud balance, cover the
opening hole, later dry the balance. Opening hole might be covered through Step
5. Position the balance into its base by the knife edges on the pivot rest.
6. Handover the rider tray the beam is calm. The attitude level bubble will be on
the midpoint line.
7. Read the mud weight and hydrostatic stress or mud gradient at the control of the
rider adjacent the fulcrum (in the direction of the knife edge).
- mud weight can be stated as: (ppg); pounds per gallon, (lbm/cu ft); pounds per
cubic foot and (g/cm3). specific gravity
P P

- Logged the mud gradient in (psi/ft) pounds per square inch per foot of depth
(mud weight in ppg x 0.052 = mud gradient in psi/ft)

4.4.6 DENSITY:[43][44] P

The opening point of pressure controller is the control of drilling fluid density. The
weight of a column of drilling fluid in the hole essential to stability formation
pressure is the location point since which all pressure control calculations are
founded. The compulsory weight of the drilling fluid column establishes the
thickness of the drilling fluid for any specific event. Luckily, density is one of most
accurate measurements. With a simple drilling fluid balance we are able to weight
a drilling fluid to the adjacent 0.1 ppg, which is equal to 5.2 psi /1000 ft. of drilling
fluid column. Mistakes in measuring density version for most of the inaccuracies
and the most frequent mistakes are:
1. Unsuitably adjusted balance
2. Entrained gas or air in the drilling fluid
3. Failure in satisfying the balance to careful volume
4. Dirty drilling fluid balance the calibration of a drilling fluid balance should be
patterned at two thicknesses that distance the range of thicknesses to be measured.

78
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

Drilling fluids maintained at densities higher than required to switch formation


pressures reason a variety of problems. Decrease penetration rates, increase
differential pressure sticking, increase drilling fluid costs, increase possibility of
lost circulation and thus rise overall well cost. Therefore, density should be control
even in unweight drilling fluids. This amounts to solids control, which is debated
in another section.

4.4.7 THERMO CUP: [41][42]P

Figure (4.7) Thermo Cup[41]


P

Thermo cups are intended for controlling the temperature of a drilling fluid sample
though taking readings by a viscometer or rheometer. Usual heat-up time is 15
min. and the test light turn off when the well spreads the set temperature. Drilling
fluid has a lower current conductivity, so it might be restless in order to spread a
uniform temperature inside a reasonable length of time. The holes in the shelf of

79
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

the viscometers have been positioned to hold the heated cups at a 45 angle to the
line of the device for better accommodation of thermometers and power cables. For
extra convenience and portability, #130-38-30 and #130-38-35 thermo cups
contain removable stainless steel cups for holding the fluid.
Procedure:
1. Plug the cord into the correct voltage outlet (115 or 230 Volts AC), placing a
stem thermometer in the hole on the side of the heating well.
2. Turn the thermostat clockwise to about three fourths the full ranges
(approximately 100F or 38C). Permit 15 minutes for heat up. The pilot light will
shot off when the well reaches the set temperature.

3. After the thermo cup has pre-heated, place the test fluid in the fit. Stir the fluid
regularly and also check the fluid temperature by using the thermometer. When the
fluid methods the desired test temperature, chance the thermostat back turn to
evade overheating.

4. Place the assembly on the base of the viscometer. The holes in the bookshelf of
the viscometer have been moved to hold the cup at a 45 angle to the line of the
instrument to give consent for a 5 inch metal stem thermometer.
5. Raise the shelf or lower the device to the proper depth as directed by the scribed
line on the rotor sleeve. Check the temperature and record the viscometer dial
reading. A temperature adjustment may be necessary if the instrument bob and
rotor are cold.

