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Assignment Computer CN

Submitted By Muhammad Amir

Roll no 7231 (A)

Class & Section BS.IT (evening)

University of Education Lahore


Multan Campus
Q.1

10 Gigabit Ethernet
Introduction:-

Over the past several years, Ethernet has been the most popular choice of technology for
local area networks (LAN). There are millions of Ethernet users worldwide and still counting. In
1998, the standard for 1-Gigabit Ethernet was released. It prompted a great deal of attention from
users, especially many of those who were reluctant to adopt the expensive ATM technology for
their LANs. Within a few years, 1-Gigabit Ethernet is likely to dominate the LAN markets.

As the demand for high-speed networks continues to grow, the need for a faster Ethernet
technology is apparent. In March 1999, a working group was formed at IEEE 802.3 Higher
Speed Study Group (HSSG) to develop a standard for 10-Gigabit Ethernet, which is expected to
come out within the next few years. The preliminary objectives of the working group are listed
below:

Support 10 Gb/s Ethernet with about 2-3 times the cost of 1-Gigabit Ethernet
Maintain the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet frame formats.
Meet IEEE 802 Functional Requirements.
Simple forwarding between all speeds.
Maintain compatibility to IEEE 802.3x flow.
Maintain minimum and maximum frame size of current IEEE 802.3 standard.
Specify media independent interface.
Full-duplex operation only.
Speed-independent medium access control layer to support 10 Gb/s in LAN and about 10
Gb/s in MAN.
Support star-wired LAN topologies.
Support media selected from ISO/IEC 11801.
Specify a family of physical layer which support a link distance of at least 200m on
multi-mode fibers (MMF) and at least 3 km on single mode fibers (SMF).
Support the existing cabling infrastructure as well as the new infrastructure.

Gigabit Ethernet Overview

10-Gigabit Ethernet is basically the faster-speed version of Ethernet. It will support the
data rate of 10 Gb/s. It will offer similar benefits to those of the preceding Ethernet standard.
However, it will not support the half-duplex operation mode. The potential applications and
markets for 10-Gigabit Ethernet are enormous. There are broad groups of users who demand 10-
Gigabit Ethernet, for example, enterprise users, universities, telecommunication carriers, and
Internet service providers. Each market typically has different requirements for link span and
cost.

Benefits of 10-Gigabit Ethernet

One of the main benefits of 10-Gigabit standard is that it offers a low-cost solution to
solve the demands for bandwidth. Not only the cost of installation is low, but the cost of network
maintenance and management is minimal as well. Management and maintenance for 10-Gigabit
Ethernet may be done by local network administrators.

Market Requirements

There are broad demands for 10-Gigabit Ethernet in the local area network (LAN),
metropolitan area network (MAN), and the wide area network (WAN) markets. Each market
typically has different requirements. Table 1. summarizes typical span requirements for different
applications.

In the LAN markets, applications typically include in-building computer servers, building-to-
building clusters, and date centers. In this case, the distance requirement is relaxed, usually
between 100 and 300 meters. But, the cost requirement is stringent.

Protocol Layer
The Ethernet protocol basically implements the bottom two layers of the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) 7-layer model, i.e., the data link and physical sublayers. Figure 1 depicts
the typical Ethernet protocol stack and the relationship to the OSI model.

Med
ium Access Control (MAC)

The media access control sublayer provides a logical connection between the MAC
clients of itself and its peer station. It main responsibility is to initialize, control, and manage the
connection with the peer station.

Reconciliation Sublayer

The reconciliation sublayer acts as a command translator. It maps the terminology and
commands used in the MAC layer into electrical formats appropriate for the physical layer
entities.

10GMII (10-Gigabit Media Independent Interface)

10GMII provides a standard interface between the MAC layer and the physical layer. It
isolates the MAC layer and the physical layer, enabling the MAC layer to be used with various
implementations of the physical layer.

PCS (Physical Coding Sublayer)

The PCS sublayer is responsible for coding and encoding data stream to and from the
MAC layer. The default coding technique has not been defined. Several coding techniques will
be discussed later in the paper.

