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Capabilities in the Norwegian oil and gas industry for reducing
energy consumption and minimizing discharges and emissions.

January 2015
Solutions for Cleaner Production Solutions for Cleaner Production

Contents Foreword
Norway had great focus on responsible been possible without the continuous efforts of
management of the countrys natural resources. the Norwegian industry to develop and implement
1. INTRODUCTION ...............4 Parliament agreed on ten policy guidelines for increasingly advanced technologies.
2. REDUCTIONS ACHIEVED ON DISCHARGES AND EMISSIONS ON THE NCS  5 the oil and gas sector in 1971. Protection of the The industry has now full focus on finding new
environment was one of the rules. Another rule ways and new technologies that can reduce future
2.1 Discharges to Sea on the Norwegian Continental Shelf  5 made it clear that flaring of natural gas was emissions from the hydrocarbons.
2.2 Emissions to Air  5 unacceptable.
The latest recommendations from the United
2.3 Waste Management and Handling  6 The policy has been to introduce strict safety and Nations Intergovernmental panel on climate
3. BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES (BAT)  7 environmental regulations. The ambitions have change have documented the urgency in reducing
been to reduce discharges to sea and emissions emissions. The world has to move to low carbon
3.1 Advanced and Environmentally Friendly Drilling  7 to air. and renewable energy, as well as capturing and
3.2 Zero Discharge Concept on FPSOs  8 storing carbon emissions.
The government has adjusted policies with time
3.3 Oil Spill Preparedness and Clean-up  9 and with lessons learned. A CO2 tax was introduced The technology center at Mongstad on the
3.4 Light Well Intervention (LWI)  10 in 1992. The industry found ways of taking care Norwegian west coast is the worlds largest facility
of the CO2 by reinjecting it to the reservoirs. First for testing and improving CO2 capture.
3.5 Environmentally Friendly Ships  11 at the Sleipner field in the North Sea, later in the One of the most important and challenging
3.6 Subsea to Beach  12 Snhvit field in the Barents Sea. mitigation tools to reduce CO2 emissions will
be a wide scale deployment of CO2Capture and
3.7 Carbon Separation and Storage  13 The oil companies, oil service companies and the Storage (CCS) technology that can play a large role
4. FIELD DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS, CONCEPT SELECTION 14 research and development centers have developed in global greenhouse gas emission reductions.
new ideas, tested them and then introduced them CCS will be part of the toolbox of solutions for the
5. CAPABILITIES AND TECHNOLOGIES 16 to operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. world.
5.1 Solutions for Reduced energy consumption  16 The industry has been looking for best available
technology and has been willing to use the The world will also need more oil and gas in the
5.2 Solutions for minimization of Discharges to Sea Including Waste management  17 technology. years to come.
5.3 Solutions for minimization of Emissions to Air  18 Carbon separation and storage
Environmentally friendly ships The Norwegian oil and gas industry has shown its
5.4 Logistic and Transportation Solutions  19 ability to come forward with advanced solutions
Zero discharge concepts
5.5 Oil Spill Preparedness and Clean-Up Solutions  20 Oil spill preparedness and clean up solutions that has reduced emissions and discharges from
operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.
5.6 Decommissioning and Restoration Solutions  21 Many of the Norwegian solutions have found a
Norway is the worlds third largest exporter of
5.7 Environmental models and Measurement Solutions  22 primary energy with one of the worlds lowest global market.
6. FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS, REGULATIONS AND SELECTED REFERENCES .......... 23 INTSOKs focus on Solutions for Cleaner Production
The Norwegian petroleum industry has a strong is a valuable contribution to the industrys work
track record in meeting high environmental to meet the worlds future energy needs in a
standards. These accomplishments would not have sustainable manner.

Photo covers from top left: istock.com, John Ringstad / Havforskningsinstituttet,

Ulstein Group/Marius Beck Dahle, Wrtsil Oil & Gas Solutions AS

Sjur E. Bratland
Managing Director

2 3
1. Introduction 2. Reductions achieved on Discharges and Emissions on the NCS

Introduction Reductions achieved on Discharges

The purpose of this catalogue is to highlight INTSOK
partner companies that deliver solutions, technologies
and services that contribute to cleaner production and
The oil industry has also worked closely with the
fishing industry to enable both industries to harvest
the rich resources.
and Emissions on the NCS
thereby reduce the impact of oil and gas production
on the environment.
Norway is one of the worlds biggest This chapter highlights some key figures on discharges and
The Norwegian Government in partnership with exporters of farmed salmon while emissions on the NCS compared to world averages and selected
environmental organizations and the Norwegian oil
at the same time it is the worlds petroleum producing regions.
industry launched a joint initiative in the mid-1990s
to develop new environmental targets and standards third biggest exporter of oil and
and technology development initiatives for the oil and natural gas.
gas industry operating on the Norwegian Continental
Shelf. The ambition was to create a zero harmful
emission industry. New regulations issued by the A large number of governmental and institutional
2.1 Discharges to Sea on the
authorities and technology development initiatives by publications describe the changes in Norwegian Norwegian Continental Shelf
Norwegian oil companies like Statoil have incentivized environmental policies and potential environmental
and enabled development of new technologies. The impacts of oil and gas production. A list of selected Current global water production associated with oil
improved practices have led to substantial reductions references since the introduction of the Norwegian and gas production is approximately 250 million
in harmful emissions to air and discharges to sea. Petroleum Law in 1971 is presented in Chapter 6. bbl /day. Current global oil production is above 80
million bbl /day. The average water cut globally is 75%
Norwegian R&D institutions, suppliers and service This catalogue will hopefully improve technology (increased from 70% ten years ago).
companies have played a significant role in delivering awareness as well as add knowledge of technology
the systems and equipment required to meet the new achievements by mapping the capabilities of Produced water represents the largest discharges to
standards. Today, the production on the Norwegian companies and R&D institutions with environmental sea on the NCS. In 2013, some 131 million Sm3 were
discharged, down from 160 million Sm3 as the peak
Continental Shelf (NCS) is at the forefront in using technologies and solutions introduced on the NCS and
in 2007. Total discharge of oil in produced water was
technological solutions that minimize the impact on in international markets.
1,535 tons in 2013.
the environment. Red chemicals discharges reduction progress since 2001
The current maximum permitted concentration Source: Norwegian Oil and Gas Association (2012)