80
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

4.4.8 pH Meter:[41][42] P

Figure (4.8) pH Meter[41]P

Field measurements of mud and filtrate pH are important to mud control. Clay
connections, contaminants and solubility of mechanisms and overall effectiveness
of flavors are all supported upon pH. Acidic and sulfide erosion regular is too
closely checked by saving a close watch on pH values.
The rule of many mud system properties is maintained on pH (the recognition and
treatment of pollutants such as cement and insoluble carbonates). pH also shakes
the solubility of many thinner and divalent metal ions like magnesium and
calcium, and influences the flocculation of clays. The virtual acidity or alkalinity
of a liquid is correctly expressed as pH. Described as negative logarithm of the
hydrogen-ion attentiveness, pH units reduction as rising acidity by a feature of 10.
pH = - log[H+] P P

where [H+] is the concentration of hydrogen ion in moles each liter. At room
P P

temperature, the ion produce constant of water, K w , have a value of 1x10-14 mol/L.R R P P

K w = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14


R R P P P P P

For pure water, [H+] = [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-7 and henceforth, pH = 7.


P P P P P P

81
CHAPTER-4- LABORATORY PROCEDURES and APPARATUSES

The solution pH[44] is an quantity of its hydrogen ion concentration At each


P P

hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, there is an balance concentration of hydroxyl


(OH-) ions. with gauging the hydrogen ion concentration, in operation, in adding
measure the hydroxyl ion concentration. In clean water, the H+ and OH-
concentration are similar. This is the neutral value, or pH = 7.
There are two essential ways of gauge pH: either a pH paper exam strips or pH
meter . A pH meter is favored. The pH paper doesnt inherent accurateness of a
meter and grows unreliable in the attendance of greater salt concentration and dark
filtrate. A sodium paid electrode castoff on the meter once measure pH of greater
salt content mixtures. The solution alkalinity is connected to pH in much the
similar manner as heat capacity is related to temperature.
Maintaining an adequate pH in a drilling fluid is important for a number of causes.
1. Errosion taxes are repressed at a pH exceeding 10.
2. Hydroxyl ions counteract the H+ ions from H 2 S and evade hydrogen
P P R R

embrittlement. A pH exceeding 11 should be kept if H 2 S is estimated.


R R

3. Organic extracts likes lignite and lignosulfonate include a pH exceeding 9.5 to


function efficiently.
4. The ratio of heat humiliation of lignosulfonate is abridged at a pH exceeding10
5. Magnesium is hassled from water of sea at pH 10.
6. Calcium solubility is reduced as pH is increased.
When all of these issues are taken into contemplation, there are rare, if any, cases
when the drilling fluid should be preserved at a pH less than 9.5 . Usually, the
drilling fluid pH should be kept in the range amid 10 and 11.5. A pH more
than11.5 should be escaped unless a lime drilling fluid is being castoff. An ultra-
greater pH is harmful to greatest organic tastes and cause flocculation of clay
solids. This is basically the problem run into cement contamination. The elevated
yield point, gel strength, and fluid losing occur are mainly due to the rapid increase
in pH to high levels, rather than small amount of calcium presented into the
system.

82
CHAPTER FIVE

RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.1 TRAGACANTH GUM TEST


Physical specifications of tragacanth gum was tested under API Specification13A.
Firstly, the sample tested according to CMC LVT physical specifications
standers to show the tragacanth gum behavior as a Filter-loss-control material like
CMC the test shows that tragacanth gum is near from CMC LVT , as shown in
table (5-1)

Table (5-1) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Tragacanth Gum

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No Yes

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 262

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 9.8

Then the sample tested as CMC HVT physical specifications to show if the
tragacanth gum (local material) increase the viscosity in minimal or not the test
gave a good results, as shown in table (5-2).