PMA (Physical Medium Attachment)


The PMA sublayer is responsible for serialize code groups into bit stream suitable for
serial bit-oriented physical devices and vice versa. Synchronization is also done for proper data
decoding in this sublayer.

PMD (Physical Medium Dependent)

The PMD sublayer is responsible for signal transmission. The typical PMD functionality
includes amplifier, modulation, and wave shaping. Different PMD devices may support different
media.

MDI (Medium Dependent Interface)

MDI is referred a connector. It defines different connector types for different physical
media and PMD devices.

Q.2

Personal Area Network (PAN)

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for data transmission amongst
devices such as computers, telephones, tablets and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used
for communication amongst the personal devices themselves (interpersonal communication), or
for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink) where one master device
takes up the role as internet router. A PAN may be carried over wired computer buses such as
USB and FireWire.

A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a low-powered PAN carried over a short-distance
wireless network technology such as:

INSTEON

IrDA

Wireless USB

Bluetooth

Z-Wave

ZigBee
Wired PAN connection

The data cable is an example of the above PAN. This is also a Personal Area Network
because that connection is for the user's personal use. PAN is used for personal use only.

Wireless personal area network

A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a personal area networka network for
interconnecting devices centered on an individual person's workspacein which the connections
are wireless. Wireless PAN is based on the standard IEEE 802.15. The two kinds of wireless
technologies used for WPAN are Bluetooth and Infrared Data Association.

Bluetooth

Bluetooth uses short-range radio waves. While historically covering shorter distances
associated with a PAN, the Bluetooth 5 standard, Bluetooth Mesh, have extended that range
considerably[1]. Further, long range Bluetooth routers with augmented antenna arrays connect
Bluetooth devices up to 1,000 feet[2]. Uses in a PAN remain, for example, Bluetooth devices
such as keyboards, pointing devices, audio head sets, printers may connect to personal digital
assistants (PDAs), cell phones, or computers wireless.

Infrared Data Association

Infrared Data Association (IrDA) uses infrared light, which has a frequency below the human
eye's sensitivity. Infrared in general is used, for instance, in TV remotes. Typical WPAN devices
that use IrDA include printers, keyboards, and other serial data interfaces.

A key concept in WPAN technology is known as "plugging in". In the ideal scenario,
when any two WPAN-equipped devices come into close proximity (within several meters of
each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server, they can communicate as if connected
by a cable. Another important feature is the ability of each device to lock out other devices
selectively, preventing needless interference or unauthorized access to information.
Q.3

1. Packet Switching

Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data
called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within
each packet. Breaking communication down into packets allows the same data path to be shared
among many users in the network. This type of communication between sender and receiver is
known as connectionless (rather than dedicated). Most traffic over the Internet uses packet
switching and the Internet is basically a connectionless network.

Contrasted with packet-switched is circuit-switched, a type of network such as the regular voice
telephone network in which the communication circuit (path) for the call is set up and dedicated
to the participants in that call. For the duration of the connection, all resources on that circuit are
unavailable for other users. Voice calls using the Internet's packet-switched system are possible.
Each end of the conversation is broken down into packets that are reassembled at the other end.

Another type of digital network that uses packet-switching is the X.25 network, a widely-
installed commercial wide area network protocol. Internet protocol packets can be carried on an
X.25 network. The X.25 network can also support a virtual circuit in which a logical connection
is established for two parties on a dedicated basis for some duration. A permanent virtual circuit
(PVC) reserves the path on an ongoing basis and is an alternative for corporations to a system of
leased lines. A permanent virtual circuit is a dedicated logical connection but the actual physical
resources can be shared among multiple logical connections or users.

2.Circuit Switching

A type of communications in which a dedicated channel (or circuit) is established for the
duration of a transmission. The most ubiquitous circuit-switching network is the telephone
system, which links together wire segments to create a single unbroken line for each telephone
call.

The other common communications method is packet switching, which divides messages into
packets and sends each packet individually. The Internet is based on a packet-switching protocol,
TCP/IP.

Circuit-switching systems are ideal for communications that require data to be transmitted in
real-time. Packet-switching networks are more efficient if some amount of delay is acceptable.