of oil in disposed produced water is 30 mg/l. The

average concentration in 2013 was 11,7 mg/l, well
below government regulations set by the Norwegian 2.2 Emissions to Air
Environment Agency.
The main sources of emissions to air are:
The oil industry has invested considerable efforts
Diesel and fuel gas exhaust and VOC emissions
in replacing harmful chemical substances with
related to drilling, production and logistic
environmentally friendly solutions. The most harmful
chemicals include: Drilling fluids, corrosion inhibitors,
Diesel and fuel gas exhaust from gas turbines,
emulsion breakers, biocides, lubricants, surfactants
engines and boilers
and H2S removers. Currently, more than 99% of the
Gas flaring
chemicals in the so-called red and black categories
Burning of oil and gas during testing and
have been phased out.

Statoil Subsea factory Source: Statoil

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2. Reductions achieved on Discharges and Emissions on the NCS 3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples

Photo: Shutterstock.com

The emissions to air on NCS compared with Recent Norwegian examples that significantly reduce
international averages: emissions are the use of hydroelectric power from
shore to operate the Troll, Ormen Lange, Valhall and
Gja fields. DS Atlantic. Photo Odfjell Drilling

The Martin Linge field in the North Sea will be powered

from shore, and the Goliat field in the Barents Sea will
be partly powered from shore.
Best Available Technologies (BAT)
A test facility for CO2 extraction from exhaust gas
has been constructed at the Mongstad Refinery. Two
Some project examples
fields containing CO2 in the reservoir fluid, Sleipner
and Snhvit, have implemented solutions for CO2
sequestration and reinjection with a subsurface 3.1 Advanced and Environmentally Friendly Drilling
storage reservoir.
100 kg CO2 per SCM oil equivalent produced, and kg other gases per
SCM oil equivalent produced in 2011 The latest generation of drilling rigs engineered efficiency, in a safer manner and following the
The recent pilot project of subsea gas compression at
Source: International Association of Oil Producers (OGP) and Exploration & and constructed by the Norwegian rig owner Odfjell highest environmental standards. Reducing rig costs
the Asgard field suggests a reduction of CO2 emissions
Production Information Management Association. EnvironmentWeb and Norwegian Drilling contains a large number of new technologies is important in order to realize the values in existing
Oil and Gas Association (2011) by 50% compared to a platform solution.
that allow the rigs to operate with a zero emission discoveries. New discoveries are often made close to
target. existing fields. Fast development of such discoveries

A special focus has been on the agenda since the 2.3 Waste Management and Odfjell Drilling has invested in the renewal of its
is necessary to utilize the existing infrastructure and
thereby reducing the energy consumption to produce
implementation of the CO2 tax in 1991. Currently,
Norway has the worlds lowest CO2 equivalent Handling company fleet, covering state-of-the-art ultra
deepwater drilling units capable of worldwide
the fields. The first rigs are planned to be in operation
from 2015.
emission per barrel o.e. produced offshore (8,8 kg operations in all environmental conditions. Rigs with
per barrel). Waste management has become a focus area in
the most recent environmental technologies include
order to maximize recycling, reduce net waste and to
DS Atlantic and DS Stavanger.
achieve more sustainable operations.
In order to maximize the value on the NCS, Statoil, Clean rig concept
Cuttings from drilling with oil based on synthetic
on behalf of the license holders, has awarded Songa
based drilling fluids are either taken to shore for Enclosed derrick which prevents mud spill
Offshore a contract for building two Category D rigs at
treatment or injected into the subsurface. In recent to sea
the Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME).
years, problems with downhole waste injection have All drain lines routed to central cleaning
The innovative rig concept has been developed by
been identified and now contaminated mud and unit by use of several tanks and pumps
Norwegian industry for Statoil. One rig will be used
cuttings are brought to shore. Discharge from mud pits by pumping, no
on the Norne, Heidrun and sgrd licences, the other
gravity discharge
will be part of Statoils strategic rig fleet and set up for
Waste management with source separation has been Waste management system implemented
operations in the Barents Sea.
implemented offshore and in the logistic chain, and Low NOx emissions, clean design engines
incentives and requirements have been introduced Closed loop BOP control system
The category D rig will operate in water depths
by the operators in order to minimize net waste. In Electrical draw works with power
of 100 500 meters and drill wells to a depth of
addition to the operators and main contractors, key regeneration
Kg CO2 equivalents per boe produced. 8500 meters. Drilling and completion of production
Source OGP. EnvironmentWeb and Norwegian Oil and Gas Association (2011). players are logistic service providers in collaboration
wells will be carried out at lower costs, with higher
with waste handling companies.

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3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples 3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples

3.3 Oil Spill Preparedness and Clean-up

A comprehensive set of policy regional plans which take into
instruments and technologies consideration reinforcement
have been developed on the NCS of ocean-going preparedness,
to safeguard the environment in coastal preparedness and beach
all phases of the activities. zone preparedness.

