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Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater

Developing Transfer Functions from Heat & Material Balances

Example Transfer Functions Stirred Tank Heater

F0, T0,0

h, Ac, T,

Fs, Ts

F1, T1,1

We will develop the transfer functions for a stirred tank heater by setting up the heat &
material balance equations for the case where the volume might change (since flow out of
the tank is controlled by a valve). The overall mass balance on this system will be:

d 1V
0F0 1F1
dt

where the volume in the tank, V , might be changing with time (since the liquid level might
be changing). If we simplify the physical properties by assuming a constant liquid density,
1 0 , and if the valve has linear flow characteristics, F1 Cv h , then:

d Ac h dh
F0 F1 Ac F0 Cv h .
dt dt

Remember that the steady state version of this equation is:

0 F0* Cv h* .

The energy balance will be:


d 1VH 1 F H 1F1 H 1 UA Ts T1
0 0 0
dt

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -1- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
We can split apart the time derivative term:

1V
H
d H 1 d 1V
0F0 H 0 1F1 H 1 UA Ts T1
1
dt dt

and then insert the mass balance ODE for the second time derivative:

1V
H F
d H 1
F11 0F0 H 0 1F1 H 1 UA Ts T1 .
1 0 0
dt

Doing a little bit of math gives:

1V
F H
d H 1
F11 H 1 0F0 H 0 1F1 H 1 UA Ts T1
0 0 1
dt

1V
F H
d H 1
0F0 H 0 UA Ts T1
0 0 1
dt

1V
F H
d H 1
F00 H 1 UA Ts T1
0 0 0
dt

dH 1
1V
dt

0F0 H 0 H 1 UA Ts T1 .

We would still like to convert the enthalpy terms into terms that directly relate to
temperature. Even with a temperature dependent heat capacity the time derivative can be
split into:

dT

1VC p1 1 0F0 H 0 H 1 UA Ts T1 .
dt

If we assume that the heat capacities are constant and that there is no reaction, then:

H T C p T Tref H ref and H ref ,1 H ref ,0

and:

dT
1VC p 1 0F0C p T0 T1 UA Ts T1 .
dt

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -2- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
For final simplicity lets assume the density is essentially constant, so 1 0 and:

dT
VC p 1 F0C p T0 T1 UA Ts T1 .
dt

The steady state version of this equation is:


0 F0*C p T0* T1* UA Ts* T1* .
Changing temperatures, constant inlet flow rate

Lets develop the transfer functions using these ODEs as our starting point. Lets assume
that the only independent variables that can change are T0 and Ts . We will hold F0
constant, so V (and hence h ) will be constant, too. So we only need to deal with the energy
balance equation. When we linearize this we need to put it in terms of the deviation
variables T0 and Ts (for the independent variables) and T1 (for the dependent variable):


VC p dT1 F0C p T0 T1 UA Ts T1 T0
*

dt T
0

*
F0C p T0 T1 UA Ts T1 Ts
Ts
*
F0C p T0 T1 UA Ts T1 T1
T1


VC p dT1 F0C p T0 UA* Ts F0C p UA T1
* *

dt


VC p dT1 F0C p UA T1 F0C p T0 UA Ts .
dt

Note that this equation shows how the stirred tank fluid temperature is affected by
changes in the other temperatures.

This ODE gets converted to transfer functions by taking the Laplace transform :

VC p s T1 F0C p UA T1 F0C p T0 UA Ts

VC s F C
p 0 p
UA T1 F0C p T0 UA Ts

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -3- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
F0C p UA
T1 T0 Ts .
VC p s F0C p UA VC p s F0C p UA

This shows that we have two transfer functions:

T1 G0 s T0 Gs s Ts

where:

F0C p UA
G0 s and Gs s .
VC p s F0C p UA VC p s F0C p UA

Notice that both of these transfer functions come from the same first order ODE, so both
are referred to as first order transfer functions. Well see in a later section that we would
like to put the equations into a standard form that arises when the multiplier on the T1
term is unity (i.e., one). This can be done by dividing everything by the existing factor on
the T1 term, F0C p UA . Starting with the deviation variable form of the ODE:

VC p dT F0C p UA
1 T1 T0 Ts .
F0C p UA dt F0C p UA F0C p UA

We can simplify the form of the equation by defining new symbols for the groupings:

VC p F0C p UA
., K 0 , and K s

F0C p UA
F0C p UA F0C p UA

so:

dT1
T1 K 0 T0 K s Ts
dt

s 1T1 K 0 T0 K s Ts
K0 Ks
T1 T0 Ts
s 1 s 1

and the transfer functions are now:

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -4- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
K0 Ks
G0 s and Gs s .
s 1 s 1

A block diagram for the stirred tank heater can be drawn as follows.

