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STRENGTHENING OF

FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES
FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FLAT SLAB
STRUCTURES
- RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION -

Vlter Lcio

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 1


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

INDEX

1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS

2. CAUSES FOR THE STRUCTURAL DEFECTS

3. STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES

4. STRENGTHENING BY CHANGING THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

6. STRENGTHENING WITH POST-TENSIONING

7. CONCLUSIONS

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 2


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


Ultimate Limit State of Resistance
bending.

punching,

Punching
failure

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 3


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


Ultimate Limit State of Resistance
bending.

punching,

progressive collapse,

Progressive
collapse under
vertical loading

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 4


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


Ultimate Limit State of Resistance
bending.

punching,

progressive collapse,

lack of ductility

to seismic actions.

Reduced ductility
to seismic actions

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 5


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


Ultimate Limit State of Resistance
bending.

punching,

progressive collapse,

lack of resistance and/or ductility to seismic actions.

Collapse caused
by seismic action

Northridge,
Los Angeles -1994

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 6


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

1. STRUCTURAL DEFECTS IN FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


Service Limit State (functionality, aesthetical or psychological effects)
excessive deformation and

excessive cracking.

crack
Cracks on masonry
walls due to slab
deformation.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 7


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

2. CAUSES FOR THE STRUCTURAL DEFECTS

DESIGN ERRORS
incorrect design for seismic actions,

reduced slab thickness for vertical loads,

detailing;

CONSTRUCTION ERRORS;

ERRORS DURING THE USE OF THE BUILDING.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 8


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

2. CAUSES FOR THE STRUCTURAL DEFECTS - DESIGN ERRORS


Lack of vertical elements to resist seismic
actions:
shear walls;
beam and column portal frames,
specially in the slab edges.

Edge and corner column-slab


connections are quite fragile, not only
for seismic actions but also for vertical
actions, and shall be avoided.

Design properly for punching, including,


not only the vertical load transferred
from the column to the slab, but also the
transferred moments.
Avoid holes around the columns.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 9


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

2. CAUSES FOR THE STRUCTURAL DEFECTS - DESIGN ERRORS

Horizontal beams.. a common mistake

To design a flat slab as a beam supported slab,


wherein the beams have the thickness of the
slab, is a huge error.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 10


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

2. CAUSES FOR THE STRUCTURAL DEFECTS CONSTRUCTION


CONSTRUCTIONERRORS
ERRORS
Concrete with lower resistance than the one specified in the design;
Slab thickness smaller than specified;
Slab top reinforcement with a much higher cover than specified (resulting in a
very small effective depth);
Forget the punching
reinforcement or assembling
it in a wrong way.

Example of bad concrete


and top reinforcement placed
with a too small effective depth.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 11


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

2. CAUSES FOR THE STRUCTURAL DEFECTS ERRORS


ERRORS DURING
DURING USE
USE

Changes in use and excessive loading,


Changes in the structure (cut openings near columns,
remove columns or shear walls);
Accidental actions, and
terrorist attacks.

Terrorist attack Cutting opening


Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 12
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

3. STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


Adding reinforcement:
steel rebars, with partial demolition and added concrete (keeping the
geometry);
post installed rebars in drilled holes, filled with grout or injected with resin;
steel plates or profiles, connected to the concrete surface with anchors
and/or epoxy resin;
fabrics or laminated carbon fibre, or glass fibre, glued to the surface with
epoxy resin;
laminated carbon fibre inserted in grooves in the cover thickness.
Jacketing:
addition of a concrete layer reinforced with rebars;
addition of a concrete layer reinforced with steel fibres;
addition of a layer of mortar reinforced with steel fibres.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 13


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

3. STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS

External post tensioning:


with strands, wires or bars of high strength steel;
with laminated carbon fibre.

Changing the structural system:


introduction of new supports to reduce spans;
controlled release of supports or introduction
differential settlements;
partial or total reduction of stiffness in localized
areas to change the internal forces distribution;
introduction of steel bracings, concrete shear
walls or energy dissipaters for seismic retrofitting.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 14


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

3. STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


- Changing the structural system

Introduction of new supports to reduce spans.

