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THE PHILIPPINES life, cohesion in the community and moral purpose for

existence. Religious associations are part of the system of


kinship ties, patron-client bonds and other linkages outside
The Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas), officially known as the the nuclear family.
Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Animism, is the term used to describe the indigenous
Pilipinas), is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific spiritual traditions practiced in the Philippines during pre-
Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West colonial times.The traditions are a collection of beliefs and
across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the cultural mores anchored more or less in the idea that the
southwest lies between the country and the island of Borneo, world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both
and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other good and bad, and that respect be accorded to them through
islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the nature worship. These spirits all around nature are known as
Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and its "diwatas", showing cultural relationship with Hinduism
tropical climate make the Philippines prone to earthquakes (Devatas). Some worship specific deities, such as the Tagalog
and typhoons but have also endowed the country with natural supreme deity, Bathala, and his children Adlaw, Mayari, and
resources and made it one of the richest areas of biodiversity Tala, or the Visayan deity Kan-Laon; while others practice
in the world. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Ancestor worship (anitos). Variations of animistic practices
Philippines is categorized broadly into three main occur in different ethnic groups. Magic, chants and prayers
geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its are often key features. Its practitioners were highly
capital city is Manila. respected[citation needed] (and some feared) in the
With an estimated population of about 92 million people, the community, as they were healers, midwives (hilot), shamans,
Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country. An witches and warlocks (mangkukulam), priests/priestesses
additional 11 million Filipinos live overseas. Multiple (babaylan/katalonan), tribal historians and wizened elders
ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In that provided the spiritual and traditional life of the
prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's community. In the Visayan regions, there is a belief in the
earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves existence of witchcraft or barang and mythical creatures such
of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences as the "aswang", "balay sa dwendi" and "Bakonawa", despite
from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic cultures. Trade introduced the existence of the Christian and Islamic faiths.
Chinese cultural influences.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the Christianity
beginning of an era of Spanish interest, and eventual arrived in the Philippines with the landing of Ferdinand
dominance. Manila emerged as the Asian hub of the Manila– Magellan in 1521. Roman Catholicism is the predominant
Acapulco galleon treasure fleet. Christianity became religion and the largest Christian denomination, is shown in
widespread. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there traditions such as Misa de Gallo, Black Nazarene procession,
followed in quick succession the short-lived Philippine Santo Niño and Aguinaldo procession, where large crowds
Revolution, the Spanish-American War, and the Philippine- gather, honouring their patron saint or saints. Processions and
American War. In the aftermath, the United States replaced fiestas are conducted during feast days of the patron saints of
Spain as the dominant power. Aside from the period of various barrios or barangays. Roman Catholicism is also the
Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty de facto state religion in the Philippines.
over the islands until the end of World War II when the Every year on November 1, Filipino families celebrate the Day
Philippines gained independence. The United States of the Dead, on which they spend much of the day and
bequeathed to the Philippines the English language and a evening visiting their ancestral graves, showing respect and
stronger affinity for Western culture. Since independence the honor to their departed relatives by feasting and offering
Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with prayers. On November 1 Filipino families celebrate All Saint's
democracy and political corruption, with popular "People Day, where they honor the saints of the Catholic church.
Power" movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one November 2 is All Soul's Day.
instance but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of Christmas in the Philippines is a celebration spanning just
its constitutional republic in others. more than the day itself. Christmas season starts in
September. Many traditions and customs are associated with
Etymology this grand feast, along with New Year. Holy Week is also an
important time for the country's Catholics. To help spread the
The name Philippines is derived from that of King Philip II of gospel, the Roman Catholic Church established the Catholic
Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his Media Network with its main TV station Tv Maria as a tool for
expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar evangelization. Other large Roman Catholic television
Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias (Spain). Eventually channels like EWTN and Familyland are also available and
the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the watched in the Philippines.
islands of the archipelago. Before it became commonplace, Roman Catholic Charismatic Renewal and the
other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) Neocatechumenal Way
and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also The El Shaddai movement is a large Catholic Charismatic
used by the Spanish to refer to the islands. Renewal led by 'Brother Mike Velarde'. Other groups include
The official name of the Philippines has changed several times Couples for Christ, Ligaya Ng Panginoon, FAMILIA Community,
in the course of the country's history. During the Philippine etc.
Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the Protestantism and Evangelicals
establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Protestantism arrived in the Philippines with the coming of the
Republic. From the period of the Spanish-American War and Americans at the turn of the 20th century.
the Philippine-American War until the Commonwealth period, Restorationist and Cults
American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Restorationism describes religious movements that follow
Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. During what they understand to be a pristine, or original, form of
the American period the name Philippines began to appear Christianity. These movements and churches are considered
and it has since become the country's common name. The as cults by the Christian Community as they significantly went
official name of the country is now Republic of the Philippines. off/contradicts from the historic Christian faith:
Religion The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormonism)
Religion in the Philippines are spiritual beliefs held by Jehovah's Witnesses - Missionaries of the Jehovah's Witnesses
Philippine citizens. Religion holds a central place in the life of arrived in the Philippines during the American Occupation
the majority of Filipinos, including Catholics, Jewish, Muslims, (1898-1945).
Buddhists, Protestants and animists. It is central not as an The Kingdom of Jesus Christ, the Name Above Every Name
abstract belief system, but rather as a host are experiences, Members Church of God International
rituals, ceremonies, and adjurations that provide continuity in The Most Holy Church of God in Christ Jesus
Seventh-day Adventist Church Perfil de cresta
Iglesia ni Cristo Florante at Laura
Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ ) Ibong Adarna
United Pentecostal Church International (Oneness) Tuwaang
Jesus Christ To God be the Glory (Friends Again) Bantugan
Jesus Miracle Crusade International Ministry Hinilawod
Churches of Christ Dekada '70
True Jesus Church Jesus is Our Shield worldwide ministries A Child of Sorrow
(Oras ng Himala) A lo largo del camino
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG Help Center) The culture of the Philippines reflects the complexity of the
Islam in the Philippines, Moro people, and history of the Philippines through the blending of several
Bangsamoro(muslim nation) diverse traditional Malay heritage mixed with Spanish,
American and other Asian cultures.
Natural Landmarks Some of the groups that perform these folk songs and dances
Ambuklao Dam, Bokod, Benguet are the Bayanihan, Filipinescas, Barangay-Barrio, Hariraya ,
Anilao Dive spots, Bgy. Anilao, Mabini, Batangas the Karilagan Ensemble, and groups associated with the
Apo Island, cited as one of the best diving spots in the world. guilds of Manila, and Fort Santiago theatres. Many Filipino
[1] musicians have risen prominence such as the composer and
Baguio City, Benguet (summer capital of the Philippines) conductor Antonio J. Molina, the composer Felipe P. de Leon,
Banaue Rice Terraces, Banaue, Ifugao known for his nationalistic themes and the opera singer Jovita
Boracay Island, Balabag, Malay, Aklan Fuentes.Philippine folk dances include the Tinikling and
Bulusan, Sorsogon Cariñosa.
Calamian group of islands, Palawan Itneg and Mindanao Tribal art
Caylabne Bay, Ternate, Cavite The Itneg tribes are known for their intricate weaving
Chocolate Hills, Carmen, Buhol production. The binakol is a blanket which features optical
El Nido, Palawan illusion designs. Weavings of the Ga'dang tribe usually have
Hundred Islands National Park, Alaminos City, Pangasinan bright red tones. Their weaving can also be identified by
Kennon Road, Tuba, Benguet beaded ornamentation. Other tribes such as the Ilongot make
Laiya, San Juan, Batangas jewelry from pearl, red hornbill beak, plants and metals.
