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2

. 4
. 5
1.
13
1.1 . 13
1.1.1 ........ 19
1.1.2 ........ 20
1.1.3 . 25
1.1.4
... 27
1.1.5 ..... 33
1.1.6 .... 35
1.1.7 -1.. 41
1.1.8 ..... 42
1.2
... 44
1.3
. 48
1.3.1 ..... 53
1.3.2 . 54
1.4 1... 59
2. - . 61
2.1 ..... 61
2.2 . 62
2.3 .. 64
2.4 65
3

2.5 ,
................................ 66
2.6 . 67
2.7 ... 70
2.8 2.. 84
3.
86
3.1 .... 86
3.2 -

, ..... 92
3.2.1 CRACK-. 92
3.2.1.1 ....... 94
3.2.1.2 97
3.2.1.3 ... 101
3.2.2 -
.. 111
3.2.3 -
132
3.2.4 -
. 138
3.3 3. 147
4.
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4.1 .. 149
4.2 ..... 151
4.3 4. 160
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1.1.

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: 1969-1977 . ,
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400 [25, 42] 25 .

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1981 .
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1970. Jrme Raphael (OPTIMUM GRAVITY DAM), 1992.
Pierre Londe Michel Lino FSHF CONCEPT IN WATER POWER
AND DAM ENGINEERING "THE FACED SYMMETRICAL HARDFILL DAM A
NEW CONCEPT OF RCC"

[79, 94].

, ,
Marathia, 1993 ., Moncion -
1995 ., Rio Rejo Rio Grande 2003 ., indere
16

2003 ., Safsaf 2011 .


[12, 25, 94].

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2011 . Safsaf ( =21,5 /3, =35
=0) 270 19.800.000 3.
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22500 ( ) 12
[94]. 5220 3/ 33
,
2660 3/ 30 ,
[94].


.
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0,1 10 [94].
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1.1 Safsaf,
[94]
18

1.2
Safsaf [94]

1.3 Safsaf, ,
, 2011 . [94]

, -
, ,
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, [25, 61, 67, 72, 73, 76, 90].
, ,
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80 %
[26].
19

1.1.1

28
43 2000 . 16 ,
( 1.4 1.5),
118 , 714 , 1,7 . 3,
1,9 . 3.
104 . 3, 175 . 3.

100 ,
200 [33].
- 9,2 . 3/
174 . 3/ [25].

1.4 , =118 , L= 714 [81]

1.5
[81]
20


23 16 ,
20 (
18).
, 1-2 [25, 81].

36 20
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0,8
90 , 18 .
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,
[81, 81].

1.1.2

, , 90%
, 208 /3,
250 /3, 160 /3. - ,
, : 133 /3,
170 /3.
90% [25, 60].
( 1.6)
101 , 1,05 . 3
1,2 . 3 1995 1999 .
( 0,22g),
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0,35, 0,4 0,65) ( 1.7).
,
21

1.1.
65 /3 145 /3),
60 /3 145 /3) [86].

1.6 =101 , L=605,9 [86]

1.7 =101 ,
L=605,9 [86]
22

1.1
[86]

1 2
(/3) 65 60
(/3) 145 145
1484 1529
(/3) 686 652
(/3) 90 81

2008. -II ( 1.8) =120 , L=685


1,4 . 3 1,6 . 3
185 /3
( 80 /3 104 /3) [26, 63, 84].

1.8 -II, =120 , L=685 [86]


, ,
( 1.9).
23

1.9 -II, =120 [84]

( 1.10),
, ( 1.11).

1.2
-II [84]

1 (230/3 2 (230/3 3 (230/3


(%) ) ) )
43,5 45 30
43,5 45 50
13 20 20

1.10 ,
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24

1.11
-II [85]
1.11
, 365 .
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90 18,6 365 29,5 ,
60% 90 .
, ( 1.12)
180 1,47 2
1,12 3.

12 - II [85]
25

1.1.3

, - ,
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55,4% ,
0,8%, 3,9% , ( ) 1,9%,
12,8%, 10,8 %,
12,5 % [25].

,
[26, 89].
, 2001-2009 .

[105]
6300 , 4,2 . [105].
, 216,5
741 , 6,8 . 3 4,5 . 3
[25] ( 1.131.15) [104].

,
(150-270 /3)
1
.
,
26

, 3-5
[25].

1.13 , [104]

1.14 ( 192-216,5 ) [104]

1.15 - [104]


(18476 3/, 142685 400654 3/) [26].

(L/H=3,5)
7
27

[25, 104] .
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0,29 , 4,75 .
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0,59 , -1,01 .
1=-1,15 2=6
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: - 1,8
=45 [32];
.

1.1.4 ,

90%,
, (63-77%).
, , 138 /3.

,
.

1982 . ,
- 52 331 . 3,
[25, 97]
28

, -
( 1.16) [102].

1.16 , =52 [102]

1987 . [25, 61]


( 1.17) 94,5 , 810,8
1223 . 3 ,
6120 3/. 11
1 3 :
77 , 170 , 107 , 673 ,
( 5-20 ) 610 , ( 20-40 ) 745 .
,
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70%
2382 /3 [25, 102].

1.17 =94,5 , L=810,8 [102]


29


. ,
4,5
101 /3 - 92 /3.
0,952 /3 ,
77 /3.
.
1.3 1.4
.


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424,5 2110 3/, ,
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75,9 . ,
107 . [102].

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104 104
28 18,5 1,10 1,14 0,90 -
90 21,2 1,45 1,38 1,38 -
180 23,0 1,62 1,55 0,79 2,21
365 25,1 1,47 1,62 1,76 2,03
30

1.4 -
( ) [102]





, ,
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,

104
7 7,6 - - -
28 11,2 0,6 0,76 -
90 19,1 - 0,96 -
180 27,7 1,17 1,31 0,7
365 34,2 1,21 1,52 1,1

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US Bureau of Reclamation ( )
(6,6 )

$ 600 [102].
( 1.18).

1.18 -
[102]
,
9 [102].

[113] ( 1.19), 2003 .


, 7,25 ,
97 , 1,1 . 3. 130 /3
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32


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1 (17,25 ).


,
- CARPI ( 1.20) [113].

1.19 =97 ,
[113]


,
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1.20 CARPI
, 2003 . [113]
33

1.1.5

,
,
80-100 /3,
( ) [25].

