Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Acid water (low pH) drainage usually created by the passage of water
or Acid Rock Drainage through oxidising sulphide mineralisation
Places in a mine where miners are normally required to work or travel
Active workings and that are ventilated and inspected regularly.
Adit A horizontal or nearly horizontal passage driven from the surface for the
working or unwatering of a mine, If driven through the hill or mountain to
the surface on the opposite side it would be a tunnel.
Adsorption The uptake and retention of a liquid or gas into a solid or liquid.
Advance Mining in the same direction or order of sequence.

Uncrushed or crushed gravel, crushed stone or rock, sand or artificially

Aggregate produced inorganic materials that form the major part of concrete.
Air quality Quality of the outdoor air to which people, structures, plants and animals
are exposed.
Air shaft A shaft used wholly or mainly for ventilating mines, for bringing fresh air
to places where men are working, or for exhausted used air. It may
either receive or discharge the circulating current.

Airway Any passage through which air is carried. Also known as an air course.

A substance with metallic qualities that is composed of two or more

Alloy chemical elements, of which at least one is an elemental metal.
Alluvium A deposit of detritus and sediment laid down by stream or river flows of
comparatively recent origin.
Alteration Alteration of rock/mineral by geologic forces.
Ambient air quality Quality of the outdoor air to which people, structures, plants and animals
are exposed.
Ancillary equipment Service equipment not directly associated with primary ore beneficiation
Andesite A volcanic rock containing little or no quartz and composed of feldspar
and one or more mafic minerals.
Anomalous Value of a given element that is deemed to be above the background or
normal value.
Aquiclude Natural stratum of low permeability.
Aquifer Rock unit capable of providing supplies of groundwater for bores and
wells, usually porous and permeable.
Arsenic Chemical element. As, often associated with gold deposits. Measure
valuable mineral content.
Assay The decrease in concentration of chemical species present in a liquid as
a result of its passage through a porous medium.
Assay Attenuation The decrease in concentration of chemical species present in a liquid as
a result of its passage through a porous medium.
One who analyzes ores and alloys, especially bullion, to determine the
Assayer value and properties of precious metals.
Auger drilling A rotary drilling device used to drill short holes.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition

A form of underground mining that uses an auger, which looks like a

large carpenters wood drill. The auger bores into a ore and discharges
ore out of the spiral onto a waiting conveyor belt. When mining is
finished, the openings are backfilled. This method is usually employed to
recover any additional ore left in deep overburden areas that cannot be
Auger mining reached economically by further contour or area mining.
Back The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity.
Backfill Waste sand or rock used to support the roof after removal of ore from
Background level The level or concentration of the substance or compound being
measured, prior to additional activity.
Ball Mill A rotating cylindrical mill using iron balls to reduce broken ore to powder
to assist the release of constituent minerals.
Enclosing part of a mine to prevent inflow of noxious gasses from a mine
Barricading fire or an explosion.

Something that bars or keeps out. Barrier pillars are solid blocks of rock
left between two mines or sections of a mine to prevent accidents due to
Barrier inrushes of water, gas, or from explosions or a mine fire.
Basalt A fine grained, dark igneous rock, generally extrusive, composed of
primary calcic plagioclase) feldspar and pyroxene, with or without olivine.

Base metal Any of the non precious metals.

Batter The excavated or constructed face of a dam wall, bank or cutting
produced as a result of earthmoving operations involving cutting and
A bar or straight girder used to support a span of roof between two
Beam support props or walls.
Bed A stratum of coal or other sedimentary deposit.
Bedrock Unweathered rock below soil and recent cover.
Any solid rock exposed at the surface of the earth or overlain by
Bedrock unconsolidated material.
A looped belt on which ore or other materials can be carried and which is
generally constructed of flame-resistant material or of reinforced rubber
Belt conveyor or rubber-like substance.
A roller, usually of cylindrical shape, which is supported on a frame and
which, in turn, supports or guides a conveyor belt. Idlers are not powered
Belt idler but turn by contact with the moving belt.
A belt pulley, generally under a conveyor belt and inby the drive pulley,
kept under strong tension parallel to the belt line. Its purpose is to
automatically compensate for any slack in the belting created by start-up,
Belt take-up etc.
Beneficiate To improve the grade by removing gangue material; to upgrade.
Bentonite A clay composed mainly of the clay material montmorillonite. When in
contact with water it has a characteristic ability to swell to many times its
dry volume.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Berm Embankment typically constructed of borrow material
Addition of naturally occurring bacteria to extract or remove a soluble
Bioleaching substance from material.

The operation of breaking ore or rock by boring a hole in it, inserting an

Blasting explosive charge, and detonating or firing it. Also called shot firing.

Special air courses developed and maintained as part of the mine

ventilation system and designed to continuously move air-methane
mixtures emitted by the gob or at the active face away from the active
Bleeder or bleeder entries workings and into mine-return air courses. Alt: Exhaust ventilation lateral.
Block A division of a mine, usually bounded by workings but sometimes by
survey lines or other arbitrary limits. Portion of an ore body blocked out
by drives, raises, or winzes, so that it is completely surrounded by
passages and forms a rectangular panel. If its character, volume, and
assay grade are thus established beyond reasonable doubt it ranks as
proved ore in the mine's assets.
Bottom Floor or underlying surface of an underground excavation.
Breccia Rock made up of coarse angular fragments.
British thermal unit. A measure of the energy required to raise the
Btu temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Buffering The neutralisation of acidic conditions because of inherent alkaline
Bullion Mixture of gold and silver in cast bars. Also called dore.
Bund An earth, rock or concrete wall constructed to restrict the inflow or
outflow of liquids or noise.
In a mine shaft, the device, similar to an elevator car, that is used for
Cage hoisting personnel and materials.
Capillary break Provision of a layer with large pore size to prevent upward migration of
liquids by capillary rise.
Carbonate Relating to rocks rich in Calcium and or Magnesium Carbonate minerals.

Catchment The total area from which a river or waterway collects surface water
Chert Silica rich rock type.
Cladding Rock cladding or similar protective armour to protect against erosion.

Clastic Formed from fragments of pre-existing rock transported and deposited.

A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible

carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of
vegetation; varies in color from dark brown to black; not fusible without
Coal decomposition and very insoluble.
Collar The beginning point of a shaft or drill hole, the surface
Comminution The breaking, crushing, or grinding of coal, ore, or rock.
Compaction Artificial increase in the dry density of a soil by mechanical means such
as rolling.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Composite liner A liner consisting of two or more permeability components made of
different materials in intimate contact with each other.
Concentrate The valuable mineral fraction of an ore that is left after valueless material
is removed in processing.
Contact The place or surface where two different kinds of rocks meet. Applies to
sedimentary rocks, as the contact between a limestone and a sandstone,
for example, and to metamorphic rocks; it is especially applicable
between igneous intrusions and the host rock.

