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Cummins Inc.

Service Manual

Service Manual Signature, ISX and QSX15 Volume 1


Box 3005
Columbus, Indiana, U.S.A., 47202 Signature, ISX and QSX15
Registered Office Volume 1
Cummins Ltd.
49 - 51 Gresham Road,
Staines,
Middlesex TW18 2BD,
England
Registration 573951 England

Copyright 2010
Cummins Inc.

Bulletin 3666239
Printed in U.S.A. 27-APRIL-2010 p41

302158_Cummins_Vol1.indd 1 5/11/10 9:35 AM


Service Manual
Signature, ISX, and QSX15
Volume 1

Copyright 2010 Bulletin 3666239


Cummins Inc. Printed 27-APRIL-2010
All rights reserved
Foreword
This manual contains instructions for troubleshooting and repairing this engine in the chassis, complete rebuild
procedures and specifications. Disassembly, cleaning, inspection, and assembly instructions are included. A listing
of accessory and component suppliers is located in Section M - Component Manufacturers. Suppliers can be
contacted directly for any information not covered in this manual.
Read and follow all safety instructions. Refer to the WARNING in the General Safety Instructions in Section i
- Introduction.
The manual is organized to guide a service technician through the logical steps of identifying and correcting problems
related to the engine. This manual does not cover vehicle or equipment problems. Consult the vehicle or equipment
manufacturer for repair procedures.
The repair procedures in this manual are based on the engine or component removed from chassis. Some rebuild
procedures require the use of special service tools. Make sure the correct tools are used as described in the
procedures.
When a specific brand name, number, or special tool is referenced in this manual, an equivalent product can be used
in place of the recommended item.
A series of specific service manuals (for example: Troubleshooting and Repair, Specifications, and Alternative Repair)
are available and can be ordered by Contacting your local area Cummins Regional office. A Cummins Regional office
listing is located in Service Literature (Section L).
Cummins Inc. encourages the user of this manual to report errors, omissions, and recommendations for improvement.
Please use the postage paid, pre-addressed Literature Survey Form in the back of this manual for communicating
your comments.
The specifications and rebuild information in this manual is based on the information in effect at the time of printing.
Cummins Inc. reserves the right to make any changes at any time without obligation. If differences are found between
your engine and the information in this manual, contact a Cummins Authorized Repair Location or call 1-800-DIESELS
(1-800-343-7357) toll free in the U.S. and Canada.
The latest technology and the highest quality components are used to manufacture Cummins engines. When
replacement parts are needed, we recommend using only genuine Cummins or ReCon exchange parts.
Table of Contents
Section

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. i

Engine and System Identification ............................................................................................................ E

Familiarization .......................................................................................................................................... F

Troubleshooting Symptoms ..................................................................................................................... TS

Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) .............................................................................................. TT

Complete Engine - Group 00 .................................................................................................................... 0

Engine Disassembly Group 00 ................................................................................................................. DS

Engine Assembly - Group 00 ................................................................................................................... AS

Cylinder Block - Group 01 ........................................................................................................................ 1

Back .......................................................................................................................................................... back


Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Section i - Introduction Page i-a

Section i - Introduction
Section Contents
Page
About the Manual ...............................................................................................................................................i-1
General Information...........................................................................................................................................i-1
Acronyms and Abbreviations ...........................................................................................................................i-15
General Information..........................................................................................................................................i-15
General Cleaning Instructions ......................................................................................................................... i-10
Abrasive Pads and Abrasive Paper...................................................................................................................i-10
Definition of Clean............................................................................................................................................i-10
Fuel System.....................................................................................................................................................i-13
Gasket Surfaces...............................................................................................................................................i-11
Plastic Bead Cleaning......................................................................................................................................i-12
Solvent and Acid Cleaning................................................................................................................................i-11
Steam Cleaning................................................................................................................................................i-12
General Repair Instructions ...............................................................................................................................i-8
General Information...........................................................................................................................................i-8
Welding on a Vehicle with an Electronic Controlled Fuel System........................................................................i-9
General Safety Instructions ...............................................................................................................................i-6
Important Safety Notice......................................................................................................................................i-6
How to Use the Manual ......................................................................................................................................i-2
General Information...........................................................................................................................................i-2
Illustrations .........................................................................................................................................................i-5
General Information...........................................................................................................................................i-5
Symbols ..............................................................................................................................................................i-4
General Information...........................................................................................................................................i-4
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This Page Left Intentionally Blank


Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] About the Manual
Section i - Introduction Page i-1

About the Manual


General Information
This Service Manual is intended to aid in determining the cause of engine related problems and to provide
recommended repair procedures. Additionally the manual is intended to aid mechanics in disassembly, inspecting
parts for reuse, rebuilding and assembly of components.
The manual is divided into sections. Each section is equivalent to a group used in Cummins' filmcard system. Some
sections contain reference numbers and procedure numbers. Reference numbers provide general information,
specifications, diagrams, and service tools where applicable. Procedure numbers are used to identify and reference
specific repair procedures for correcting the problem and describe specific rebuild procedures.
This manual does not contain fuel systems electronic troubleshooting. Use the troubleshooting trees in this manual,
if there are no electronic fault codes.
This manual is designed so the troubleshooting trees are used to locate the cause of an engine problem. The
troubleshooting trees then direct the user to the correct repair procedure. The repair procedures within a section are
in numerical order. However, the repair steps within a given procedure are organized in the order the repair must be
performed regardless of the numerical order of the steps. The user must use the contents pages or the index at the
back of the manual to locate specific topics when not using the troubleshooting trees.
How to Use the Manual Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-2 Section i - Introduction

How to Use the Manual


General Information
The troubleshooting and repair section of this manual is organized to provide an easy system installation and flow
from problem identification to problem correction.
System Installation
The installation guidelines section has been designed to provide instructions for installing the system. A technician
should read the instruction, learn the intent of the step, and install the component in a fashion that will comply to the
vehicle's configuration. Each deviation from the specific instructions provided in this procedure should be noted.
Refer to the OEM service manual for OEM specifications.
A list of troubleshooting symptoms containing the most common engine problems is in the Troubleshooting Symptoms,
Section (TS). The manual is designed to use the Troubleshooting Symptoms as a guide to locating the problem and
directing the end user to the correct procedure for making the repair. Complete the following steps to locate and
correct the problem.

(Step 1) Locate the symptom on the Section Contents pages of


Section TS.
Reference to the page number where the
Troubleshooting Symptom Tree is found is made to the
right of the symptom tree title.
(Step 2) The left column of boxes in the Troubleshooting Symptom
Charts indicates a probable cause of the problem,
starting at the top with the simplest and easiest to repair,
and continuing downward to the most difficult.
The right column of boxes provides a brief description of
the corrective action with a reference number to the
correct procedure used to make the repair.
(Step 3) Locate the probable cause in the left column then turn to
the procedure referenced in the right column.
(Step 4) The Troubleshooting Symptom Charts are based on the
following assumptions:
The engine has been installed according to the
manufacturer's specifications.
The easiest repairs are done first.
"Generic" solutions to cover problems with the most
common applications and Original Equipment
Manufacturer (OEM).
The disassemble/assemble sections of this manual is divided into the same group system used for previous manuals
and the Cummins' filmcard system.
Section 00 is organized into a logical sequence of engine disassemble/assemble, all other sections are in numerical
sequence. Refer to the Table of Contents at the front of the book to determine the section that details the desired
information.
Each section contains the following in sequence:
Table of Contents
Required Service Tool Listings
General Information containing the basic service, maintenance, design and revision information necessary to assist
in the rebuild of an engine or a component
Procedure instructions for the disassembly, inspection, maintenance, and assembly that can be required to rebuild
an engine; additional procedures that are not necessary during every rebuild, but can be necessary, are included.
These procedures depend on the length of time an engine has been in service and the conditions of the parts.
All the procedures are identified with a name and a number. Each digit in the procedure number has a specific
meaning.
The first three digits of the number refer to the specific section that the procedure can be found within the manual. In
this example, 001 represents Section 01 Cylinder Block. This number will range from 000 to 022.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] How to Use the Manual
Section i - Introduction Page i-3

The second three digits of the number are unique and refer to a specific subject. In this example, 028 represents
Cylinder Liner. This number will range from 001 to 999.
Refer to Section V for specifications recommended by Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for your engine. Specifications
and torque values for each engine system are given in that section.
NOTE: Discharge of oil or oily water into or upon the water is a direct violation of today's laws. Violators are subject
to a penalty of various monetary charges. Dispose of these substances in accordance with standard set by the EPA.
Symbols Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-4 Section i - Introduction

Symbols
General Information
The following symbols have been used in this manual to help communicate the intent of the instructions. When one
of the symbols appears, it conveys the meaning defined below:
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Illustrations
Section i - Introduction Page i-5

Illustrations
General Information
Some of the illustrations throughout this manual are
generic and will not look exactly like the engine or parts
used in your application. The illustrations can contain
symbols to indicate an action required and an acceptable
or not acceptable condition.

The illustrations are intended to show repair or


replacement procedures. The procedure will be the same
for all applications, although the illustration can differ.
General Safety Instructions Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-6 Section i - Introduction