1998 .
( 1.21) [25, 105, 110] 67 ,
1,1 , 950 . 3
1240 ( 1.22) [105]
2,59 /3
2,55 /3 [25, 105].


[32, 159] ,

( 1.5) [25, 105].

1.5
[105]



(180 ),
,
(/3)


100

1143
8 10 0,4 1,2 45 48
1242
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1 .
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[25].

75


[25, 105]. ,
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1.21 =67 , L=1,1 , [105]

1.22 1240 [105]


35

1.1.6

110 1200
,
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86,6% [25] ( 1.23)
[49] ,
[25, 50].
40
,
. 24 , 3-
72 [50, 55, 56, 94].


20-30 ,
[56, 94].

1.23 [69]

: 70-80 /3, 100 ,


102 /3, (3 , 6-76 ) 1190 /3, 900
[25, 94]. 40 , 2,4 /3,
36

10 ,
( 80% 2.06.08-77)
=0,13 , tg= 0,68 =0,74 , tg=0,855 [25, 39, 55, 56].



( 1.24) ( 1.251.29) [94].

1.24 [94]

1.25
[94]
37

1.26
1989-1992 .[94]

1.27
2000 . [94]

1.28
70 /3 [94]
38

1.29
80 /3 [94]


(22 ),
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27. ,

[50].

,
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2
[50, 107]. 2003 ,
.
.
( 1.30) [50]. ,
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12,54
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39

1.30 , =100 [50]

2007.
() 0,4 0,5 [50].
100 , , ,
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2007 .
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10-20
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[50].
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1.31 ,
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41

1.1.7 -1

188 1,75
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4200 . -
,
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(+38), 17
, 18,5 [25, 78].

1.32 -1 , = 188 ,
1,75 . 3 [105]
,
,
,
6 10.
33 , 30 [25].

( 1.33)
, 85-160 /3 [25, 105].
- ( 50% ),
. 63
, 0,074
13%. [25, 105].
42

10-21 ,
1 [25].

1.33
-1 [105]

1.1.8

1.341.37
, .

.

1.34 [105]
43

1.35 [105]

1.36
[105]

1.37 =79 , V=900 . 3,


1992 [105]
44

1.2

,
,
,
, , .. [53].

.


1.61.13,
[32, 63, 64]

1.6
[25, 48,]
(3)

()
(3)
()
Longtan 217 4623 32,4 142758 400755
UpperStillwater 91 1125 9 125324 204430
Tha Dan 95 4900 40,1 122266 201490
Olivenhain 97 1070 8,8 121895 224675
Beydag 96 2350 20,9 112566 165000
Beni Haroun 118 1690 16,4 102860 175000
Taum Sauk 49 2448 25,7 95253 189470
Son La 139 2677 31,5 84984 200075
M. Vaitarna 103 1217 15,8 77300 134125
Ralco 155 1596 20,9 76449 147600
Al Wehdah / 94 1426 19 75172 123860
Yeywa 134 2473 34,3 72247 147320
45

1.7
,
[25]



, 103
():
, 103 3, 3, (%)
-
:




107 75 - 217 380 - 4600 580 - 6700 65 - 67

40 42 - 100 220 - 945 250 - 1440 82 - 95

48 87 - 156 375 - 1537 593 - 2000 63 - 77

39 36 - 94 160 - 1125 180 - 1280 90 -92

24 52 - 120 150 1050 170 - 1200 87 - 90

1.8
, [25]


,
, , /3
/3
/3


107 79 - 140 94 - 140 173 - 230

40 70 - 80 15 - 50 85 - 100

48 87 - 96 35 - 78 122 - 130

39 85 - 184 53 -173 138 - 252

24 75 - 88 133 - 170 208 270


46

1.9
[25, 33]


(3103)
(/3)

()


Longtan 217 4952 7458 99 121
Guangzhao 201 820 2870 61 91
Miel 1 188 1669 1730 85-160 0
Urayama 156 1294 1860 91 39
Miyagase 156 1537 2001 91 39
Jinangiao 156 2400 3920 72 108
Ralco 155 1596 1640 133 57
Takizawa 140 810 1800 84 36
Son La 139 2677 4800 60 160
Cine 137 1560 165 85 105

1.10 -
[25, 33]


, ,
, . 3
. 3 . 3
95 26358 12 22679 107 49037
1 2800 0 - 1 2800
0 - 1 200 1 200
3 5800 0 - 3 5800
2 - 7 6700 9 6700
0 - 1 950 1 950
101 34958 21 30529 122 65487
47

1.11
2012-2016 [25, 33]

()
240,00
168,00
161,00
159,00
140,00
138,00
132,00

100

0,8-0,95 8-9 .

. ,


( 1.12).

1.12
(CGS) [74]

()
1 2 3 4
Cindere 107 2008
Beydag 100 2007
Gongguoqiao 56 2009
Tobetsu 52 2010
Can-Asujan 44 2004
Hongkou 35,5 2006
Cofferdam
Nagashima 34 2000
Ano Mera 32 1997
48

1 2 3 4
2001
Moncion 28

Marathia 28 1993
St Martin de 25 1992
Londres
Jiemian cofferdam 16,3 2004

1.13 ,
[25]

. 3
3 3
() ( 10
)
Beko Abo 280 12200 13000 -
Diamerhasha 272 12800 13500 2019
Gibe III 247 5500 5700 2014
Ta Sang 235 7850 8650 -
Dasu 233 5000 5200 2021
~ 215 - - -
Sawalkot 200 1900 2800 -
Bunji 200 1800 2100 -
Siyom 200 5500 6200 2019
180 930 1430 -
177 2300 2570 -
150 - 2700 -

1.3



.

49

[1, 12,
15, 20, 25, 26].


[25, 42]:

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).

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1- ; 2
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1.39 [42]


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1.3.2



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[6, 16, 18, 23, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 49].
,
55

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1.14) [3, 15, 27, 49, 53].