Circuit-switching networks are sometimes called connection-oriented networks. Note, however,


that although packet switching is essentially connectionless, a packet switching network can be
made connection-oriented by using a higher-level protocol. TCP, for example, makes IP
networks connection-oriented.
Circuit-switched is often contrasted with packet-switched. Some packet-switched networks such
as the X.25 network are able to have virtual circuit-switching. A virtual circuit-switched
connection is a dedicated logical connection that allows sharing of the physical path among
multiple virtual circuit connections.

3.Message Switching

In telecommunications, message switching was the precursor of packet switching, where


messages were routed in their entirety, one hop at a time. It was first built by Collins Radio
Company, Newport Beach, California, during the period 19591963 for sale to large airlines,
banks and railroads. Message switching systems are nowadays mostly implemented over packet-
switched or circuit-switched data networks. Each message is treated as a separate entity. Each
message contains addressing information, and at each switch this information is read and the
transfer path to the next switch is decided. Depending on network conditions, a conversation of
several messages may not be transferred over the same path. Each message is stored (usually on
hard drive due to RAM limitations) before being transmitted to the next switch. Because of this it
is also known as a 'store-and-forward' network. Email is a common application for message
switching. A delay in delivering email is allowed, unlike real-time data transfer between two
computers.

Hop-by-hop Telex forwarding and UUCP are examples of message switching systems.

When this form of switching is used, no physical path is established in advance between sender
and receiver. Instead, when the sender has a block of data to be sent, it is stored in the first
switching office (i.e. router) then forwarded later at one hop at a time. Each block is received in
its entity form, inspected for errors and then forwarded or re-transmitted.

A form of store-and-forward network. Data is transmitted into the network and stored in a
switch. The network transfers the data from switch to switch when it is convenient to do so, as
such the data is not transferred in real-time. Blocking can not occur, however, long delays can
happen. The source and destination terminal need not be compatible, since conversions are done
by the message switching networks.

A message switch is transactional. It can store data or change its format and bit rate, then
convert the data back to their original form or an entirely different form at the receive end.
Message switching multiplexes data from different sources onto a common facility. A message
switch is one of the switching technologies. This system is very powerful and efficient.

Q.4

Optical Ethernet Network

Optical networking is a means of communication that uses signals encoded onto light to
transmit information among various nodes of a telecommunications network. They operate from
the limited range of a local-area network (LAN) or over a wide-area network (WAN), which can
cross metropolitan and regional areas all the way to national, international and transoceanic
distances. It is a form of optical communication that relies on optical amplifiers, lasers or LEDs
and wave division multiplexing (WDM) to transmit large quantities of data, generally across
fiber-optic cables. Because it is capable of achieving extremely high bandwidth, it is an enabling
technology for todays Internet and the communication networks that transmit the vast majority
of all human and machine-to-machine information.

Components of an optical networking system include:

Fiber. Multi-mode or single-mode.

Laser or LED light source.

Multiplexer/demultiplexer, also called mux/demux, filter, or prism. These can include


Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM) and Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop
Multiplexer (ROADM).

Optical switch, to direct light between ports without an optical-electrical-optical


conversion

Optical splitter, to send a signal down different fiber paths.

Circulator, to tie in other components, such as an OADM.

Optical amplifier.
Optical Amplification

The capacity of fiber optic networks has increased in part due to improvements in
components, such as optical amplifiers and optical filters that can separate light waves into
frequencies with less than 50 GHz difference, fitting more channels into a fiber.

Wave Division Multiplexing

Using optical amplifiers, the capacity of fibers to carry information was dramatically
increased with the introduction of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) in the early 1990s.
AT&Ts Bell Labs developed a WDM process in which a prism split a beam of light into
different wavelengths, which could travel through a fiber simultaneously.

Capacity

The bandwidth made possible by optical networking technologies enabled the rapid
growth of the Internet and will allow it to continue to grow. The demand for bandwidth is driven
primarily by Internet Protocol (IP) traffic, which includes video services, telemedicine, social
networking, Web 2.0 applications that are transaction-intensive, and cloud-based computing.

Protocols

Optical networking uses various standard protocols. These include:

Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Gigabit Ethernet