Lake Caliraya, Lumban. Laguna The tribes of Mindanao such as the B'laan, Mandaya, Mansaka
Mactan Island beaches, Lapu-Lapu City, Metro Cebu, Cebu and T'boli became skilled in art of dyeing abaca fibre. Abaca is
Manila Reclamation Area Seaside a plant, and its leaves are used to make fibre known as Manila
Maria Cristina Falls, Iligan City, Mindanao hemp. The fibre is dyed by a method called ikat. Ikat textiles
Matabungkay, Lian, Batangas are woven into geometric patterns with human, animal and
Mayon Volcano, Legazpi City, Albay plant pictorial themes.
Mount Apo, Kidapawan City, Cotabato (highest mountain in Kut-kut art
the Philippines) The merging of these ancient styles produces a unique
Mount Isarog, Naga City, Camarines Sur artwork characterized by delicate swirling interwoven lines,
Mount Pulog, Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya multi-layered texture and an illusion of three-dimensional
Pagsanjan Falls, Anglas, Cavinti, Laguna space.
Pagudpud Beaches, Ilocos Norte Islamic art
Puerto Azul, Ternate, Cavite Islamic art in the Philippines have two main artistic styles.
Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro One is a curved-line woodcarving and metalworking called
Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park, Puerto okir, similar to the Middle Eastern Islamic art. This style is
Princesa City, Palawan associated with men. The other style is geometric tapestries,
Punta Fuego, Bgy. Balaytigue, Nasugbu, Batangas and is associated with women. The Tausug and Sama-Bajau
Siargao Island, Surigao del Norte exhibit their okir on elaborate markings with boat-like
Taal Volcano, Batangas imagery. The Marananaos make similar carvings on housings
Tagaytay Highlands, Bgy. Sungay East, Tagaytay City called torogan. Weapons made by Muslim Filipinos such as the
Tubbataha Reef, Palawan kampilan are skillfully carved.

Architecture
Literature The Nipa hut (Bahay Kubo) is the mainstream form of housing.
Compared to other Asian nations, the Philippine Islands has It is characterized by use of simple materials such as bamboo
very few artifacts that show evidence of Asian writing. and coconut as the main sources of wood. Cogon grass, Nipa
However, a script called Baybayin, was used in Luzon when palm leaves and coconut fronds are used as roof thatching.
the Spaniards settled the islands in 1521. The Coconut Palace is an example of Philippine Architecture.
The Spaniards recorded that Indigenous people in Manila, and Cuisine
among other native groups in the Philippines, wrote on
bamboo, and specially prepared Arecaceae palm leaves, using The Philippines is considered a melting pot of Asia. Eating out
knives, and styli. They were using the primitive Tagalog script is favorite Filipino pastime. A typical Pinoy diet consists at
which had basic symbols. These were the vowels a/e, i, and most of six meals a day; breakfast, snacks, lunch, snacks,
o/u. Each basic consonantal symbol had the inherent a sound: dinner and again a midnight snack before going to sleep. Rice
ka, ga, nga, ta, da, na, pa, ba, ma, ya, la, wa, sa, and ha. is a staple in filipino diet, it is usually eaten together with
A diacritical mark, called "kudlit", modified the sound of the other dishes. Filipinos regularly use spoons together with forks
symbol. The kudlit could be a dot, a line, or even an and knives. Some also eat with their hands, especially in
arrowhead. When placed above the symbol, it changed the informal settings, and when eating seafood. Rice, corn, and
inherent sound of the symbol from a/e to i, placed below, the popular dishes such as adobo (a meat stew made from either
sound became o/u. Thus a ba/be with a kudlit placed above pork or chicken), lumpia (meat or vegetable rolls), pancit
became a bi, if the kudlit was placed below, the symbol (noodle dish) and lechón (roasted pig) are served on plates.