1.14 ,
[27, 49, 53]






0,989 0,978 0,967 0,975


0,977 0,929 0,935 0,914


0,967 0,918 0,901 0,891

[15, 16, 28, 54] ,


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.. [22], .. [24], .. [31, 32], ..
[34, 35, 36, 38], .. [40, 41], .. [43], .. [44], ..
[51, 52], .. [57, 58], .. [49].
58

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[55, 59, 60, 67, 73, 75]. 2.1 [25]
150 ,


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62

2.1 , 150
[25]

-1 -2 -3 -4
, 0 0 46 42
/3 63 63 83 88
95 125 154 96
, 0 0 40 24
/3 13 57 111 35
90 130 225 78
87 95 73 75
, /3
121 115 101 95
168 145 136 110
/ 0,17 0,48 0,57 0,28
1,59 0,96 0,52 0,77

2.2

,
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0,5 5% [25] ,
,
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( 2.1)
50 [12, 25],
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63

0,40). , / 0,360,44
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[12, 25].

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( 2.2) [25].

2.1
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64

2.2 7
[25]




,
, , /3
/3
/3
2620-2640 2438-2450 2430
2900-2950 2507-2625 2605
-
2744 2295-2365 2252-2350

2730-27-60 2400 -

2640 2325-2475 -

2900-2950 2632-2694 2450
. - 2500 -

2.3

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10-15%
[25].
65

2.3
[25, 48]




,
3 ,
/

111 - 142 70 17,5 - 18,7 17
66 (47+19) 90 8,0 -
100 90 14,2 -
120 (24+96) 90 14,0 18,0 -
/ 80 (56+24) 180 18,4 28
/ 100 365 13,0 -
/ 100 (30+70) 180 15,7 25
130 (90+40) 90 15,0 -

2.4


,
.

,
2.4 [12, 25].
66

2.4
[12, 25]


+

(/3)
() (.) () (.)
70+100=170 3,17 42

140 - - 3-3,65 43
70+33=103 0,85 57 - -
53+51=104 2,68 33 - -
200-350 - - 5,5-7 31-44
100-350 - - 2,2-9,6 40-42
70+130=200 2,2 58 - -
91+39=130 3 49 - -
79+173=252 2,1 57 - -
60 2,46 48 - -

2.5 ,


, , .
, ,
,
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, 7-28 50% 90
35% [12, 25, 60].


,
67

10-4 10-12 /,
10-10 10-12 [25].

2.2 50 [25]


.
( ) ,
,
.

2.6


.
:

, 30%
5 , 25%
10 , 25-21% 10-30 20-21%
30 [12, 25].
68

2.3

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2.3
[12, 25]:

(2.1)

(2.2)

, Rc Rsh .

0,59,
20%
(2.2) :

(2.3)

,
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,
(2.4) [18] .

(2.4)
69

, ,
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0,1
2,5 350 650 [32], .
60 /3
0,25 1 45,

0,8-2 [12, 25].

1986.
10 8
1,07 ,
500 [25]. 2.5
.

2.5
[25]

(/3)

30-95 100-125 46-154 42-96

R 5-15 (11,6) 10-25 (15,2) 15-30 (20,7) 12-25 (17,3)


, ()
0-0,7 (0,35) 0,3-1 (0,7) 0,8-1,8 (1,35) 0,8-1,8 (1,3)
R , ()
, () 0-1,5 (0,7) 0,5-1,8 (0,9) 1-4 (1,9) 1,5-4 (2,4)


10-20 15-25 20-25 20-25
(103)
,
10-4-10-5 10-5-10-8 10-7-10-12 10-8-10-9
(/)
70

2.6
1995. [25]

,




, 1,35 0,85
,
I**
54,9 45

, 1,10 0,20
,
II*
59 45

, 0,94 -

60,4 -

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2.7

2.7
, .. , 117
Cindere, Kahir [25, 71], ,

(CSG) .

, ,
,

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71

2.4 [148]


, ..
.

2.7 [52, 70, 72, 75]

Bulletin

Cindere Kahir 117
(/2) 10000 100000 50000 100000 20000
0,25 0,22 0,25 0,25
(/3) 2,3 2,4 2,2 2,3 2,2
(/2) 1-5 8 3
(.) 45 45 22
(/2) 60 50 50 50
2
(/ ) 6 6

30 8010 50 50 60-80
(+)

2.5 ,

.
.
72

2.5 -
[96, 98]
,

. 2.6 , ,
[92, 93, 95, 97].


, 2.7.
80. : 300 150
. .
0,2 /
. (CSG)
: 80 /3; 150 /3;
- , 80 .
2.8.
73

2.6
. - [93, 98]

2.7 ( )
[93, 98]
74

2.8
[93]



P

(Ma)
L (Ma)

1 7,5 4,9 : 0,50sL
- : 5

2 7,5 4,9 : 0,75sL
- : 5

3 11,8 8,0 : 0,66sL
- : 20

: 0,45sL,
0,85sL, 1,25sL,
4 10,2 6,1 1,50sL
- :
1 .


: 0,50sL,
1,15sL, 1,35sL
5 7,3 4,3 - :




6 7,9 4,8 : 1,15sL
- : 50

.. [12, 25]
30 /3.

117 ,
5
90 50 /3. ,
()
75

,
, , 10 .

Kahir
[98], ( 117),

, 5 , 0,6
50 /3.

,

. ,
,
150 80 . ,
, ,
40 .
: 20 40, 10 20, 4,76 10
4,76. .
2.9,
.
2.8
.

2.9 (CSG)
[98]

/
(/3)
(/3) 3
(/ ) (/3)
CSG -80 80 2126 188 235
CSG -100 100 2114 188 188
CSG -120 120 2100 189 157
76

2.8
(CSG) [98]
30
15 CSG , ,
Hilti [98]
( 2.9). 9
.
(CSG) ,
3, 7, 28 91 [98].

2.9 Hilti
77

KSF 2405 [98],


1 /
Instron.

CSG-80 8,5%,
CSG-100 CSG-120 8.4 8.5% . ,
.

CSG-80
2,07 /3, CSG-100 CSG-120 2,1 2,12 /3
.
.
2.10 [98]
.
2.10 [98]
CSG ,
.

2.10 [98]

()
()
3 7 28 91
CSG-80 1,1 1,9 3,1 4,9
CSG-100 2,1 3,1 5,4 6,7
CSG-120 2,9 3,6 6,4 7,2

2.10
[98]
78

,
80 100 /3,
100 120 /3. ,
,
( ) .

, .
2.11
28 .

2.11 28
[98]

2.10 ,
3 7 28 37 62% ,
91 28 132%. ,
.