T0 G0

+
+
+
T1

Ts Gs

Allow Inlet Flow Rate to Change

The previous set of transfer functions were derived from the energy balance ODE
linearized only for changes in temperature. If the inlet flow rate also changes then we must
also take this into account in both ODEs. When we linearize these ODEs we need to put
them in terms of the deviation variables F0 , T0 , and Ts (for the independent variables) and
h & T1 (for the dependent variables). The overall material balance becomes:

dh
F0 Cv h F0
*
Ac
dt F0

F0 Cv h T0
*

T0

F0 Cv h Ts
*

Ts

F0 Cv h h
*

h

F0 Cv h T
*

dh
Ac 1 F0 0 T0 0 Ts Cv h 0 T
dt

dh
Ac F0 Cv h
dt

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -5- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
dh
and: Ac Cv h F0 .
dt

The energy balance becomes (remember to first divide by h to put all variables on the left-
hand side of the ODE):
*
F C
Ac C p dT1 0 p T0 T1 UA Ts T1 F0
dt F
h
0 h
*
F0C p UA
T0 T1 Ts T1 T0
T0 h h
*
F0C p UA
T0 T1 Ts T1 Ts
Ts h h
*
F C UA
0 p T0 T1 Ts T1 h
h h h
*
F0C p UA
T0 T1 Ts T1 T1
T1 h h

* *
C F C *
Ac C p dT1 p T0 T1 F0 0 p T0 UA Ts
dt h
h h
*
F C UA
02 p T0 T1 2 Ts T1 h
h h
*
F C UA
0 p T1
h h

C F *C
Ac C p dT1 *p T0* T1* F0 0* p T0 UA

Ts
dt *
h h h
F0*C p * UA

*2 T0 T1* *2 Ts* T1* h
h h
F0*C p UA
* * T1
h h

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -6- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
F *C C p * F0*C p
Ac C p dT1 0* p UA UA
T1 * T0 T1 F0 * T0 * Ts
*
dt *
h h h h h
F0*C p * UA

*2 T0 T1* *2 Ts* T1* h
h h

We can multiply through by the steady state level, h* :

Ac h*C p dT1 F0*C p UA T1 C p T0* T1* F0 F0*C p T0 UA Ts



dt


F0*C p T0* T1* UA Ts* T1*

h
h*

Notice that the term multiplying h is the steady state energy balance and is zero, so:

Ac h*C p dT1 F0*C p UA T1 C p T0* T1* F0 F0*C p T0 UA Ts .



dt

Now we can get the transfer functions by converting to Laplace variables & algebraically
manipulating. First from the mass balance:

Ac s h Cv h F0
Ac s Cv h F0
1
h F0
Ac s Cv

Next from the energy balance:

A h C s F C
c
*
p 0
*
p
UA T1 C p T0* T1* F0 F0*C p T0 UA Ts


C p T0* T1*

T1 F0
* *
Ac h C p s F0 C p UA

*
F0 C p UA
T0 Ts
Ac h*C p s F0*C p UA Ac h*C p s F0*C p UA

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -7- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017
Colorado School of Mines CHEN403 Stirred Tank Heater
Now there are three transfer functions from the energy balance:

T1 GF F0 G0 T0 Gs Ts

where:


C p T0* T1*

GF
* *
Ac h C p s F0 C p UA

F0*C p
G0 s
Ac h C p s F0*C p UA
*

Gs s
UA .
Ac h*C p s F0*C p UA

There is only one transfer function from the mass balance:

1
h Gh F0 where Gh .
Ac s Cv

The full block diagram relating the independent & dependent variables are shown in the
following figure.

Gh h
F0
GF

T0 G0 +
+
+
T1

Ts Gs

John Jechura (jjechura@mines.edu) -8- Copyright 2017


April 23, 2017