General Safety Instructions


Important Safety Notice
WARNING
Improper practices, carelessness, or ignoring the warnings can cause burns, cuts, mutilation, asphyxiation
or other personal injury or death.
Read and understand all of the safety precautions and warnings before performing any repair. This list contains the
general safety precautions that must be followed to provide personal safety. Special safety precautions are included
in the procedures when they apply.
Work in an area surrounding the product that is dry, well lit, ventilated, free from clutter, loose tools, parts, ignition
sources and hazardous substances. Be aware of hazardous conditions that can exist.
Always wear protective glasses and protective shoes when working.
Rotating parts can cause cuts, mutilation or strangulation.
Do not wear loose-fitting or torn clothing. Remove all jewelry when working.
Disconnect the battery (negative [-] cable first) and discharge any capacitors before beginning any repair work.
Disconnect the air starting motor if equipped to prevent accidental engine starting. Put a "Do Not Operate" tag in
the operator's compartment or on the controls.
Use ONLY the proper engine barring techniques for manually rotating the engine. Do not attempt to rotate the
crankshaft by pulling or prying on the fan. This practice can cause serious personal injury, property damage, or
damage to the fan blade(s) causing premature fan failure.
If an engine has been operating and the coolant is hot, allow the engine to cool before slowly loosening the filler
cap to relieve the pressure from the cooling system.
Always use blocks or proper stands to support the product before performing any service work. Do not work on
anything that is supported ONLY by lifting jacks or a hoist.
Relieve all pressure in the air, oil, fuel, and cooling systems before any lines, fittings, or related items are removed
or disconnected. Be alert for possible pressure when disconnecting any device from a system that utilizes pressure.
Do not check for pressure leaks with your hand. High pressure oil or fuel can cause personal injury.
To reduce the possibility of suffocation and frostbite, wear protective clothing and ONLY disconnect liquid
refrigerant (Freon) lines in a well ventilated area. To protect the environment, liquid refrigerant systems must be
properly emptied and filled using equipment that prevents the release of refrigerant gas (fluorocarbons) into the
atmosphere. Federal law requires capturing and recycling refrigerant.
To reduce the possibility of personal injury, use a hoist or get assistance when lifting components that weigh 23
kg [50 lb] or more. Make sure all lifting devices such as chains, hooks, or slings are in good condition and are of
the correct capacity. Make sure hooks are positioned correctly. Always use a spreader bar when necessary. The
lifting hooks must not be side-loaded.
Corrosion inhibitor, a component of SCA and lubricating oil, contains alkali. Do not get the substance in eyes.
Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with skin. Do not swallow internally. In case of contact, immediately wash
skin with soap and water. In case of contact, immediately flood eyes with large amounts of water for a minimum
of 15 minutes. IMMEDIATELY CALL A PHYSICIAN. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
Naptha and Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) are flammable materials and must be used with caution. Follow the
manufacturer's instructions to provide complete safety when using these materials. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF
CHILDREN.
To reduce the possibility of burns, be alert for hot parts on products that have just been turned off, exhaust gas
flow, and hot fluids in lines, tubes, and compartments.
Always use tools that are in good condition. Make sure you understand how to use the tools before performing
any service work. Use ONLY genuine Cummins or Cummins ReCon replacement parts.
Always use the same fastener part number (or equivalent) when replacing fasteners. Do not use a fastener of
lesser quality if replacements are necessary.
When necessary, the removal and replacement of any guards covering rotating components, drives, and/or belts
should only be carried out be a trained technician. Before removing any guards the engine must be turned off and
any starting mechanisms must be isolated. All fasteners must be replaced on re-fitting the guards.
Do not perform any repair when fatigued or after consuming alcohol or drugs that can impair your functioning.
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Section i - Introduction Page i-7

Some state and federal agencies in the United States of America have determined that used engine oil can be
carcinogenic and can cause reproductive toxicity. Avoid inhalation of vapors, ingestion, and prolonged contact
with used engine oil.
Do not connect the jumper starting or battery charging cables to any ignition or governor control wiring. This can
cause electrical damage to the ignition or governor.
Always torque fasteners and fuel connections to the required specifications. Overtightening or undertightening
can allow leakage. This is critical to the natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas fuel and air systems.
Always test for fuel leaks as instructed, as odorant can fade.
Close the manual fuel valves prior to performing maintenance and repairs, and when storing the vehicle inside.
Coolant is toxic. If not reused, dispose of in accordance with local environmental regulations.
The catalyst reagent contains urea. Do not get the substance in your eyes. In case of contact, immediately flood
eyes with large amounts of water for a minimum of 15 minutes. Avoid prolonged contact with skin. In case of
contact, immediately wash skin with soap and water. Do not swallow internally. In the event the catalyst reagent
is ingested, contact a physician immediately.
The catalyst substrate contains Vanadium Pentoxide. Vanadium Pentoxide has been determined by the State of
California to cause cancer. Always wear protective gloves and eye protection when handling the catalyst assembly.
Do not get the catalyst material in your eyes. In Case of contact, immediately flood eyes with large amounts of
water for a minimum of 15 minutes. Avoid prolonged contact with skin. In case of contact, immediately wash skin
with soap and water.
The Catalyst substrate contains Vanadium Pentoxide. Vanadium Pentoxide has been determined by the State of
California to cause cancer. In the event the catalyst is being replaced, dispose of in accordance with local
regulations.
California Proposition 65 Warning - Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of
California to cause cancer, birth defects, and other reproductive harm.
General Repair Instructions Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-8 Section i - Introduction

General Repair Instructions


General Information
This engine incorporates the latest technology at the time it was manufactured; yet, it is designed to be repaired using
normal repair practices performed to quality standards.

CAUTION
Cummins Inc. does not recommend or authorize any modifications or repairs to engines or components
except for those detailed in Cummins Service Information. In particular, unauthorized repair to safety-related
components can cause personal injury or death. Below is a partial listing of components classified as safety-
related:
1 Air Compressor
2 Air Controls
3 Air Shutoff Assemblies
4 Balance Weights
5 Cooling Fan
6 Fan Hub Assembly
7 Fan Mounting Bracket(s)
8 Fan Mounting Capscrews
9 Fan Hub Spindle
10 Flywheel
11 Flywheel Crankshaft Adapter
12 Flywheel Mounting Capscrews
13 Fuel Shutoff Assemblies
14 Fuel Supply Tubes
15 Lifting Brackets
16 Throttle Controls
17 Turbocharger Compressor Casing
18 Turbocharger Oil Drain Line(s)
19 Turbocharger Oil Supply Line(s)
20 Turbocharger Turbine Casing
21 Vibration Damper Mounting Capscrews

Follow all safety instructions noted in the procedures


- Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for cleaning solvents and other substances used during the repair of
the engine. Some solvents and used engine oil have been identified by government agencies as toxic or
carcinogenic. Avoid excessive breathing, ingestion and contact with such substances. Always use good safety
practices with tools and equipment.
Provide a clean environment and follow the cleaning instructions specified in the procedures
- The engine and its components must be kept clean during any repair. Contamination of the engine or components
will cause premature wear.
Perform the inspections specified in the procedures
Replace all components or assemblies which are damaged or worn beyond the specifications
Use genuine Cummins new or ReCon service parts and assemblies
- The assembly instructions have been written to use again as many components and assemblies as possible. When
it is necessary to replace a component or assembly, the procedure is based on the use of new Cummins or
Cummins ReCon components. All of the repair services described in this manual are available from all Cummins
Distributors and most Dealer locations.
Follow the specified disassembly and assembly procedures to reduce the possibility of damage to the components
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] General Repair Instructions
Section i - Introduction Page i-9

Welding on a Vehicle with an Electronic Controlled Fuel System


CAUTION
Disconnect both the positive (+) and negative (-) battery cables from the battery before welding on the
vehicle. Attach the welder ground cable no more than 0.61 meters [2 feet] from the part being welded. Do not
connect the ground cable of the welder to the ECM cooling plate or ECM. Welding on the engine or engine
mounted components is not recommended or damage to the engine or components can result.
General Cleaning Instructions Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-10 Section i - Introduction

General Cleaning Instructions


Definition of Clean
Parts must be free of debris that can contaminate any engine system. This does not necessarily mean they have to
appear as new.
Sanding gasket surfaces until the factory machining marks are disturbed adds no value and is often harmful to forming
a seal. It is important to maintain surface finish and flatness tolerances to form a quality sealing surface. Gaskets are
designed to fill small voids in the specified surface finish.
Sanding gasket surfaces where edge-molded gaskets are used is most often unnecessary. Edge-molded gaskets are
those metal carriers with sealing material bonded to the edges of the gasket to seal while the metal portion forms a
metal to metal joint for stability. Any of the small amounts of sealing material that can stick to the parts are better
removed with a blunt-edged scraper on the spots rather than spending time polishing the whole surface with an air
sander or disc.
For those gaskets that do not have the edge molding, nearly all have a material that contains release agents to prevent
sticking. Certainly this is not to say that some gaskets are not difficult to remove because the gasket has been in
place a long time, has been overheated or the purpose of the release agent has been defeated by the application of
some sealant. The object however is just to remove the gasket without damaging the surfaces of the mating parts
without contaminating the engine (don't let the little bits fall where they can not be removed).
Bead blasting piston crowns until the dark stain is removed is unnecessary. All that is required is to remove the carbon
build-up above the top ring and in the ring grooves. There is more information on bead blasting and piston cleaning
later in this document.
Cummins Inc. does not recommend sanding or grinding the carbon ring at the top of cylinder liners until clean metal
is visible. The liner will be ruined and any signs of a problem at the top ring reversal point (like a dust-out) will be
destroyed. It is necessary to remove the carbon ring to provide for easier removal of the piston assembly. A medium
bristle, high quality, steel wire wheel that is rated above the rpm of the power tool being used will be just as quick and
there will be less damage. Yes, one must look carefully for broken wires after the piston is removed but the wires are
more visible and can be attracted by a magnet.
Oil on parts that have been removed from the engine will attract dirt in the air. The dirt will adhere to the oil. If possible,
leave the old oil on the part until it is ready to be cleaned, inspected and installed, and then clean it off along with any
attracted dirt. If the part is cleaned then left exposed it can have to be cleaned again before installation. Make sure
parts are lubricated with clean oil before installation. They do not need to be oiled all over but do need oil between
moving parts (or a good lube system priming process conducted before cranking the engine).
Bead blasting parts to remove exterior paint is also usually unnecessary. The part will most likely be painted again
so all that needs happen is remove any loose paint.
Abrasive Pads and Abrasive Paper
The keyword here is "abrasive". There is no part of an engine designed to withstand abrasion. That is they are all
supposed to lock together or slide across each other. Abrasives and dirt particles will degrade both functions.

WARNING
Abrasive material must be kept out of or removed from oil passages and parts wear points. Abrasive material
in oil passages can cause bearing and bushing failures that can progress to major component damage beyond
reuse. This is particularly true of main and rod bearings.
Cummins Inc. does not recommend the use of emery cloth or sand paper on any part of an assembled engine or
component including but not limited to removing the carbon ridge from cylinder liners or to clean block decks or
counterbores.
Great care must be taken when using abrasive products to clean engine parts, particularly on partially assembled
engines. Abrasive cleaning products come in many forms and sizes. All of them contain aluminum oxide particles,
silicon carbide, or sand or some other similar hard material. These particles are harder than most of the parts in the
engine. Since they are harder, if they are pressed against softer material they will either damage the material or
become embedded in it. These materials fall off the holding media as the product is used. If the products are used
with power equipment the particles are thrown about the engine. If the particles fall between two moving parts, damage
to the moving parts is likely.
If particles that are smaller than the clearance between the parts while they are at rest (engine stopped), but larger
than the running clearance then damage will occur when the parts move relative to each other (engine started). While
the engine is running and there is oil pressure, particles that are smaller than the bearing clearance are likely to pass
between the parts without damage and be trapped in the oil filter. However, particles larger than the bearing clearance
will remove material from one part and can become embedded in one of the parts. Once embedded in one part it will
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] General Cleaning Instructions
Section i - Introduction Page i-11

abrade the other part until contact is no longer being made between the two parts. If the damage sufficiently degrades
the oil film, the two parts will come into contact resulting in early wear-out or failure from lack of effective lubrication.
Abrasive particles can fly about during cleaning it is very important to block these particles from entering the engine
as much as possible. This is particularly true of lubricating oil ports and oil drilling holes, especially those located
downstream of the lubricating oil filters. Plug the holes instead of trying to blow the abrasive particles and debris with
compressed air because the debris is often simply blown further into the oil drilling.
All old gasket material must be removed from the parts gasket surfaces. However, it is not necessary to clean and
polish the gasket surface until the machining marks are erased. Excessive sanding or buffing can damage the gasket
surface. Many newer gaskets are of the edge molded type (a steel carrier with a sealing member bonded to the steel).
What little sealing material that can adhere is best removed with a blunt-edged scraper or putty knife. Cleaning gasket
surfaces where an edge-molded gasket is used with abrasive pads or paper is usually a waste of time.