Toshio Hirose [95] Tagahiko Hujisaw [141].
,
, . , ,

.
79

,
,
: ,
.
2.122.14 [95].
, .
2.11.

2.11 ,

60-150 /3
60-80 /3
;


,

2.12
( ) [98]
80

2.13
( - ) [98]

2.14
( ) [98]
, ,
0 5 ; 5 10 ;
10 20 ; 20 40 ; 40 80 ,
:
,
.
. ,
. ,
40 ,
.
81

300 , 150 .
,
.
20.
28 91- , .
, .
, ( 2.15).

2.15 [98]

,

2.16 [98] . ,

.

2.172.19
L
. 2.12,
, ,
.
82

L
, 90 /3 [98].

2.16 -
[98]

2.12
[98]





x103
L ()
(/3) () ()
60 1,5-4 0,3-0,8 2-5

80 2-8 0,6-1,0 3-10
60 1-2 1-2

80 2-4 0,6-0,7 2-4
60 2-5,5 0,4-0,7 1-2

80 5-8,5 0,5-0,9 2-4
83

2.17
[98]

2.18
[98]

2.19
[98]
84

,
L
[98].
60-70% ,
- 80%.

,

90 /3. , ,
,
.
1/5 .
1/8 [98].

2.8 2

1) ,

. -
,

, ;

2)
50 /3,

;

3)
5 .

85


.
,
;

4) ,
,
,
(0,50,8 , =3545), ,
;

5) ,
,

.

,

.
86

3.

3.1

,
, ,
,
, .
:

,
.. [27, 33, 42].


,

, .

.
, ,
[27, 42].

, , ,
.


-
,
87

,
-,
,
, , ..

) ;

) , m1;

) , m2.

[27, 42],
, ()
1, 2,k Y (
).

Y ,
[27, 33].

Y=f(1, 2,k) (3.1)

1, 2,k
,
.
,
[27].


.
,
()
.
( 3.1).
,
88

(+1), (-1)
(0) [27, 33].
.

:

;
( ).

[27, 33]:

(3.2)

- ,


. ,
(3.1)
[27, 33]

(3.3)

.
, ( l) ,
- ... , , ..
. ,
89

, ,
, .

,
,
,
( 3.2) [27].
, ,
.
(-1) (+1), 2k , k
; (-1, 0, +1), 3k
[27, 33].

3.1 -


X1 0,4 0,55 0,7 0,15



X2 0,4 0,6 0,8 0,2
, m1

, X3 0,4 0,6 0,8 0,2
m2
90

3.2 - 3
(N=2k+2k = 23+2*3=14) [27, 33]


. X0 X1 X2 X3 X12 X22 X32 X1X2 X1X3 X2X3 X1X2 X3
1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1
2 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1
3 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1
4 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 -1
5 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1
6 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1
7 +1 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 -1
8 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1
9 +1 -1 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 +1 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 +1 0 -1 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0
12 +1 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0 0
13 +1 0 0 -1 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0
14 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 0 0 0


()
[27, 33]:

1) . ,
, ,
, .

.


, (3.4)
91

n - ;

:

(3.5)

( )
(3.6)

N .

2)
(), :

(3.7)

- - ,

- , ,

3) .

{ } (3.8)

[43].

{ }
(3.9)

,
.
.
92

4) .

(3.10)

[35],

(3.11)

i ,
,
.

,
[35,
43].

3.2 -

,

3.2.1 CRACK-

,

CRACK-,
[49, 65, 101]
93

.

(, , ..), ,

[49] ( 3.1).

3.1 CRACK-

,
2584 2455 ,
3.2.
(.. ) 9327.

(4 35 )
.

3.2 -
94

3.2.1.1


,
Crack.



( 3.3) [33, 49].

3.3 - [49]
f

2 2 px ; p - .

f , ,

[33]:

2 2 p R , (3.12)

R - .
95

p
Rc (1 = 0; 3 = Rc). [33]:

R R
p R c 1 2 c 1 1 , (3.13)
R R

Rc Rc
n ; m n 1 1, (3.14)
R R

m 12
p R (3.15)
2

, ,

2 m 1 R R .
2

1 3
[43]:

1 3 2

2m 1 R 1
2 2 R m 1 2
1 , (3.16)
1 3
1 3 2

1 - ;

3 - ( -).

(3.16), ,

mm 21 3 0 ; (3.17)

mm 2 1 3 0 (3.18)


96

1 R (3.19)

< p .


3.4 3.5 [33, 49]:

3.4 ,

[33, 49]:

3.4 ,
[33, 49]
I - ; II-V -
; A-B-C-E-D -
; M-F-N - .


,
[49].
97

3.2.1.2

( -
) ,
[27, 33, 49]:



, ,
,
[27, 49]:


( )
.
, f v f u
3.5 [27, 33, 49].
:

) ():

R - ;

v max - () ;

k n - ( ).

) ():

p R - ;

k S - ( ).
98

3.5 - n f v S f u
[33, 49]
0 0 -
,
,
, [49].



[27, 49]:


n f v

S f u .
( n 0 ).
n1 ( 3.6) [33],

n f v ) R ,

,
.
. ,
99

,
, , [27, 33, 49].


n 2 , [33]

n 2 k n v 2 0 n1 ,
(3.20)

S 2

n R p

S 2 k S u 2 0 S 1 (3.21)

( 1,
2, 3, 4 .. 3.5) ( )
:

n 2 k n v 2 0 ;
(3.22)
S 2 k S u 2 0 .

3.6 - n f v ,
[43]
.
(3.203.22) i - [33,
49]
100

n i k n v i 0 n i 1 ;
(3.23)
n i k n v i 0 ;

S i k S u i 0 S i 1 ;
(3.24)
S i k S u i 0 .

, n R p S p ( 3.7) [33].

[33, 49]:

- ( S 0 )

S i R k S u i 0 ; (3.25)

- ( s 0 )

S i R k S u i 0 , (3.26)

R cR n i tg - .

3.7 - , S f u
[33]


v max ( 3.5, n f v ),
101

n i

v i . [33]:

ni ni k n vmax 0 (3.27)

( n i 0 ) ( S i 0 )

i+1 . f
, ,

, [33, 49]. ,
,
, ,
, ,

.
, -
, -
. [49].

3.2.1.3

,
[35]:

(3.28)

-
, ,
,
102

( ), (
). , , ,


.