became a bo/bu. Other popular dishes include: afritada, asado, chorizo,
Notable Philippine literary works empanadas, mani (roasted peanuts), paksiw (fish or pork,
Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas cooked in vinegar and water with some spices like garlic and
Ninay, novela de costumbres filipinas pepper), pan de sal (bread rolls), pescado (fried or grilled
Sampaguitas, poesias varias fish), sisig, torta (omelette), kare-kare (ox-tail stew), kilawen,
Noli Me Tangere pinakbet (vegetable stew), pinapaitan, and sinigang (tamarind
El Filibusterismo soup with a variety of pork, fish or prawns). Some delicacies
eaten by some Filipinos but may seem unappetizing to the Tagalog, and English both are acknowledged as the official
Western palate include balut (boiled egg with a fertilized languages.
duckling inside), longanisa (sweet sausage) and dinuguan The twelve major regional languages are the auxiliary official
(soup made from animal blood). languages of their respective regions, each with over one
Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon (deep fried million speakers: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon,
pork or chicken skin), halo-halo (crushed ice with evaporated Waray-Waray, Bikol, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Kinaray-a,
milk, flan, and sliced tropical fruits), puto (white rice cakes), Maranao, Maguindanao and Tausug.some of the Filipinos
bibingka (rice cake with butter or margarine and salted eggs), particularly those who belong to the upper strata of society
ensaymada (sweet roll with grated cheese on top), polvoron primarily use English as their first language. Both Spanish and
(powder candy) and tsokolate (chocolate) are usually eaten Arabic are used as secondary languages in the Philippines and
outside the three main meals. Popular Philippine beverages the use of Arabic is prevalent among the Filipino Muslims. The
include San Miguel Beer, Tanduay Rhum Masters, lambanog Lan-nang-oe version of Min Nan Chinese dialect is widely
and tuba. spoken by the country's Chinese minority. November 12, 1937
Patis, suka, toyo, bagoong and banana catsup are the most is a red letter day in the history of Philippines Language as
common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants. this particular date marked the creation of National Language
Martial arts Institute by the First National Assembly.
Filipino martial arts is a term used to describe the numerous Philippine languages are further divided into a handful of
martial art forms that originated in the Philippines, similar to subgroups which consists of Northern Philippine languages;
how Silat describes the martial arts practiced in Asia. Filipino Meso Philippine languages; Southern Philippine languages;
martial arts include Panantukan (empty-handed techniques), Southern Mindanao languages; Sama-Bajaw languages and
Eskrima, Kali, Arnis de Máno (blade and stick fighting) and the Sulawesi languages.
Pananjakman (kicking). History and Ethnic relations
Games Emergence of the Nation. Early inhabitants are believed to
Traditional Filipino games include yo-yo, piko, patintero, have reached the area over land bridges connecting the
bahay kubo, pusoy and sungka. Pusoy is a popular gambling islands to Malaysia and China. The first people were the
game. Sungka is played on a board game using small sea Negritos, who arrived twenty-five thousand years ago. Later
shells in which players try to take all shells. The "Salagubang immigrants came from Indonesia. After the land bridges
gong"a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on a disappeared, immigrants from Indo-China brought copper and
kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption. bronze and built the rice terraces at Benaue in northern
Regular holiday Luzon. The next wave came from Malaysia and is credited
January 1 - New year’s Day,March or April - Good Friday,April with developing agriculture and introducing carabao (water
9 - Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan, and Corregidor Day),May 1 - buffalo) as draft animals. Trade with China began in the first
Labor Day,June 12 - Independence Day,August 31 - National century C.E. Filipino ores and wood were traded for finished
Heroes Day,November 1 - All Saints day,November 30 - products.