WARNING
Excessive sanding or grinding the carbon ring from the top of the cylinder liners can damage the liner beyond
reuse. The surface finish will be damaged and abrasive particles can be forced into the liner material which
can cause early cylinder wear-out or piston ring failures.
Tape off or plug all openings to any component interior before using abrasive pads or wire brushes. If really necessary
because of time to use a power tool with abrasive pads, tape the oil drillings closed or use plug and clean as much
of the surface as possible with the tool but clean around the oil hole/opening by hand so as to prevent contamination
of the drilling. Then remove the tape or plug and clean the remaining area carefully and without the tool. DO NOT use
compressed air to blow the debris out of oil drilling on an assembled engine! More likely than not, the debris can be
blown further into the drilling. Using compressed air is fine if both ends of the drilling are open but that is rarely the
case when dealing with an assembled engine.
Gasket Surfaces
The object of cleaning gasket surfaces is to remove any gasket material, not refinish the gasket surface of the part.
Cummins Inc. does not recommend any specific brand of liquid gasket remover. If a liquid gasket remover is used,
check the directions to make sure the material being cleaned will not be harmed.
Air powered gasket scrapers can save time but care must be taken to not damage the surface. The angled part of
the scraper must be against the gasket surface to prevent the blade from digging into the surface. Using air powered
gasket scrapers on parts made of soft materials takes skill and care to prevent damage.
Do not scrape or brush across the gasket surface if at all possible.
Solvent and Acid Cleaning
Several solvent and acid-type cleaners can be used to clean the disassembled engine parts (other than pistons. See
Below). Experience has shown that the best results can be obtained using a cleaner that can be heated to 90 to 95
Celsius (180 to 200 Fahrenheit). Kerosene emulsion based cleaners have different temperature specifications, see
below. A cleaning tank that provides a constant mixing and filtering of the cleaning solution will give the best results.
Cummins Inc. does not recommend any specific cleaners. Always follow the cleaner manufacturer's instructions.
Remove all the gasket material, o-rings, and the deposits of sludge, carbon, etc., with a wire brush or scraper before
putting the parts in a cleaning tank. Be careful not to damage any gasket surfaces. When possible, steam clean the
parts before putting them in the cleaning tank.

WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials for cleaning, follow the manufacturers recommendations
for use. Wear goggles and protective clothing to reduce the possibility of personal injury.
Experience has shown that kerosene emulsion based cleaners perform the best to clean pistons. These cleaners
should not be heated to temperature in excess of 77C (170F). The solution begins to break down at temperatures
in excess of 82C (180F) and will be less effective.
Do not use solutions composed mainly of chlorinated hydrocarbons with cresols, phenols and/or cresylic components.
They often do not do a good job of removing deposits from the ring groove and are costly to dispose of properly.
Solutions with a pH above approximately 9.5 will cause aluminum to turn black; therefore do not use high alkaline
solutions.
Chemicals with a pH above 7.0 are considered alkaline and those below 7.0 are acidic. As you move further away
from the neutral 7.0, the chemicals become highly alkaline or highly acidic.
Remove all the gasket material, o-rings, and the deposits of sludge, carbon, etc., with a wire brush or scraper before
putting the parts in a cleaning tank. Be careful to not damage any gasket surfaces. When possible use hot high
General Cleaning Instructions Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-12 Section i - Introduction

pressure water or steam clean the parts before putting them in the cleaning tank. Removing the heaviest dirt before
placing in the tank will allow the cleaner to work more effectively and the cleaning agent will last longer.
Rinse all the parts in hot water after cleaning. Dry completely with compressed air. Blow the rinse water from all the
capscrew holes and the oil drillings.
If the parts are not to be used immediately after cleaning, dip them in a suitable rust proofing compound. The rust
proofing compound must be removed from the parts before assembly or installation on the engine.
Steam Cleaning
Steam cleaning can be used to remove all types of dirt that can contaminate the cleaning tank. It is a good method
for cleaning the oil drillings and coolant passages

WARNING
When using a steam cleaner, wear safety glasses or a face shield, as well as protective clothing. Hot steam
can cause serious personal injury.
Do not steam clean the following components:
Electrical Components
Wiring Harnesses
Injectors
Fuel Pump
Belts and Hoses
Bearings (ball or taper roller)
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
ECM Connectors
Dosing Control Unit
NOx Sensor.
Plastic Bead Cleaning
Cummins Inc. does not recommend the use of glass bead blast or walnut shell media on any engine part. Cummins
Inc. recommends using only plastic bead media, Part Number 3822735 or equivalent on any engine part. Never use
sand as a blast media to clean engine parts. Glass and walnut shell media when not used to the media manufacturer's
recommendations can cause excess dust and can embed in engine parts that can result in premature failure of
components through abrasive wear.
Plastic bead cleaning can be used on many engine components to remove carbon deposits. The cleaning process is
controlled by the use of plastic beads, the operating pressure and cleaning time.

CAUTION
Do not use bead blasting cleaning methods on aluminum pistons skirts or the pin bores in any piston, piston
skirt or piston crown. Small particles of the media will embed in the aluminum or other soft metal and result
in premature wear of the cylinder liner, piston rings, pins and pin bores. Valves, turbocharger shafts, etc.,
can also be damaged. Follow the cleaning directions listed in the procedures.

CAUTION
Do not contaminate wash tanks and tank type solvent cleaners with the foreign material and plastic beads.
Remove the foreign material and plastic beads with compressed air, hot high pressure water or steam before
placing them in tanks or cleaners. The foreign material and plastic beads can contaminate the tank and any
other engine parts cleaned in the tank. Contaminated parts may cause failures from abrasive wear.
Plastic bead blasting media, Part Number 3822735, can be used to clean all piston ring grooves. Do not sure any
bead blasting media on piston pin bores or aluminum skirts.
Follow the equipment manufacturer's cleaning instructions. Make sure to adjust the air pressure in the blasting
machine to the bead manufacturer's recommendations. Turning up the pressure can move material on the part and
cause the plastic bead media to wear out more quickly. The following guidelines can be used to adapt to
manufacturer's instructions:
1. Bead size: U.S. size Number 16 20 for piston cleaning with plastic bead media, Part Number 3822735
2. Operating Pressure 270 kPa (40 psi) for piston cleaning. Pressure should not cause beads to break.
3. Steam clean or wash the parts with solvent to remove all of the foreign material and plastic beads after cleaning.
Rinse with hot water. Dry with compressed air.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] General Cleaning Instructions
Section i - Introduction Page i-13

CAUTION
The bead blasting operation must not disturb the metal surface. If the metal surface is disturbed the engine
can be damaged due to increased parts clearance or inadequate surface finish on parts that move against
other parts.
When cleaning pistons, it is not necessary to remove all the dark stain from the piston. All that is necessary is to
remove the carbon on the rim and in the ring grooves. This is best done by directing the blast across the part as
opposed to straight at the part. If the machining marks are disturbed by the blasting process, then the pressure is too
high or the blast is being held on one spot too long. The blast operation must not disturb the metal surface.
Walnut shell bead blast material is sometimes used to clean ferrous metals (iron and steel). Walnut shell blasting
produces a great amount of dust particularly when the pressure if the air pressure on the blasting machine is increased
above media manufacturer's recommendation. Cummins Inc. recommends not using walnut shell media to clean
engine parts due to the risk media embedment and subsequent contamination of the engine.
Cummins Inc. now recommends glass bead media NOT used to clean any engine parts. Glass media is too easily
embedded into the material particularly in soft materials and when air pressures greater than media manufacturer's
recommend are used. The glass is an abrasive so when it is in a moving part, that part is abrading all the parts in
contact with it. When higher pressures are used the media is broken and forms a dust of a very small size that floats
easily in the air. This dust is very hard to control in the shop, particularly if only compressed air (and not hot water)
is used to blow the media after it is removed from the blasting cabinet (blowing the part off inside the cabinet may
remove large accumulations but never removes all the media).
Bead blasting is best used on stubborn dirt/carbon build-up that has not been removed by first steam/higher pressure
washing then washing in a heated wash tank. This is particularly true of pistons. Steam and soak the pistons first then
use the plastic bead method to safely remove the carbon remaining in the grooves (instead of running the risk of
damaging the surface finish of the groove with a wire wheel or end of a broken piston ring. Make sure the parts are
dry and oil free before bead blasting to prevent clogging the return on the blasting machine.
Always direct the bead blaster nozzle "across" rather than directly at the part. This allows the bead to get under the
unwanted material. Keep the nozzle moving rather than hold on one place. Keeping the nozzle directed at one-place
too long causes the metal to heat up and be moved around. Remember that the spray is not just hitting the dirt or
carbon. If the machining marks on the piston groove or rim have been disturbed then there has not been enough
movement of the nozzle and/or the air pressure is too high.
Never bead blast valve stems. Tape or use a sleeve to protect the stems during bead blasting. Direct the nozzle across
the seat surface and radius rather than straight at them. The object is to remove any carbon build up and continuing
to blast to remove the stain is a waste of time.
Fuel System
When servicing any fuel system components, which can be exposed to potential contaminants, prior to disassembly,
clean the fittings, mounting hardware, and the area around the component to be removed. If the surrounding areas
are not cleaned, dirt or contaminants can be introduced into the fuel system.
The internal drillings of some injectors are extremely small and susceptible to plugging from contamination. Some
fuel injection systems can operate at very high pressures. High pressure fuel can convert simple particles of dirt and
rust into a highly abrasive contaminant that can damage the high pressure pumping components and fuel injectors.
Electrical contact cleaner can be used if steam cleaning tools are not available. Use electrical contact cleaner rather
than compressed air, to wash dirt and debris away from fuel system fittings. Diesel fuel on exposed fuel system parts
attracts airborne contaminants.
Choose lint free towels for fuel system work.
Cap and plug fuel lines, fittings, and ports whenever the fuel system is opened. Rust, dirt, and paint can enter the
fuel system whenever a fuel line or other component is loosened or removed from the engine. In many instances, a
good practice is to loosen a line or fitting to break the rust and paint loose, and then clean off the loosened material.
When removing fuel lines or fittings from a new or newly-painted engine, make sure to remove loose paint flakes/
chips that can be created when a wrench contacts painted line nuts or fittings, or when quick disconnect fittings are
removed.
Fuel filters are rated in microns. The word micron is the abbreviation for a micrometer, or one millionth of a meter.
The micron rating is the size of the smallest particles that will be captured by the filter media. As a reference, a human
hair is 0.003 mm [3/1000 in] in diameter. One micron measures 0.00004 mm [4/100,000 in]. The contaminants being
filtered out are smaller than can be seen with the human eye, a magnifying glass, or a low powered microscope.
The tools used for fuel system troubleshooting and repair are to be cleaned regularly to avoid contamination. Like fuel
system parts, tools that are coated with oil or fuel attract airborne contaminants. Remember the following points
regarding your fuel system tools:
General Cleaning Instructions Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-14 Section i - Introduction

Fuel system tools are to be kept as clean as possible.