, ,
- -
, , ,
.

3.3
.. [62].

3.3 [62]


, tg=tg+/n
(103 ) tg C ()
n=1
1 2 3 4 5 6
Kraprivo Diabasic
13,0 1,1 2,0 3,1
(Russia) porphyrite
Kurpsay Int. sandstone
3,0 1,54 0,5 2,04
(Kirgizia) and argillitr
Ingury
Limestone 3,5 1,35 1,0 2,35
(Georgia)
Sayany Orthoschist
16,0 1,2 2,5 3,7
(Russia) and paraschist
Toktogul Dolomitic
22,0 1,5 2,6 4,1
(Kirgizia) limestone
Sound gneiss 16,0 1,71 1,25 2,96
Naglu Fractured
2,0 0,7 0,85 1,55
(Afghanistan) gneiss
Tectonic zone 0,3 0,75 0,06 0,81
103

1 2 3 4 5 6
Tuff
Namakhvani
sandstone 8,0 1,65 0,95 2,6
(Georgia)
and breccia
Diabase
25,0 1,82 1,4 3,22
Bratsk sound
(Russia) Diabase
1,6 0,64 0,14 0,78
weathered
Shirokov Sand stone
2,5 1,6 0,5 2,1
(Russia) and argillite
Chirkey
Limestone 9,0 1,67 1,4 2,5
(Russia)
Charvak
Limestone 2,2 1,0 0,5 1,5
(Uzbekistan)
Sandstone 14,0 1,7 2,0 3,7
Kirov
(Kirgizia) Metamorphic
10,00 1,1 1,6 2,7
schist
Ust-Ilim Diabase
4,0 1,0 0,81 1,81
(Russia) jointy
Mogilev-
Granite
Podolsk 4,5 1,4 0,8 2,2
gneiss
(Ukraine)
Konstantinov charnokite 4,0 1,25 0,5 1,75
(Ukraine) Migmatite 4,2 0,9 0,4 1,3
Hoabin Basalt-
12,5 1,24 2,5 3,74
(Vietnam) porphyrite
Kurobe
Granite 5,0 1,6 1,0 2,6
(Japan)
Shimuke
Andesite 1,0 1,3 0,15 1,45
(Japan)
Alto
Rabagao Granite 11,0 1,4 1,9 3,3
(Portugal)
Bureya Granite
1,3 0,52 0,5 1,02
(Russia) weathered
104

1 2 3 4 5 6
Granite,
12,0 1,8 1,4 3,2
sound rock
Krasnoyarsk
(Russia) Granite,
tectonic 0,4 1,26 0,4 1,66
zone
Sandstone
15,8 1,96 1,65 3,61
Nurek sound
(Tadjikistan) Aleurolite
2,0 1,1 0,6 1,7
jointy

.. [62]
tg , 3.8
.

- (
);

3.8 ..
tg [62]
105


Goodman
R.E., Taylor R.L., Brekke T.L.
[62,69], 3.4.

3.4
[69]







1 . 25000,00 15000,00 5000,00


2 R 0,15 0,15 0,15


3 . 0,24 0,24 0,24


4 . 25,00 25,00 25,00 /3

-
5 tg tg 2,00 1,50 1,00
6 63,00 56,00 45,00
7 C 3,00 2,00 1,00

8 Kn 25000,00 25000,00 25000,0 /


9 Ks 10000,00 10000,00 10000,0 /


L..,
.,
(s, s1, s2 s3), :

(3.29)
106

(3.30)

(3.31)

(3.32)

1 2
, ;

m1 m2 - .

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
7, L..,
,

(s, s1, s2 s3).

(3.28)
(3.333.39)
,
3.6 3.7.

(3.33)

(3.34)

(3.35)

(3.36)

(3.37)
107

(3.38)

(3.39)

3.5 -

Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7

. .
L.. Ks Ks1 Ks2 Ks3
() ()


2,8 3,26 2,68 1,93 2,71 3,09 3.61

2,25 1,4 0,22 0,36 0,14 0,29 0.44


(%)
b0 2,737 3,307 2,686 1,937 2,714 3,099 3,626
b1 -0,86 0,331 0,196 0,071 0,098 0,104 0,118
b2 -0,45 -0,16 -0,114 0,76 0,523 0,592 0,689
b3 -1,47 -1,191 -0,757 0,264 0,377 0,438 0,516
b4 0,363 -0,237 -0,066 0,073 0,096 0,101 0,109
b5 0,313 0,058 0,044 0,008125 0,011 0,011 0,014
b6 0,213 0,243 0,129 0,008125 0,011 0,011 0,009375
b7 0,125 0,016 0,015 0,014 0,02 0,018 0,021
b8 -0,075 -0,024 -0,023 0,014 0,017 0,018 0,019
b9 0,625 0,131 0,09 0,00625 0,005 0,0075 0,00625
b10 -0,125 0,00375 0,0025 0,00125 0,000 0,000 0,00125
108

3.6

Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7

. .
L.. () Ks Ks1 Ks2 Ks3
()

1 7,3 4,54 3,57 1,34 1,87 2,12 2,47


2 2,9 1,92 1,9 1,84 2,59 2,96 3,47
3 4,6 3,89 3,11 2,06 2,87 3,26 3,8
4 3,2 1,81 1,81 2,58 3,61 4,13 4,82
5 5,2 5,21 3,97 1,43 1,99 2,26 2,63
6 1 2,51 2,22 1,98 2,78 3,17 3,7
7 3,5 4,64 3,58 2,2 3,07 3,47 4,04
8 1,3 2,45 2,18 2,78 3,88 4,41 5,14
9 3,9 2,74 2,42 1,94 2,71 3,1 3,62
10 2,3 3,4 2,82 2,08 2,91 3,3 3,85
11 3,4 3,47 2,81 1,58 2,21 2,53 2,96
12 2,7 3,26 2,65 2,31 3,24 3,69 4,32
13 4,2 4,71 3,54 1,7 2,37 2,7 3,15
14 1,7 2,39 2,09 2,19 3,08 3,52 4,12

, :
L..

. ,
,
, .
,
,



( 3.9).
109

()
..= .. =


5 2000
..=5000;
3 ..=2000
..=10000;
1 ..=2000
-15000 10000 15000 20000
()

3.9

,

,
( 3.10 3.11).