The seven day long blowout on NOFO manages and maintains

the Ekofisk field in the North Sea preparedness which includes
in 1977 was a reminder of what personnel, equipment and
is at stake. The well was capped vessels and has bases along
after seven days. The Norwegian the coast where equipment is
Petroleum Directorate estimated permanently located. NOFO has
a total spill of some 80,000 at its disposal: Oil spill preparedness training. Photo: NOFO
120,000 barrels of oil, but with
no significant environmental 11 oil recovery vessels on
damage and no shoreline permanent standby, 20 oil
pollution. recovery vessels deployable

Goliat FPSO under construction. Photo: ENI

The spill had a significant impact
and 25 tugboats for towing
25 sea-going mechanical
Goliat Project
on the political environment and recovery systems The Goliat field, operated
the industry. The government
Large stocks of dispersion by ENI, in the hostile Arctic
postponed the opening of oil
agents that can also be waters in the Barents Sea will
3.2 Zero Discharge Concept on FPSOs exploration north of the 62nd
degree whilst evaluating its oil dispersed from planes be developed with high focus
on emergency preparedness.
spill preparedness. The industry Five oil spill response bases
The oil field is close to shore
response was to focus on along the coast
The Goliat FPSO with ENI as operator is constructed in an area of high importance
development of new and more Remote measurements from
with the Best Available Technology complying with no to the field industry.
advanced equipment to handle satellites, planes, helicopters,
harmful discharges and emissions. The FPSO is under
construction at Hyundai Heavy Industries in Korea and
Environmental FPSO future potential spills. vessels and installations The oil spill preparedness
is planned to be in operation by 2015. technology solutions In Norway, the responsibility NOFO, together with
infrastructure will be
operational all year long and
is shared between the private The Norwegian Coastal
A Zero Harmful Discharge Concept has also been Zero harmful discharge to sea: will consist of:
sector, municipalities and Administration recently launched
applied on the Skarv Field off the coast of Nordland the state. The Ministry of
1. Produced water injection Oil Spill Response 2015, a A new-built standby vessel
in the middle of Norway. BP is the operator and the Environment sets the
2. Drainage handling programme where companies Advanced sea-going
Aker Solutions was the main contractor. The field is requirements and the Norwegian
3. Use of Green Chemicals are encouraged to present recovery systems with
operated by a FPSO unit with subsea equipment Environment Agency approves
4. Waste handling system commercially available products access to dispersion
tie-backs. The production capacity is designed for emergency preparedness plans
5. Sewage treatment to meet the future operational resources
80,000 bbl per day and with an expected lifetime and ensures their compliance needs of NOFO and the industry Remote measurement
of 25 years. Gas reinjection is used to increase oil with the requirements.
Low emissions to air: in general. technologies
recovery. The oil is buoy-loaded to tankers, while gas
is sent to the sgard Transport system through an 80 1. Closed flare Coastal and shoreline
Oil companies are responsible All together, the policy
km pipeline. 2. Low NOx turbines preparedness with fishing
for handling acute incidents instruments, the clean-up
3. VOC recovery systems vessel on permanent
resulting from their own technologies and the
In evaluating and selecting technical solutions BP has 4. Energy efficient solutions standby
activities and work closely organization of the preparedness
adopted the Best Available Technology philosophy and together in the Norwegian Clean constitute the BAT on oil spill
the ALARP (As Low as Reasonably Practicable concept). Seas Association for Operating preparedness and clean-ups.
Companies (NOFO). They have

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3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples 3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples

Normand Arctic Photo: Solstad Offshore / Harald M. Valderhaug

3.5 Environmentally Friendly Ships

The Norwegian shipping industrys Artic, an innovative LNG-powered arranged for rescue operations,
aim is to be at the forefront of Platform Supply Vessel (PSV 12 LNG recovery of personnel and oil
the development of a safe, eco- design). The vessel was delivered recovery operations.
friendly and socially responsible from VARD Langsten in Norway in
global maritime industry. Its 2012. The other example is Seven Viking
Island Performer. Photo: Ulstein Group/Marius Beck Dahle ambitious environmental vision Ship of the Year in 2013, a
is that Norwegian shipping and This confirms VARDs strong result of collective efforts by the
the offshore contracting industry position in design and building of owners Eidesvik and Subsea 7
3.4 Light Well Intervention (LWI) shall not release environmentally environmentally friendly vessels. delivered from Ulstein. The vessel
harmful emissions into the sea or The shipbuilding group has a is designed for operations in the
the air. strong focus on environmental harshest environments working for
Worldwide there are close to emissions when compared to the intervention work and resulting in concerns throughout a vessels Statoil in the North Sea on a five
5000 subsea wells. The number same operations being performed better exploitation of fields and The challenge is significant since value chain - from design and year contract. The vessel is tailor-
is growing with wells being from a MDU. These operations can reservoirs completed with subsea commercial ships emit almost construction through the ships made for Inspection, Maintenance
completed in water depths down be performed while maintaining wells. half as much particle pollutants operating life. LNG is a technology and Repair (IMR) of subsea
to 3000 meters. The age of these well control and access to the into the air as the total amount in which VARD already has a strong installations.
wells is also growing, resulting well bore via a subsea lubricator Island Offshore, in partnership with released by the worlds car fleet track record. The vessel is designed
in increased demand for both system. FMC Technologies, has become according to the National Oceanic with focus on low fuel consumption Safety, efficiency and
riser and riserless light well one of the worlds largest and most and Atmospheric Agency and and precautions in accordance with environmental considerations have
interventions to maintain the wells Experience with various operators experienced providers of down- the University of Colorado. Since DNVs Clean Design requirements been the prime focus in developing
and increase oil recovery. utilizing the fleet has influenced hole services through riserless LWI. more than 70% of shipping traffic are incorporated in the design. the vessel. She carries the Clean
the design of successive vessels Since the start in 2006 the alliance takes place within 250 miles of the Design notation, meets the highest
Traditionally, this type of work and improved the safety and has completed approx. 250 well coastline, emissions may represent The vessel will be able to run on working environment standards
has been done by movable increased the efficiency of the interventions with great success a health concern for coastal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Biofuel including minimal noise levels in
semisubmersible drilling units vessels and the crews. with their fleet of 3 Island Offshore communities. The industrys and ordinary marine diesel oil. the hangar. Notable environmental
(MDU). LWI technology makes Units. The Units are operating year response to reduce harmful VARDs gas tank solution is unique, initiatives include diesel-electric
it possible to perform well The technology reduces the round on both the Norwegian and emissions of CO2, NOX and SOX is the LNG tank does not reduce the propulsion, which reduces
intervention services from a intervention cost down to one the British Continental Shelf and represented by two examples. cargo capacity on board; rather atmospheric emissions, and the
monohull DP-3 vessel with reduced third when compared to traditional also during harsh environmental the new design has a higher cargo electrical winches, which nullify the
energy consumption and CO2 MDU operations enabling more loads. VARD Group was contracted by capacity than other vessels of the risk of emissions of hydraulic oil.
Solstad Rederi AS to build Normand same size. The vessel is further

