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Post harvest evaluation

In Table grape

Compiled by: Oscar Salgado


Version 2010
Exportable Table Grape
Post-harvest
evaluation
Main arrival and post harvest problems and guideline for
interpretation of symptoms.
Complied by Oscar Salgado on behalf of ProKambium
for OFD staff, suppliers and clients
Grape Flower

Source: Keller et al, 2004


C: Longitudinal section of a Hyphae (H) with septum (S) growing between host
Cell walls (HCW), (IS) intracellular space

Source:
Botrytis control by SO2 gas
Susceptibility of Botrytis to a
Moisture Carbohydrates SO2 gas
(Sugars)
Fissures or micro fissures

This stage is not Spores


controlled by the
93-100 % RH 0 C
SO2 (Pads or SO2
injections) Mycelium

Time

Source: Salgado 2006


Cluster or Bunch
Stem or rachis

Upper shoulder

Berry

Shot
Berry

Tail

Source: Salgado 2006


Grape berry structure
Cuticle + natural wax
Style remnant or scare

Exocarp skin
Locule
Mesocarp flesh

Aborted embryo or
Seed rudiment

Vascular bundles
Pedicel
dorcal
Or berry stem
ventral
Insertion or berry
ovular
attachment
Pedicel
Or berry stem
Source: Salgado 2006
Berry color chart
(Quality)

1 Light red 2 Red 3 Dark red 4 Black to dark red

1 Green 2 Green-amber 3 Amber-green 4 Amber 5 Amber-yellowish

Source: Asoex, 2004


Red Globe range of Color
from dark red to light cherry color

4 3 2 1
Table grape according color
Red Globe and Calmeria are seeded

Source: Kader 2004


Condition Problems
Definition:
Dynamic and progressive post harvest problems which tend to
change faster during the shelf life of the table grape like:
Decay
Shattering
Internal breakdown
Water berry
Bleaching (SO2 damage)
Hair line and or berry split
Condensation
Associate more directly to a cooling, packing materials
and post harvest mismanagement of the fruit.
Mot of the problems are trigger at the field level and
enhance during the cooling and handling till the market.
Quality Problems
Definition:
More static or less dynamic post harvest features or
problems which tend to change more slowly, or not at
all during the commercial shelf life of the table grape
like:
Brix (sugar) and acid
Color
Berry size (in millimeters) un even size among berries
Cluster weight
Cluster shape

Associated more directly to packing operation


and mismanagement at the pack house.
Storage of table grapes
Berry flesh temperature ideal is 0 to -0,5C but can be as
low as -1C in storage program in a well controlled cooling
environment
Varieties like Italia Piruvano should be above 0 C
The lower the Brix, the more the potential frost damage
The rachis is the first to show frost or chill damage.

Relative humidity above 93-95 %

Chamber wind speed velocity from the evaporator


2,5 m/s, 8,5 m/s
Note: box ventilation, plastic liner perforation as well as cross
ventilation within the pallet are key. Pre-cooling should be by
convection and not by conduction.
Stem or rachis freshness (condition)

Fresh no dehydration 5% dehydration, firs symptoms in the


pedicel and spot in the shoulders
Source: Giancaspero 2006 insertion with the main stem
30% dehydration most of the pedicels 50% dehydration almost no
shows dehydration and large spots green spots on stem
in the stem and in all shoulders

Source: Giancaspero 2006


Flame seedless stem or rachis
condition
Decay (condition)
Nest in Thompson seedless
(condition)

Picture : OFD 2009


White Nest Below or at 0Celsuis
(condition)

Picture source: Zoffoli, 2006


Nest in Victoria
(condition)

Source: J. Mas 2009


Botrytis cinerea degree of
symptoms in Thompson
Seedless

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Decay (condition)
Below or at 0Celsuis and Above 0Celsius

White mold Gray mold

Picture: O. Salgado 2006


Enough SO2 during transit time
Potential orchard contamination or poor
protection during bloom time
(Endogenous Botrytis?)

Picture source: Zoffoli, 2007


Botrytis infection
begun in the
remaining flower
structures at the base
of the berry.
Growing throughout
the berry.
Poor SO2 first
sanitation

Source: Zoffoli, 2006


Infection start from
the flower structures
Endogenous
Botrytis(?)
Good level of SO2
during transit time.

Source: Zoffoli, 2006


Dauphine 2006
decay due to orchard contamination and long holding in cold storage. Mot provably
the life span of the SO2 pad was expired.

Source: Fenn, 2006


Loose berry skin
Harvest infection due
to:
Rain during harvest
Poor initial disinfection

Source: Zoffoli, 2006


Typical infection berry zones of B. cinerea in:
a) cv Th. Seedless
b) cv Red Globe:
b1 initial development in refrigerated storage
b2 speculation source developed at ambient temperature.

Source: J. Auger and B. Valiente 2004


Decay from Botrytis originating
from low emission of the SO2 pads

Source: R. Aviles, 2004


Botrytis spot Victoria
Due to low SO2 emission, maybe because excess of barriers in the fast release phase
of the SO2 pad, or high condensation due to poor cooling management originating gaps

between the phases of the pad.