New columns

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 15


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

3. STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES FOR FLAT SLAB BUILDINGS


- Changing the structural system
Introduction of new supports to reduce spans
and strengthening of the slab with top reinforcement at new support.

column
capitals

New columns Concrete overlay with reinforcement


for negative moments
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 16
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

4. STRENGTHENING BY CHANGING THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM


FIRE STATION BUILDING
Built in 1996;
Two floors built with a flat slab
structure;
The ground floor is used to park
the fire vehicles;
The top floor is used for
administrative services and training;

The building was in risk of collapse


due to design errors;
The building had a rectangular mesh
of columns with approximate spans of 10m in both directions;
The flat slab is 0.25m thick, with a ratio h/L = 1/40;
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 17
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

4. STRENGTHENING BY CHANGING THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM - FIRE STATION


FIRE STATION BUILDING

The slab was analysed as a beam


supported slab, but there is no beams,
so the floor structures only supports
about half the design load;

The shear walls are only in the lower


floor, what causes a huge stiffness
variation, at the 1st floor, for seismic actions;
Some columns do not have continuity due to windows in the faade;
The edge beams are not supported by columns.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 18


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

OBSERVED DEFECTS

Cracks on masonry walls due to


slab deformation;
Users experienced uncomfortable
vibrations in the floor.

crack
crack

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 19


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

CONSTRAINTS TO STRENGTHENING

Keep the parking space for the fire vehicles


in the ground floor;
Reduce to the minimum the intervention
in the upper floor to reduce costs in the
finishings;
Ensure structural safety in relation to
vertical loads, namely:
punching and bending of the slab;
slab deformation;

Ensure safety in relation to seismic actions, namely because the building is an important
infrastructure in the event of an earthquake.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 20


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

STRENGTHENING SOLUTION

Strengthening of the foundations creating continuous footings;


Design of a seismic resisting system with 4 new reinforced concrete shear walls,
from foundations to top slab;
Implementation of a steel structure
to reduce the slab spans;
This steel structure
consists on 6 portal frames
3.30m away from each other,
that support the slab at
1/3 of the span, resulting
on new slab spans of about
3.30mx3.30m.

Existente Reforo

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 21


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

SLAB SUPPORT
Implementation of a steel structure to support the slab, resulting on new slab spans of
about 3.30mx3.30m;
The floor slab was stressed against the steel beams of the parking floor;
To reduce the intervention on the top floor, the steel beams were placed over the roof slab,
and this slab was suspended by these beams.

Roof slab Steel beam

Floor slab
Steel beam

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 22


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

SLAB SUPPORT

The roof slab was suspended


by the steel beams placed
over the roof, by means of
threaded rods;

The floor slab was stressed


against the steel beams of the
parking floor, by means of
threaded rods;

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 23


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

Steel structure to support the floor slab

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 24


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

Threaded rods to stress the floor slab.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 25


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

View of the steel frames in


the parking floor
(free space for parking)

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 26


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

TWO FLOORS PARKING GARAGE


The building has a rectangular mesh of columns
with spans between 5.20 m to 8.40 m;
The flat slab is 0.25 m thick;

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 27


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY


OBSERVED DEFECTS
Cracks in the corners of the floor, crossing the slab
thickness. These cracks are mainly caused by
concrete shrinkage, and may affect the durability;

Cracks on the slab top (wmax = 0.5mm), diverging


from the columns, due to negative bending
moments, denoting high stresses on the steel
reinforcement.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 28


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

INSPECTION TO THE STRUCTURE

The bottom reinforcement was inspected and it


was found to be in accordance with the design;
The equipment did not detect the top
reinforcement!!!
A core drilled in the slab showed that the top
reinforcement had an effective depth 145 mm
instead of 205 mm.
This is a typical
construction error!

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 29


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

CONSTRAINTS TO STRENGTHENING
Minimize costs;
Ensure structural safety in relation to vertical loads, namely for punching and bending;
Reduce the aesthetic impact in order to keep the value of the space.

STRENGTHENING SOLUTION
1. Demolish the concrete around the columns in a thickness of 75mm;
2. Insert new top reinforcement;
3. Insert punching reinforcement;
4. Cast a new layer of self compacting concrete.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 30


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

New top rebars and punching reinforcement.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 31


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

View of the
top surface

View of the
bottom surface
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 32
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

Final view
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 33
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

Research:
STRENGTHENING FOR
PUNCHING WITH POST
INSTALLED REINFORCEMENT

Top face Andr Almeida (PhD) and several MSc students


Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt Antnio Pinho Ramos 34
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

Research:
STRENGTHENING WITH
A CONCRETE OVERLAY

Hugo Fernandes (PhD)


Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt Vlter Lcio and Pinho Ramos 35
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

5. STRENGTHENING BY ADDING REINFORCEMENT AND A CONCRETE OVERLAY

Research:
STRENGTHENING WITH
A CONCRETE OVERLAY

Section of the slab


Main parameters to analyse:
surface preparation,
dimensions of the concrete overlay,
anchorage of the rebar ends,
the use of connectors. Hugo Fernandes (PhD)
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt Vlter Lcio and Pinho Ramos
36
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

6. STRENGTHENING WITH POST-TENSIONING

Post-tensioning system with anchorages by bonding for structural strengthening.