84
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-2) CMC HVT Physical Specifications Test of Tragacanth Gum

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No Yes

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In deionized water Minimum 30 20

- In 40 g/l salt solution Minimum 30 19

- In saturated salt water Minimum 30 27

- Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 10

Also local material was tested as Starch physical specifications, the test confirmed
tragacanth gum (local material) as a good Filter-loss-control agent in salt and salt
saturated water, as shown in table (5-3).
Table (5-3) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Tragacanth Gum
Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 88

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 66

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 8.4

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 7.6

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

85
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Many tests were made to choose blank sample (sample considered start point for
all physical properties). Tests had included the rheological properties of local and
foreign materials and nine samples of water base mud with different quantities of
Bentonite and additives were prepared .the results of the test shown that the
sample no. 4 is the best as shown in tables (5-4 and 5-5 )

Table (5-4) The Nine Samples of water base mud with different quantities of Bentonite and
Additives.
Water Viscosifiers Sodium Sodium Fluid- loss- Thinners
Sample Carbonate Hydroxide control
NO. Agents

Cc gm gm gm gm gm

1 350 20 1 0.1 - 1

2 350 20 1 0.1 0.5 1

3 350 20 1 0.1 1 1

4 350 20 - 0.1 - -

5 350 22 - 0.1 - -

6 350 24 - 0.1 - -

7 350 20 0.5 0.1 - -

8 350 20 1 0.1 - -

9 350 22.5 - - - -

Note : for hydration leave the samples 24 hours before tests

86
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-5) Drilling Fluids Properties of Nine Blank Samples (surface conditions).

Rheological Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample
Properties 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

R600/R300 16/12 24/16 36/26 38/33 46/43 57/51 50/45 56/53 48/43

R200/R100 9/8 14/9 22/16 30/27 40/38 49/47 44/42 52/51 42/40

R60/R30 7/6 8/7 13/11 26/25 37/37 47/46 41/41 50/50 39/39

R6/R3 5/5 5/5 7/7 24/24 37/37 46/46 40/40 48/48 36/36

AV 8 12 18 19 23 28.5 25 28 24

PV 4 8 10 5 3 6 5 3 5

YP 8 8 16 28 40 45 40 50 38

YP/PV 2 1 1.6 5.6 13.3 7.5 8 16.7 7.6

10sec/10min
5/6 6/8 7/29 27/33 36/40 46/47 40/46 46/53 34/38
Gel

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
API Fluid
13.2 10 9.2 17.6 16.4 15.6 16.4 15.6 15.6
Loss
pH 10.2 10.2 10.1 9.7 9.5 9.4 10.1 10.6 9.2

Note all tests in Laboratory condition and for hydration leave the samples 24 hours before tests

For comparison, we prepared samples of fresh water bentonite, each of them


prepared with the same amount ( by weight ) of local material (tragacanth gum)
and foreign material (M- I PAC UL). (The results tabulated in tables ( 5-6 ) and
( 5-7). Note that, all tests were surface conditions and sample no. 4 from table
( 5-4 ) was selected as a blank sample.

87
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-6) Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Tragacanth Gum

Rheological 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Blank
Properties gm gm gm gm gm gm

R600/R300 38/33 59/53 70/63 84/72 98/85 117/102 155/133

R200/R100 30/27 51/48 61/58 68/61 79/73 92/82 122/108

R60/R30 26/25 46/46 56/55 58/57 70/68 78/74 103/96

R6/R3 24/24 45/45 54/51 55/52 67/61 64/62 90/78

AV 19 29.5 35 42 49 58.5 77.5

PV 5 6 7 12 13 15 22

YP 28 47 56 60 72 87 111

YP/PV 5.6 7.8 8 5 5.5 5.8 5.1

10sec/10min
27/33 40/46 49/56 48/58 56/66 60/65 69/81
Gel

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

API Fluid
17.6 13.6 12 10.4 9.2 8.8 8
Loss

pH 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.5 9.2 9 9

Note all tests in surface condition and Blank sample is sample 4 in table ( 5-5 )

88
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-7) Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Foreign Material
(M-I PAC UL) .