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3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples 3. Best available technologies (BAT) Some project examples

Ormen Lange. Photo: Shell Melkya LNG Plant. Photo: Statoil

3.6 Subsea to Beach 3.7 Carbon Separation and

The Ormen Lange subsea to beach project has ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY Storage ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
minimized the offshore impact by constructing
the process plant and export facilities onshore. SOLUTIONS ON ORMEN LANGE: The Snhvit development, operated by Statoil, SOLUTIONS AT SNHVIT:
Norsk Hydro, with partners, was the development produces condensate from the three reservoirs
Extensive baseline studies
operator and the development was one of the Snhvit, Askeladd and Albatross through a subsea CO2 separation and reinjection
Coral mapping to avoid impacts
most challenging on the NCS. manifold system, pipelines to shore and an Remote control subsea production facilities
Potential subsea compression onshore processing plant.
MEG reclamation Onshore processing plant
The subsea installation is supplied with electrical
power from the national grid. Future subsea Flow assurance solutions The reservoir fluid contains 5-8% CO2 which at the
boosting and processing may give reduced energy Hydropower from shore onshore plant is separated from the natural gas
consumption and enable higher production and piped back for reservoir injection. The seabed
efficiency and recovery rates. Today, Shell is the facilities are designed to be over-trawlable and
operator. minimize the offshore impact.

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4. Concept Selection, Field Development Solutions 4. Concept Selection, Field Development Solutions

INTSOK Partner Deliverables

TOPSIDES AND PLATFORM Marintek Kongsberg Oil &Gas IRIS
Environmental load modelling Technologies
DESIGN AND ONSHORE SOLUTONS Full scale test rig for new technoligies
and conversion of diesel engines
Flow assurance modelling Odfjell Drilling
ABB to gas fuel
LR Consulting Latest generation drilling rigs
Solutions for integrated Moss Maritime
Reliability studies and safety of designed with emphasize on zero
operations, electrical variable Environmental friendly Arctic
marine operations discharge and emission
speed drives to optimize power LNG carriers, drilling platforms,
consumption, automation and supply and support vessels and Nexans Sekal
control systems FPSO solutions Electrification of platforms by Safeguard drilling operations

Concept selection,
subsea power cables, power Sintef
add energy Sevan Marine/ Kanfa
umbilicals for subsea, direct
Energy efficiency studies FPSO solutions based on Advanced drilling modelling, e-drill
electrical heating to prevent
Aibel cylindrical shaped hull and PIPELINE SOLUTIONS
formation of hydrates (no