Clean and dry the tools before returning them to the tool box.
If possible, store fuel system tools in sealed containers.
Make sure fuel system tools are clean before use.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Acronyms and Abbreviations
Section i - Introduction Page i-15

Acronyms and Abbreviations


General Information
The following list contains some of the acronyms and abbreviations used in this manual.
API American Petroleum Institute
ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials
BTU British Thermal Unit
BTDC Before Top Dead Center
C Celsius
CO Carbon Monoxide
CCA Cold Cranking Amperes
CARB California Air Resources Board
C.I.B. Customer Interface Box
C.I.D. Cubic Inch Displacement
CNG Compressed Natural Gas
CPL Control Parts List
cSt Centistokes
DEF Diesel Exhaust Fluid
DOC Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
ECM Electronic Control Module
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
F Fahrenheit
ft-lb Foot-Pound Force
FMI Failure Mode Indentifier
GVW Gross Vehicle Weight
Hg Mercury
hp Horsepower
H2O Water
inHg Inches of Mercury
in H20 Inches of Water
ICM Ignition Control Module
km/l Kilometers per Liter
kPa Kilopascal
LNG Liquid Natural Gas
LPG Liquified Petroleum Gas
LTA Low Temperature Aftercooling
MIL Malfunction Indicator Lamp
MPa Megapascal
mph Miles Per Hour
mpq Miles Per Quart
Nm Newton-meter
NOx Mono-Nitrogen Oxides
NG Natural Gas
OBD On-Board Diagnostics
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
PID Parameter Identification Descriptions
ppm Parts Per Million
Acronyms and Abbreviations Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page i-16 Section i - Introduction

psi Pounds Per Square Inch


PTO Power Takeoff
RGT Rear Gear Train
rpm Revolutions Per Minute
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SCA Supplemental Coolant Additive
SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction
STC Step Timing Control
SID Subsystem Identification Descriptions
VDC Volts of Direct Current
VS Variable Speed
VSS Vehicle Speed Sensor
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-a

Section E - Engine and System Identification


Section Contents
Page
Engine Diagrams ...............................................................................................................................................E-3
Engine Views....................................................................................................................................................E-3
Automotive with CM870.................................................................................................................................E-4
Automotive With CM871.................................................................................................................................E-7
Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570..............................................................................E-11
Engine Identification .........................................................................................................................................E-1
ECM Dataplate.................................................................................................................................................E-1
Automotive with CM870 and CM871...............................................................................................................E-1
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570......................................................E-1
Power Generation..........................................................................................................................................E-2
Engine Dataplate..............................................................................................................................................E-1
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-b Section E - Engine and System Identification

This Page Left Intentionally Blank


Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Identification
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-1

Engine Identification
Engine Dataplate

The engine dataplate, located on top of the rocker lever cover, provides the model identification and other important
data about the engine.
Have the following engine data available when communicating with a Cummins Authorized Repair Location. The
data on the dataplate are mandatory when sourcing service parts:
1. Engine serial number (ESN)
2. Control parts list
3. Model
4. Advertised horsepower and rpm.
ECM Dataplate
Automotive with CM870 and CM871
The electronic control module (ECM) dataplate is located
on the front of the ECM.
The abbreviations on the dataplate are explained as
follows:
P/N = part number
S/N = serial number
D/C = date code.

Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power


Generation without CM570
The electronic control module (ECM) dataplate is located
on the front of the ECM.
The abbreviations on the dataplate are explained as
follows:
P/N = part number
S/N = serial number
D/C = date code.
Engine Identification Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-2 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Power Generation
The electronic control module (ECM) dataplate is located
on the front of the ECM.
The abbreviations on the dataplate are explained as
follows:
P/N = part number
S/N = serial number
D/C = date code.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-3

Engine Diagrams
Engine Views
The following illustrations show the location of the major external engine components, filters, and other service and
maintenance points. Some external components will be at different locations for different engine models.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-4 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Automotive with CM870

ISX Automotive with CM870 - Left Side View


1. ECM cooling plate
2. ECM
3. EGR mixer
4. Intake manifold air temperature sensor
5. Fuel pump
6. Intake manifold pressure sensor
7. EGR differential pressure sensor mounting location
8. Fuel lift pump
9. EGR connection tube
10. Recirculated exhaust gas temperature sensor ( not shown)
11. Starter
12. Fuel filter
13. Lubricating oil dipstick
14. Centinel oil control valve
15. Turbocharger control shutoff valve filter
16. Engine speed sensor
17. Air compressor
18. Fan hub
19. Crankcase breather tube.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-5

Automotive with CM870

ISX Automotive with CM870 - Right Side View


1. Variable geometry turbocharger
2. Variable geometry actuator
3. Turbocharger speed sensor ( not shown)
4. EGR valve
5. Exhaust gas pressure sensor mounting location
6. Thermostat housing
7. Turbocharger control valve
8. Refrigerant compressor
9. Alternator
10. Turbocharger oil supply
11. Water pump
12. Coolant filter
13. Turbocharger oil drain
14. Optional dipstick locations
15. Lubricating oil drain
16. Combination full-flow/bypass lubricating oil filter
17. Flywheel housing
18. Lubricating oil cooler assembly
19. EGR cooler
20. Exhaust manifold.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-6 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Automotive with CM870

ISX Automotive with CM870 - Front View


1. Refrigerant drive belt
2. EGR mixer
3. Crankcase breather tube
4. Oil fill
5. Water pump drive belt
6. Vibration damper
7. Water pump
8. Belt tensioner, water pump
9. Alternator
10. Variable geometry turbocharger
11. Belt tensioner, refrigerant compressor
12. Refrigerant compressor.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-7

Automotive With CM871

ISX Automotive with CM871 - Front View


1. Crankcase breather pressure sensor
2. Intake manifold connection
3. Oil fill tube
4. Water pump drive belt
5. Oil pan
6. Vibration damper
7. Dual outlet water pump
8. Belt tensioner, water pump
9. Alternator
10. Variable geometry turbocharger
11. Belt tensioner, refrigerant compressor
12. Refrigerant compressor
13. Refrigerant compressor drive belt.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-8 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Automotive With CM871

ISX Automotive with CM871 - Left Side View


1. ECM
2. Air intake connection
3. Front EGR connection tube
4. EGR differential pressure sensor
5. EGR differential pressure sensor tubes
6. Fuel pump
7. EGR valve mounting bracket
8. EGR valve
9. Starter
10. Fuel filter
11. Lubricating oil dipstick
12. Crankcase breather vent tube
13. Air compressor
14. Lubricating oil fill tube
15. Open crankcase ventilation filter housing
16. Fan hub.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-9

Automotive With CM871

ISX Automotive with CM871 Rear View


1. Aftertreatment Injector fuel supply line
2. Aftertreatment injector coolant supply line
3. Aftertreatment injector adapter tube
4. Aftertreatment injector assembly
5. Aftertreatment injector coolant return line
6. Flywheel
7. Rear EGR connection tube.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-10 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Automotive With CM871

ISX Automotive with CM871 - Right Side View


1. Variable geometry turbocharger
2. Turbocharger speed sensor
3. Variable geometry actuator
4. EGR cooler coolant inlet tube
5. Dual outlet water pump
6. Coolant filter
7. Turbocharger oil drain tube
8. Lubricating oil filter
9. Lubricating oil drain plug
10. Flywheel housing
11. EGR cooler coolant return tube
12. Lubricating oil cooler
13. EGR cooler
14. Exhaust manifold.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-11

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 Industrial with CM570 - Front View


1. Accessory drive belt
2. Water pump/fan drive belt
3. Lubricating oil fill
4. Water pump/fan drive belt tensioner
5. Accessory drive belt tensioner.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-12 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 Industrial with CM570 - Left Side View


1. Gear housing
2. ECM
3. Air intake
4. Engine dataplate
5. Fuel pump
6. Starter
7. Fuel filter
8. Lubricating oil dipstick
9. Crankshaft timing pin port
10. Vibration dampers
11. Barring device/air compressor
12. Fan hub.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-13

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 Industrial with CM570 - Right Side View


1. Exhaust manifold
2. Turbocharger
3. Oil inlet to turbocharger
4. Wastegate actuator
5. Thermostat housing vent
6. Thermostat housing
7. Engine coolant outlet (to radiator)
8. Freon compressor
9. Coolant temperature sensor
10. Alternator
11. Water pump
12. Coolant filter
13. Lubricating oil drain
14. Turbocharger oil drain
15. Combination full-flow/bypass lubricating oil filter
16. Lubricating oil cooler assembly
17. Flywheel housing
18. Engine serial number.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-14 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 Power Generation without CM570 - Front View


1. Accessory drive belt
2. Water pump/fan drive belt
3. Oil fill/crankcase breather
4. Water pump/fan drive belt tensioner
5. Accessory drive belt tensioner.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-15

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 Power Generation without CM570 - Left Side View


1. Gear cover
2. Engine dataplate
3. Air intake
4. Fuel pump
5. Fuel filter
6. Starter
7. Lubricating oil pan
8. Lubricating oil drains
9. Crankshaft timing pin port
10. Lubricating oil dipstick
11. Vibration dampers
12. Lubricating oil fill/barring device
13. Fan hub.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-16 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 Power Generation without CM570 - Right Side View


