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ENEM14015 Mechanical Systems 2017



Use these questions to help show your individual ability to fulfil some of the Learning Outcome criteria
for ENEM14015. You can choose to do as many questions or parts of questions as required. You can
also create/solve your own additional questions or expand/improve on the team projects. Focus you
efforts in the portfolio criteria areas you require more evidence. Some of the portfolio criteria requires
multiple DOFs so feel free to add more DOFs to the demonstration questions to allow you to
demonstrate the excellent portfolio criteria. The demonstration problems submitted in your portfolio
must be solely your own work.

A Distinction or High Distinction Level will require a demonstration of a high individual achievement
of the Learning Outcomes and the demonstration problems and other individual work will assist in
creating the necessary evidence for this. Without any Demonstration Problems or other totally unique
work it will be very difficult to attain the Excellent level of the Portfolio assessment criteria and hence
a Distinction or High Distinction.

You will get due credit for part completions of questions. Major faults that demonstrate a lack of
understanding could impact on your criteria based assessment and result in a reduction in grade

Papers can be completed in handwritten form, scanned and submitted online. Make sure your method is
shown clearly with adequate diagrams and working as if it was to be checked by another engineer.

Any Matlab, Simulink, Excel files should also be submitted. Make it clear in your submission the name
of files which relate to which questions. Explain clearly how the work in these files were developed,
i.e. modelling equations, non-linearitys, inputs, non-linearitys etc.

The demonstration problems should be included in your portfolio submission and used to support your
claims against the learning criteria.


Only clarifications to questions will be given. As stated previously these should be your own work, use
your learnings from the team projects and tutorials to complete them. Any clarifications will be posted
on Moodle.

Individual Effort

Make sure the work submitted is your own work. You can use/modify project work or files provided in
the course to help but do not directly copy report sections or Simulink models used in the projects. To
show your understanding of the Matlab scripts add your own comments and modifications. You should
develop any Simulink models from scratch. This is meant to be a demonstration of your own
understanding of the course.

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ENEM14015 Mechanical Systems 2017

Section A Rail Vehicle Suspension


The context for Parts 1 to 2 is your car. If you do not have a car, you can choose one. The model of the car
must be clearly stated in your answer

Using this context complete analysis that demonstrates your abilities, start, like you did during the
term, look at simple modeling approximations and then progress on to more complex models.

Find, estimate or calculate the mass and suspension data for the car you choose. (they should be
reasonable and somewhat justified):
Masses, 2nd Moments of Inertia
Stiffness, Damping
Centre of gravity

Figure 1: Some cars

QUESTION 1: 1 DOF Modeling

Create a 1 DOF system approximation of your car and analyse the system using theoretical vibration
calculations/ or Matlab scripts and compare with a simulink model:
i. For free vibration
ii. For forced vibration (you will have to estimate the forced vibration that could be expected in
your vehicle)
iii. The response of your car to expected road surface roughness and possible road defects.
iv. Include in your Simulink model suitable non-linearitys, discuss and show how or if these will
affect the previous analysis. You may have to generate some extreme road defects to show the
operation of the non-linear properties.
v. Damping helps to isolating vibration and reduces transmitted vibration. Based on your analysis
write a paragraph on the effect of damping in affecting your cars performance i.e. Where
would be better to use high damping; Where would it be better to use low damping; and how
does the damping levels you have chosen in your car affect passenger comfort and the wheel-
road contact force.

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ENEM14015 Mechanical Systems 2017

QUESTION 2: 2 DOF modelling

Improve your car model and include the roll DOF in addition to vertical motion. For this 2DOF system
there will be two mode shapes and two natural frequencies to calculate. Demonstrate your competence
i. Creating the two (2) equations of motion
ii. Creating the equations of motion in matrix form
iii. Creating/modifying a Matlab script using eigenvalues and eigenvectors or other means to find
the natural frequencies and mode shapes.
iv. Discuss what the mode shapes and natural frequencies results refer to and what analysis
conclusions you can draw from these.
v. Create a Simulink model to investigate the response of the system to expected road surface
roughness and defects, like corrugations, potholes and speedbumps.
vi. Write a conclusion on your overall analysis above, for example: Is the suspension suitable?
How could the suspension be changed to improve it? What future analysis or investigation is

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ENEM14015 Mechanical Systems 2017

Section B Control
QUESTION 3: Vibration Table
A vibration table in Figure 2, includes a hydraulic cylinder, a mass, a sensor and a controller. The table
is resisted by a linear spring and viscous damping as shown. It is desired to vibrate the mass in a pure
sinusoidal motion at an amplitude of +5mm and at frequencies from 0 to 10Hz. Use m = 100kg,
k = 5000N/m, c = 1000 N.s/m.

Desired movement

Controller Spring
and pump k

Damper, c

Figure 2: Mass and controller

Develop a suitable model and PID controller for the system and model this in Simulink and analyse its
a. Demonstrate that the controller is able to produce the desired movement and comment on any
limitations you may discover.
b. Document how you determined the PID parameters.
c. Discuss any PID values that failed to produce the desired movement.
d. Determine force required from the hydraulic ram and the force on the damper and spring.
e. Determine and discuss the stability of the control system.
f. Demonstrate that your controller is capablable of two following design changes:
a. The mass of the table is increased to 200kg
b. The spring stiffness is doubled for the ranges (+4mm to +5mm) and ( -4mm to -5mm)
g. Determine the new force required from the hydraulic ram and the force on the damper and
spring due to the changes in part (f).

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ENEM14015 Mechanical Systems 2017

QUESTION 4: Cruise Control

Use Simulink to develop a suitable cruise controller for a loaded truck. The controller must be designed
to adjust the engine power setting (i.e. fuel control) and provide braking control in over speed
circumstances. Choose a truck to determine its mass, engine power, torque etc. Clearly specify the
make and model of the truck used.

You will need to consider the effect of grades and propulsion resistance.
For grades consider that grades up to 1 in 12 are possible on roads.
For air and rolling resistance use: F = mg x 0.01 + 0.5 * 0.7 * 1.225 *A.V2
where m is in kg; V is speed in m/s, A is frontal area in m2.

a) Demonstrate the robustness of your design with a test road containing both up and down grades
as well as flat road
b) Demonstrate the operation of the brake control.
c) Provide a measure of the stability of the cruise control system.
d) Comment on the disadvantages of your controller and possible improvements or investigations

Section C Other Vibration Applications

QUESTION 5: Rotational and Linear Vibrating System

For the mechanical system in Figure 3:

a) Determine the equation of motion for the system*, calculate the free vibration response, forced
vibration, critical damping* and Magnification Factor*. *Express in terms of J, m1, m2, k1, k2,
c1, c2 and L. State and explain any assumptions you make.
b) Select some values for the unknowns (clearly state these) and calculate/graph the values listed
in part (a) of the question. Briefly comment on and explain what your results mean.
c) Use a Simulink model to verify your results.


J, m2

Figure 3: Vibrating Column

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