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Suggested answers to the Merc Bar by Fiscal Rocille Aquino Tambasacan.

If you were
able to get the last minute materials, the reference question/page is indicated, including
the powerpoint slide number.


A. Absolute Timber Co. (ATC) has been engaged in the logging business in
Isabela. To secure one of its shipments of logs to be transported by Andok
Shipping Co., ATC purchased a marine policy with an all-risk provision. Because
of a strong typhoon then hitting Northern Luzon, the vessel sank and the
shipment of logs was totally lost. ATC filed its claim, but the insurer denied the
claim on several grounds, namely: (1) the vessel had not been seaworthy; (2) the
vessels crew had lacked sufficient training; (3)
the improper loading of the logs on only one side of the vessel had led to the
tilting of the ship to that side during the stormy voyage; and (4)
the extremely bad weather had been a fortuitous event.

ATC now seeks your legal advice to know if its claim was sustainable. What is
your advice? Explain your answer. (3%)

Suggested Answer:

The insurance claim is sustainable. An all risk insurance policy covers all causes of
conceivable loss or damage, except as otherwise excluded in the policy or due to fraud
or intentional misconduct on the part of the insured. Since there was no stipulation as to
what losses are excluded from the coverage, the insured can recover.

B. The newly restored Ford Mustang muscle car was just released from the car
restoration shop to its owner, Seth, an avid sportsman. Given his passion for
sailing, he needed to go to a round-the-world voyage with his crew on his brand-
new 180-meter yacht. Hearing about his coming voyage, Sean, his bosom friend,
asked Seth if he could borrow the car for his next roadshow. Sean, who had been
in the business of holding motor shows and promotions, proposed to display the
restored car of Seth in major cities of the country. Seth agreed and lent the Ford
Mustang to Sean. Seth further expressly allowed Sean to use the car even for his
own purposes on special occasions during his absence from the country. Seth
and Sean then went together to Bayad Agad Insurance Co. (BAIC) to get separate
policies for the car in their respective names.

BAIC consults you as its lawyer on whether separate policies could be issued to
Seth and Sean in respect of the same car.

a. What is insurable interest? (2%)

Suggested Answer:

There is insurable interest in property when he derives a benefit from its existence or
would suffer a loss from its destruction.

b. Do Seth and Sean have separate insurable interests? Explain briefly your
answer. (3%)

Suggested Answer:

Only Seth has insurable interest in it. Insurable interest in property consists of either an
(1) existing interest, (2) an inchoate interest founded on an existing interest, or (3) an
expectancy coupled with an existing interest in that out of which the expectancy arises.
Seth, being the owner, has an existing interest. Sean has no interest in the car as he
does not own it, even if he is being benefited by its existence.


A. Morgan, a lawyer, received a lot of diving and other water sports equipment as
payment of his professional fees by Dennis, his client in a child custody case.
Dennis owned a diving and water sports dealership in Anilao, Batangas. Morgan
decided to name Dennis as entrustee because he did not have any experience in
selling such specialized sports equipment. They executed a trust receipt
agreement, with Morgan as entruster and Dennis as entrustee.

Before the sports equipment could be sold, a strong typhoon hit Batangas. Anilao
and other parts of Batangas experienced power outage. Taking advantage of the
total darkness, unidentified thieves destroyed the padlocks of the establishment
of Dennis, and carted off the equipment inside.

Morgan demanded that Dennis pay the value of the stolen equipment, but the
latter refused on the ground that he also had suffered from the effects of the
typhoon, and insisted that the cause of the loss was fortuitous event or force

Is the justification of Dennis warranted? Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

No. The risk of loss in a trust receipt agreement shall be borne by the entrustee, Dennis.
Loss of goods, irrespective of whether or not it was due to the fault or negligence of the
entrustee, shall not extinguish his obligation to the entruster.

B. Safe Warehouse, Inc. (Safe) issued on various dates negotiable warehouse

receipts to Peter, Paul, and Mary covering certain goods deposited by the latter
with the former. Peter, Paul, and Mary then negotiated and endorsed the
warehouse receipts to Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles upon payment by the latter of
valuable consideration for the warehouse receipts. Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles
were not aware of, nor were they parties to any irregularity or infirmity affecting
the title or the face of the warehouse receipts.