Rheological 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Blank
Properties gm gm gm gm gm gm

R600/R300 38/33 38/33 49/41 61/49 75/62 92/77 112/97

R200/R100 30/27 26/22 37/30 43/37 56/47 69/58 86/73

66/60
R60/R30 26/25 20/19 28/25 33/30 43/39 53/49

R6/R3 24/24 17/16 22/22 26/25 35/32 43/42 52/49

AV 19 19 24.5 30.5 37.5 46 56

PV 5 5 8 12 13 15 15

YP 28 28 33 37 49 62 82

YP/PV 5.6 5.2 4.1 3.1 3.8 4.1 5.5

10sec/10min
27/33 22/42 31/53 36/57 41/70 41/78 57/86
Gel

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

API Fluid
17.6 9.2 7.6 7.4 7.0 6.8 6.8
Loss

pH 9.7 9.2 9 9 9 9 9

Note all tests in surface condition and Blank sample is sample 4 in table ( 5-5 )

89
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

The same test procedure was made on another two foreign materials, DUO-VIS
and M-I GEL , to compare apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point of
them with local material, Tragacanth gum, are shown in tables (5-8) and (5-9).

Table (5-8) Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Foreign Material
(DUO-VIS)

Rheological 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Blank
Properties gm gm gm gm gm gm

R600/R300 38/33 87/81 110/104 140/129 162/149 178/165 184/168

R200/R100 30/27 78/73 99/92 124/114 145/134 159/148 160/143

R60/R30 26/25 70/69 88/84 111/107 130/125 144/137 133/117

R6/R3 24/24 67/65 80/74 94/87 111/83 97/78 71/60

AV 19 43.5 55 70 81 89 92

PV 5 6 6 11 13 13 16

YP 28 75 98 118 136 152 152

YP/PV 5.6 12.5 16.3 10.7 10.5 11.7 9.5

10sec/10min
27/33 59/64 64/65 80/86 76/79 71/73 54/60
Gel

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

API Fluid
17.6 12 10.4 9.6 9.2 8.8 8
Loss

pH 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.4

Note all tests in surface condition and Blank sample is sample 4 in table ( 5-5 )

90
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-9) Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Foreign Material
(M-I Gel) .

Rheological 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Blank
Properties gm gm gm gm gm gm

R600/R300 38/33 42/38 44/41 47/42 49/46 52/48 55/49

R200/R100 30/27 37/34 39/37 41/38 45/41 47/45 48/47

R60/R30 26/25 34/32 36/35 37/36 40/40 44/42 45/44

R6/R3 24/24 31/31 34/33 36/35 39/38 41/40 43/42

AV 19 21 22 23.5 24.5 26 27.5

PV 5 4 3 5 3 4 6

YP 28 34 38 37 43 44 43

YP/PV 5.6 8.5 12.7 7.4 14.3 11 7.2

10sec/10min
27/33 30/33 32/36 34/37 37/40 39/40 38/40
Gel

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

API Fluid
17.6 19.6 19.0 18.4 17.6 17.6 17.2
Loss

pH 9.7 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

Note all tests in surface condition and Blank sample is sample 4 in table ( 5-5 )

We plotted a figures in order to understand the behavior of the rheological


properties that have been shown in tables (5-6,5-7,5-8 and 5-9) as below:

91
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

20

18

16

14

12

10 Tragacanth Gum
M-I PAC UL
8

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Figure (5-1) Effect of additives concentrations on filter loss property for Tragacanth Gum and
M-I PAC UL.

100

90

80
Apparent Viscosity , cp

70

60

50 AV-Tragacanth Gum
AV-M-I PAC UL
40
AV-DUO-VIS
30
AV-M-I Gel
20

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Concentration , gm

Figure (5-2) Effect of additives concentrations on Apparent viscosity (AV) for Tragacanth Gum,
M-I PAC UL, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel .

92
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

25

20
Plastic Viscosity , cp

15
PV-Tragacanth Gum
PV-M-I PAC UL
10
PV-DUO-VIS
PV-M-I Gel
5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Concentration , gm

Figure (5-3) Effect of additives concentrations on plastic viscosity (PV) for Tragacanth Gum,
M-I PAC UL, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel .

160

140

120
Yield Point , lb/100 ft2

100

YP-Tragacanth Gum
80
YP-M-I PAC UL

60 YP- DUO-VIS
YP-MI-Gel
40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Concentration , gm

Figure (5-4) Effect of additives concentrations on Yield point (YP) for Tragacanth Gum, M-I
PAC UL, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel .

93
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

As shown above in figures, the local material gave good results as viscosifier
(increase in rheological properties with respect to increase the concentration)

5.2 ALBIZIA LEBBECK SEEDS TEST

The second local material was tested under API Specification 13A for CMC
LVT and Starch physical specifications test, as shown in tables (5-10 and 5-11)

Table (5-10) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Albizia Lebbeck Seeds.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No Yes

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 7

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 142

Table (5-11) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Albizia Lebbeck Seeds.

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 25

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 11

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 90

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 130

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

94
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.3 DATE PALM RACHIS TEST

The third local material was tested under API Specification 13A for CMC LVT
and Starch physical specifications test, as shown in tables (5-12 and 5-13)

Table (5-12) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Rachis.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No No

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 5

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 150

Table (5-13) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Rachis.

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 24

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 15

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 98

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 168

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

95
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.4 DATE PALM FIBER TEST

The fourth local material was tested under API Specification 13A for CMC
LVT and Starch physical specifications test, as shown in tables (5-14 and 5-15)

Table (5-14) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Fiber.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No No

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 4

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 124

Table (5-15) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Fiber.

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 15

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 14

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 53

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 120

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

96
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.5 DATE PALM SEEDS TEST

The fifth local material was tested under API Specification 13A for CMC LVT
and Starch physical specifications test, as shown in tables (5-16 and 5-17 )

Table (5-16) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Seeds.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No No

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 4

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 146

Table (5-17) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Date Palm Seeds.

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 14

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 16

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 51

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 98

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

97
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.6 WHEAT STRAW TEST

The sixth local material was tested under API Specification 13A for CMC LVT
and Starch physical specifications test, as shown in tables (5-18 and 5-19)

Table (5-18) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Wheat Straw.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No No

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 7

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 164

Table (5-19) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Wheat Straw.

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 17

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 13

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 100

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 150

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

98
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.7 PLUM TREE GUM TEST

physical specifications of Plum tree gum were tested under API Specification 13A
. At the beginning, this material was tested under CMC LVT physical
specifications in order to test the Plum tree gum as Filter-loss-control material like
CMC and this test showed that Plum tree gum is behave near from CMC LVT in
physical specifications , as shown in table (5-20) .

Table (5-20) CMC LVT Physical Specifications Test of Plum Tree Gum.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No Yes

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min Minimum 90 9

Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 16

Then it tested as CMC HVT physical specifications to see if the Plum tree gum
can increase the viscosity in minimal. We get a good results, as shown in table
(5-21).

99
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-21) CMC HVT Physical Specifications Test of Plum Tree Gum.

Requirement Standard Result

Starch or starch derivates presence No Yes

Solution properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In deionized water Minimum 30 84

- In 40 g/l salt solution Minimum 30 8

- In saturated salt water Minimum 30 7

- Filtrate volume , millilitres Maximum 10 16

After that the local material was tested as Starch physical specifications. The test
results confirmed that Plum tree gum (local material) is a good Filter-loss-control
agent in salt and salt saturated water, as shown below in table (5-22 ).

Table (5-22) Starch Physical Specifications Test of Plum Tree Gum.

Requirement Standard Result

Suspension properties

Viscometer dial reading at 600 r/min

- In 40 g/l salt water Maximum 18 36

- In saturated salt water Maximum 20 13

Filtrate volume

- In 40 g/l salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 8.8

- In saturated salt water, milliliters Maximum 10 9.6

Residue greater than 2000 m No residue

100
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

For comparison, between local materials (Plum tree gum) and foreign material
(PolySal HT). we prepared blank sample and Tested the Rheological Properties
after adding the same concentration of both materials , the results tabulated in
tables (5-23 and 5-24) .
Table (5-23) Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Plum Tree Gum .