Field Development Solutions

process design and engineering
Environmental engineering chemicals)
Siemens Bredero Shaw
OneSubsea Pipeline insulation for deepwater
Aker Solutions Low emissions gas turbines,
Subsea pumps, multiphase wet
all-electric floating LNG, DNV GL
Zero discharge to sea platforms gas compressors and multiphase
offshore floating power station, Pipeline engineering and
(Skarv FPSO), all-electric semi metering
automation and control systems environmental risk evaluation
submersible (Gja field),subsea
PG Pump Solution
to beach combined cycle power Technip EMAS AMC
Twin screw multiphase pumps and
generation, MEG recovery Environmental engineering Pipelaying engineering and
subsea liquid pumps
systems, oil and gas separation solutions contracting
modules, power from shore Reinertsen
Wrtsil IK Group
engineering solutions Subsea engineering and solutions
FPSO hydrocarbon gas blanketing Pipeline isolation and pigging
Alfsen og Gunderson systems for eliminating Seabox
Potable water treatment solutions emissions to air, flare gas Treatment of raw seawater at sea
Pipeline engineering, commissioning
with energy efficient UV-sterilizers recovery design and VOC bottom for injection (less topside
and operations
and filters recovery systems weight and improved recovery)
Kongsberg Oil & Gas Technologies
BW Offshore Wood Group Mustang Norway Siemens
Pipeline modifications and tieback
Disconnectable turret mooring Environmental engineering Subsea compression systems,
system for FPSO solutions solutions power grid, subsea controls, Reinertsen
monitoring and communication Pipeline engineering
SUBSEA SOLUTIONS solutions Subsea7
Energy efficiency optimization
studies Sintef Pipelaying engineering and
Multiphase flow simulation for long contracting
ENWA Subsea controls, subsea power
distance tieback
Potable water production and distribution systems SHIPS AND FLOATING SOLUTIONS
closed loop chemical free water Subsea7
Aker Solutions
treatment Subsea construction and inspection, BW Offshore
Field architecture including flow
maintenance and repair (IMR) Cost efficient offshore solutions
Hegh LNG assurance, umbilicals, booster
with the highest environmental
Floating LNG to increase low pumps, subsea production Technip
carbon gas in the energy mix systems, subsea compression, Subsea construction and inspection,
subsea power cables, direct maintenance and repair (IMR) ENWA
Tordis separator. Illustration: FMC Technologies IK Group
electrical heating to prevent Potable water production and
Pipe intervention solutions and
formation of hydrates DRILLING SOLUTIONS closed loop chemical free water
hot bolting
Inocean EMAS AMC add energy
Subsea construction and
Hegh LNG
The most important factor for reducing the discharge Engineering of low emissions Blow out contingency planning
LNG transportation,
FPSO solutions inspection, maintenance and and well control temperature-high
and emission pattern is in the selection of field environmentally friendly
repair (IMR)
development concept. Improvement in platform and CLEANER PRODUCTION IN STATOIL Kongsberg Maritime pressure (HTHP) wells
regasification and CNG solutions
Green dynamic positioning FMC Technologies Alfsen og Gunderson
topside solutions, subsea technologies, advanced IS ALWAYS AN INTEGRAL PART OF Subsea wells, subsea processing
systems to save fuel Cooling and brake systems for
well technologies and the efficiency of the operational Gas driven engines substituting
and riserless light well drilling applications
diesel and other low emission
services have all contributed to less impact on the intervention
environment. DOCUMENTED BY: Technologies
GE Oil & Gas
Enhanced Drilling engines
Energy optimization, systems Project management of long Sevan Marine
Subsea wells, subsea boosting distance high
Energy demand and efficiency for integrated operations and
Recent examples of step change technologies are: and subsea processing FPSO Cost efficient solutions
dynamic process simulation Exprosoft
Subsea-to-shore production (flow assurance), subsea Air emissions IFE Drilling risk management
Tschudi Shipping
Kvrner Ship-to-ship oil transit and Barents
multiphase boosting, subsea compression, subsea Discharge to sea Flow assurance for long distance
Energy efficient and cleaner Geomec Sea logistical services
separation, long reach directional drilling, advanced tieback, MEG simulation
project execution Prevention of seabed/ surface
Chemicals usage and discharge IK Group Ulstein
water treatment, CO2 capture, transportation and LMG Marine leakage from injection wells
Environmental friendly and energy
storage, power from shore and all electric control Waste handling Energy efficient naval architecture
Subsea maintenance, modification
and competency based emergency efficient design and construction
systems. and marine engineering Drilling waste management, CTS of vessels
LR Consulting (cutting transport system-subsea),
MRR (mud recovery without riser)
Optimizing concepts from a Environmental friendly and energy
Electric ROV systems and well intervention services
safety/environmental point of efficient design and construction
view of vessels

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5. Capabilities and Technologies 5. Capabilities and Technologies

Capabilities and Technologies 5.2 Solutions for minimization of

Discharges to Sea
Including Waste management
5.1 Solutions for Reduced energy
The most important sources of operational
consumption discharges to sea from the oil and gas activities
are drilling and well operations, chemicals
used during production and produced water
Energy efficiency offers is important for achieving a (fossil water which follows the oil up from the
sustainable energy future. Improvements in energy reservoir). In addition, there are acute discharges
efficiency can reduce the need for investment of oil and chemicals.
in energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase
competitiveness and improve consumer welfare. The Operators have worked hard to replace
Environmental benefits also include reduction of chemicals with detrimental environmental
greenhouse gases emissions and local air pollution. properties. This work has paid off 99 per cent
of the chemicals in the red and black categories
The oil and gas companies and their suppliers have have been phased out on the NCS.
a common goal of improving the sustainability of its
Schematic drawing of Epcon CFU. Illustration: M-I Epcon
operations. The Norwegian petroleum cluster has
documented strong engagement in developing new
and innovative technologies and products that can
reduce energy consumption. Bergen B35:40V20AG gas motor. Photo: Rolls-Royce

INTSOK Partner Deliverables

Emerson Roxar M-I Swaco Epcon Technology SAR group

INTSOK Partner Deliverables Real time oil in water monitor Treatment of produced water Waste management systems

Enhanced Drilling Nature Oil & Gas Seabox

Zone insulation of water producing Treating and removing oil contaminated Energy efficient treatment of seawater for
ABB Glamox Rolls-Royce injection at sea bottom
horizons, riserless mud recovery water, slop water
Energy efficient motors and power LED for reduced energy consumption, Gas driven engines substituting diesel and
ENWA Onsite Treatment Technologies Siemens
management systems long system lifetime, maintenance free other low emission engines
Treatment of seawater Waste Management systems Treatment of produced water
Aker Solutions and significant improved light quality
GMC IFE Parker Maritime Sintef
Energy efficient power systems, high Highly efficient gas turbines and
Tracer technology to detect water Shuttle tanker crude oil flow control Well chemistry (scale) and water
voltage subsea power cables Power management systems for reduced compressors, energy efficient power
producing zones management modelling
Alfsen og Gunderson fuel consumption generation and drive systems PG Pump Solution
Nexans IKM Closed loop handlings of drill cuttings Soiltech
Energy efficient pump packages Wilhelmsen Technical Solutions
Drilling waste management, MRR (mud and mud, ballast water treatment Treatment of drilling waste and slop
Dresser Rand Superconducting cables / new energy- Low emissions HVAC systems
recovery without riser) and electrification allowing discharges at the drilling site
saving cables (smaller, lighter, stronger) ProAnalysis
Highly efficient gas turbines with reduced Wrtsil of hydraulic systems Thermtech
exhaust emissions through combustion Novenco Detection of oil in water
Reduced heating requirements for heavy
Interwell Treatment of oily drill cuttings and
and catalytic-based technologies High efficiency HVAC systems for oil separation by electrostatic coalesce Resman
Plugs and packers for downhole zone reconditioning of mud. Reuse of valuable
ENWA reducing operating costs and CO2 treatment in 3 phase separators Green tracer technology, soluble in water,
isolation components
emissions Zone isolation to prevent the production
Cooling water treatment for engines and glnd
Parat Halvorsen Jotun of water WellCem
HVAC Piping and cable support systems with
Protective coating (non-poisonous) Downhole supercement to prevent leaks
Eureka Pumps Energy efficient heating and recovery minimal weight and installation times SafeClean
systems Kongsberg Maritime Chemical removal of hydrocarbons and Wrtsil
Energy efficient pumps
Remote BOP activation system scale from topside equipment Electrostatic coalescers for the treatment
of produced water