Bonifacio Day,December 25 - Christmas Day,December 30 - In 1380, the "Propagation of Islam" began in the Sulu Islands
Rizal Day,Moveable date - Maundy Thursday,Nationwide and Mindanao, where Islam remains the major religion. The
holiday,August 21 - Ninoy Aquino Day,November 1 - All Saints Muslim influence had spread as far north as Luzon when
Day,December 31 - Last day of the year Ferdinand Magellan arrived in 1521 to claim the archipelago
Native holiday for Spain. Magellan was killed soon afterward when a local
January 9 - The Black Nazarene procession in Quiapo, and chief, Lapu-Lapu, refused to accept Spanish rule and
Manila. Christianity. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi landed in the Philippines
Third Sunday of January - The Fiesta del Santo Niño de Cebu in 1564 and consolidated Spanish power, designating Manila
(Festival of the Child Jesus of Cebu), Sinulog in Cebu, Ati- as the capital in 1572. Roman Catholic religious orders began
Atihan Festival in Kalibo, Aklan. Christianizing the populace, but the Sulu Islands and
Last Sunday of January - The Dinagyang Festival in Iloilo. Mindanao remained Muslim. The Spanish governed those
March or April - Semana Santa (Holy Week). areas through a treaty with the sultan of Mindanao. The
May - Flores de Mayo. A festival celebrated by farmers as they Spanish did not attempt to conquer the deep mountain
welcome the fertile season. Celebrations around towns regions of far northern Luzon.
showcase crops, food and delicacies. One of the most The occupation by Spain and the unifying factor of
celebrated festivity is the "Pahiyas", a colorful festival in Catholicism were the first steps in creating a national identity.
Lucban, Quezon where houses are decorated mainly with Filipinos became interested in attaining independence in the
dried rice papers in different shapes and colors. Crops also middle of the nineteenth century. In the 1890's, the novels of
accentuate these houses in artistic shapes, and styles. José Rizal, his exile to a remote island, and his execution by
Last week of May - Pintados-Kasadyaan Festival (A Festival the Spaniards created a national martyr and a rallying point
honoring Santo Niño de Leyte) in Tacloban City, Leyte for groups seeking independence. Armed attacks and
Third Saturday and Sunday of September - The Peñafrancia propaganda increased, with an initial success that waned as
Festival in Naga City, Camarines Sur, Bicol Region. During the Spanish reinforcements arrived. The Spanish-American War of
festivities, people attend church services, followed by parades 1898 and the defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay led the
on the streets, fireworks and feasting. The Peñafrancia Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo to declare independence from
Festival is also celebrated by a fluvial procession in the Bicol Spain. The United States paid twenty million dollars to the
River. Spanish for the Philippines under the Treaty of Paris.
October 31 to November 2 - "Araw ng mga Patay", "Día de los Aguinaldo did not accept United States occupation and fought
Muertos" (Day of the Dead, All Saints Day, and All Souls Day). until the Filipino forces were defeated. In 1902, the Philippines
Also known as "Undas". During All Saints, and Souls Day, became an American territory, with the future president
friends and families visit the cemeteries, and pay homage to William Howard Taft serving as the first territorial governor.
their dearly departed. The cemetery becomes a party Over the next two decades, American attitudes toward the
atmosphere, rather than a solemn celebration.December 24 - Philippines changed and the islands were given
Noche Buena (Christmas Eve).December 25 - Araw ng Pasko, commonwealth status in 1933. Independence was promised
Navidad (Christmas).January 1 - Bagong Taon, Año Nuevo after twelve years, with the United States retaining rights to
(New Year). military bases.
The Japanese invaded the Philippines early in 1942 and ruled
Language until 1944. Filipino forces continued to wage guerrilla warfare.
170 languages are used in Philippines and all of these The return of U.S. forces ended the Japanese occupation. After
languages predominantly belong to Austronesian language the war, plans for independence were resumed. The Republic
family.Since its establishment in the sixteenth century, of the Philippines became an independent nation on 4 July
Spanish was the original official language of the Philippines. 1946.
According to the 1987 Constitution, Filipino, heavily based on
The new nation had to recover economically from the six-year terms. The president and vice president do not run on
destruction caused by World War II. Peasant groups wanted the same ticket and may be political opponents.
the huge land holdings encouraged by the Spanish and The seventy provinces have governors but no legislative
Americans broken apart. In 1955, Congress passed the first bodies. Over sixty cities have been created by legislation.