0 5000 10000 15000
0

.=4000
-10

.=10000
3 ..

-20 .=20000
-30

-40
()

3.10

110




0 5000 10000 15000
0
-5
-10 .= 4000
-15
.=10000
-20
3 ..

-25 .=20000
-30
-35
-40
-45
()

3.11



()

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000


0
-1
-2 ..=..=2000
-3,08
-3 -3,84
-3,69
-4 ..=5000;
-4,55 -4,31 ..=2000
-5
-6,31 -5,22
-6 ..=10000;
-7,11 ..=2000
-7
-8 -7,92
-9
()

3.12

111

3.13
.=2000

,
, -
.

,
.

3.2.2 -



,
,
112

,
.
-
1 (
), -
( 3.7),
.
m1= 0,4, m2=0,6

.

3.7 [62]

.= 103 tg () tg=tg+C/n
1 3,0 1,54 0,5 2,04
2 9,0 1,67 1,4 2,5
3 12,0 1,8 1,4 3,2

- ( 2.7) [25,
70, 72, 75]: =10000 , R=5 , R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45. -
3.5 [69] : =1 , =45.


,
2.5 [25]: 1 =0,02 =35, 2
=0 =35, 2 =0,7 =45, 3 =1,0 =50.
-,
3.14.
113

)
3.14 - ()
()
,
,

[25].

, , ,
,
114


, ,
.
.


-, Ks, =45
, Ks

5
4 1

3
2
2
3
1
0
1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5
, Qn

3.15

Ks 1, =0; =35
, Ks

2,1
1,9 1
1,7
1,5 2
1,3
1,1 3
0,9
0,7
0,5
1 1,5 2 2,5 3
, Qn

3.16 1

115

Ks 3, =0,7 ;
=45
, Ks
1
4,5
2
3,5
3
2,5

1,5

0,5
1 1,5 2 2,5 3
, Qn

3.17 3

Ks 4, =1,0 ;
, Ks

=50
10
9 1
8
2
7
6
3
5
4
3
1 1,5 2 2,5 3
, Qn

3.18 4

116


X, x
Umax=5,2
x.max=0,47
Vmax=4,6

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=3000 , tg=1,54, =0,5
tg=tg+C/n=2,04
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
y =0,7 =45, =1 =50.
y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,03
x

3.19 -

. :
Ks =4,31, 1 Ks1 =1,93,
3 Ks3 = 4,88 4 Ks4 = 9,27.
117


Umax=13 X, x
Vmax=5,6
x.max=0,81

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=3000 , tg=1,54, =0,5
tg=tg+C/n=2,04
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,

=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y
: =1 , =45
y.max=0,20
x

3.20 -
Qn=2
Qn=2
28,6
Vn=1,2 .
36 .
118

=0 =35,
.
=0,7 =45, =1 =50 .

, .
,
.
-
.

.

3.21 Qn=2

1 -
, 36 ; 2 - , 28,6
Vn=1,2 ; 3 - ; 4 -
; 5 - .
: Ks =1,92; 1 Ks1 =1,1; 3
Ks3 =2,65, 4 Ks4 =4,93.
119


Umax=2,5
X, x
Vmax=1,9
x.max=0,80
:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=9000 , tg=1,1, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=2,5
:
Y, y =0,02 =35, =0 =35,
y.max=0,04 =0,7 =45, =1 =50.
: =1 , =45

3.22 -
120

3.23

3 Vn=0,052 ;
.
: Ks =4,24, 1 Ks1 =1,91, 3 Ks3 =4,85,
4 Ks4 =9,11.

, ,
1 .
.
.
: Ks =4,24, 1 Ks1 =1,91, 3
Ks3 =4,85, 4 Ks4 =9,11.


(=0 =350)
,
,
.
,
(2 =-2,91 )
R=5 .
121

Umax=6,5
Vmax=2,2 X, x
x.max=0,81

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=9000 , tg=1,1, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=2,5
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,20
x

3.24 -
Qn=2


27,2 Vn=1 .

122

=0 =35 .
: Ks =1,87, 1 Ks1 =1,1, 3 Ks3 =2,63,
4 Ks4 =4,82.

- ,
,
.
,
.
,

.

3.25 Qn=2
27,2 Vn=1 ;

30 ;
=0 =35,
Ks =1,87.
123


Umax=10
X, x
Vmax=2,7
x.max=0,83

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=9000 , tg=1,1, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=2,5
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,17
x

3.26 -
Qn=2,1

31,7
Vn=1,7 ,
40 ,
124


, 3.27.

3.27 Qn=2,1

: Ks=1,75, 1 Ks1 =1,01, 3


Ks3 =2,53, 4 Ks4 =4,63;

.
125


Umax=2,1
X, x
Vmax=1,6
x.max=0,81

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,04
x

3.28 -

: Ks =4,17, 1Ks1=1,91,
3 Ks3 = 4,84, 4 Ks4 =9,09.
126

3.29
5,6 Vn=0,045 ;
.

5,6 (
100 ) Vn=0,045 ,

. ,
12000 , 2.

.

-
28,5 Vn=1 ,
33 ,
,
( ) .
Ks=1,87.
,
0,01 , 2/3
( 3.33).
Ks=1,75 .
127


Umax=5,6
X, x
Vmax=1,8
x.max=0,81

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,21
x

3.30 -
Qn=2
128

3.31 Qn=2
28,5 Vn=1 ;
33 ;
=0 =35.
: Ks=1,87, 1Ks1 =1,1, 2
Ks2 =2,63, 3 Ks3 =4,81.

Qn=2,1

.

3.323.34.
129


Umax=6,8
X, x
Vmax=1,8
x.max=0,83

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,19
x

3.32 -
Qn=2,1
130

3.33 Qn=2,1
( )

31,4 Vn=1,7 ;
35,8 ;

=0 =35; .
: Ks=1,75, 1 Ks1 =1,0, 2 Ks2 =2,52
3 Ks3 =4,62.

3.34

131

Umax ()

,
2,4
2,2
2
1,8
Qn
1,6
1,4
1,2
1
2,5 4,5 6,5 8,5 10,5
Umax ()

3.35

L.. ()
,

2,2
2

1,8

1,6 L..
Qn

1,4 ()
1,2
1
3 13 23 33
L.. ()

3.36 -


Qn2,
,

[3, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 36, 39, 43, 45, 49, 50, 68].