A machine that constantly extracts ore while it loads it. This is to be

distinguished from a conventional, or cyclic, unit that must stop the
Continuous miner extraction process in order for loading to commence.
An imaginary line that connects all points on a surface having the same
Contour elevation.

The first fully-mechanized underground mining method involving the

insertion of explosives in an ore body, blasting, and the removal of the
Conventional mining ore onto a conveyor or shuttle car by a loading machine.
An apparatus for moving material from one point to another in a
continuous fashion. This is accomplished with an endless, i.e., looped,
Conveyor procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc.
Core A cylindrical sample of rock obtained by core drilling.

A cylinder sample generally 1-5" in diameter drilled out of an area to

Core sample determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and ore.
Cover Form of containment involving the placement of clean material over
contaminated land to inhibit vertical (upward or downward) migration.

Cross-cut In general, any drift driven across between any two openings for any
mining purpose.
Cross-section A diagram or drawing that shows features transected by a vertical plane
drawn at right angles to the longer axis of a geological feature.

Crusher A machine for crushing rock or other materials. Among trie various types
of crushers are the ball mill, gyratory crusher, Hadsel mill, hammer mill,
jaw crusher, rod mill, rolls, stamp mill, and tube mill.

Cut-off grade When determining economically viable reserves, the lowest grade of
mineralised material that qualifies.
Deposit An anomalous occurrence of a specific mineral or minerals within the
earths crust.
Mineral deposit or ore deposit is used to designate a natural occurrence
of a useful mineral, or an ore, in sufficient extent and degree of
Deposit concentration to invite exploitation.
The word alone generally denotes vertical depth below the surface. In
the case of incline shafts and boreholes it may mean the distance
reached from the beginning of the shaft or hole, the borehole depth, or
Depth the inclined depth.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Diamond drilling (DD) Rotary drilling using diamond-set or diamond-impregnated bits, to
produce a solid continuous core of rock.
Diatomaceous earth Friable, earthy deposit composed of siliceous diatoms.
Dilution Mixing of economic grade material with non-economic grade/waste
material in the mining process.
Dip The angle at which layered rocks, foliation, a fault, or other planar
structures, are inclined from the horizontal.
A large excavation machine used in surface mining to remove
overburden (layers of rock and soil) covering a deposit. The dragline
casts a wire rope-hung bucket a considerable distance, collects the dug
material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second
wire rope (or chain), elevates the bucket, and moves the material to
Dragline another location.
The process of removing surplus ground or surface water either by
Drainage artificial means or by gravity flow.
Draw-down A decline in the groundwater level due to abstraction.

An underground mine in which the entry or access is above water level

Drift mine and generally on the slope of a hill, driven horizontally into an ore body.
Dry Miners change house, usually equipped with baths, lockups cubicles
and means of drying wet clothing
Dykes Intrusive rocks that are discordant to host rocks. Often thin and tabular.

Emission The release of constituents into the atmosphere (e.g., gas, steam,
Endangered Species at risk of disappearing from the wild state within one or two
decades if existing pressures and other causal factors continue to
Endemic Native and restricted to a specific locality or geographic region.
Enrichment The process by which the relative amount of one constituent mineral or
element within a rock is increased.
An underground horizontal or near-horizontal passage used for haulage,
ventilation, or as a mainway; a working place where the ore is extracted
Entry from the deposit in the initial mining.
Epicentre The point on the surface of the earth which is the originating point of an
A large number of power-operated digging and loading machines, used
Excavator increasingly in open-pit mining and quarrying.
The search for minerals or ore by geological surveys, prospecting or use
Exploration of tunnels, drifts or boreholes.
Extraction The process of mining minerals or coal.
Facies Unit defined by its geological features.
Fault A fracture or a fracture zone along which there has been displacement of
the two sides relative to one another parallel to the fracture. The
displacement may be a few inches or many miles.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Feasibility Study A definitive engineering study addressing the economic viability of
bringing a deposit to the production stage; taking into consideration all
associated costs, revenues and risks,
Feeder A machine that feeds ore onto a conveyor belt evenly.
Felsic Used to describe rocks.
Feral An introduced or domestic animal living in the wild.
Any material that is put back in place of the extracted ore to provide
Fill ground support.
Filtrate Liquid which has passed through a filter
Flocculent A chemical used to enhance the deposition or settling out of solid
particles in suspension.
That part of any underground working upon which a person walks or
upon which haulage equipment travels; simply the bottom or underlying
Floor surface of an underground excavation.
Flotation Wet mineral extraction process by which certain mineral particles are
induced to become attached to bubbles and float, and others to sink.
Valuable minerals are thus concentrated and separated from valueless
material (gangue).
Fold A bend in strata or other planar structure.
Footwall A geological or mining term meaning the rock below a fault, or underlying
a natural feature, or the mining floor.
Any rock unit or series of bedded units conspicuously different from
Formation adjacent rock units.
Fracture A general term to include any kind of discontinuity in a body of rock if
produced by mechanical failure, whether by shear stress or tensile
stress. Fractures include faults, shears, joints, and planes of fracture
Frother Chemical used to increase the surface tension of bubbles to enable them
to last long enough to carry the mineral to the surface.

Gabions Wire baskets filled with rock material used to protect loose surfaces from
erosion by flowing water.

The fraction of ore rejected as tailing in a separation process. It is

Gangue usually of no value, but may have some secondary commercial use.
Gangue mineral Non-metallic or non-valuable mineral associated with the ore minerals.

Geochemical A prospecting technique which measure the content of certain metals in

soils and rocks used to define anomalies for further testing.

Geo-membrane A synthetic fabric used in construction works to provide a filter or

stabiliser between natural materials.
Geophysical surveys A survey method used primarily in the mining industry as an exploration
tool, applying the methods of physics and engineering to the earth's
Geotextile Planar, permeable, polymeric textile material, which may be woven, non-
woven or knitted.
Grade Quantity of metal per unit weight of host rock.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
The classification of an ore according to the desired or worthless
material in it or according to value. In surveying, the gradient of a
Grade traveling way, sluice, slope, etc.
Granite Igneous rock type.
Groundwater The part of the subsurface water that is the zone of saturation, including
underground streams.
Habitat The particular local environment occupied by an organism.
Hanging wall A geological or mining term meaning the rock above a fault, or overlying
a natural feature (as opposed to footwall), or the mining roof.

