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SECTION 1 Head and Neck Study Guide


Attachment Distal Attachment
Muscle (Origin) (Insertion) Innervation Main Actions Blood Supply

Genioglossus Mental spine of Dorsum of tongue Hypoglossal nerve Depresses and Sublingual and
mandible and hyoid bone (CN XII) protrudes tongue submental arteries
Hyoglossus Body and Lateral and inferior Hypoglossal nerve Depresses and Sublingual and
greater horn aspect of tongue (CN XII) retracts tongue submental arteries
of hyoid bone
Styloglossus Styloid process Lateral and inferior Hypoglossal nerve Retracts tongue and Sublingual artery
and stylohyoid aspect of tongue (CN XII) draws it up for
ligament swallowing
Palatoglossus Palatine Lateral aspect of Vagus nerve via Elevates posterior Ascending pharyngeal
aponeurosis tongue pharyngeal tongue, depresses arteries, palatine
of soft palate plexus palate branches of facial
and maxillary

Intrinsic muscles PALATE

Alter shape of tongue Forms roof of mouth and floor of nasal cavities
Superior longitudinal: curls tip of tongue Consists of two parts
superiorly Hard palate anteriorly
Inferior longitudinal Formed from by palatine processes of maxillae and
Curls tip of tongue inferiorly horizontal plates of palatine bones
Acts with superior longitudinal muscle to shorten Covered with periosteum and oral mucosa (inferi-
and thicken tongue orly) and respiratory mucosa superiorly
Transverse: narrows tongue and increases height Has five foramina
Vertical: flattens and broadens tongue Incisive fossa behind central incisors transmits
Vasculature nasopalatine nerves via incisive canals
Arterial supply Paired greater palatine foramina medial to third
Principally from lingual artery, branch of external molar transmits greater palatine vessels and
carotid nerves
Dorsal lingual artery Paired lesser palatine foramina posterior to
Deep lingual artery greater palatine foramina transmits lesser palatine
Sublingual artery nerves and vessels
Minor contributions from tonsillar and ascending pha- Mucus-secreting palatine glands beneath mucosa
ryngeal arteries Incisive papilla directly posterior to maxillary
Venous drainage incisors
Accompanies arterial supply Palatine raphe
Dorsal lingual veins Midline ridge/groove
Deep lingual veins (join sublingual veins) Represents line of fusion of embryonic palatal
All drain, either directly or indirectly, to internal plates
jugular vein. Soft palate posteriorly
Lymphatic drainage Moveable posterior third suspended from hard
Tip (apex) to submental nodes palate
Anterior medial two thirds to inferior deep cervical No bony skeleton
nodes Attaches to hard palate via aponeurotic palate
Anterior lateral two thirds to submandibular nodes Expanded tendineus aponeurosis of tensor veli
Posterior one third to superior deep cervical nodes palatini muscles
Innervation Thick anteriorly
All muscles of tongue except palatoglossus are supplied Muscular palate (tensor veli palatini) posteriorly
by hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). Posterior curved free margin has conical projection:
Palatoglossus is supplied by pharyngeal plexus (CN IX uvula
via CN X). Anatomical features related to soft palate
Sensory to anterior two thirds of tongue Arches
General sensory: lingual nerve (CN V3) Join soft palate to tongue and pharynx
Special sensory (taste): chorda tympani (CN VII) Palatoglossal arch
General and special sensory to posterior one third of Mucosal fold
tongue: glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Contains palatoglossus muscle