On due dates of the warehouse receipts, Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles demanded
that Safe surrender the goods to them. Safe refused because its warehousemans
claim must first be paid. Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles refused to pay, and insisted
that such claim was the liability of Peter, Paul, and Mary.

a. What is a warehousemans claim? (3%)

Suggested Answer:

It refers to the warehousemans lien, or lien on goods deposited or on the proceeds

thereof in his hands, for all lawful charges for storage and preservation of the goods;
also for all lawful claims for money advanced, interest, insurance, transportation, labor,
weighing, coopering and other charges and expenses in relation to such goods; also for
all reasonable charges and expenses for notice, and advertisements of sale.

b. Is Safes refusal to surrender the goods to Cyrus, Magnus, and Charles legally
justified? Explain your answer. (3%)

Suggested Answer:

Yes. A warehouseman loses his lien upon goods by surrendering possession thereof.

A. Data Realty, Inc. (DRI) was engaged in realty development. The family of
Matteo owned 100% of the capital stock of DRI. Matteo was also the President and
Chairman of the Board of Directors. Other members of Matteos family held the
major positions in DRI. Because of a nasty takeover fight with D&E Realty Co.,
Inc. (D&E), another realty developer, for the control of a smaller realty company
with vast landholdings, DRI and D&E engaged in an expensive litigation that
eventually led to a money judgment being rendered in favor of D&E.

Meantime, DRI, facing inability to pay its liabilities as they fall due but still holding
substantial assets, filed a petition for voluntary rehabilitation. Trying to beat the
consequences of rehabilitation proceedings, D&E moved in the trial court for the
issuance of a writ of execution. The trial court also happened to be the
rehabilitation court. The writ of execution was issued.
Serving the writ of execution, Merto, the court sheriff who had just passed his
Credit Transactions subject in law school, garnished Matteos bank accounts,
and levied his real properties, including his house and lot in Makati.

Are the garnishment and levy of Matteos assets lawful and proper? Explain your
answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

Yes, considering there is no issuance yet of any Commencement Order which

necessarily includes a Stay or Suspension Order which results to, among others,
suspension of all actions to enforce any judgment, attachment or other provisional
remedies against the debtor.

B. Sid used to be the majority stockholder and President of Excellent

Corporation (Excellent). When Meridian Co., Inc. (Meridian), a local conglomerate,
took over control and ownership of Excellent, it brought along its team of
officers. Sid thus became a minority stockholder and a minority member of the
Board of Directors. Excellent, being the leading beverage manufacturer in the
country, became the monopoly when Meridians own beverage business was
merged with Excellents, thereby making Excellent virtually the only beverage
manufacturer in the country.
Left out and ignored by the management, Sid became a fiscalizer of sorts,
questioning during the Board meetings the direction being pursued by
Excellents officers.

Ultimately, Sid demanded the inspection of the books and other corporate
records of Excellent. The management refused to comply, saying that his right as
a minority stockholder has been much reduced.

State under what conditions may Sid properly assert his right to inspect the
books and other corporate records of Excellent. Explain your answer. (3%)

Suggested Answer:

The following are the valid purposes to justify a demand for inspection:

a. To ascertain the financial condition of the company or the propriety of dividends;

b. the value of the shares of stock for sale or investment;

c. whether there has been mismanagement;

d. in anticipation of shareholders' meetings to obtain a mailing list of shareholders to
solicit proxies or influence voting;

e. to obtain information in aid of litigation with the corporation or its officers as to

corporate transactions.

If the right is to be denied on Sid, the burden of proof is upon the corporation to show
that the purpose of the shareholder is improper, by way of defense.