16 17
5. Capabilities and Technologies 5. Capabilities and Technologies

Wrtsil Flare Gas Recovery. Photo: Wrtsil Oil & Gas Solutions AS

5.3 Solutions for minimization of Emissions to air

The Norwegian oil and gas industry Emissions to air from the oil and gas Statoil, in partnership with the
has been working hard for more than activities consist of exhaust gases shipowners and supplier industry,
20 years to reduce emissions to air containing CO2, NOX, SOX, CH4 and developed technology for capturing of Providing logistic and transportation solutions. Photo: Bring Logistics
and remove a major pollution factor. NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic VOC on shuttle tankers during loading
The Norwegian petroleum industry compounds) from various types of and transportation.
recognizes the climate challenge, combustion equipment.
and has long worked on measures
to reduce emissions. In 2013, the Statoil invented technologies which
Many INTSOK partners have a strong
focus on developing solutions to
5.4 Logistic and Transportation Solutions
petroleum industry was the main source enabled the largest NCS operator to shut minimize emissions to air and reduce the
of greenhouse gas emissions with down flaring during normal operations. climate change risks. Offshore logistics cause a large have established joint transportation regulations. The operators main
14 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents The technology was developed and share of emissions due to high between platforms and installations goal is to produce as little waste
representing 27% of total CO2 emissions commercialized in collaboration with cargo volumes, number of to increase efficiency and reduce as possible and establish systems
in Norway. This is an 81% reduction of companies in the Norwegian supplier vehicles and vessels engaged in the number of vessels required to which ensure maximum safety
CO2 emissions since 1990. industry. transportation and long steaming provide a necessary cost efficient during transportation and final
distances to installations. service level. The operators are recycling.
increasingly looking for vessels and
INTSOK Partner Deliverables The total amount of emissions of vehicles with high energy efficiency
CO2 equivalents in 2013 from road and low emissions, like gas fuelled INTSOK Partner Deliverables
ABB GMC Octio traffic was 10,1 million tonnes and vessels.
Variable speed drives to reduce power High efficiency HVAC products Offshore mapping of CO2 subsurface from other types of transportation, Bring Logistics
consumption IRIS storage including fisheries and navigation, Recent studies also show that levels Energy efficient logistical services
Aker Solutions CO2 storage modelling Rolls-Royce 7,1 million tonnes. These sectors of speed reduction contribute to Hegh LNG
Sulphate, H2S and CO2 removal, design K. Lund Offshore Gas driven engines and other low represent respectively 19% and 13% reduced CO2 emissions and are still LNG transportation, environmentally
and engineering of low NOX diesels, emission engines
sophisticated power management, green
Fuel efficient compressors of total CO2 emissions. consistent with the safe and reliable friendly regasification and CNG solutions
LR Consulting Sintef operation of the vessel. NorSea Group
dynamic positioning systems
CO2 subsurface storage laboratory
Dresser Rand
Risk assessment of carbon capture/ Operators are responsible for Energy efficient supply and base operation
storage Wilhelmsen Technical Solutions services
High efficiency compressors and gas optimizing the supply chain and Waste from the oil and gas industry
Novenco High efficiency HVAC products Tschudi Shipping
turbines have worked together with the is divided into hazardous and non-
High efficiency HVAC products Wrtsil Ship-to-ship oil transit and Barents Sea
E-Innovation suppliers to reduce emissions and hazardous waste. All waste taken
Nymo Systems for flare gas recovery and logistical services
Breathable air compressors energy consumption. Operators onshore is covered by the reporting
Gas turbine air systems systems for VOC recovery
High efficiency HVAC using chemical free
water treatment

18 19
5. Capabilities and Technologies 5. Capabilities and Technologies

Testing clean-up technologies. Photo: Frank Mohn Demolition of steel structures on behalf of Statoil at Kvaerner site Eldyane, Stord, Norway. Photo: Magne Langker