(a) holes in (b) strand


deviator
concrete
slab slab

d
ing en
column column
sion
po st-ten

(c) (d) seal the hole injection with


ends adherence agent

slab slab

mechanical column
sion length column
actuator temporary
tra nsmis
temporary strut
anchorage
(e) slab finishing

slab

column
cut the steel
ends

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 37


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

6. STRENGTHENING WITH POST-TENSIONING

Post-tensioning system with anchorages by bonding for structural strengthening.

This strengthening system is


efficient for:
punching capacity;
bending capacity;
reduces crack openings;
reduces slab deformations;
post-collapse behaviour.
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 38
STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

6. STRENGTHENING WITH POST-TENSIONING

Post-tensioning system with anchorages by bonding for structural strengthening.

Post-collapse failure
Punching failure

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt Section of the slab after punching 39


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

6. STRENGTHENING WITH POST-TENSIONING

Post-tensioning system with anchorages by bonding for structural strengthening.

Punching capacity
1.75
1.50 1.54
1.44 1.51
1.50
1.36

1.25
1.00 1.00
1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00
DF1 DF2 DF3 DF4 DF5 DF6 DF7
----- h = 100mm ----- -------- h = 120mm --------

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 40


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

CONCLUSIONS
Most common defects in flat slabs structures:
Punching failure,
Progressive collapse,
Lack of ductility to seismic actions,
Large deformations.
Most common causes for defects
Design errors (incorrect design for seismic actions, reduced slab thickness,...),
Construction errors,
Errors during the use of the building.
Strengthening techniques available
Adding reinforcement (steel rebars, post installed rebars in drilled holes)
Post tensioning,
Changing the structural system.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 41


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Fundao para a Cincia e Tecnologia for financing two research projects
and for giving grants to our PhD students.

The support of the companies HILTI, CONCREMAT, VSL and SECIL.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 42


RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH TEAM
Researchers:
Ana Rita Gio
Antnio Ramos
Carla Marcho
Carlos Chastre
Fernando Pinho
Rui Marreiros
Vlter Lcio

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 43


RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH TEAM
PhD Students:
Hugo Fernandes
Andr Almeida
Nuno Dinarte Gouveia
Noel Franco
Yang Yongming
Brisid Isufi
Helisa Muhaj
Joo Marques
Amaro Catumbaiala

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 44


RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH THEMES:
Flat slab structures: punching resistance, high strength concrete, strengthening,
progressive collapse, and seismic behaviour.

Flat slab
strengthening with
post-tensioning

Flat slab test under


vertical load and cyclic
horizontal action
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 45
RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH THEMES:
Precast concrete structures:
connections, towers for wind turbines,
and seismic behaviour.

Precast solutions
for towers to
support wind
turbines
Development of seismic
energy dissipaters for
precast structures

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 46


RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH THEMES:
Ancient stone masonry structures: behaviour, structural connections, rehabilitation.

Behaviour of
ancient masonry
wall under
horizontal actions

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 47


RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH THEMES:
Prestressed structures: anchorage zones, fibre reinforced concrete..

Optimization of post-tensioning
anchorages

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 48


RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH THEMES:
Rehabilitation of concrete structures: repair techniques, strengthening techniques,
carbon fibre, concrete overlay, post-tensioning, and change of the structural system.

Strengthening of beam-column Strengthening columns


connection for cyclic actions for cyclic actions
Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 49
RESEARCH
STRENGTHENING OF
Concrete and Masonry
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES
Structures

RESEARCH THEMES:
Strengthening and protecting concrete structures: protection systems for
buildings, analysis of the structure resistance under explosions, strengthening of
structures for explosion actions, reduction of damages developing dissipative
solutions.

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 50


STRENGTHENING OF
FLAT SLAB STRUCTURES

THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

!
GRACIAS!
OBRIGADO!

Vlter Lcio vlucio@fct.unl.pt 51