Procopio, a Director and the CEO of Parisian Hotel Co., Inc. (Parisian), was
charged along with other company officials with several counts of estafa in
connection with the non-remittance of SSS premiums the company had collected
from its employees. During the pendency of the cases, Parisian filed a petition for
rehabilitation. The court, finding the petition to be sufficient in form and
substance, issued a commencement order together with a stay or suspension

Citing the commencement order, Procopio and the other officers facing the
criminal charges moved to suspend the proceedings in the estafa cases.

a. What is a commencement order, and what is the effect of its issuance? Explain
your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

The rehabilitation proceedings formally commences upon issuance of a commencement

order. Generally, the same: (1) suspends all actions or proceedings, in court or
otherwise, for the enforcement of claims against the debtor; (2) suspend all actions to
enforce any judgment, attachment or other provisional remedies against the debtor; (3)
prohibit the debtor from selling, encumbering, transferring or disposing in any manner
any of its properties except in the ordinary course of business; and (4) prohibit the
debtor from making any payment of its liabilities outstanding as of the commencement
date except as may be provided herein .
Source: Section 16, FRIA, powerpoint slide no. 10 in FRIA, Last Minute/Pre-Week

b. Suppose you are the trial judge, will you grant the motion to suspend of
Procopio, et al.? Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

No. Any criminal action against the individual debtor or owner, partner, director or officer
of a debtor shall not be affected by any proceeding commenced under this Act.


A. Under the Nell Doctrine, so called because it was first pronounced by the
Supreme Court in the 1965 ruling in Nell v. Pacific Farms, Inc. (15 SCRA 415), the
general rule is that where one corporation sells or otherwise transfers all of its
assets to another corporation, the latter is not liable for the debts and liabilities of
the transferor.

State the exceptions to the Nell Doctrine. (4%)

Suggested Answer:
Nell Doctrine states the general rule that the transfer of all the assets of a corporation to
another shall not render the latter liable to the liabilities of the transferor except:

a. Where the purchaser expressly or impliedly agrees to assume such debts;

b. Where the transaction amounts to a consolidation or merger of the corporations;

c. Where the purchasing corporation is merely a continuation of the selling corporation

(business enterprise transfer); and

d. Where the transaction is entered into fraudulently in order to escape liability for such

B. Santorini Corporation (Santorini) was in dire straits. In order to firm up its

financial standing, it agreed to entertain the merger and takeover offer of
Proficient Corporation (Proficient), the leading company in their line of business.
Erica, the major stockholder of Santorini, strongly opposed the merger and
takeover. The matter of the merger and takeover by Proficient was included in the
agenda of the next meeting of Santorinis Board of Directors. However, owing to
Ericas serious illness that required her to seek urgent medical treatment and
care in Singapore, she failed to attend the meeting and was consequently unable
to cast her vote. The Board of Directors approved the merger and takeover. At the
time of the meeting, Santorini had been in the red for a number of years owing to
its recurring business losses and reverses.

Erica seeks your legal advice regarding her right as a stockholder opposed to the
corporate action. Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

Considering that it is a case of merger, Erica can oppose the same being a stockholder,
as action or approval by 2/3 of the outstanding capital stock is required. Under the facts
presented, only the Board of Directors had approved the merger.

C. Samito is the President and a Director of Lucky Bank (Lucky), a commercial

bank holding its main office in Makati. His brother, Othello, owned a big fishing
business based in Malabon. Othello applied for a loan of P50 million with Lucky.
Othello followed the ordinary banking procedures in all the stages of the
processing of his application. When required, he made the necessary
arrangements to guarantee the loan. Thus, in addition to the real estate mortgage,
Othello executed a joint and solidary suretyship, issued postdated checks, and
submitted all other requirements prescribed by Lucky.

When the loan application was about to be approved and the proceeds released,
BG Company, a keen competitor of Othello in the fishing industry, wrote to the
Board of Directors and the management of Lucky questioning the loan on the
ground of conflict of interest due to Samito and Othello being brothers, citing the
legal restriction against bank exposure of directors, officers, stockholders or
their related interests. (DOSRI).

a. What are the three restrictions imposed by law on DOSRI transactions? (4%)

Suggested Answer:

These are: (1) ratio of networth to total risk assets. When a loan is secured by realty,
the loan should not be more than 75% of appraised value of realty + 60% of appraised
value of improvements. If the loan is secured by chattel mortgage and intangibles, the
loan should not bemore than 75%; (2) SBL (Single Borrowers Limit rule) a single
borrower cannot obtain more than 25% of bank networth, but the amount can be
increased by additional 10% if secured by trust receipts, warehouse receipts or shipping
documents and (3) DOSRI cannot borrow nor become guarantor for loans except if
there is written approval of majority of all directors, excluding DOSRI concerned, except
if it is a fringe benefit plan approved by BSP.