Locatable minerals that are neither leasable minerals (coal, oil,

phosphate, etc.) nor saleable mineral materials (sand and gravel, etc.).
Hardrock minerals include copper, lead, zinc, magnesium, nickel,
Hardrock minerals tungsten, gold, silver, bentonite, barite, feldspar, fluorspar and uranium.
The horizontal transport of ore, coal, minerals, supplies, and waste. The
Haulage vertical transport of the same is called hoisting.
Any underground entry or passageway that is designed for transport of
mined material, personnel, or equipment, usually by the installation of
Haulageway track or belt conveyor.
Head frame The steel or timber frame at the top of a shaft, which carries the sheave
or pulley for the hoisting rope, and serves various other purposes.

The steel or timber frame at the top of a shaft that carries the sheave, or
Headframe pulley, for the hoisting rope and serves various other purposes.
High grade Pertaining to ore which is rich in the metal being mined.

The unexcavated face of exposed overburden and ore in a surface mine

Highwall or in a face or bank on the uphill side of a contour mine excavation.
A drum on which hoisting rope is wound in the engine house, as the
Hoist cage or skip is raised in the hoisting shaft.
Hoisting The vertical transport of ore or material.
Open freight cars with a floor sloping to one or more hinged doors for
Hopper Car discharging bulk materials.
Host rock The rock containing a mineral or an orebody.
Igneous Suite of rocks formed by solidification from a molten or partially molten
In situ leaching (ISL), also known as solution mining, or in situ recovery
(ISR) in the U.S., involves leaving the ore where it is in the ground and
recovering the minerals from it by dissolving them and pumping the
pregnant solution to the surface where the minerals can be recovered.
Consequently there is little surface disturbance and no tailings or waste
In situ leaching/recovery rock generated.
Toward or in the direction of working face and away from the mine
Inby entrance. Opposite of outby.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Indicated mineral That proportion of a mineral resource for which quantity and quality can
resources only be estimated with a lower degree of certainty than for measured
mineral resource because the sites used for sampling and measurement
are too widely or inappropriately spaced to enable the material or its
continuity to be defined or its grade throughout to be established.

Infrastructure The supporting installations and services that supply the needs of the
In-Situ Term used to describe rocks, minerals or soils found in their original
position of formation, deposition or growth, as opposed to loose,
disconnected or derived material.
The passage through which fresh air is drawn or forced into a mine or to
Intake a section of a mine.
A term used in belt and chain conveyor network to designate a section of
the conveyor frame occupying a position between the head and foot
Intermediate section sections.
Intrusive Li petrology, having, while molten, penetrated into or between other
rocks, but solidifying before reaching the surface; said of certain igneous
rocks; nearly the same plutonio and contrasted with effusive or extrusive.

A drill carriage on which several drills of drifter type are mounted. Drills
are cutting tools designed to form a circular hole in rock, metal wood or
other material. In mining, drills are used for exploration core drilling,
Jumbo drill rig holes for explosives, etc.
LAmax Maximum noise - the maximum A-weighted sound pressure level
recorded by a sound level meter set to "fast" response.
Lamp The electric cap lamp worn for visibility.
Land Capability The ability of the land to support a particular land use. Classification is
based on an assessment of the land's biophysical characteristics the
extent of which these will limit particular land uses, the current
management technology available and soil erosion hazard.

Land Suitability A method of classifying land according to its physical features and
associated ability to support various land uses.
Landfill A small pit excavated for the deposition of waster material which is then
Landscape The items (e.g., landform, colour, trees, plains) that comprise a visual
appearance or view, perceived by the human eye.
Layout The design or pattern of the main roadways and workings.
Leachates The liquid that can appear from beneath waste rock or ore/tailings
deposits, Leachate can sometimes contain dissolved minerals, metals or
chemicals leached out of ore, rock or soils.

The action of percolating liquid to remove the soluble parts. Cyanide

leaching of gold, for instance, is a process where a weak cyanide
solution is percolated through low-grade ore heaped on an impermeable
Leaching linier. Gold is then extracted from the liquid in a closed-loop system.
Lenses Bodies of rock or ore thick in the middle and thin at the edges.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Life of Mine Often used to describe plans covering the life of the project.
The amount of ore obtained from a continuous miner in one mining
Lift cycle.
Liner Form of containment involving the provision of a basal barrier on to
which contaminated material is placed.
Lithology The physical characteristics of rock.
An ore deposit, usually referring to a vein or veins of ore that can be
mined as a unit. Can also refer to a tabular deposit of a valuable mineral
Lode deposit confided within definite boundaries.
A vehicle used to transport miners to the working sections of a deep
Man car mine.
A carrier of mine personnel, by rail or rubber tire, to and from the work
Man trip area. Also called personnel carrier.
A safety hole constructed in the side of a gangway, tunnel, or slope in
which miner can be safe from passing locomotives and car. Also called a
Manhole refuge hole.
An entry used exclusively for personnel to travel form the shaft bottom or
Manway drift mouth to the working section.
Maximum potential acidity The theoretical maximum amount of acid that potentially will be produced
by total oxidation of the available sulphide in the material being
Measured mineral That portion of a mineral resource for which tonnage or volume can be
resources calculated from outcrops, pits, trenches, drillholes or mine workings
supported where appropriate by other exploration techniques. The sites
used for inspection, sampling and measurements must be so spaced
that the geological character, continuity, grades and nature of the
material are so well defined that the physical character, size, shape,
quality and mineral content will be established.