1. Exhaust manifold
2. Lubricating oil Inlet to turbocharger
3. Turbocharger
4. Thermostat housing vent
5. Thermostat housing
6. Engine coolant outlet (to radiator)
7. Coolant temperature sensor
8. Water pump
9. Coolant filter
10. Lubricating oil drains
11. Combination full-flow/bypass lubricating oil filter
12. Lubricating oil cooler assembly
13. Flywheel housing
14. Engine serial number
15. Turbocharger lubricating oil drain.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-17

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

Fuel System - Left Side View


1. Intake manifold pressure/temperature sensor 6. ECM/engine harness port (OEM)
2. Fuel outlet 7. ECM
3. Fuel inlet 8. ECM/engine harness port (actuator)
4. Fuel shutoff valve 9. ECM/sensor port
5. Oil pressure/temperature sensor 10. Cooling plate (behind ECM).
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-18 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

Fuel System - Left Side View (continued)


11. Camshaft position sensor
12. Crankshaft position sensor
13. Ambient air pressure sensor
14. Water-in-Fuel sensor
15. Fuel pressure sensor
16. Front and rear rail sensors*
17. Timing actuators
18. Fueling actuators.
* Eliminated on most engines
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Diagrams
Section E - Engine and System Identification Page E-19

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

Fuel Delivery Housing - Front View


1. Priming bypass valve (internal)
2. 320 psi pressure regulator
3. 36-micron filter screen
4. Fuel inlet
5. Quick disconnect pressure tap - suction side
6. Water-In-Fuel sensor
7. 250 psi pressure regulator
8. Fuel shutoff valve
9. Quick disconnect pressure tap - pressure side
10. Fuel pressure sensor
11. Front rail actuator
12. Front timing actuator
13. Rear timing actuator
14. Rear rail actuator.
Engine Diagrams Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page E-20 Section E - Engine and System Identification

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

QSX15 with CM570 Fuel Delivery Housing - Rear View


1. Fuel pump assembly
2. Front rail pressure sensor*
3. Fuel filter
4. Rear rail pressure sensor*.
* Eliminated on most engines.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Section F - Familiarization Page F-a

Section F - Familiarization
Section Contents
Page
Air Intake System - Overview .........................................................................................................................F-34
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-34
Variable Geometry.......................................................................................................................................F-34
Automotive with CM870................................................................................................................................F-34
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-35
All Applications............................................................................................................................................ F-36
Complete Engine - Overview ............................................................................................................................F-1
General Information..........................................................................................................................................F-1
Compressed Air System - Overview ...............................................................................................................F-51
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-51
Single Cylinder.............................................................................................................................................F-51
Cooling System - Overview ............................................................................................................................ F-24
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-24
Cylinder Block - Overview ................................................................................................................................F-3
General Information..........................................................................................................................................F-3
Cylinder Head - Overview .................................................................................................................................F-4
General Information..........................................................................................................................................F-4
Electrical Equipment - Overview .................................................................................................................... F-54
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-54
Engine Testing - Overview ..............................................................................................................................F-56
Fuel Flow Measurement on Engine or Chassis Dynamometer..........................................................................F-57
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-56
Exhaust System - Overview ............................................................................................................................F-40
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-40
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-40
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-40
Automotive with CM870................................................................................................................................F-43
Flow Diagram, Air Intake System ...................................................................................................................F-37
Flow Diagram..................................................................................................................................................F-37
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570....................................................F-37
With CM870.................................................................................................................................................F-38
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-39
Flow Diagram, Compressed Air System .........................................................................................................F-52
Flow Diagram..................................................................................................................................................F-52
Flow Diagram, Cooling System ...................................................................................................................... F-26
Flow Diagram..................................................................................................................................................F-26
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570....................................................F-26
Automotive with CM870................................................................................................................................F-29
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-31
Single Thermostat........................................................................................................................................F-33
Flow Diagram, Exhaust System ......................................................................................................................F-44
Flow Diagram..................................................................................................................................................F-44
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570....................................................F-44
With CM870.................................................................................................................................................F-46
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-48
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-49
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-50
Flow Diagram, Fuel System ..............................................................................................................................F-9
Flow Diagram....................................................................................................................................................F-9
Automotive with CM570..................................................................................................................................F-9
Automotive with CM870................................................................................................................................F-11
Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-12
Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570.............................................................................. F-13
Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System ...........................................................................................................F-18
Flow Diagram..................................................................................................................................................F-18
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570....................................................F-18
Automotive with CM870................................................................................................................................F-20
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-b Section F - Familiarization

All Applications............................................................................................................................................ F-21


Automotive With CM871...............................................................................................................................F-23
Fuel System - Overview ....................................................................................................................................F-5
General Information..........................................................................................................................................F-5
Automotive with CM870..................................................................................................................................F-6
Automotive With CM871.................................................................................................................................F-7
Installation Recommendations..........................................................................................................................F-7
Injectors and Fuel Lines - Overview ...............................................................................................................F-15
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-15
Lubricating Oil System - Overview .................................................................................................................F-15
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-15
Lubricating Oil..............................................................................................................................................F-15
Lubricating Oil Filters...................................................................................................................................F-16
Lubricating Oil System....................................................................................................................................F-16
New Engine Break-in Oils................................................................................................................................F-17
Oil Drain Intervals...........................................................................................................................................F-17
Rocker Levers - Overview .................................................................................................................................F-5
General Information..........................................................................................................................................F-5
General Information.......................................................................................................................................F-5
Vehicle Braking - Overview .............................................................................................................................F-59
General Information........................................................................................................................................F-59
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Complete Engine - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-1

Complete Engine - Overview (000-999)


General Information
Engine Nomenclature
To assist the reader of this manual in accurately identifying the appropriate engine version to repair, the manual is
using the engine's ECM model number as the identifier in the task title of each procedure. The engine(s) for the
corresponding ECM model number nomenclature are as follows:
All Applications
Includes all ISX automotive engines, Signature engines, QSX industrial engines, and all power generation engines,
regardless of ECM model.
Automotive With CM870
Includes ISX automotive EGR engines built with CM870 model ECM, introduced in 2002.
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570
Includes ISX automotive engines, Signature engines, QSX industrial engines built with CM570 model ECM, and all
power generation engines supplied with their unique control module
Automotive with CM570
ISX automotive and Signature engines built with CM570 model ECM, built 1998 through 2002.
Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570
QSX industrial engines built with CM570 model ECM and power generation engines supplied with their unique control
module.
If the user of this manual is not sure of the ECM model number, the ECM model number can be identified by reviewing
the electronic data plate using INSITE electronic service tool.
Repair
Concern has been generated at both the factory and in the field about engine failures that occur a short time after an
in-frame repair. Analyses of the returned parts indicate many of the failures are the result of dirt entering the engine
during repair. In particular, investigation of the failure of ISX engine connecting rod and main bearings very soon after
field repairs of the oil cooler, front cover, or cylinder head has shown that 30 percent of the failures are the result of
contamination of some main oil drillings. Investigation into the type and source of the contamination indicates it is
appropriate to restate, review and revise parts cleaning instructions for all engines.
The statement A person can spend too much time cleaning parts, but a person can not get them too clean is even
more relevant as customer expectations and regulatory requirements increase. These demands, coupled with
increased diesel engine product complexity, place more pressure on the field technician in terms of time required to
perform a quality repair. In an effort to reduce customer down time, many different labor saving devices, techniques,
and shortcuts are being used to meet customer expectations. However, some of the shortcuts and labor saving efforts
are the very things that can cause contamination of internal engine components that lead to additional failures.
Review the General Cleaning Instructions in this manual. Field shops are strongly encouraged to review these
instructions with all technicians and to include general cleaning instructions in technician training programs and new
technician orientation programs.
Magnetism
If the engine is found to be magnetized, the engine will need to be disassembled and examined for:
Engine inspection for electrical pass-through damage
Magnetism of ferrous components
Debris through the lubrication system
Damage to bearings and bushings, including: crankshaft thrust bearings, main bearings, connecting rod
bearings, and camshaft bushings
Component or wear damage.
The Disassembly and Assembly sections of this manual can be used to disassemble and assemble the engine.
Complete Engine - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-2 Section F - Familiarization

Acceptable Magnetism Levels


Injectors and Ferrous Injector Components All Other Ferrous Components
5 or less gauss units 15 or less gauss units

Measure each ferrous component with a gauss meter and record the results. If the magnetism is out of specification,
the engine must be treated in general as if:
Debris (fine particles) have been traveling throughout the lubrication system, resulting in wear and damage to
components.
Components with measured gauss units greater than specification must be demagnetized or replaced. A facility
capable of magnetic testing (Magnaflux) of the engine components is capable of demagnetizing (degaussing)
components.
Check components in the lubrication system closely and thoroughly clean the oil galleries.
Replace all main bearings, thrust bearings, connecting rod bearings, and camshaft bushings.
NOTE: Do not attempt to demagnetize sensors, engine control modules, or actuators.
There are two methods for demagnetizing components:
Passing the part through an alternating current coil (50 or 60 cycles per second)
Passing a reversing, 30 point step-down current through the part.
The alternating current coil is suggested for smaller parts.
For larger mass parts, the reversing 30 point step-down is suggested.
Parts with acceptable levels of magnetization must be cleaned and inspected for reuse.
It is recommended to have the alternating current coil just large enough for the parts to pass through. A small part
passed through a large coil will not be demagnetized as well as if it were passed through a smaller coil.
The coil must be located so the longest part axis of the part is perpendicular to the coil when passing through. Parts
must pass through a minimum of 457.2 to 609.6 mm [18 to 24 in] beyond the coil for the most effective
demagnetization.
Do not attempt to demagnetize small parts by loading them into a basket and passing the basket through a coil. Do
not attempt to demagnetize a whole engine assembly.
Direct current demagnetization can be accomplished by using the magnetizing unit. Clamp the part between the head
and tail stock. Activate the demagnetization controls, and the reversing, step-down current passes through the part.
Check all parts with the gauss meter.
When tiny pits occur in clearly defined patterns, or surfaces are fluted, electric current can be the problem. The
patterns will vary with metals, sources, and movement.
For insert bearings, pitting is a chief indication. In anti-friction bearings, such as ball bearings, fluted surfaces, or wavy
lines of pitting in patterns differing with rotation, vibration, and current are the chief indications.
Sources of electrical damage are:
Electrically actuated components (such as a clutch).
Static current from belts or other moving parts.
Grounding of electrical system through the crankshaft when some component such as the generator or engine
block has not been grounded properly.
An improperly grounded six volt system.
Contaminated Intake Air
For engines that have experienced dust outs because of an intake air system component failure that resulted in
cylinder liner and piston ring wear; these engines must be treated as if the lubricating oil system has been
contaminated with debris. The engine must be disassembled and cleaned appropriately to remove debris from the
oil galleries, block cavities, cylinder head, and air intake system. Do not forget the camshafts and rocker lever pins
and rollers; these must be thoroughly cleaned and examined for wear.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Cylinder Block - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-3

The procedures required to replace an engine will vary


with different engine models, the type of equipment,
optional equipment, and the shop facilities. Use the
following procedures as a guide.
All replacement steps will not apply to all types of
equipment. Complete only the steps that apply to the
equipment involved. Use the equipment manufacturer's
recommendations and precautions for removal of chassis
parts to gain access to the engine.