b. Is BG Companys opposition based on conflict of interest and violation of the

restrictions on DOSRI transactions legally and factually correct? Explain your
answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

It depends whether or not there was compliance with the aforementioned requirements.
The problem only indicated that Othello followed the normal banking procedures in the
processing of his loan, but there were no amounts indicated as reference, save for the
P50M loan, as basis for compliance with the loan ceilings.


A. Hortencio owned a modest grocery business in Laguna. Because of the

economic downturn, he incurred huge financial liabilities. he remained afloat only
because of the properties inherited from his parents who had both come from
landed families in Laguna. His main creditor was Puresilver Company
(Puresilver), the principal supplier of the merchandise sold in his store. To secure
his credit with Puresilver, he executed a real estate mortgage with a dragnet
clause involving his familys assets worth several millions of pesos.

Nonetheless, Hortencio, while generally in the black, now faces a situation where
he is unable to pay his liabilities as they fall due in the ordinary course of
business. What will you advise him to do to resolve his dire financial condition?
Explain your answer. (5%)

Suggested Answer:

He can file a petition for rehabilitation. Corporate rehabilitation contemplates a

continuance of business life and activities in an effort to restore and reinstate the
corporation to its former position of successful operation and solvency, the purpose
being to enable the debtor to gain a new lease on life and allow its creditors to be paid
their claims out of its earnings. Though Hortencio is a natural person and not a
corporation, rehabilitation is possible considering that FRIA covers an insolvent debtor,
whether a natural or juridical one.

B. Wyatt, an internet entrepreneur, engaged in a sideline business of creating

computer programs for selected clients on a per project basis and for servicing
basic computer problems of his friends and family members. His main job was
being an IT consultant at Futurex Co., a local computer company. Because of his
ill-advised investments in the stock market and the fraud perpetrated against him
by his trusted confidante, Wyatt was already drowning in debt, that is, he had far
more liabilities than his entire assets.

What legal recourse remained available to Wyatt? Explain your answer. (5%)

Suggested Answer:

He can apply for voluntary liquidation. It applies when the individual debtor has
properties are not sufficient to cover his liabilities, and owing debts exceeding
P500,000. Suspension of payments is not feasible considering it applies only if he
possesses sufficient property to cover all his debts but foresees the impossibility of
meeting them when they respectively fall due. Here, Wyatt has more liabilities than
assets thus voluntary liquidation is the only remedy available to him.


A. Virtucio was a composer of Ilocano songs who has been quite popular in the
Ilocos Region. Pascuala is a professor of music in a local university with special
focus on indigenous music. When she heard the musical works of Virtucio, she
purchased a CD of his works. She copied the CD and sent the second copy to her
Music class with instructions for the class to listen to the CD and analyze the
works of Virtucio.

Did Pascuala thereby infringe Virtucios copyright? Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

No, there is no violation. The fair use of a copyrighted work for criticism, comment, news
reporting, teaching including limited number of copies for classroom use, scholarship,
research, and similar purposes is not an infringement of copyright.

B. Super Biology Corporation (Super Biology) invented and patented a miracle

medicine for the cure of AIDS. Being the sole manufacturer, Super Biology sold
the medicine at an exorbitant price. Because of the sudden prevalence of AIDS
cases in Metro Manila and other urban areas, the Department of Health (DOH)
asked Super Biology for a license to produce and sell the AIDS medicine to the
public at a substantially lower price. Super Biology, citing the huge costs and
expenses incurred for research and development, refused.

Assuming you are asked your opinion as the legal consultant of DOH, discuss
how you will resolve the matter. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

A government agency or third person authorized by the government may exploit the
invention even without agreement of the patent owner where, among others; (1)The
public interest, in particular, national security, nutrition, health or the development of
other sectors, as determined by the appropriate agency of the government, so requires;
or (2) In the case of drugs and medicines, there is a national emergency or other
circumstance of extreme urgency requiring the use of the invention. Here, the
prevalence of AIDS could fall under national emergency.