Minerals with a high specific gravity and metallic luster, such as gold,
sliver, copper, titanium, rutile, tungsten, uranium, tin, lead, iron, etc. In
general, the metallic minerals are good conductors of heat and
Metallic minerals electricity.
Metamorphic Term applied to pre-existing sedimentary and igneous rocks which have
been altered in composition, texture, or internal structure by processes
involving pressure, heat and/or the introduction of new chemical
Micron (m) One thousandth of a millimetre.
Mine development The term employed to designate the operations involved in preparing a
mine for ore extraction. These operations include tunnelling, sinking,
cross-cutting, drifting and raising.
Mineral A natural, inorganic, homogeneous material that can be expressed by a
chemical formula.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Mineral Resource A concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest
in or on the Earth's crust in such a form and quantity that there are
reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location,
quantity, grade, geological characteristics and continuity of a Mineral
Resource are know, estimated or interpreted from specific geological
evidence and knowledge. Mineral Resources are sub-divided, in order of
increasing geological confidence, into Inferred, Indicated and Measured

Mineralisation The process by which minerals are introduced into a rock. More
generally, a term applied to accumulations of economic or related
minerals in quantities ranging from weakly anomalous to economically
Mineralized zone A mineral-bearing belt or area extending across or through a district. It is
usually distinguished from a vein or lode as being wide, the
mineralisation extending in some cases hundred of feet from a fissure of
contact plane.
Mineralogy The science of minerals

Scientifically, a naturally formed inorganic solid (element or chemical

compound) with a limited range in chemical composition and with an
orderly internal atomic arrangement that determines crystalline structure
and physical properties. Legally, an organic or inorganic substance
occurring naturally, with characteristics and economic uses that bring it
within the purview of mineral laws; a substance that may be obtained
Minerals under the applicable laws from public lands by purchase, lease or claim.
That portion of the public mineral lands that a person may claim for
mining purposes. There are four types of mining claims lode, placer,
Mining claim millsites and tunnel sites.
Arbitrary quantitative units by which the scratch hardness of a mineral is
determined. The units of hardness are expressed in numbers ranging
Mohs hardness scale from 1 (talc) to 10 (diamond).
Monzonite Coarse-grained intrusive rock of intermediate composition.
Natural ventilation Ventilation of a mine without the aid of fans or furnaces.
Net Acid Generation (NAG) The acid production from the oxidation of sulphidic rocks, after allowing
for any buffering capacity.
Minerals (carbon, diamond, coals, bitumen, asphalt, boron, sulfur, rock
Non-metallic minerals salt, etc.) that lack the properties of the metallic minerals.
Resources that are not replaced or regenerated naturally within a
Non-renewable resources reasonable period of time, such as fossil fuels or minerals.
Open Cut/Open Pit Mine excavation produced by quarrying or other surface earthmoving
Ore Accumulation of minerals containing a substance which can be
economically recovered.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
A source of minerals that can be mined at a profit. Ore refers to either
metallic or non-metallic deposits, such as sulfur. Ore body is a solid and
fairly continuous mass of ore that is individualized by form or character
Ore/ore body from adjoining country rock.
Orebody The column of rock contained the mineral resource
Orthoclase Potassium bearing feldspar.
Toward the mine entrance and farther from the working face. The
Outby opposite of inby.
Outcrop The part of a rock formation that appears at the surface of the ground. A
term used in connection with a vein or lode as an essential part of the
definition of apex.
Outcrop Mineral deposit that appears at or near the surface.
Overburden Layers of earth and rock covering a coal seam or mineral deposit.
Oxide Soft, weathered rock. Formed by the processes if weathering near
A government deed; a document that conveys legal title to public lands
Patent to the patentee.
Permeability Degree to which fluids can move through rock or soil.
As it pertains to mining, a document issued by a regulatory agency that
Permit gives approval for mining operations to take place.
Petroglyphs Shapes and figures inscribed on exposed rocks.
Phreatic Eruption or explosion of steam, mud or other material that is not glowing;
caused by heating groundwater.
An area of rock left to support the overlying strata in a mine; sometimes
left permanently to support surface structures, sometimes systematically
Pillar removed to regulate subsidence.
Piper diagram Diagrammatic representation of water quality.
An alluvial marine or glacial deposit resulting from the crumbling and
Placer deposit erosion of solid rocks and often containing valuable minerals.
A map showing features such as mine workings or geological structures
Plan on a horizontal plane.
Pleistocene A sub-division of the Tertiary System which immediately followed the
Pliocene. 1.8 million years before present to 10,000 years before
Pliocene A sub-division of the Tertiary System, 5 million to 1.8 million years before
present, which immediately precedes the pleistocene.
Plunge The angle from the horizontal of a linear geological feature on a plane.

Pluviometer Electronic tipping bucket rain gauge.

Porosity A measure of the total amount of pore space or cavities in the rock.

Porphyritic Textural term for igneous rocks which contain relatively large crystals of
one or more minerals in a fine-grained groundmass.
Porphyry Igneous rock in which large scattered crystals are set in fire grained
The structure surrounding the immediate entrance to a mine; the mouth
Portal of an adit or tunnel.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Pre-feasibility Study The initial stage of the feasibility study in which the accuracy of the
factors involved such as costs and revenues is 25%.
Probable mineral reserves Those measured and/or indicated mineral resources which are not yet
"proven" but of which detailed technical and economic studies have
demonstrated that extraction can be justified at the time of the
determination and under specified economic conditions.

Process Water Required water for processing of ore. Used for wetting down, dust
suppression, crushing and washing.
Prospect A mineral property, the value of which has not been proved by
exploration. To search for minerals or oil by looking for surface
indications, by drilling boreholes, or both.
The search for outcrops or surface exposure of mineral deposits; also,
preliminary explorations to test the value of lodes or placers already
Prospecting known to exist.
Proven mineral reserves Those measured mineral resources of which detailed technical and
economical studies have demonstrated that extraction can be justified at
the time of determination and under specific economic conditions.

Pyrite (FeS2) An iron sulphide mineral.

Pyroclastic Fragmental volcanic rock.
RAB drilling Reverse Air Blast drilling. Relatively cheap and quick exploration drilling
method returning rock chips using high pressure air.
Raise A vertical or inclined opening driven upward from a level to connect with
the level above, or to explore the ground for a limited distance above one
level. After two levels are connected, the connection may be a winze or a
raise, depending upon which level is taken as the point of reference.

Reactivity The measure of the ability for a mineral or rock to react to physical or
chemical activity such as oxidation.
Reagent Chemical used as part of mineral processing.
Recharge Expected flow capacity of the bore.

The restoration of land and environmental values to a surface mine site

after the coal or mineral is extracted. The process includes restoring the
land to its approximate original appearance by restoring topsoil and
Reclamation planting native grasses and ground covers.
The amount of mineral that can be recovered from the Demonstrated
Recoverable reserves Reserve Base.
The proportion or percentage of ore mined from the original seam or
Recovery deposit.
Rehabilitation Restoration of an area, disturbed by mining, to a suitable landform.

Relative Humidity Ratio of the mass of water vapour actually present in unit volume of the
air to that required to saturate it at the same temperature.
Reserves That part of a mineral resource which has been demonstrated to be
economically exploitable.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Known identified resources from which usable minerals can be extracted
Reserves at the time of determination.
Resource That part of a mineral deposit which has the potential to be exploited.