Cylinder Block - Overview (001-999)


General Information
Some Signature, ISX, and QSX15 engines are equipped
with articulated pistons.
The articulated piston is a two-piece piston consisting of
a forged steel crown and an aluminum skirt.
An open chamber oil gallery is located on the underside
crown of the piston to provide more oil contact with the
piston and give better piston cooling.
Piston cooling nozzle targeting is critical because the oil
is captured in shaker trays.

Some engines are equipped with single-piece pistons.


The single-piece piston is a one-piece piston, that does
not have a bushing and is forged from a high-strength,
alloy steel.
A cover plate, that is not removable, is located on the
underside of the piston to capture oil and cool the piston.
Do not remove this cover plate under any circumstances.

CAUTION
All pistons within a given engine must be of the same
design. All are to be either the articulated design or
the single piece design. Do not mix piston designs in
the same engine. Single piece pistons must have
drilled connecting rods and connecting rod bearings.
Articulated pistons can use either drilled or non-
drilled connecting rods and connecting rod bearings.
Cylinder Head - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-4 Section F - Familiarization

Connecting Rod
The ISX connecting rods big bore is straight-cut with a four capscrew design. With the introduction of the single-piece
piston the connecting rod I-beam is drilled to provide oil to the piston pin. Single piece pistons must use drilled
connecting rods.
Cylinder Liner
The cylinder liners are of a mid-stop cylinder liner design. The EGR engine cylinder liners are induction hardened.
There are two different designs of cylinder liners used in the Signature, ISX and QSX15 engines. The design used in
a particular engine is dependent on the engine's production vintage.
Engines assembled prior to engine serial number 14022615 have groove-top cylinder liners. They are characterized
by a groove machined into the top surface of the cylinder liner flange.
Engines assembled with engine serial number 14022615 and after have flat-top cylinder liners. They are characterized
by a cylinder liner flange that is flat, except for the fire dam.

Cylinder Head - Overview (002-999)


General Information
The cylinder head is a single slab head design with dual overhead camshafts.
The cylinder head group consists of the cylinder head, valves, valve guides, valve springs, valve seat inserts,
crossheads, and injector sleeves. The exhaust valves are manufactured from a material capable of operating at a
higher temperature than the intake valves. In addition to being made from different materials, the intake and exhaust
valves are different sizes.
Mark, label, or tag the cylinder head parts such as crossheads, valves, and valve springs with the cylinder number
and location from which they were removed. It is also recommended that the intake and exhaust valve positions be
marked on the combustion face of the cylinder head using a paint pen to facilitate installing the correct parts in the
correct locations.
There are two different designs of cylinder liners used in the Signature, ISX and QSX15 engines. The design used in
a particular engine is dependent on the engine's production vintage.
Engines assembled prior to engine serial number 14022615 have groove-top cylinder liners. They are characterized
by a groove machined into the top surface of the cylinder liner flange.
Engines assembled with engine serial number 14022615 and after have flat-top cylinder liners. They are characterized
by a cylinder liner flange that is flat, except for the fire dam.

CAUTION
Cylinder head gaskets are different depending on the cylinder liner design. The cylinder head gasket designed
to be used with groove-top cylinder liners can not be used with flat-top liners, and the cylinder head gasket
designed to be used with the flat-top cylinder liners can not be used with groove-top cylinder liners.
Engines built with groove-top cylinder liners must use a cylinder head gasket and fire rings.
Engines built with flat-top liners must use a one-piece cylinder head gasket without fire rings.
Two different valve guides and valve guide seals are used
on Signature, ISX, and QSX15 engines.
Engines built prior to engine serial number 14010274 use
non-grooved valve guides and small valve guide seals.
These engines require the valve stem seal installer, Part
Number 3163294, to be used when installing the valve
guide seals.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Fuel System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-5

Engines with serial number 14010274 and all engines built


after use a larger valve guide seal.
These seals are designed to be installed by hand without
the seal driver.
The new seals snap into a groove machined on the valve
guide. The new style seals are not compatible with the old
style non-grooved valve guides.

Rocker Levers - Overview (003-999)


General Information
General Information
Valves, injectors, and engine brakes (if equipped) must be correctly adjusted for the engine to operate efficiently.
Valve, injector, and engine brake adjustment must be performed using the values listed in this section.
Adjust the valves, injectors, and engine brakes every 800,000 km [500,000 mi], 10,000 hours, or 5 years (whichever
occurs first). Adjustment must be made after any major repair, and the adjustment interval again becomes every
800,000 km [500,000 mi], 10,000 hours, or 5 years (whichever occurs first).
Refer to Procedure 003-004 for valve, engine brake, and injector adjustment values.

Fuel System - Overview (005-999)


General Information

WARNING
Depending on the circumstance, diesel fuel is
flammable. When inspecting or performing service or
repairs on the fuel system, to reduce the possibility of
fire and resulting severe personal injury, death or
property damage, never smoke or allow sparks or
flames (such as pilot lights, electrical switches, or
welding equipment) in the work area.

CAUTION
Tampering with the fuel system can void the engine
warranty and lower the performance of the engine.
NOTE: Warranty repairs are not to be made to the
Signature, ISX, or QSX fuel system unless the work is
performed in a shop that meets all requirements
established by Cummins Inc. to accurately calibrate, test,
and repair the fuel systems on Cummins engines.
The performance of the engine is defined by the control
parts list and the fuel system code. The fuel system
calibration must be within published specifications. Fuel
system calibration is certified by several emissions
agencies.
Fuel System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-6 Section F - Familiarization

NOTE: There is no mechanical throttle on the Signature,


ISX, or QSX15 fuel system.
The Signature, ISX, and QSX15 fuel system is an
integrated, multi-part system.
It is comprised of the following:
Supply pump
Regulators
Filters
Timing and fueling actuators
Camshaft-driven injectors 1 through 6
ECM, sensors (fuel system control).

The fuel system is split into two banks:


Front bank (cylinders 1-2-3)
Rear bank (cylinders 4-5-6).

Automotive with CM870


System Operation
Fuel is drawn from the tank through a fuel filter by a gear pump (supply pump)
The supply pump pressure is regulated at 1689 to 2206 kPa [245 to 320 psi] at 2100 rpm
Fuel passes through a pressure side filter (36 microns)
Fuel then passes through a rapid restart-style fuel shutoff valve
Fuel enters a passage feeding the front and rear banks, which connects directly to the fuel actuators
Within a given bank, the fuel and timing actuators are commanded by the ECM to open
The opening of each actuator sends a pressure pulse to each injector within the bank
The timing of these events is tied to engine position
Due to the firing order (1-5-3-6-2-4) and cam position, only one injector within the bank receives fuel.
The Signature, ISX, and QSX fuel system assembly, integrated fuel system module, or fuel delivery housing is located
on the intake side of the engine.
Fuel for the Engine
Fuel passes through a rapid restart-style fuel shutoff valve
Fuel enters a passage feeding the front and rear banks, which connects directly to the fuel actuators
Within a given bank, the fuel and timing actuators are commanded by the ECM to open
The opening of each actuator sends a pressure pulse to each injector within the bank
The timing of these events is tied to engine position
Due to the firing order (1-5-3-6-2-4) and cam position, only one injector within the bank receives fuel.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Fuel System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-7

Automotive With CM871

Aftertreatment Injector Fuel Flow.


System Operation
Fuel is drawn from the tank through a fuel filter by a gear pump (supply pump)
The supply pump pressure is regulated at 1689 to 2220 kPa [245 to 322 psi] at 2100 RPM
Fuel passes through a pressure side filter (10 microns).
Fuel goes to the engine and the aftertreatment system.
Fuel For the Engine
Fuel passes through a rapid restart-style fuel shutoff valve
Fuel enters a passage feeding the front and rear banks, connecting directly to the fuel actuator.
Within a given bank, the fuel and timing actuators are commanded by the ECM to open
The opening of each actuator sends a pressure pulse to each injector within the bank
The timing of these events is tied to engine position
Due to the firing order (1-5-3-6-2-4) and cam position, only one injector within the bank receives fuel.
Fuel For the Aftertreatment System
Fuel flows down to the aftertreatment shutoff valve
When the valve opens, the fuel passes the aftertreatment fuel pressure sensor
Fuel then flows around the back of the engine to the aftertreatment fuel injector
When the aftertreatment fuel injector opens, fuel is sprayed into the exhaust stream
When the fuel is not flowing to the aftertreatment fuel injector, remaining fuel in the line between the first
aftertreatment shutoff valve and aftertreatment fuel injector is sent through the second aftertreatment shutoff
valve to drain.
Installation Recommendations
Overhead Tank Installation Requirements:

WARNING
If a fuel line shutoff valve is not installed, the
overhead tank can drain when the fuel filter is
changed, causing an extreme fire hazard.
Cummins Inc. recommends a ball-type valve and not a
gate-type valve.
Install a fuel shutoff valve between the filter and the fuel
tank.
Fuel System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-8 Section F - Familiarization

Install a check valve in the fuel drain line when the


maximum fuel level in the fuel tank is even or above the
fuel drain that is in the cylinder head. Install the valve with
the fuel flow arrow toward the fuel tank.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Fuel System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-9

Flow Diagram, Fuel System (200-001)


Flow Diagram
Automotive with CM570

9 9
11 11
10 8
Cummins Inc. Cummins 3Inc.