.
132

3.2.3 -


,
,
.
, .
-
- . 3 ,
,
(E=16000 ), ,
.

-

:

-

,
;

-
.


,
, , .. [27], ..
[49] [33] ,
3.37 3.38
133


-. 3.38 3.37

[33].

3.37 [27, 49]

3.38
[33, 49]
-

Qn=1,2 ,
134


. 3

, 1,4 1,8.

Qn=1,4


Umax=4 X, x
Vmax=1 x.max=0,84

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
Y, y =0,7 =45, =1 =50.
y.max=0,15 : =1 , =45

3.39 -
,
Qn=1,4
135

Qn=1,6


Umax=5,5
X, x
Vmax=1,2
x.max=0,82

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,14
x

3.40 -
,
Qn=1,6
1/3 (31,7 ).
: Ks=2,14 ( =1 tg=1) ,
136

1 Ks1=1,31 ( =0,02 tg=0,7).


,
, .

Qn=1,8

Umax=25
Vmax=1,3 X, x
x.max=0,83

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
Y, y =0,7 =45, =1 =50.
y.max=0,51 : =1 , =45
x

3.41 -
,
Qn=1,8
137

,
70,5 . : Ks=1,14 ,
1 Ks1 =0,95.
, ,
( 3.42).
,
.

3.42

L.. ()
, Qn

1,8

1,6
, L.. ()
1,4

1,2

1
3 23 43 63
L.. ()

3.43 -

138

Umax ()

,
2
1,8
1,6

Qn
1,4
1,2
1
2,5 12,5 22,5 32,5
Umax ()

3.44

3.2.4 -

100
1 ( 3.45),
, 3 ( 2.5)
[25], , :
=20000 , =0,2; R=15 , R.=0,8 , =1 , =45.

(3+0,1) [25], .

3.45
139

3,
[77]: =12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4 tg=tg+C/n=3,2.
3.463.55 .


Umax=1,8
X, x
Vmax=1,4
x.max=0,78

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,04
x

3.46 -
,
Qn=1,0
140

Qn=1,2


Umax=2,2
X, x
Vmax=1,4
x.max=0,81

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,07
x

3.47 -
,
Qn=1,2
141

Qn=1,4


Umax=2,7
X, x
Vmax=1,5
x.max=0,80

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,11
x

3.48 -
,
Qn=1,4
142

Qn=1,6


Umax=3,7
X, x
Vmax=1,5
x.max=0,82

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,13
x

3.49 -
,
Qn=1,6
143

Qn=1,8


Umax=17
X, x
Vmax=8,1
x.max=0,84

:
=10000 , R=5 ,
R=0,6 , =0,22, = 2,3 /3,
=0,5 , =45
:
=12000 , tg=1,8, =1,4
tg=tg+C/n=3,2
:
=0,02 =35, =0 =35,
=0,7 =45, =1 =50.
Y, y : =1 , =45
y.max=0,49
x

3.50 -
,
Qn=1,8
144

3.51 Qn=1,6

3.52
( Qn=1,8)
145

L.. ()

, Qn
1,8

1,6
, L.. ()
1,4

1,2

1
2 12 22 32 42 52
L.. ()

3.53

Umax ()
, Qn

1,8

1,6

1,4

1,2

1
1,8 6,8 11,8 16,8
Umax ()

3.54

146

L.. ()

, Qn
1,8

, L..
1,6 ()

1,4

1,2 , L..
()

1
2 12 22 32 42 52
L.. ()

3.55

Umax ()
, Qn

1,8

1,6

1,4

1,2

1
1,8 6,8 11,8 16,8
Umax ()

3.56

,

, ,
. -,

, .
147

3.3 3

1)
,
, ,
m1=0,4 m2=0,6. ,



;

2) , ,


.
,
,
.


;

3)
100 1 ,

-, .
,
. , =3000
,
Qn=2 28,6 .
148

=9000 Qn=2
27,2 ( 3 ).
=12000
5,6 Qn=2
28,5 ;

4)
(=0 =350)
,
,
.

, (2=-2,592,91 )
R=5 ;

5)
, Qn 2,
,

.
;

6)
(3+0,1)
,
,

.
149

4.

4.1


2067 .
.
U- , ,
,
130 .
,

( 4.1) .

15 =20000
=25000 .


,
.
, 0,85
( 4.2),
,
.


.
150

4.1

4.2



.
-


.
151

4.2


CRACK-
.
4.1 4,2
,
4.3, .

4.1 [62]


.= 103 tg () tg=tg+C/n

16,0 1,71 1,25 2,96
4.2 [25]

R , ,
R () (103) (/3)
() ()
(m2=0,85)
15 0,8 1 20 2,4 0,20
(m1=0,4 m2=0,6)
5 0,6 0,02 10 2,3 0,22
4.3 [69]



tg Kn Ks
()
(/) (/)

1,50 56 2 25000 10000

1 45 1 25000 10000

0,7 35 0,02 25000 10000

( 4.3 ), 2332 2210


.
(.. ) 8883.

152

(4 35 )
.
, ( 4.3 ),
.
,
,
.

)
4.3 -



3 [27, 33, 49] 3.33.7, ,
[49], ,
153


[33, 49], n f v S f u
[33, 49],
n f v ,

[33] , S f u
[33].

,
,
, ,

, ,
,
(tg=0,7, =0,02 ).


1 Vn=0,054 ,
=-2,20 , =-2,36 , 2=-4,48 ,
Ks =2,2 =0,4 tg=0,9
( 2.02.02-85 [45]) Ks =5,61 =2 tg=1,5 (
). 2
1,3 .
2,9
Vn=0,058 , =-
1,56 , =3,03 , 2=-4,49 ,
Ks=2,97 =0,4 tg=0,9 (
154

2.02.02-85 [45]) Ks=7,09 =2 tg=1,5, 30%


.
2,7
2,5 .


12,6
10,0 .

2=3,59 2=-4,01 . ,
. ,
,
.

Qn=1,2
10,9 (Vn=0,071 ),
2=-5,26 ,
Ks=1,73 (4,37)
2,9
1,3 .
6,0 (Vn=0,011 ),
2=-4,99 ,
Ks=2,47(5,85) 3,4
2,5 .
2=-4,2 2=-4,47 .