A broad term for discovered or still undiscovered concentrations of

minerals in such form that a usable commodity can be extracted now or
Resources in the future.
The air or ventilation that has passed through all the working faces of a
Return split.
Reverse Circulation (RC) A drilling method using a tricone during which rock cuttings are pushed
Drilling to the surface through an outer tube, by liquid and/or air pressure
moving through an inner tube.
Rib The side of a pillar or the wall of an entry.
Rock Mineral matter of various compositions.

The stratum of rock or other material above underground excavations;

Roof the overhead surface of a underground working place.
A long steel bolt driven into the roof of underground excavations to
support the roof, preventing and limiting the extent of roof falls. The unit
consists of the bolt (up to 4 feet long), steel plate, expansion shell, and
pal nut. The use of roof bolts eliminates the need for timbering by
fastening together, or "laminating," several weaker layers of roof strata to
Roof bolt build a "beam."

A method of supporting the ceilings of underground mines by inserting

Roof bolting long steel bolts into holes bored into the strata forming the roof.
Roof fall A mine cave-in especially in permanent areas such as entries.
A screw- or pump-type hydraulic extension post made of steel and used
Roof jack as temporary roof support.
The sinking, bending, or curving of the roof, especially in the middle,
Roof sag from weight or pressure.
Unbalanced internal forces in the roof or sides, created when ore is
Roof stress extracted.
Posts, jacks, roof bolts and beams used to support the rock overlying
Roof support excavated areas in an underground mine.
A combination of steel rods anchored into the roof to create zones of
compression and tension forces and provide better support for weak roof
Roof trusses and roof over wide areas.
A method of underground mining in which approximately half of the ore
is left in place to support the roof of the active mining area. Large
Room and pillar mining "pillars" are left while "rooms" of ore are extracted.
A drill machine that rotates a rigid, tubular string of rods to which is
Rotary drill attached a bit for cutting rock to produce boreholes.
Run-of-Mine (RoM) Usually refers to the tonnage and grade of ore delivered to the
processing plant.
Sandstone Sedimentary rock comprising sand size grains (>0.06 mm, <2.0 mm).

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Scaling Removal of loose rocks from the roof or walls. This work is dangerous
and a long scaling bar is often used.
Schist Metamorphic rock type with a characteristic fabric.
Seam A stratum or bed of coal or mineral.
Sediment Particles deposited from suspension in wind, water or ice.
Sedimentary Rock type formed from fragments of other rocks.
Seepage Liquid or fluid such as water seeping or flowing from the ground to the

A small filtering device carried by a miner underground, either on a belt

or in a pocket, to provide immediate protection against carbon monoxide
and smoke in case of a mine fire or explosion. It is a small canister with a
mouthpiece directly attached. The wearer breathes through the mouth,
the nose being closed by a clip. The canister contains a layer of fused
calcium chloride that absorbs water vapor from the mine air. The device
is used for escape purposes only because it does not sustain life in
atmospheres containing deficient oxygen. Also called a Self-Contained
Self-rescuer Self-Rescuer (SCSR).
A primary vertical or non-vertical opening through mine strata used for
ventilation or drainage and/or for hoisting of personnel or materials;
Shaft connects the surface with underground workings.
An underground mine in which the main entry or access is by means of a
Shaft mine vertical shaft.
An underground mining method in which small areas are worked (15 to
150 feet) by a continuous miner in conjunction with the use of hydraulic
Shortwall roof supports.
A self-discharging truck, generally with rubber tires or caterpillar-type
treads, used for receiving ore from the loading or mining machine and
transferring it to an underground loading point, mine railway or belt
Shuttle car conveyor system.
Silicified Formed from silica.
Siltstones Type of fine grained sedimentary rock,
Primary inclined opening, connection the surface with the underground
Slope workings.
An underground mine with an opening that slopes upward or downward
Slope mine to the seam.
Slurry Water/solids mixture.
A mixture of water and any of several finely crushed solids, especially
Slurry clay, or coal.
A furnace in which the raw materials are melted, and metals are
Smelter separated from impurities.
Smelting Thermal process whereby molten metal is liberated from a concentrate,
with impurities separating into a lighter slag.
Solar radiation Heat energy emanating from the sun.
Spring Place where water wells up from underground rocks. Flow of water from
the earth.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
Static acid-base Chemical testwork to determine the theoretical potential acidity that
would be
Stiff diagrams Diagrammatic representation of water quality.

Stope An excavation from which ore has been removed in a series of steps.

Those minerals considered essential for a countrys economic and

defense needs, such as metals for defense weapons, satellite
Strategic minerals communications, automobile parts, and medical instruments.
Strike The direction or bearing of a bed or layer of rock in the horizontal plane.

The gradual sinking, or sometimes abrupt collapse, of the rock and soil
layers into an underground mine. Structures and surface features above
Subsidence the subsidence area can be affected.
Sulphide Iron and sulphide based metalliferous minerals.
A mine in which the ore lies near the surface and can be extracted by
Surface mine removing the covering layers of rock and soil.
Syncline A sequence of rocks flexed downwards into a valley shape with a core of
younger rocks.
Synform Bent or folded downwards.
Tailing Material rejected from treatment plant after the recoverable valuable
minerals have been extracted.
Tectonic Relating to a major structural event.
Temp Temperature
Temperature inversion An increase in air temperature with height.
Thickener Chemical compound used to thicken a water/solids mixture.
Originally the place where the mine cars were tipped and emptied of
their ore and still used in that same sense, although now more generally
applied to the surface structures of a mine, including the preparation
Tipple plant and loading tracks.
A short or net ton is equal to 2,000 pounds; a long or British ton is 2,240
Ton pounds; a metric ton is approximately 2,205 pounds.
Tonne Metric tonne, equal to 1,000 kilograms.
Topsoil The general term applied to the surface portion of the soil include the
average plough depth or the A horizon where it is deeper.

Used in connection with moving self-propelled mining equipment. A

tramming motor may refer to an electric locomotive used for hauling
loaded trips or it may refer to the motor in a cutting machine that
Tram supplies the power for moving or tramming the machine.
Location in the materials handling system, either haulage or hoisting,
Transfer point where bulk material is transferred between conveyances.
Triassic A geological period extending from 250 to 204 million years BC which
marks the beginning of the Mesozoic Era.
Tuff Compacted pyroclastic rock of cemented volcanic ash.
A horizontal underground passage that opens to the surface on both
Tunnel ends.