5.5 Oil Spill Preparedness and Clean-Up Solutions 5.6 Decommissioning and Restoration Solutions
NOFO and the Norwegian Coastal The Norwegian Oil Spill Control LR Consulting When the oil companies shut North-East Atlantic) has established
Administration have continuous focus Association (NOSCA) is another Risk and emergency preparedness down production from an offshore guidelines for the disposal
on developing new technologies to organization with 30 members assessment. Oil spill modelling installation, they are responsible for alternatives that are acceptable for
strengthen their abilities to handle oil from industry, R&D institutions and Maritime Robotics the decommissioning and restoration various types of marine installations.
Oil spill detection and surveillance system
spills at sea. In the recently completed government institutions that work of the areas that have been used.
Oil Spill Response 2010 innovation jointly to develop equipment and Markleen The Norwegian petroleum
Oil spill recovery and containment
programme the following solutions contingency planning for oil spill Both national and international cluster has been involved in the
were developed: emergencies. In 2014 NOSCA and regulations apply when an oil decommissioning and removal of
INTSOK joined forces in order to company reaches a decision several huge installations in the
Oil spill detection and surveillance
A monitoring and control system market the capabilities within oil spill systems regarding disposal of an offshore North Sea, and has been at the
for optimum use of traditional prevention, surveillance and response Norlense installation. The OSPAR convention forefront of developing effective and
booms in international markets. Oil spill recovery and containment (The Convention for the Protection competitive methods.
A dispersion system for small systems of the Marine Environment of the
vessels using a towed winged Parat Halvorsen
underwater object INTSOK Partner Deliverables Oil spill tools and equipment
An unmanned, remote-controlled Rolls-Royce
drone (plane) for remote Oil spill recovery vessel design
Real time oil spill tactical information and
measurement Sintef
management system to ensure safe and
A system for simultaneous handling efficient operations Oil spill modelling and contingency
INTSOK Partner Deliverables
of remote measurement data from DNV GL
planning and fate and weathering studies
several sensors Oil spill modelling and risk assessment Stinger
Aibel EMAS AMC LR Consulting
A new digital data and image link Egersund Group
Underwater leak detection and monitoring
Decommissioning contractor solutions Removal and transport of structures to Safe operations assessments
between ships and from planes to Oil spill recovery and containment Aker Solutions shore SafeClean
ships systems Subsea 7
Decommissioning contractor solutions IK Group Cleaning and removal of coating on
Oil spill emergency services
A new high-speed bilge system to Exprosoft Alustar Subsea pipeline isolation and recovery decommissioned parts
be tested in full scale Risk and reliability studies and TESS tools
Scaffolding systems for easy access Safety Tools Allmet
qualification of technologies to improve Oil spill tools and equipment
Beerenberg IKM Cold work grinding and cutting
safety and reduce environmental risks Ulstein
NOFO, together with The Norwegian Cutting tools and decommissioning
Decommissioning of pipeline systems equipment
Frank Mohn Oil spill recovery vessel design and
Coastal Administration have now DeepOcean Kvaerner Subsea 7
Oil spill recovery systems fabrication
launched Oil Spill Response 2015, Seabed inspection
Decommissioning contractor solutions Marine decommissioning
a programme where companies are Kongsberg Norcontrol IT Linjebygg Offshore
Oil spill recovery vessel design and DNV GL
Oil spill detection and surveillance system
encouraged to present commercial fabrication Risk assessment/verification
Safe and cost effective cutting and
Kongsberg Satellite Services removal of structures high and low
products and services to meet the VisSim
Oil spill detection, surveillance and
future operational needs of NOFO and Oil spill detection and surveillance system
imaging system
the industry in general.

20 21
5. Capabilities and Technologies 6. Framework Conditions, Regulations and Selected References

Framework Conditions,
Regulations and Selected
This chapter presents relevant laws and regulations which
have contributed to the environmental achievements on
the NCS as well as references to reports documenting the

1971: The Petroleum Law. The chemicals, treatment and injection requirements than in the North
commandments of the Norwegian of produced water and disposal Sea. The Ministry of Environment
Integrated activity and environmental monitoring of the Barents Sea. Photo: John Ringstad / Havforskningsinstituttet oil and gas policy adopted by of cut- tings. The Ministry of
the Parliament: appropriate Environment 2007: Introduction of tax on NOX
care must be shown with respect emissions. The Ministry of Finance

5.7 Environmental models and Measurement solutions to existing industrial activity

and environmental interest in
2000: Environmental Report:
Miljsok sluttrapport (In 2008: Norway is a part of the
developing a new oil industry Norwegian). Miljsok European Trading Scheme (ETS).
Flaring of exploitable natural The Ministry of Environment.
The oil and gas industry conducts resources must not be accepted 2001: Annual Environmental
INTSOK Partner Deliverables under normal operations Report. The Norwegian Oil 2009: Compatibility between
extensive monitoring of the
Industry Association (OLF) Norwegian petroleum activities
environment to investigate potential add energy Norconsult
1977: Paris Convention (OSPAR). and environmental stewardship.
effects of its discharges to sea and Environmental data management Civil engineering works to minimize
emissions to air. Monitoring is based accounting and impact assessment impact on Environment. Environmental This regulated oil in produced 2004: Environmental Management OG21
and Social Impact Assessments (ESIA) water (40ppm later 30 ppm) and Quality System ISO 14001. ISO
on Government requirements and Carbon Limits
guidelines. Carbon management consultants NORSAR the disposal and abandonment of 2011: The Norwegian Ministry of
DNV GL Surface leakage detection and earthquake installations. 2004: Environmental web joint Petroleum and Energy White Paper
Environmental impact studies
forecasts database. The Norwegian Oil No 28 (20102011)
The environmental monitoring is a
Octio 1991: Tax on CO2 emissions Industry Association, Norwegian
systematic collection of data using IRIS
verifiable methods to document the Impact on environment studies and
Environmental monitoring of fields
introduced. The Ministry of Petroleum Directorate and the 2012: The Norwegian Ministry of
including a leakage detector
biomarkers Finance Climate and Pollution Agency Petroleum and Energy White Paper
state of the environment and how it Stinger
Marintek No 7 (2011-2012)
develops over time. Computerized fluid dynamics and
Modelling of environmental loads on
backtracking of hydrocarbon leaks under
1993: New regulations for 2005: Norway signs the Kyoto
Norwegian companies and research
offshore installations
water in order to predict the spread discharges of oil-based drilling protocol setting targets for 2012: Oil and Gas in the 21st
Miros and geographical location of a pollutant mud and oily cuttings. The reducing CO2 emissions. The century. www.og21.no
institutes have played a major role Meteorological and oceanographic source Ministry of Environment Ministry of Environment
in developing environmental impact systems with wave and helideck
assessment and safety studies as part monitoring
StormGeo 2014: Environmental Report
of the plans for developing new fields
Meteorological forecasting and 1997: White Paper describing the 2007: White Paper No 26 2013. Norwegian Oil and Gas
Multiconsult environmental studies
zero harmful discharge policy regulated the Northern Waters Association. June 2013
and for monitoring the performance. Civil engineering design to minimize
impact on environment. Environmental including substitution of harmful north of 68 degrees latitude.
impact assessment with a special focus Introducing stricter zero discharge
on Arctic