Cummins Inc.
11
8 2

5
Cummins Inc. 6
Cummins Inc.
7 1
4
05c00127

With Lift Pump


1. Fuel supply from tank 7. Timing actuator
2. Fuel lift pump 8. Fueling supply to injector
3. Fuel pump 9. Timing fuel supply to injector
4. Pressure fuel filter 10. Injector
5. Fuel shutoff valve 11. Fuel drain to tank.
6. Fueling actuator
Flow Diagram, Fuel System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-10 Section F - Familiarization

Flow Diagram, Fuel System (200-001)


Flow Diagram
Automotive with CM570

3 10
7 8 8 7
5 6 6
3 5
8 10
9 8 10
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
10
7 4 1
2
Cummins Inc.
7
5 1
Cummins Inc.
6 Cummins Inc.
4
2
00c00001

Without Lift Pump


1. Fuel supply from tank 6. Timing actuator
2. Fuel filter 7. Rail metering supply to injector
3. Gear pump 8. Timing fuel supply to injector
4. Fuel shutoff valve 9. Injector
5. Rail metering actuator 10. Fuel drain to tank.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Fuel System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-11

Automotive with CM870


14
4

Cummins Inc.
13
Cummins Inc.
3

10 7 6 15 1
Cummins Inc.
12
15

12
11
9
8 Cummins Inc.
1
5 Cummins Inc.
2 2
5
05c00225

With Lift Pump and ECM Cooling Plate


1. Fuel supply from tank 9. Engine fuel temperature sensor
2. Fuel lift pump 10. Compuchek fitting (rail fuel pressure)
3. Compuchek fitting (fuel inlet restriction) 11. Hot start and stall orifice
4. Fuel pump 12. Fuel inlet to ECM cooling plate
5. Pressure fuel filter 13. ECM cooling plate
6. Fuel shutoff valve 14. Fuel from ECM ccoling plate to fuel pump
7. 250-psi regulator 15. Fuel drain to tank.
8. Rail fuel pressure sensor
Flow Diagram, Fuel System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-12 Section F - Familiarization

Automotive With CM871


14 4
13 3 19

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


12
18
15
Cummins Inc. 1
21

10 7 6
20
12
19
Cummins Inc.
17 Cummins Inc.
11 1 16
9 8

5 2 5 2 20
00c00099

ISX With Lift Pump and Aftertreatment


1. Fuel supply from tank 12. Fuel flow to ECM cooler
2. Fuel lift pump 13. ECM cooler
3. Compuchek fitting (fuel inlet restriction) 14. Fuel flow to fuel pump
4. Fuel pump 15. Fuel flow to aftertreatment fuel shutoff valve
5. Pressure fuel filter 16. Aftertreatment fuel shutoff valve
6. Fuel shutoff valve 17. Fuel pressure sensor
7. 250-psi regulator 18. Fuel drain line
8. Rail fuel pressure sensor 19. Fuel return to fuel tank
9. Engine fuel temperature sensor 20. Fuel flow to aftertreatment injector
10. Compuchek fitting (rail fuel pressure) 21. Aftertreatment injector.
11. Hot start and stall orifice
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Fuel System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-13

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

9 9
11 11
Cummins
10 Inc. Cummins Inc. 8
3

Cummins Inc.
11
8 2
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
5
7 1
6 4
05c00222

QSX15 With Lift Pump


1. Fuel supply from tank 7. Timing actuator
2. Fuel lift pump 8. Fueling supply to injector
3. Fuel pump 9. Timing fuel supply to injector
4. Pressure fuel filter 10. Injector
5. Fuel shutoff valve 11. Fuel drain to tank.
6. Fueling actuator
Flow Diagram, Fuel System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-14 Section F - Familiarization

Industrial CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

3 10
7 8 8 7
5 6 6
3 5
8 10
9 8 10
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
10
7 4 1
2
Cummins Inc.
7
5 1
Cummins Inc.
6 Cummins Inc.
4
2
00c00001

QSX15 Without Lift Pump


1. Fuel supply from tank 6. Timing actuator
2. Fuel filter 7. Rail metering supply to injector
3. Gear pump 8. Timing fuel supply to injector
4. Fuel shutoff valve 9. Injector
5. Rail metering actuator 10. Fuel drain to tank.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Lubricating Oil System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-15

Injectors and Fuel Lines - Overview (006-999)


General Information
The 2002 ISX engine uses a 15-micron pressure side fuel filter. The pressure side fuel filter is mounted to the integrated
fuel system module in the same location as the previous integrated fuel system module-mounted suction side fuel
filter. Pressure side filtration allows for improved diagnostics and improved filtration. The fuel filter has a 40,234 km
[25,000 mi] change interval.
For fuel filter pressure and vacuum information, refer to Procedure 006-015.
For fuel inlet restriction, refer to Procedure 006-020.
ECM Cooling Plate
A fuel-cooled ECM was introduced with the 2002 ISX engine.
The ECM cooling plate is located on the intake side of the cylinder head, directly between the ECM and cylinder head.
The ECM cooling plate receives fuel from the 1724 kPa [250 psi] regulator and returns it to the suction side of the fuel
pump. The 2002 ISX engine uses a different gasket between the cooling plate and the cylinder head than the air-
cooled ECM cooling plate found on the previous ISX engines. To isolate the cooling plate from the heat of the cylinder
head, a new ECM cooling plate gasket is used. Unlike the air-cooled ECM cooling plate gasket, the fuel-cooled ECM
cooling plate gasket does not have a cutout in the lower section. This gasket is not reversible and uses an interference
tab that will not allow the gasket to be installed backward.

Lubricating Oil System - Overview (007-999)


General Information
Lubricating Oil
ISX engines built after February 2004, (ESN first 79035023) have the lubricating oil filter head adapter (spud) staked
to the lubricating oil filter housing to reduce the possibility of the adapter backing out.
The use of quality engine lubricating oils, combined with appropriate lubricating oil drain and filter change intervals,
is a critical factor in maintaining engine performance and durability.
Cummins Inc. recommends the use of a high quality 15W-40 multiviscosity heavy-duty engine lubricating oil that meets
the requirements of Cummins Engineering Specification CES 20071 or CES 20076 (such as Valvoline Premium Blue
or Premium Blue 2000). American Petroleum Institute (API) specification CH-4 can be used as an alternative to CES
20071. Oils that meet API specification CG-4 can be used, but at a reduced drain interval. Refer to Procedure 102-002
in the Operation and Maintenance Manual Industrial and Power Generation QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423 or
Procedure 102-002 in the Operation and Maintenance Manual Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251. The oil
grades CC, CD, CE, and CF have been obsoleted by API and must not be used.
Shortened drain intervals can be required with monograde oils as determined by close monitoring of the oil condition
with scheduled oil sampling. Use of single-grade oils can affect engine oil control.
Synthetic engine oils, API category III, are recommended for use in Cummins engines operating in ambient
temperature conditions consistently below -25C [-13F]. Above this temperature, it is recommended the petroleum
based multigrade lubricants be used. Synthetic 0W-30 oils that meet API category III can be used in operations where
the ambient temperature never exceeds 0C [32F]. 0W-30 oils do not offer the same level of protection against fuel
dilution as do higher multigrade oils. Higher cylinder wear can be experienced when using 0W-30 oils in high-load
situations.
For further details and an explanation of engine lubricating oils for Cummins engines, refer to Cummins Engine Oil
Recommendations, Bulletin 3810340.
Additional information regarding lubricating oil availability throughout the world is available in the Engine
Manufacturing Association (EMA) Lubricating Oils Data Book for Heavy-Duty Automotive and Industrial Engines. The
data book can be ordered from: Engine Manufacturers Association, Two North LaSalle Street, Suite 2200, Chicago,
IL, 60602; Phone: (312) 644-6610, Fax: (312) 827-8737.
The integrated Centinel system is a continuous lubricating oil replacement system of electromechanical design. The
Centinel system extends lubricating oil and lubricating oil filter change intervals through continuous lubricating oil
exchange. This is accomplished by injecting engine lubricating oil at a controlled rate, proportional to fuel consumed,
into the fuel system for consumption. Makeup lubricating oil (fresh) is introduced into the engine at a rate equal to the
lubricating oil consumed. The Centinel system will also monitor the lubricating oil level in the make up tank.
Lubricating Oil System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-16 Section F - Familiarization

Lubricating Oil Filters


A combination lubricating oil filter is used on the engine. The upper portion of the combination lubricating oil filter
contains the full-flow filter element while the lower portion contains the bypass filter element.
Lubricating oil circulates through the full-flow portion of the lubricating oil filter, into the lubricating oil cooler housing
and is directed to the engine lubricating oil rifles.
A smaller portion of the lubricating oil circulates through the lower bypass portion of the lubricating oil filter and is
directed to the engine lubricating oil rifles.
Lubricating Oil System
The demand flow and cooling lubricating system
incorporates a lubricating oil pump (1) with a pressure-
sensitive regulator circuit (2) and a high-pressure relief
valve (3).

The API service symbol locations are shown in the


accompanying illustration.
1. The upper half of the symbols displays the
appropriate oil categories.
2. The lower half contains words to describe oil energy-
conserving features.
3. The center section identifies the SAE oil viscosity
grade.

Lubricating oil viscosity must be chosen according to the


typical climate conditions experienced by the user. Use of
15W-40 is recommended for the best engine durability at
higher ambient temperature. For cold temperature
conditions, 10W-30 or 5W-30 viscosity can be used for
easier starting, improved lubricating oil flow, and
improved fuel economy.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Lubricating Oil System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-17

New Engine Break-in Oils


Special break-in engine lubricating oils are not
recommended for new or rebuilt Cummins engines. In
general, use the same lubricating oil during break-in as
that used in normal operation. Synthetic or partially
synthetic engine lubricating oils, however, can not be
used during break-in of a new or rebuilt engine. To make
sure the piston rings seat properly, use a high quality
petroleum-based engine lubricating oil during the first
engine lubricating oil drain period.