Glossary of Terms

Word Definition
A machine in which rotating vanes are driven by a steam generator to
Turbine produce electricity.
umhos Micro-mhos (relates to conductivity)
Also known as a "deep" mine. Usually located several hundred feet
below the earth's surface, an underground mine's ore is removed
mechanically and transferred by shuttle car or conveyor to the surface.
Underground mines are classified according to the type of opening used
to reach the coal or mineral, i.e., drift (level tunnel), slope (inclined
Underground mine tunnel) or shaft (vertical tunnel).
Un-oxidised That portion of a deposit that has not been weathered or oxidised.

Vein A narrow (within centimetres) dyke-like intrusion of mineral traversing a

rock mass of different material.

The provision of a directed flow of fresh and return air along all
Ventilation underground roadways, traveling roads, workings, and service parts.
Viewshed A vista or extent of view from a particular location.
A general term for pore space or other reopenings in rock. In addition to
pore space, the term includes vesicles, solution cavities, or any openings
Void either primary or secondary.
Volcanic Class of igneous rocks that have flowed out or have been ejected at or
near the Earth's surface, as from a volcano.
Wall rock Rock mass adjacent to a fault, fault zone or lode.
Waste Material other than coal or mineral. Also called spoil.
Waste Rock Rock excavated from pit, no longer required and placed in a waste pile.

Weathering Degradation of rocks at the earths surface by climatic forces.

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
% Percent
, Minutes
,, Seconds
United Kingdom Pounds
c Degree celsius
m Micrometre (one thousandth of a milimetre)
AA Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists
ANC Acid neutralising capacity
ANFO Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil
ARD acid rock drainage
ASDS Adjustable Speed Drives
As Arsenic
Au Gold
Avg. Average
B Boron
Ba Barium
Be Beryllium
Bi Bismuth
BMIM Base metal and iron ore mining
BRGM Bureau de Research Geologie et Minerale
BS British Standard
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene
C Carbon
C$ Canadian Dollars
CaCOi Calcium carbonate.
CaO Calcium oxide
CAPEX Capital Expenditure
Cd Cadmium
CEC Cation exchange capacity
CFR Cost and Freight
CHF Swiss Francs
CI Conservation International
CI Chloride
CIF Cost Insurance Freight
CIP Carbon-in-pulp
CIP Cost and Insurance Paid
cm Centimetre
CMC Compania Minera Condestable
CN Cyanide
Co Cobalt
COA Council of Agriculture
COB Copper Ore (MATSA)
COD Chemical oxygen demand
CoG Cut-off Grade

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
CPT Carriage Paid To
Cr Chromium
CR Critically endangered
CSW Copper Stockwork
Cu Copper
CuFeS2 Chalcopyrite (Copper Iron Sulphite)
dB Decibel
dB(A) Decibel in A-weighting
DCT Deep Cone Thickener
DD Data deficient
DDP Delivery Duty Paid
DDU Delivery Duty Unpaid
DL Detection limit
DMT Dry Metric Tonne
DO Dissolved oxygen
DOE Department of Environment
DOR Daily Operating Report
DSTP Deep Sea Tailings Placement
E East
EA Environmental Assessment
EBA Environmental Baseline Assessment
EC Electrical Conductivity
EGL Effective Grinding Length (applies to mills)
EHS Environmental Health and Safety
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EN Endangered
ENE East north-east
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPY Pyrite Waste Rock (MASTSA)
eq.kg Equivalent kilograms
ESD Ecologically sustainable development
ESE East south-east
EST Pyrite Waste Rock (MASTSA)
Eto Evapo-transpiration
EU European Union
EW Extinct in the wild
EX Extinct
F Fluorine
FAG Fully Autogeneous Grinding
Fe Iron
FMT Fine Metric Tonnes
FOB Free On Board
g Gram
g/t Grams per tonne
GEG General Environmental Guidelines

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
GEP Good Environmental Practice
H2S04 Sulphuric acid
ha Hectares
HAZID Hazard Identification
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HCO3 Bicarbonate
Hg Mercury
hr Hour
ICP Inductively coupled plasma
IRR Internal Rate of Return
ISO International Standards Organisation
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature
IZN Iberian Minerals Corp.
JDE J.D. Edwards System
K Potassium
K US$ Thousand of U.S. dollars
K$ Thousand of dollars
kg Kilogram
km Kilometre
km2 Square kilometre
kPa Kilo Pascals
KPI Key Performance Indicator
kVA Kilovolt amperes
kW Kilowatt
KW/m2 Kilowatts per square metre
kWhr Kilowatt Hour
kWhr/t Kilowatt Hours per tonne
l Litres
l'A1o Incident A-weighted noise
La90 Background A-weighted noise / average A-weighted noise
lb Pound
Li Lithium
LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate
LME London Metal Exchange
LOM Life Of Mine
LPG Liquid petroleum gas
LR Lower risk
Ltd Limited
LTI Lost Time Injury
m Metre
M$ Million Dollars
m/s Cubic metres per second.
m/s Metres per second.
m2 Square metre
m3 Cubic metre
m3/hr Cubic metres per hour.

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
MATSA Minas de Aguas Tenidas
max Maximum
meq/l Milliequivalent per litre
Mg Magnesium
mg Milligram
mg/l Milligrams per litre
MHz Megahertz
MIBC Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol
min Minimum
ML Metals Leaching
mm Millimetre
Mm3 Million cubic metres.
Mn Manganese
Mo Molybdenum
MPA Maximum potential acidity
MRCP Mine Reclamation and Closure Plan
Mt Million tonnes
mt Metric tonnes
MTD Month to Date
Mtpa Million tonnes per annum
MW Megawatt
MWhr Megawatt hour
MWhr/t Megawatt hour per tonne
MWMT Meteoric water mobility tests
N North
N02 Nitrogen dioxide.
N2 Nitrogen
N20 Nitrous oxide
Na Sodium
NAG Net acid generation
NAPP Net acid producing potential
NCWCD National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development
NE Not evaluated
NE North-east
NGO Non-governmental organization
Ni Nickel
NNE North north-east
NNW North north-west
NO Nitrogen oxide
NPV Net Present Value
NS New Soles
NSR Net smelter return
NW North-west
NWF National Wildlife Federation
o2 Oxygen
OH Hydroxide

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
OPEX Operating Cost
OSHA Occuipational Safety and Health Administration
oz Ounce
p Phosphorus
PAG Potentially Acid Generating
PAU Polymetallic Ore with Gold (MASTSA)
Pb Lead
PbS Galena (lead-sulphite)
PC Portable computer
PELs Permissible Exposure Limits
pH Pondus hydrogenii (Potential of Hydrogen)
PM10 Particulate Matter 10 microns or less
PM10 Airborne particulates less than 10um in diameter.
PO4 Phosphate
POL Polymetallic Ore (MATSA)
ppb Parts per billion
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
ppm Parts per million
pt Point
QA Quality Assurance
QC Quality Control
QP Qualified Person
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
RH Relative humidity
RL Relative level
RMS Root mean squared
RoM Run-of-mine
RPB Special Flotation Reagent
RQD Rock Quality Designation
S Sulphur
S South
s Second
SAG Semi Autogeneous Grinding
Sb Antimony
SCRCs Self Rescue Devices
SE South-east
Se Selenium
SG Specific Gravity
Si Silicon
SMD Mill Strirred Mill Detritus
Sn Tin
SO2 Sulphur dioxide
SO4 Sulphate
sp. Species
Sr Strontium
SRK Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten.

