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16EC309 ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION L T P C

3 0 0 3

UNIT-I ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS 9

Review of electromagnetic theory: Concept of vector potential. Modification for time varying retarded
case. Fields associated with Hertzian dipole. Radiation resistance of elementary dipole with linear current
distribution. Radiation from half-wave dipole and quarter-wave monopole.
Antenna fundamentals: Definition of antenna parameters Gain, Directivity, Radiation pattern, Radiation
Resistance, Band width, Beam width, Input Impedance. Antenna Apertures - Aperture Efficiency - Effective
Height.
UNIT-II ANTENNA ARRAYS 9

Two element arrays, Principle of Pattern Multiplication, N element Uniform Linear Arrays Broadside End
fire Arrays, Phased arrays and frequency scanning arrays, Binomial Arrays.

UNIT-III APERTURE AND LENS ANTENNAS 9

Radiation from an elemental area of a plane wave (Huygens Source). Radiation from a rectangular aperture
treated as an array of Huygens sources. Radiation from circular aperture - Beam Width and Effective area,
Equivalence of fields of a slot and complementary dipole. Method of feeding slot antennas. Horn Antennas
Types, Design Considerations of Pyramidal Horns. Reflector Antennas Geometrical characteristics - types
of feeds. Lens Antennas Geometry, Features.

UNIT-IV VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS 9

Micro strip Antennas -Introduction, Features, Advantages and Limitations, Rectangular Patch Antennas -
Geometry and Parameters. Yagi-Uda Array-Log periodic antenna - Helical Antenna - Helical Geometry,
Helix Modes, Practical Design Considerations for Monofilar Helical Antenna in Axial and Normal Modes.
Modern antennas- Reconfigurable antenna, Active antenna, Dielectric antennas.

UNIT-V WAVE PROPAGATION AND ANTENNA MEASUREMENTS 9

Ground Wave Propagation Attenuation characteristics for ground wave propagation. Calculation of field
strength at a distance.
Sky Wave Propagation Structure of ionosphere, Mechanism of Reflection and Refraction, Critical
Frequency, MUF and Skip Distance, Optimum Frequency, Virtual Height.
Space Wave Propagation Reflection from ground for vertically and horizontally polarized waves.
Reflection characteristics of earth. Resultant of direct and reflected ray at the receiver. Duct propagation
Antenna Measurement -Measurement of Antenna pattern Impedance Measurement. Gain Measurement
and Directivity Measurement.

L:45 T: 0 T: 45 PERIODS
TEXT BOOKS

1. John D Kraus, Antennas for all Applications, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2005. [Unit I-IV]
2. Kraus J.D., Marhefka RJ. and Ahmad Khan S., Antennas and Wave Propagation, TMH, New Delhi, 4 ed.,
(Special Indian Edition), 2010. [Unit I-V].

REFERENCES

1. C. Jordan E and Balmain, Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems,Pearson Education / PHI, 2006.
[Unit I].
2. Harish A.R., Sachidanada M., Antennas and Wave propagation, Oxford University Press, 2007. [Unit II,
IV].
3. Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, John Wiley, 2nd Edition 2007. [Unit I - V]
4. K.D. Prasad, SatyaPrakashan, Antennas and Wave Propagation, Tech India Publications, New Delhi,
2001. [Unit I-V]
5. S. Drabowitch, Modern Antennas Second Edition, Springer Publications, 2007. [Unit III-IV]

WEB RESOURCES

1. http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/
2. http://www.antenna-theory.com/basics/main.php
3. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/antenna_theory/antenna_theory_types_of_propagation.html
COURSE OUTCOMES

At the end of the course the student will be able to


CO 1 : Analyze the fundamentals of antenna theory
CO 2: Analyze the antenna arrays and its various forms
CO 3: Understand the different types of antennas and radiation mechanism
CO 4: Expose to application oriented modern antennas
CO 5: Explore the different propagation mechanisms and antenna measurements