A. Flora, a frequent traveller, found a purse concealed between the cushions of a

large sofa inside the VIP lounge in NAIA while she was waiting for her flight to be
called. Inside the purse was a very valuable diamond-studded necklace. She
decided not to turn over the purse to the airport management, and instead to
keep it. On her return from her travels, she had a dependable jeweller appraise
the necklace, and the latter told her that the necklace was easily worth at least P5
million in the open market. To test the appraisal, she pawned the necklace for P2
million. She then deposited the entire amount in her checking account with Metro
Bank. Promptly, Metro Bank reported the transaction to the Anti-Money
Laundering Council (AMLC).

Given that her appropriation was theft, may Flora be successfully prosecuted for
money laundering? Explain briefly your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:
No, she cannot be prosecuted for money laundering. Under AMLA, the predicate crime
or unlawful activity referred to is qualified theft, not plain theft.

B. Prosperous Bank is a domestic bank with head office in Makati. It handles the
banking requirements of thousands of clients.

The AMLC initiated a discreet investigation of the financial transactions of

Lorenzo, a suspected drug trafficker based in Naga City. The intelligence group of
the AMLC, in coordination with the counterpart group from the PDEA and the NBI,
gathered ample evidence establishing Lorenzos unlawful drug activities. The
AMLC had probable cause that his deposits and investments in various banks,
including Prosperous Bank, were related to money laundering.

Accordingly, the AMLC now transmits to Prosperous Bank a formal demand to

allow its agent to examine the banking transactions of Lorenzo, but Prosperous
Bank refuses the demand.

Is Prosperous Banks refusal justified? Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

No, the bank cannot refuse. The AMLC may inquire into or examine any particular
deposit or investment with any banking institution when it has been established that
there is probable cause that the deposits or investments are related to an unlawful
activity. No court order is required if the predicate crime is violation of the Dangerous
Drugs Act.


A. Alfred issued a check for P1,000 to Benjamin, his friend, as payment for an
electronic gadget. The check was drawn against Alfreds account with Good
Bank. Benjamin then indorsed the check specially in favor of Cesar. However,
Cesar misplaced the check. Dexter, a dormmate of Cesar, found the check,
altered its amount to P91,000 and forged Cesars indorsement by way of a blank
indorsement in favor of Felix, a known jeweler. Felix then caused the deposit of
the check in his account with Solar Bank. As collecting bank, Solar Bank stamped
all previous indorsements guaranteed on the check. Seeing such stamp of the
collecting bank, Good Bank paid the amount of P91,000 on the check.

May Good Bank claim reimbursement from Alfred? Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

The figure being a material alteration, the instrument can be enforced according to its
original tenor, which is P1,000 only, on Alfred. However, considering that there was an
indorsement by Solar Bank, Good Bank, in case of dishonor of the check by Alfred, can
collect from Solar Bank the sum of P91,000. Solar Bank acted as an indorser and thus
warrants, among others, the genuineness of the instrument.

B. In 2006, Donald, an American temporarily residing in Cebu City, issued to

Rhodora a check for $50,000 drawn against Wells Fargo Bank with offices in San
Francisco, California. Rhodora negotiated the check and delivered it to Yaasmin,
a Filipina socialite who frequently travelled locally and internationally. Because of
her frequent travels, Yaasmin misplaced the check. It was only 11 years later on,
in 2017, when she found the check inside a diary kept in her vault in her
Hollywood, California house.

Discuss and explain the rights of Yaasmin on the check. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

The check is considered a stale one already, and Yaasmin cannot expect payment on it.
A stale check is one which has not been presented for payment within a reasonable
time after its issue. It is valueless and, therefore, should not be paid. Under the
negotiable instruments law, a check must be presented for payment within a reasonable
time after its issue. In banking parlance, that is 6 months from issue date. Failure of a
payee to encash a check for more than ten years undoubtedly resulted in the check
becoming stale.