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
SRK(UK) Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten Consulting, United Kingdom
SS Suspended solids
SSC Species Survival Commission
SSE South south-east
SSV Settled sludge volume
SSW South south-west
SW South-west
t Tonne
t/a Tonnes per annum
t/m3 Tonnes per cubic metre.
TC/RC Treatment Charge/Refining Charge
Th Thallium
Ti Titanium
TKN Total Kjeldahl nitrogen
TML Transportable Moisture Limit
TNC The Nature Conservancy
TOC Total organic carbon
tpa Tonnes per annum
tpd Tonnes per day.
TPH Total petroleum hydrocarbons
tph Tonnes per hour
tpm Tonnes per month.
TSP Total suspended particulates
TSS Total suspended solids
U Uranium
ug/m3 Micrograms per cubic metre
UK United Kingdom
US$ Dollars of the United States of America
US$ / DMT U.S. Dollars per Dry Metric Tonne
uS/cm Microseimens per centimetre
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
V Vanadium
VAT Value Added Tax
VU Vulnerable
W West
WB World Bank
WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WHO World Health Organisation
WMT Wet Metric Tonne
WNW West north-west
WSD Water Storage Dam
WSW West south-west
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
XRF X-ray fluorescence
YTD Year to Date

Abbreviations (English)

Abbreviation Meaning
Zn Zinc
ZnSO4 Zinc Sulphate

Grades and Units

Grades Cu Zn Pb Ag Au As Sb Bi Hg Fe
Units % % % g/t g/t ppm ppm ppm ppm %

Abbreviations (Espaol)

Nombre Significado
% Percent (Porcentaje)
Minutes (Minutos)
Seconds (Segundos)
c degree Celsius (grados Celsius)
Ag Silver (Plata)
Al Aluminium (Aluminio)
ANC acid neutralising capacity (Capacidad neutralizante cida)
AnFo Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (Nitrato de Amonio y Gasoil)
ARD acid rock drainage (Drenaje de roca cida)
As Arsenic(Arsnico)
Au Gold (Oro)
Avg. Average (Promedio)
B Boron (Boro)
Ba Barium (Bario)
Be Beryllium (Berilio)
Bi Bismuth (Bismuto)
base metal and iron ore mining (Depsito minero de fierro y metales
BMIM bsicos)
Bureau de Research Geologie et Minerale (Oficina de Investigacin
BRGM Geolfica y Minera)
BS British Standard (Estndar ingls)
Benzene,Toluene, Ethyl benzene and Xxylene (Benzina, Tolueno, Etl-
BTEX benzeno y xileno)
C Carbon (Carbono)
CaO calcium oxide (xido de calcio)
Cd Cadmium (Cadmio)
CEC cation exchange capacity (Capacidad de intercanbio de catin)
CFR Cost and Freight (Costos y Carga)
CI Conservation International (Conservacin Internacioal)
CI Chloride (Cloro)
CIF Cost Insurance Freight (Costo de Seguro de Carga)
CIP carbon-in-pulp (carbon en pulpa)
CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid (Transporte y Seguro Pagado)
cm Centimetre (Centmetro)
CMX Ore Complex (Mineral complejo de Cu, Zn y Pb)
CN Cyanide (Cianuro)
Co Cobalt (Cobalto)
COA Council of Agriculture (Consejo de Agricultura)
COB Copper Ore (Sulfuro Masivo Cobrizo)
COD Chemical oxygen demand (Demanda de oxgeno qumico)
CPT Carriage Paid To (Transporte pagado a)
Cr Chromium (Cromo)
CR Critically endangered (Peligro crtico)
CSW Copper Stockwork (Stockwork Cobrizo)
Cu Copper (Cobre)

Abbreviations (Espaol)

Nombre Significado
dB Decibel (Decibel)
dB(A) Decibel in A-weighting (Decibel en suplemento A)
DD data deficient (Deficiencia de datos)

DDP/DDU Delivered Duty Paid or Unpaid (Impuesto de entrega pagado o sin pago)
DL detection limit (Lmite de deteccin)
DMT Dry Metric Tonne (Tonelada Mtrica Seca)
DO dissolved oxygen (Oxgeno disuelto)
DOE Department of Environment (Departamento de Medio Ambiente)
E East (Este)
EA Environmental Assessment (Evaluacin Medio Ambiental)
Environmental Baseline Assessment (Evaluacin Medio Ambiental con lnea
EBA de fondo)
EC electrical conductivity (Conductividad elctrica)

EIA Environmental Impact Assessment (Evaluacin de Impacto Ambiental)

EIA environmental impact study (Estudio de Impacto Ambiental)
EMP Environmental Management Plan (Plan de Gestin Medio Ambiental)
EN Endangered (Poner en peligro)
ENE east north-east (Este Nor-este)

EPA Environmental Protection Agency (Agencia de Proteccin Medio Ambiental)

EPY Pyrite Waste (Estril Pirtico Sufuro Masivo Pirtico Stockwork pirtico)
eq.kg equivalent kilograms (Equivalente.Kilogramos)

ESD ecologically sustainable development (Desarrollo Ecolgico Sostenible)

ESE east south-east (Este Sur-este)
EST Waste (Estril)
Eto evapo-transpiration (Evapo-transpiracin)
EU European Union (Unin Europea)
EW extinct in the wild (Extinto libre)
EX Extinct (Extinto)
F Fluorine (Fluor)
Fe Iron (Hierro)
FOB Free On board (Libre a bordo)
g/t grams per tone (gramos por tonelada)
GEG general environmental guidelines (Gua general medio ambiental)
GEP good environmental practice (Prctica medio ambiental correcta)
H2S04 sulphuric acid (cido Sulfrico)
ha Hectares (Hectrea)
HCl hydrochloric acid (cido hidroclrico)
HCO3 Bicarbonate (Bicarbonato)
Hg Mercury (Mercurio)
hr Hour (Hora)
ICP Inductively coupled plasma (Plasma inductivamente emparejada)