Rheological 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Blank
Properties gm gm gm gm gm gm

R600/R300 38/33 61/60 78/73 86/81 88/83 120/114 140/130

R200/R100 30/27 58/56 71/69 79/75 78/74 112/106 125/115

R60/R30 26/25 55/54 67/65 72/67 71/68 97/95 111/106

R6/R3 24/24 51/50 60/60 65/62 63/57 88/85 99/95

AV 19 30.5 39 43 44 60 70

PV 5 1 5 5 5 6 10

YP 28 59 68 76 78 108 120

YP/PV 5.6 59 13.6 15.2 9 18 12

10sec/10min
27/33 45/47 52/56 54/61 52/59 69/77 76/87
Gel

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

API Fluid
17.6 14 12.4 10.4 10.4 10 9.2
Loss

pH 9.7 9 9 9.4 8.9 8.9 8.7

Note all tests in surface condition , Blank sample is sample 4 in table ( 5-5 )and Foaming blank
sample when add local material

101
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table (5-24) Properties of Samples prepared by Fresh Water Bentonite and Foreign Material
(PolySal HT).

Rheological 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Blank
Properties gm gm gm gm gm gm

R600/R300 38/33 48/42 50/45 52/48 48/42 54/46 62/56

R200/R100 30/27 41/38 44/41 47/44 41/37 45/41 52/47

R60/R30 26/25 37/35 40/39 43/42 36/35 40/39 45/44

R6/R3 24/24 34/34 37/37 39/39 32/32 37/37 41/41

AV 19 24 25 26 24 27 31

PV 5 6 5 4 6 8 6

YP 28 36 40 44 36 38 50

YP/PV 5.6 6 8 11 6 4.7 8.3

10sec/10mi
27/33 34/37 36/41 38/44 33/40 37/45 43/52
n Gel
Mud
1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Weight
API Fluid
17.6 14.4 13.2 10.2 9.2 8.8 8.4
Loss

pH 9.7 9.5 9.3 9.2 9.8 9.5 9.4

Note all tests in surface condition and Blank sample is sample 4 in table ( 5-5 ),

The results of tables (5-8,5-9,5-23 and 5-24) was plotted as shown in figures
(5-5,5-6,5-7 and 5-8) below:

102
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

20

18

16
Filterate Volume , cc

14

12

10
Plum Tree Gum
8
PolySal-HT
6

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Concentration , gm

Figure (5-5) Effect of additives concentrations on Filter Volume property for Plum Tree Gum
and PolySal-HT.

100

90

80
Apparent Viscosity , cp

70

60

50 Plum Tree Gum


AV-PolySal-HT
40
AV-DUO-VIS
30 AV-M-I Gel
20

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Concentration , gm

Figure (5-6) Effect of additives concentrations on Apparent Viscosity (AV) for Plum Tree Gum ,
PolySal-HT , DUO-VIS and M-I Gel .

103
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

18

16

14
Plastic Viscosity , cp

12

10
PV-Plum Tree Gum
8 PV-PolySal-HT

6 PV-DUO-VIS
PV-M-I Gel
4

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Concentration , gm

Figure (5-7) Effect of additives concentrations on plastic Viscosity (PV) for Plum Tree Gum ,
PolySal-HT , DUO-VIS and M-I Gel .

160

140

120
Yield Point , lb/100 ft2

100

80 YP-Plum Tree Gum


YP-PolySal-HT
60 YP- DUO-VIS
YP-MI-Gel
40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Concectration , gm

Figure (5-8) Effect of additives concentrations on Yield Point (YP) for Plum Tree Gum ,
PolySal-HT, DUO-VIS and M-I Gel .