22 23
Concept Selection, Field Development Solutions

Solutions for
Solutions for

Logistics and


and Clean-Up


Emissions to air
Ships and

minimazation of
minimazation of
Discharges to Sea,

and Measurements
and Onshore
Topsides and

Waste management
energy consumption

Restoration Solutions
Solutions for Reduced
Platform Design

Decommissioning and
Oil Spill Preparedness

Environmental models

INTSOK Partners and Capabilities


add energy


Aker Solutions

Alfsen og Gunderson




Bredero Shaw

Bring Logistics

BW Offshore

Carbon Limits

Deep Ocean


Dresser Rand


INTSOK Partners and Capabilities

Egersund Group


Emerson Roxar

Enhanced Drilling

Enwa Water Treatment

Eureka Pumps


FMC Technologies

Frank Mohn

GE Oil & Gas




Hegh LNG


IK Group AS






K.Lund Offshore

Kongsberg Maritime

Kongsberg Norcontrol IT

Kongsberg Oil & Gas Technologies

Kongsberg Satellite Services


Linjebygg Offshore

LMG Marine

LR Consulting


Maritime Robotics


M-I Swaco/Epcon


Moss Maritime


Nature Oil & Gas



NorSea Group






Odfjell Drilling


Onsite Treatment Technologies

Parat Halvorsen

Parker Maritime

PG Pump Solution






Safety Tools Allmet

SAR Group



Sevan Marine/Kanfa






Subsea 7

Technip Norge



Tschudi Shipping





Wilhelmsen Technical Solutions

Wood Group Mustang Norway AS


INTSOK Partners and web addresses INTSOK Partners and web addresses

INTSOK Partner & web addresses

ABB Egersund Group InOcean Miros ProAnalysis TESS
www.abb.no www.egersundgroup.no www.inocean.no www.miros.no www.proanalysis.no www.tess.no

add energy EMAS AMC Interwell Moss Martime Reinertsen Thermtech

www.addenergy.no www.emas.com www.interwell.com www.mossww.com www.reinertsen.no www.thermtech.no INTSOKs objective is to open a
Aibel Emerson Roxar IRIS Multiconsult Resman Tschudi Shipping
dialog with international clients in
www.aibel.com www.roxar.com www.iris.no www.multiconsult.no www.resman.no www.tschudishipping.com
order to prepare workshops and
Aker Solutions
Enhanced Drilling
Nature Oil & Gas
meetings where these capabilities
can be presented and discussed.
Alfsen og Gunderson Enwa Water Treatment K.Lund Offshore Nexans Safe Clean VARD
www.ag.no www.enwa.com www.kl-offshore.no www.nexans.no www.safeclean.no www.vard.com

Alustar Eureka Pumps Kongsberg Maritime NorSea Group Safety Tools Allment VisSim
www.alustar.no www.eureka.no www.kongsberg.com www.norseagroup.com www.safetytools.no www.vissimvts.com

Aptomar Exprosoft Kongsberg Norcontrol IT Norconsult SAR Group WellCem

www.aptomar.com www.exprosoft.com www.kongsberg.com www.norconsult.com www.sargruppen.no www.wellcem.no

ATCD FMC Technologies Kongsberg Oil & Gas Technologies Novenco Seabox Wilhelmsen Technical Solutions
www.atcd.no www.fmctechnologies.com www.kongsberg.com www.novenco.biz www.sea-box.no www.wilhelmsen.com

Beerenberg Frank Mohn Kongsberg Satellite Services Norlense Sekal Wood Group Mustang Norway AS
www.beerenberg.com www.framo.no www.kongsberg.com www.norlense.no www.sekal.com www.woodgroup.com

Bredero Shaw GE Oil & Gas Kvaerner Nymo Sevan Marine/Kanfa Wrtsil
www.thermotite.no www.ge-energy.com www.kvaerner.com www.nymo.no www.kanfagroup.com www.wartsila.com

Bring Logistics Geomec Linjebygg Offshore Octio Siemens glnd

www.bring.no/logistics www.geomec.com www.lbo.no www.octio.com www.siemens.no www.oglaend-system.com

BW Offshore Glamox LMG Marine Odfjell Drilling Sintef

www.bwoffshore.com www.glamox.com/gmo www.lmgmarin.no www.odfjelldrilling.com www.sintef.no

Carbon Limits GMC LR Consulting OneSubsea Soiltech

www.carbonlimits.no www.gmc.no www.lr.org www.onesubsea.com www.soiltech.net

Deep Ocean Hegh LNG Marintek Onsite Treatment Technologies Stinger

www.deepocean.no www.hoeghlng.no www.marintek.sintef.no www.ott-as.no www.stinger.no

DNV GL IFE Maritime Robotics Parat Halvorsen Storm Geo

www.dnv.com www.ife.no www.maritimerobotics.com www.parat.no www.stormgeo.com

Dresser Rand IK Group AS Markleen Parker Maritime Subsea 7

www.dresser-rand.com www.ik.no www.markleen.com www.parkermaritime.no www.subsea7.com

E-Innovation IKM M-I Swaco/Epcon PG Pump Solution Technip Norge

www.einnovation.no www.ikm.no www.slb.com/pwsm www.pergjerdrum.no www.technip.com

26 27

INTSOK, Oslo INTSOK, Stavanger INTSOK, Bergen

Hoffsveien 23, 2nd floor Prof. Olav Hanssens vei 7a Visiting Address:
P.O. Box 631 Skyen P.O. Box 8034 Sandslimarka 55
NO-0214 Oslo NO-4068 Stavanger N-5020 Bergen
Norway Norway Norway
Phone: +47 22 06 14 80 Phone: +47 51 87 48 80 Phone: +47 90 56 03 35