Abbreviations (Espaol)

Nombre Significado
International Standards Organisation (Organizacin de Estdares
ISO Internacionales)
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (Unin Internacional para
IUCN Conservacin de la Naturaleza)
K Potassium (Potasio)
km Kilometre (Kilmetro)
km square kilometer (Kilomtro cuadrado)
kPa kilo Pascals (Kilo Pascales)
kVA kilovolt amperes (Kilovoltios Amperios)
kW Kilowatt (Kilowatt)
KWm kilowatts per square metre (Kilowatt por metro cuadrado)
l'A1o incident A-weighted noise (Incidente en sumeplento A de ruido)
La90 background A-weighted noise (Fondo en suplemento A de ruido)
Li Lithium (Litio)
LPG liquid petroleum gas (Gas de petrleo lquido)
LR lower risk (Riesgo menor)
Ltd Limited (Limitado)
m Metre (Metro)
m2 square metre (Metro Cuadrado)
m cubic metre (Metro cbico)
max Maximum (Mximo)
meq/1 Milliequivalent per litre (Miliequivalente por litro)
Mg Magnesium (Megnesio)
MHz Megahertz (Megahertz)
min Minimum (Mnimo)
mm Millimetre (Milmetro)
Mn Manganese (Manganeso)
Mo Molybdenum (Molibdeno)
MPA maximum potential acidity (Acidez potencial Mxima)
Mt million tonnes (Milln de toneladas)
Mtpa million tonnes per annum (Milln de toneladas por ao)
MW Megawatt (Megawatt)

MWMT meteoric water mobility tests (Pruebas de movilidad meterica del agua)
N North (Norte)
N02 nitrogen dioxide (Dixido nitroso)
N2 Nitrogen (Nitrgeno)
N20 nitrous oxide (xido nitroso)
Na Sodium (Sodio)
NAG net acid generation (generacin de cido neto)
NAPP net acid producing potential (Produccin potencial de cido neto)

National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (Comisin

NCWCD Nacional para la Conservacin de la Vida Salvaje y Desarrollo)
NE not evaluated (No evaluado)

Abbreviations (Espaol)

Nombre Significado
NE north-east (Nor-Este)
NGO non-governmental organization (Organizacin No Gubernamental)
Ni Nickel (Nquel)
NNE north north-east (Norte nor-este)
NNW north north-west (Norte nor-oeste)
NO nitrogen oxide (0xido Nitroso)
NW north-west (Nor-oeste)
NWF National Wildlife Federation (Federacin Nacional de Vida Salvaje)
o2 Oxygen (Oxgeno)
OH Hydroxide (Hidrxido)
p Phosphorus (Fsforo)
PAU Ore Polimetalic with Gold (Sulfuro Masivo Polimetlico Au)
PAU Ore Polimetalic with Gold (Sulfuro Masivo Polimetlico Au)
Pb Lead (Plomo)
PC portable computer (Ordenador porttil)
pH pondis hydrogen (hidrgeno pondis)
Particulate Matter 10 microns or less (materia particular de 10 micrones o
PM10 menos)
PO4 Phosphate (Fsfato)
POL Ore Polimetallic (Sulfuro Masivo Polimetlico)
POL Ore Polimetallic (Sulfuro Masivo Polimetlico)
ppb parts per billion (partes por billon)
PPE Personal Protective Equipment (Equipo de Proteccin Personal)
ppm parts per million (Partes por milln)
pt Point (Punto)
RH relative humidity (Humedad relative)
RL relative level (nivel relative)
RMS root mean squared (Raz cuadrada promedio)
RoM run-of-mine (Transporte de mina)
S Sulphur (Sulfuro)
S South (Sur)
s Second (Segundo)
Sb Antimony (Antimonio)
SE south-east (Sur-Este)
Se Selenium (Selenio)
Si Silicon (Slice)
Sn Tin (Estao)
SO2 sulphur dioxide (Dixido de sulfuro)
so4 Sulphate (Sulfato)
sp. Species (Espcies)
Sr Strontium (Estroncio)
Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten Consulting, United Kingdom (Consultora
SRK(UK) Inglesa SRK)
SS suspended solids (slidos en suspensin)

Abbreviations (Espaol)

Nombre Significado

SSC Species Survival Commission (Comisin de sobrevivencia de Especies)

SSE south south-east (Sur Sur-este)
SSV settled sludge volume (Volumen de lodo colocado)
SSW south south-west (Sur sur-oeste)
SW south-west (Sur-oeste)
t Tonne (Tonelada)
t Tonne (Tonelada)
t/a tonnes per annum (Tonelada por ao)
Temp Temperature (Temperature)
Th Thallium (Talio)
Ti Titanium (Titanio)
TKN total Kjeldahl nitrogen (Nitrgeno total Kjeldahl)
TNC The Nature Conservancy (Conservacin de la Naturaleza)
TOC total organic carbon (Carbn organic total)
tpa tonnes per annum (toneladas por ao)
TPH total petroleum hydrocarbons (hidrocarburo de petrleo total)
tph tonnes per hour (toneladas por hora)
TSP total suspended particulates (Particulas suspendidas totales)
TSS total suspended solids (slidos suspendidos totales)
u Uranium (Uranio)
ug/m3 micrograms per cubic metre (microgramos por metro cbico)
UK United Kingdom (Reino Unido)
umhos micro-mhos (micro-mhos)
uS/cm microseimens per centimeter (microsiemens por centmetro)
United States Environmental Protection Agency (Agencia de Proteccin
USEPA Medio Ambiental de Estados Unidos)
V Vanadium (Vanadio)
VU Vulnerable (Vulnerable)
W West (Oeste)
WB World Bank (Banco Mundial)
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (Centro de Monitoreo de
WCMC Conservacin Mundial)
WHO World Health Organisation (Organizacin Mundial de la Salud)
WMT Wet Metric Tonne (Tonelada Mtrica Hmeda)
WNW west north-west (Oeste nor-oeste)
WSW west south-west (Oeste sur-oeste)
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (Fundacin Mundial para la Naturaleza)
XRF x-ray fluorescence (fluorescente de Rayos X)
Zn Zinc (Cinc)

Orden de presentacin
Leyes Cu Zn Pb Ag Au As Sb Bi Hg Fe
Unidades % % % g/t g/t ppm ppm ppm ppm %