Picture source: J. Mas 2009


Penicillum Decay
storage way above 0 Celsius

Source: Zoffoli, 2006


Penicillum expansum
Red Globe

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Sour rot complex
Most common fungus associated to a Sour Rot
Complex
Effect of 0C and the risk of developed growth of each fungus

Spices Minimum Temperature Risk of decay


in 0C
Botrytis cinerea 0 High
Rhizopus stoloniffer >5 Nil
Aspergillus niger >7 Nil
Penicillium sp. 0 Moderate
Cladosporium herbarum 0 Moderate
Alternaria alternata 0 Moderate
Yeasts >5 Low to Nil

Source: Latorre, 2003


Rhizopus stoloniffer in Thompson
Seedless

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Rhizopus stoloniffer in Red Globe

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Aspergillus niger in Red Globe

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Thompson seedless
Botrytis cinerea Rhizopus stoloniffer Aspergillus niger

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Clodosporium herbarum in
Red Seedless pr Imperial Seedless

Source: B. Latorre PUCS


Condensation & Bleaching

Source: Maldonado 2006


SO2 Bleaching or SO2 damage

Source: UC de Ch, 2004


Condensation
note the brown stem in Flame seedless

Source: Salgado 2004


Berry Split

Source: Maldonado 2006


Hair line in Red Globe

Fuente: J. P. Zoffoli 200-2001


Hairline Split Thopmson
seedless

Source: Maldonado 2006


Sticky berries by condensation with
hair line and SO2 damage

Fuente: J. P. Zoffoli 200-2001


Berry shattering
(condition)

Source: Maldonado 2006


Berry burst
packing problems often to rough operation or to big clusters

Source: Maldonado 2006


Water berry

Source: Maldonado 2006


Internal Breakdown

Source: Maldonado 2006


Skin browning in
Princess seedless

Source: Vial.P; Crisosto H. and Crisosto M. 2005


Skin browning in Princess seedless
Brazilian Thompson internal breakdown
(Low total acidity > 0,6% perhaps?)

Picture: C. Salas 2008


Brazilian Thompson internal
breakdown, low acidity (?)

Picture: C. Salas 2008


Bruising
Damage caused by too big clusters or too rough packing operation, internal high of the box play key
role special in 4,5 kilo boxes 30 x 40 for EU-Continent as well as number of cluster per carry bag.

Source: Maldonado 2006


Rachis or stem frost or chilling
damage
Stem or rachis is more susceptible to show damage than the
berries, often at -1.7 to 1.8 Celsius

Source: Maldonado 2006


Sugraone / Imperial Stem with frost damage
You cut it and the tissue outside dead, the tissue inside is
soft and wet and brown or watery dark green

Source: OFD 2007


Rachis chilling damage

Source: Zofolli 2006


Stem frost damage

Source: O. Salgado 2007


Location of the cluster at the border and beside the business end
Dray stem symptom
Stem is hard, dry and corky, you cut inside and very often the flesh of the stem still

green and a life by not watery, symptoms start from the pedicel

and goes up from the laterals, shoulders till the main steam.

Source: Picture Zofolli 2006


Source: O. Salgado 2007 Dray stems
Russet due to mechanical damage at a very early
Stage of the berry growing (Quality).

Source: O. Salgado 2007


Characteristic raddish
ring-spot symptom on
ripe grape berries
caused by Thrips
feeding activity at the
touch points.
Greece

Source: Raditakis and Raditakis 2006


Linear symptoms
observed in ripe
grape berries infested
with thrips D. reuteri.
Greece

Source: Raditakis and Raditakis 2006


Reddish ring spot symptoms on ripe berries caused by F. occidentalis
feeding activity, the symptoms are observed at the touch point. Female is
marked with an arrow.
Greece

Source: Raditakis and Raditakis 2006


Reddish ring spot symptoms on ripe berries caused by
Frankliniella occidentalis, in Thompson Seedless. Chile

Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Reddish ring spot symptoms on ripe berries caused by
Frankliniella occidentalis and a larva in Thompson Seedless.
Chile

Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Sulphurs dust
residue and
damage.

Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Sulphurs dust damage.
Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Magnesium sulphite damage, after a foliar application
Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Phytotoxicity spots and damage, accumulation of chemical
product
Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Reddish
pigmentation in
Thompson seedless
Call freckle" or
ambering

Source: www.uvademesa.cl
Reddish pigmentation in Thompson seedless
Call freckle" or ambering, Huanilla Chile
Source: D. Ljubetic
Reddish pigmentation in Thompson seedless
Call freckle" or ambering India season 2009
Source: O. Salgado 2009
Sugar spot, due to apparently some high sugar level before
harvest.
South Africa
Source: W. van Zyl, 2006
Ring Sugar spot, unknown reason of the damage.
South Africa
Source: W. van Zyl, 2006
Ruge Black spot in Ruge and Red Globe
Source: Mendez 2009
Black spot Peruvian Red Globe in Vietnam 2010
Ruge Black spot in Ruge and Red Globe

Occur in Chile occasionally with long term store fruit, linkage with dry fungus and grayish like
Alternaria, affecting senescence/old fruit, then and in a latter stage the berries are colonized by
more wet/soft fungus like Botrytis and Penicillium and some bacteria similar or as sour-rot, melting
then the flesh.
Described as early stage of Sour Rot in Chile, can occur at the orchard level as well as in pot-
harvest. Can be suppressed by pre-harvest fungicides, but will remind latent.
Red Globe melting are associate it to SO2 damages
In South frica is associated to Alternaria decay, more common in warmer areas.
Alternaria is very much a wound pathogen trigger by birds, hill and wasps. Alternaria typically
spreads inwards/ down in the flesh from the entry point, rather than across the skin as Botrytis.
Alternaria is part of the STB complex (soft tissue breakdown, as known in South Africa) or also
known as melting decay elsewhere.

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