Qn=1,4
21,4 (Vn=0,31 ),
2=-6,26 ,
Ks=1,38(3,42) 4
1,3 .
155

8 (Vn=0,16 ),
, .
2=5,38 ,
Ks=2,12(4,99) 4,1
2,6 .
2=4,99(4,95) . ,
,
,
.

(
Qn=1,6) 1,7
36,3 (Vn=0,81 ),

2=-7,7 2=-6,11 .
Ks=1,1(2,65). 5,6
1,4 .
10
(Vn=0,24 ), 2=-5,43
2=5,45 . Ks=1,85(4,34)
4,8 2,6
.

,

, ..
. 4.4
Qn=1,6.
156

4.4 130
1
m2=0,85,
Qn=1,6
4.4 ,

.

Qn=1,8
54,8 (Vn=1,9 ).
2=-10,25 , 2=-8,03 .
Ks=0,88(2,0),
.. , .
( )
. 8
1,8 .


11,9 (Vn=0,3 ). 2=-6,41 ,
2=-5,95 .
( 1 ).
Ks=1,64(3,84).
. 5,5
2,7 .
157

, ( 4.5 4.6),
54,8 ,
(50,4%) .

-
,
( 4.6).

4.5 130
m2=0,85,
Qn=1,8

4.6

m2=0,85
158

,
,
( 4.7).

4.7 130
1, Qn=1,8

Qn=2
14,0 (Vn=0,42 ).
2=6,07 .
2=6,5 .
Ks=1,48(3,43). 6,2
2,8 . ,
.

Qn=2,2
16,0 .

.
. ,

.
159

4.8 4.9
,

(R.=5 )
.

4.8 130
1,

4.9
1
160

4.10
.

Umax ()

2,6
, Qn

2,4

2,2

2
1,8


1,6

1,4

1,2

1
2,5 12,5
22,5
32,5 Umax ()

4.10

4.3 4

1)
1

m2=0,85.
,


;
161

2) (
Qn=1,6) 1,7
36,3 (Vn=0,81 ),

2=-7,7 2=-6,11 .
Ks=1,1(2,65). 5,6
1,4 .
10
(Vn=0,24 ), 2=-5,43
2=5,45 . Ks=1,85(4,34)
4,8 2,6
;

3) Qn=1,8
, 54,8 ,
(50,4%) .

-
,
;

4)
Qn=2,2
,
.

, Qn=1,8.
162

1) ,
,
. ,
: ,
.

,
;

2)

(CSG),
.
,


.
, 100 ;

3)
, ,

.

,
,
.
163

4)
100 1 ,

-, .
,
. , =3000
,
Qn=2 28,6 .
=9000 Qn=2
27,2 ( 3 ).
=12000
5,6 Qn=2
28,5 ;

5)
(=0 =350)
,
,
.

, (2=-2,592,91 )
, ,
R=5 ;

6)
, Qn2,
,

164

.
;

7) 1


m2=0,85. ,


;

8) ,
,
.
,
1 .. 7182,53 ( 186 $/3),
1 ..
9100 3 90 $/.
1917,5 3, 38 %,

R=15
, .

:
,
,
,
-.
,
, .
165

1. ..
/ ...: 05.23.07 ., 2005.
.35-40. 114 .

2. ..
/ .. . .: , 1978. 131.

3. ..
// . 1995. 4. .45.

4. ..
/ .. //
. ..: ... ., 1979. .129. .27-31.

5. .. .// ..
// . ... ., 1980. .136. . 9-12.

6. .. ..
/ ... .: ,
1981. 136 .

7. A.A.
/ .... 05.23.07
., 1979. 22.

8. .., .. :
/ .. , .. . .: , 2001.
. 312-332

9. ..
// ..// .
... ., 1978. . 124. . 31-36.
166

10. .., ..
/ .. , .. . .: ,
1982. 240 .

11. .., .., .., .., ..,


.., .. ( ) /
.., ... .: , 1975. 232.

12. .. .,
/ ...: 05.23.07 ., 2001. - 45. 162 .

13. ..
/ ..//
, . 103. .: , 1975. . 9-13.

14. .., ..
/ ..//
, 1983. 2. . 19-25.

15. ..
/ ... .: , 1988. 120.

16. .., .., ..


//
.., .., ..// . ...
., 1978. . 237. . 38-42.

17. .., ..
/ ... : , 975. 264 .

18. .. .

/ ..// , 1978. 6. . 20-32.

19. .., .. ,
. ., , 1964.
167

20. .., .., .., ..



/ .., .., .., ..//
,1986. 11. .18-24

21. .., ..
/ .., .. //
, 1998. 1.

22. .. ,
/ ..//
. .: , 1984. . 167-170.

23. .., ..

/ .., ..// ,1988.
8. . 33-36.

24. .., ..

/ .., ..// , 1987.
6. . 36-42.

25. ..
: / .. . .: , 2009.

26. .. .
: . . .-
.: , 1998,- .39-43.

27. . .
/ ...:
05.23.07 ., 1994. 113. 203 .
168

28. .. / ... .:
, 1983. 241 .

29. ..
/ ..//
, 1973. 11. . 52-53.

30. .. / ... .:
, 1983. 123 .

31. .. -

/ ..//
.// .: , 1982. . 120-125.

32. .., .., ..


-
/ ..// .. , . 113. 1. : 1984. .
125-128.

33. . .
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34. .., .. ..
/ .., ..
, ..// . .:
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35. ..
/ .. //
. .: , 1984. . 42-49.

36. .., .., .., ..


-
169

/ ..// : .
. . ., 1986. . 64-66.

37. .., .., .., .., ..


-
/ .., .., .., ..
, ..// -86. .:
, 1989. . 46-49.

38. .., .., ..


/ ..,
..// . .:
, 1981. . 87-91.

39. .., .., .., .. -



/ , 1993.
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40. .. -
/ ..//
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41. .., .. -
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// , 1982. 2. . 16-22.

42. .., .., .., ..,


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43. .. .
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44. ..
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46. 2.06.01-86 .
. .: . 1987. 45 .

47. 2.06.06-85 . .:
. 1986. 62 .

48. .. / ...
/ .. . .: , 1988.

49. ..

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/
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52. .. / .. .
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53. .., .., ..


, ,
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54. .., ..
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