Wisconsin Transportation Co., Inc. (WTC) owned and operated an inter-island

deluxe bus service plying the Manila-Batangas-Mindoro route. Three friends,
namely: Aurelio, Jerome, and Florencio rode on the same WTC bus from Manila
bound for Mindoro. Aurelio purchased a ticket for himself. Jerome, being a
boyhood friend of the bus driver, was allowed a free ride by agreeing to sit during
the trip on a stool placed in the aisle. Florencio, already penniless after spending
all of his money on beer the night before, just stole a ride in the bus by hiding in
the on-board toilet of the bus.

During the trip, the bus collided with another bus coming from the opposite
direction. The three friends all suffered serious physical injuries.

What are WTCs liabilities, if any, in favor of Aurelio, Jerome, and Florencio?
Explain your answer. (4%)

Suggested Answer:

In so far as Aurelio is concerned, WTC is liable for his injuries considering common
carriers like WTC are presumed to have been at fault, unless it was proven that it
observed extraordinary diligence. However, in so far as Jerome is concerned where
there was gratuitous carriage, if there was a stipulation limiting WTCs liability for
negligence, that is valid but not for gross negligence. Thus, if there was no stipulation,
then the carriers liability is the same as that of Aurelios, the paying passenger.
However, for a stowaway like Florencio, he assumes all the risk attendant to the trip.
The carrier then is not liable.


TRUE or FALSE Explain briefly your answer.

a. A conviction under the Trust Receipts Law shall bar a prosecution for estafa
under the Revised Penal Code. (2%)

Suggested Answer:

FALSE. Violation of the Trust Receipts Law constitutes estafa.

b. The term capital in relation to public utilities under Sec. 11, Art. XII of the 1987
Constitution refers to the total outstanding capital stock comprising both
common and non-voting preferred shares. (2%)

Suggested Answer:

FALSE. It only refers to those with voting shares. The restrictive application proposed
might result to deprivation of capital if there were no Filipino takers.
c. Forgery is a real defense but may only be raised against a holder not in due
course. (2%)

Suggested Answer:

FALSE. Being a real defense, it can be raised even against a holder in due course.

d. News reports are not copyrightable. (2%)

Suggested Answer:

FALSE. News reports are copyrightable. It falls under the category of audiovisual works
and cinematographic works and works produced by a process analogous to
cinematography. News of the day however is not copyrightable.

e. The law on life insurance prohibits double insurance. (2%)

Suggested Answer:

FALSE. The danger of overinsuring, which is present in double insurance, is not present
in life insurance. Insurable interest in life is unlimited. Thus, the same is allowed.


Onassis Shipping, Inc. (Onassis) operated passenger vessels and cargo trucks,
and offered its services to the general public. In line with its vision and mission to
protect the environment, Go-Green Asia (Go-Green), an NGO affiliated with
Greenpeace, entered into a contract with Onassis whereby Go-Green would
operate with its own crew the M/V Dolphin, an ocean-going passenger vessel of

While on its way to Palawan carrying Go-Greens invited guests who were
international and local observers desirous of checking certain environmental
concerns in the area, the M/V Dolphin encountered high waves and strong winds
caused by a typhoon in the West Philippine Sea. The rough seas led to serious
physical injuries to some of the guests.

Discuss the liabilities of Onassis and Go-Green to the passengers of the M/V
Dolphin. Explain briefly your answer. (3%)

Suggested Answer:

Considering that Go-Green was the one who operated the vessel with its own crew,
what was taken then by the parties was a bareboat or demise charter. In a charter by
demise or bareboat charter, the whole vessel is let to the charterer with a transfer to him
of its entire command and possession and consequent control over its navigation,
including the master and the crew, who are his servants. The charterer mans the vessel
with his own people and becomes, in effect, the owner for the voyage or service
stipulated and hence liable for damages or loss sustained by the goods transported.
The concept of owner pro hac vice applies making Go-Green solidarily liable for the

November 24, 2017


Supreme Court


The undersigned would like to request for early processing of the Special Loan
(EEA 2018). The proceeds of which will be used for the tuition fee of my two children in
college and for other personal expenses.

Thank you for your usual and kind consideration.

Very truly yours,

Court Stenographer III
RTC-Branch 220, Quezon City