104
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.8 Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum under Temperature Test

Table ( 5-25 )Test Rheological Properties for Fresh water bentonite (blank sample) with adding
Local Material ,Tragacanth Gum (Filter-loss-control Agent) as different temperature

Rheological 24 40 50 60 70
Properties C C C C C

R600/R300 98/85 130/109 137/117 153/133 170/152

R200/R100 79/73 100/91 109/102 126/119 131/124

R60/R30 70/68 87/84 99/97 115/113 123/122

R6/R3 67/61 80/79 94/92 109/108 119/114

AV 49 65 68.5 76.5 85

PV 13 21 20 20 18

YP 72 88 97 113 134

YP/PV 5.5 4.2 4.9 5.7 7.4

10sec/10min Gel 56/66 67/74 76/87 82/90 84/92

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

Filter Fluid Loss 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2

pH 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.1 8.7

Note Add 2 gm of Tragacanth Gum to blank sample 4

105
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Table ( 5-26 ) Test Rheological Properties for Fresh water bentonite (blank sample) with adding
Local Material , Plum Tree Gum (Filter-loss-control Agent) as different temperature

Rheological 24 40 50 60 70
Properties C C C C C

R600/R300 95/87 87/76 85/75 85/75 85/75

R200/R100 84/79 71/67 70/65 75/70 75/70

R60/R30 73/70 63/59 63/60 66/65 69/69

R6/R3 63/60 55/52 57/55 63/62 67/66

AV 47.5 43.5 42.5 42.5 42.5

PV 8 11 10 10 10

YP 79 65 65 65 65

YP/PV 9.9 5.9 6.5 6.5 6.5

10sec/10min Gel 55/65 49/59 54/60 55/63 57/65

Mud Weight 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03

Filter Fluid Loss 10.0 10.4 10.8 11.6 11.6

pH 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.1

Note Add 2 gm of Plum Tree Gum to blank sample 4

The results of tables (5-25,5-26) was plotted as shown in figures (5-9,5-10,5-11


and 5-12) below:

106
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

14

12

10
Filtrate Volume , cc

Tragacanth Gum
6
Plum Tree Gum

0
24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70
Temperature , C

Figure (5-9) Effect of Temperature on Filter Volume for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum

90

80

70

60
Filtrate Volume , cc

50

40 AV-Tragacanth Gum
AV-Plum Tree Gum
30

20

10

0
24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70
Temperature , C

Figure (5-10) Effect of Temperature on Apparent Viscosity for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree
Gum

107
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

25

20
Plastic Viscosity , cp

15

PV-Tragacanth Gum
10
PV-Plum Tree Gum

0
24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70

Temperature , C

Figure (5-11) Effect of Temperature on Plastic Viscosity for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree
Gum

160

140

120
Yield point , cc

100

80
YP-Tragacanth Gum

60 YP-Plum Tree Gum

40

20

0
24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70
Temperature , C

Figure (5-12) Effect of Temperature on Yield Point for Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum

108
CHAPTER-5- RESULTS and DISCUSSION

5.9 TESTS SUMMARY

1-Tested Tragacanth gum, Albizia lebbeck seeds, Date palm seeds, Date palm leaf
rachis, Date palm fiber, Wheat straw and Plum tree gum under API Specification
13A (CMC-LVT, CMC-HVT and Starch) to show physical properties in deionized
water, salt solution, saturated salt water and filtrate volume and compare results of
above seven local materials with three API tables.

2-Prepared nine laboratory samples of drilling fluids depend on API and laboratory
measurements to choose a blank be used as base for all comparison tests of local
and foreign materials. From table (5-5) results selected blank no.4 depended on
apparent viscosity value and its simple composed.

3-Tested physical properties for Tragacanth gum, M-I PAC UL, DUO-VIS, M-I
Gel, Poly-Sal HT and Plum tree gum with same weight concentrations (0.5,1,
1.5,2.5 and 3 gm).