law to distribute land to farmers. Cityhood is desirable since cities are funded separately from
Ferdinand Marcos governed from 1965 to 1986, which was the the provinces so that additional federal money comes into the
longest period for one president. From 1972 to 1981, he ruled area. Each province is divided into municipalities. The
by martial law. Marcos was reelected in 1982, but a strong smallest unit of government is the barangay, which contains
opposition movement emerged. When the leader of the up to two hundred dwellings and an elementary school. The
opposition, Benigno Aquino, was murdered after his return barangay captain distributes funds at the local level.
from exile in the United States, his wife, Corazon Aquino, Leadership and Political Officials. Charges of corruption, graft,
entered the presidential race in 1986. Marcos claimed victory and cronyism are common among government officials at all
but was accused of fraud. That accusation and the withdrawal levels. People accept cronyism and the diversion of a small
of United States support for Marcos led to "People Power," a percentage of funds as natural. Rewriting the constitution to
movement in which the residents of Manila protested the eliminate term limits and establishing a strong two-party
Marcos regime. The Filipino military supported Aquino, who system are the reforms that are discussed most often.
was declared president, and the Marcos family went into exile Politicians move from party to party as the needs of their
in Hawaii. constituencies dictate because the political parties have no
The Aquino years saw the passage of a new constitution with ideologies.
term limits and the withdrawal of U.S. military forces in 1991,
when the government did not grant a new lease for United Many of the people who are currently active in politics were
States use of military bases. politically active in the commonwealth era. Men of rank in the
Fidel Ramos, the first Protestant president, served from 1991 military also move into the political arena. Joseph Estrada,
to 1998. Major problems included a fall in the value of the whose term as president is 1998–2004, entered the public eye
peso and the demands of Muslim groups in Mindanao for self- as a popular film star. He then became the mayor of a large
determination and/or independence. The government offered city and went on to become vice president in the Ramos
self-governance and additional funds, and the movement administration. Previous presidents have had political or
quieted. military backgrounds, with the exception of Corazon Aquino,
Joseph "Erap" Estrada was elected for one six-year term in the president from 1986 to 1992, who became politically
1999. The demands of the Muslim rebels escalated, active after her husband was assassinated.
culminating with the kidnaping of twenty-nine people by the
Abu Sayyaf group in April 2000. Late in the year 2000,
impeachment proceedings were brought against Estrada, who
was charged with financial corruption.
National Identity. Filipinos had little sense of national identity
until the revolutionary period of the nineteenth century. The
word "Filipino" did not refer to native people until the mid-
nineteenth century. Before that period, the treatment of the
islands as a single governmental unit by Spain and the
conversion of the population to Catholicism were the unifying
factors. As a desire for independence grew, a national flag
was created, national heroes emerged, and a national anthem
was written. A national language was designated in 1936.
National costumes were established. The sense of a national
identity is fragile, with true allegiance given to a kin group, a
province, or a municipality.
Ethnic Relations. Ninety-five percent of the population is of
Malay ancestry. The other identifiable group is of Chinese
ancestry. Sino-Filipinos are envied for their success in
business. They have maintained their own schools, which
stress Chinese traditions.
Seventy to eighty language groups separate people along
tribal lines. Approximately two million residents are
designated as cultural minority groups protected by the
government. The majority of those sixty ethnic groups live in
the mountains of northern Luzon. People whose skin is darker
are considered less capable, intelligent, and beautiful.
Descendants of the Negritos tribe are regarded as inferior.

Politics
Government. The country has a republican form of
government that was developed during the commonwealth
period. It contains three branches: executive, legislative, and
judicial. The first constitution, based on the United States
Constitution, was written in 1935. When President Marcos
declared martial law in 1972, that constitution was replaced
by another one providing for a head of state, a prime minister,
and a unicameral legislature. The president had the power to
dissolve the legislature, appoint the prime minister, and
declare himself prime minister. A new constitution was
approved in a national referendum in 1987. It was similar to
the 1935 constitution but included term limitations. The 221
members of the House may serve three consecutive three-
year terms, which is also the case for provincial governors.
The twenty-four senators, who are elected at large, may serve
two consecutive six-year terms. The president serves one six-
year term, but the vice president may serve two consecutive