4-Plotted test results in step (4) to showed apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity,
yield point and filtrate volume to compare among Tragacanth gum, M-I PAC UL,
DUO-VIS, M-I Gel, Poly-Sal HT and Plum tree gum materials.

5-Tested Tragacanth gum and Plum tree gum under different temperature degrees
reach to 70C(this temperature close from Mishrif formation temperature is
payzone in almost of southern fields) to show temperature effect on this materials.

6-All tests in this chapter proceed in Petroleum Research and Development Center
(PRDC)

109
CHAPTER SIX

CONCLUSIONS
AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER-6- CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 CONCLUSIONS

1-Tragacanth Gum gave rheological properties values near from M.I PAC UL
values as a filtration control agent- in water base mud, Although the Tragacanth
Gum are ore polymer and M.I PAC UL are manufacturing polymer, Also its
behavior succeeded in deionized, salt and salt saturated water as filter loss agent.

2- Tragacanth Gum have apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield scores more
than M.I PAC UL for same weight concentrations.

3-For temperature effect Tragacanth Gum show no effect in filter volume and
increased in apparent viscosity and yield point.

4- The rheological properties values of Plum Tree Gum were near Poly-Sal HT
values as a filtration control agent-, Although Plum Tree Gum is ore polymer and
Poly-Sal HT is manufactured polymer, this material was succeeded in salt and
salt saturated and deionized water as filter loss agent.

5- Plum Tree Gum have apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point
scores greater than Poly-Sal HT for the same weight concentrations.

6-For Temperature effect Plum Tree Gum show a minimum increasing in filter
volume and increased in plastic viscosity and minimum decreasing in yield point.

7- Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum can use as filter loss agents in water base
mud to drill oil well in Iraqi oil fields.

111
CHAPTER-6- CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS

8- Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum show good rheological properties as
viscosivier agents, therefore can advise using it in preparation drilling fluids.

9-Date Palm Leaf Rachis, Wheat Straw , Date Palm Fiber and Date Palm Seeds
mostly composed of cellulose and lignin so give a good readings at 600 r/min (as
shown in tables ).

10 As well as due to the presence of lignin in these raw materials, the extraction
of this material industrially, can add to the industry a new source of this important
material in thinners industry.

112
CHAPTER-6- CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS

6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

1- Test salt and salt saturated drilling fluids as blanks to see the behavior of
Tragacanth Gum and Plum Tree Gum in this type of drilling fluid.

2- Test Date Palm Leaf Rachis, Wheat Straw and Date Palm Fiber as thinners and
compare its with foreign materials.

3- Try to deal with these raw materials industrially in order to get rid of some non-
useful compounds and to increase the concentration of the necessary chemical
compounds.

4- Continue the search about new local alternatives for the foreign drilling fluids
materials to support the country's economy and to avoid situations of monopoly for
the manufacture of these materials.

113
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117
APPENDICES
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 1
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 2
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 3
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 4
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 5
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 6
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 7
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 8
APPENDIX-A- PRODUCT CROSS-REFERENCES

A 9
APPENDIX-B- FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS PRICES

B 1
APPENDIX-B- FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS PRICES

B 2
APPENDIX-B- FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS PRICES

B 3
APPENDIX-C- FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS CONSUMPTION FOR ONE DRILLED WEL

C 1
APPENDIX-C- FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS CONSUMPTION FOR ONE DRILLED WEL

C 2
APPENDIX-C- FOREIGN DRILLING FLUID MATERIALS CONSUMPTION FOR ONE DRILLED WEL

C 3
APPENDIX-D- TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT CENTER

D 1
APPENDIX-D- TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT CENTER

D 2
APPENDIX-D- TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT CENTER

D 3
APPENDIX-D- TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT CENTER

D 4
APPENDIX-D- TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT CENTER

D 5
APPENDIX-D- TESTS SAMPLES PROCEED IN PETROLEUM RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT CENTER

D 6