Oil Drain Intervals


As the engine lubricating oil becomes contaminated,
essential lubricating oil additives are depleted. Lubricating
oils protect the engine as long as these additives are
functioning properly. Progressive contamination of the
lubricating oil between lubricating oil and filter change
intervals is normal. The amount of contamination will vary
depending on the operation of the engine, kilometers or
miles on the lubricating oil, fuel consumed, and new
lubricating oil added.
Extending lubricating oil and filter change intervals
beyond the recommendations will decrease engine life
because of factors such as corrosion, deposits, and wear.
Use the lubricating oil drain chart in this section to
determine which lubricating oil drain interval to use for an
application.
Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-18 Section F - Familiarization

Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System (200-002)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

4 1

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


8 1 10 11
9 4
3
4
Cummins Inc. 1
2
3
6
Cummins
3
5 Inc. Cummins Inc.
12
13
7
00c00003

Vertical Bypass
1. Lubricating oil flow from oil pump 8. Flow to turbocharger
2. Thermostat 9. Flow to main oil rifle
3. Oil cooler bypass flow 10. Oil drain from turbocharger
4. Flow through oil cooler 11. Thermostat open - oil flows through oil cooler
5. Flow return to filter head 12. Thermostat closed - oil flows directly to oil filter
6. Filter bypass valve 13. Flow to oil filter.
7. Oil filter
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-19

Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System (200-002)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

4
4
5 1
10
3Cummins Inc. 9
Cummins Inc.
3
14 8
11
6 3
4
9
Cummins Inc. 1
1

15 13
Cummins
7 Inc. 2 Cummins Inc. 12

9
07c00248

Horizontal Bypass
1. Lubricating oil flow from oil pump 9. Flow to main oil rifle
2. Thermostat 10. Oil drain from turbocharger
3. Oil cooler bypass flow 11. Thermostat open - oil flows through oil cooler
4. Flow through oil cooler 12. Thermostat closed - oil flows directly to oil filter
5. Oil cooler flow return to filter head 13. Flow to oil filter
6. Filter bypass valve 14. Bypass valve open - oil flows to oil filter
7. Oil filter 15. Bypass valve closed - oil flows directly to main oil rifle
8. Flow to turbocharger
Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-20 Section F - Familiarization

Automotive with CM870

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc. 4


4 1
14
5 10 3
9
9 3 Cummins8 Inc. 11
3
4 1
15
6 1
Cummins Inc. Cummins
13 Inc.
9 2 12
7
07c00217

Lubricating Oil Filter, Cooler and Bypass


1. Lubricating oil flow from oil pump 9. Flow to main oil rifle
2. Thermostat 10. Oil drain from turbocharger
3. Oil transfer to rear oil cooler 11. Thermostat open - oil flows through oil cooler
4. Flow through oil coolers 12. Thermostat closed - oil flows directly to oil filter
5. Oil cooler flow return to filter head 13. Flow to oil filter
6. Filter bypass valve 14. Bypass valve closed - oil flows to oil filter
7. Oil filter 15. Bypass valve open - oil flows directly to main oil rifle.
8. Flow to turbocharger
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-21

All Applications
10
11 10 12
10

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


7
6
8
9 Cummins Inc.
13 5 13
2

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


1 5 14

15 3 4 3
4 00c00002

Lubricating Oil Pump and Power Components


1. Lubricating oil flow from oil pan through suction tube 9. Flow from main bearing to crankshaft
2. Flow from suction tube to oil pump 10. Flow to cylinder head
3. Pressure regulator 11. Flow to piston cooling nozzle
4. High-pressure relief valve 12. Flow to idler gears
5. Flow from oil pump to oil cooler/filter head housing 13. Oil transfer from main oil rifle
6. Oil return from oil cooler/filter head housing to main 14. Flow to air compressor
oil rifle 15. Rifle sensing regulator dump to inlet.
7. Main oil rifle
8. Flow to main bearing
Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-22 Section F - Familiarization

All Applications
2 6
3 13
5
4

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


3

2
10
Cummins Inc.
1

9
14
Cummins Inc. 8 Cummins Inc.
12
11 1
1 7
00c00049

Overhead Components
1. Lubricating oil flow from cylinder block to cylinder 8. Flow to valve rocker levers
head 9. Flow to valve camshaft journal bearings
2. Flow around grooved head to drilled camshaft and 10. Intake valve rocker lever
rocker lever shafts 11. Engine brake lever
3. Flow to injector rocker lever shafts 12. Exhaust valve rocker lever
4. Flow to injector rocker levers 13. Injector rocker lever
5. Flow to injector camshaft journal bearings 14. Oil drain from overhead (front and rear).
6. Flow to fuel pump
7. Flow to valve rocker lever shaft
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Lubricating Oil System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-23

Automotive With CM871

4
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc. 1
14 4
3
5 10
9 11
9
3 Cummins Inc.
8
3 1
4
15
6 1
Cummins Inc. Cummins
13
Inc.
9 12
7 2
07c00302

1. Lubricating oil flow from oil pump 9. Flow to main oil rifle
2. Thermostat 10. Oil drain from turbocharger
3. Oil cooler bypass flow 11. Thermostat open - oil flows through oil cooler
4. Flow through oil cooler 12. Thermostat closed - oil flows directly to oil filter
5. Flow return to filter head 13. Flow to oil filter
6. Filter bypass valve 14. Bypass valve closed - oil flows to oil filter
7. Oil Filter 15. Bypass valve open - oil flows directly to main oil rifle.
8. Flow to turbocharger
Cooling System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-24 Section F - Familiarization

Cooling System - Overview (008-999)


General Information
A single thermostat design was implemented with the introduction of the 2002 ISX engine. The thermostat opens at
82C [180F] and is the same thermostat used in previous ISX engines, which were designed with two thermostats.
The ISX 2002 engine with EGR implemented an impeller that is similar to the impeller on the QSX15 engine to
maximize the cooling capacity of the water pump. The water pump pulley drive ratio was increased to provide faster
water pump speeds to increase cooling capacity. Increased cooling capacity is required because of the flow and heat
associated with the EGR.
The functions of the cooling system are to:
Absorb heat from the engine components
Circulate the coolant in the engine
Dissipate the heat through the radiator
Control coolant temperature by the thermostat.
The coolant must be made up of the correct proportions
of water, antifreeze, and supplemental coolant additives
(SCA) to perform these functions properly.

The accompanying chart illustrates the coolant flow


through the engine. For more detail, refer to the Cooling
System Flow Diagram.

Conventionally cooled engines with automatic


transmissions typically use a oil-to-water transmission
torque converter cooler plumbed between the radiator and
the engine water pump.
A torque converter cooling system with a remote bypass
allows the torque converter to receive coolant flow when
the thermostat is closed (engine cold).
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Cooling System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-25

The following publications, available through a Cummins


Authorized Repair Location, provide cooling system
installation recommendations and specifications
approved by Cummins Inc.:
Data Sheets for specific engine models
Operation of Diesel Engines in Cold Climates, Bulletin
3379009
Heavy-Duty Coolant/SCA Maintenance Requirements,
Bulletin 3387910.
Flow Diagram, Cooling System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-26 Section F - Familiarization

Flow Diagram, Cooling System (200-003)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570
7

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


3

6
Cummins Inc.
5

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


1
2 3 4 00c00041

1. Coolant inlet 5. Coolant flow from water pump


2. Coolant flow from coolant filter 6. Coolant flow past oil cooler
3. Coolant bypass flow from thermostat 7. Coolant flow to cylinder head.
4. Coolant flow to water pump
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Cooling System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-27

Flow Diagram, Cooling System (200-003)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

3 10 3
1 1

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


4 9
2 2

5
6
Cummins Inc.

7 11

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


8 8

08c00125

Single Thermostat
1. Coolant flow through cylinder head 7. Coolant bypass flow to water pump
2. Coolant flow from cylinder head to thermostat 8. Coolant flow to water pump
housing 9. Bypass closed
3. Thermostat 10. Coolant flow to radiator
4. Bypass open 11. Coolant flow from radiator.
5. Coolant flow through thermostat housing to bypass
passage
6. Coolant bypass passage
Flow Diagram, Cooling System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-28 Section F - Familiarization

Flow Diagram, Cooling System (200-003)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

2 3 2
3

2Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


4 4
7
5

Cummins Inc.
6
1

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

00c00042

Dual Thermostat
1. Coolant flow from cylinder block to cylinder head 5. Coolant bypass flow to water pump
2. Coolant flow from cylinder head to thermostat 6. Coolant bypass flow to water pump
housing 7. Thermostats.
3. Coolant flow to radiator
4. Coolant bypass passage
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Cooling System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-29

Automotive with CM870


7

13
Cummins
16
Inc.17 Cummins Inc.
15 3

14 6
Cummins Inc.
5
12 11
10
6
9
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
8 1
16
2 3 4 08c00124

1. Coolant inlet 10. Coolant flow around EGR valve


2. Coolant flow from coolant filter 11. EGR valve coolant return to thermostat housing
3. Coolant bypass flow from thermostat 12. EGR cooler coolant supply from cylinder block
4. Coolant flow to water pump 13. Coolant flow through EGR cooler
5. Coolant flow from water pump 14. EGR cooler coolant return to thermostat housing
6. Coolant flow past lubricating oil cooler 15. Thermostat housing
7. Coolant flow to cylinder head. 16. Coolant supply to turbocharger
8. Lubricating oil cooler housing 17. Coolant return from turbocharger.
9. Coolant supply to EGR valve body
Flow Diagram, Cooling System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-30 Section F - Familiarization

Automotive with CM870

3 10 3
1 1

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


4 9
2 2

5
6
Cummins Inc.

7 11

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


8 8

08c00125

Single Thermostat
1. Coolant flow through cylinder head 7. Coolant bypass flow to water pump
2. Coolant flow from cylinder head to thermostat 8. Coolant flow to water pump
housing 9. Bypass closed
3. Thermostat 10. Coolant flow to radiator
4. Bypass open 11. Coolant flow from radiator.
5. Coolant flow through thermostat housing to bypass
passage
6. Coolant bypass passage
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Cooling System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-31

Automotive With CM871


2
8
10
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
8 3

7
Cummins
9 Inc. 11

1
6

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

5 4
08c00251

1. Coolant supply to EGR cooler 7. Coolant flow to actuator valve


2. Coolant flow through EGR cooler 8. Coolant flow from actuator valve to thermostat
3. Coolant return to block housing
4. Lubricating oil cooler housing 9. Coolant flow from turbocharger bearing housing to
5. Coolant flow to turbocharger thermostat housing
6. Coolant flow to turbocharger bearing housing 10. Thermostat housing
11. EGR cooler coolant vent line
Flow Diagram, Cooling System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-32 Section F - Familiarization

Automotive With CM871

Cummins Inc. Cummins


8 Inc.
7

4
Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc.
6 Cummins Inc.
1 5

2 3 4 08c00259

1. Coolant inlet 5. Coolant flow from water pump


2. Coolant flow from coolant filter 6. Coolant flow past oil cooler
3. Coolant flow to water pump 7. Coolant flow around cylinder liners
4. Coolant bypass flow to water pump 8. Coolant flow to cylinder head.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Cooling System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-33

Single Thermostat

3 10 3
1 1

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


4 9
2 2

5
6
Cummins Inc.

7 11

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


8 8

08c00125

1. Coolant flow through cylinder head 7. Coolant bypass flow to water pump
2. Coolant flow from cylinder head to thermostat 8. Coolant flow to water pump
housing 9. Bypass closed
3. Thermostat 10. Coolant flow to radiator
4. Bypass open 11. Coolant flow from radiator.
5. Coolant flow through thermostat housing to bypass
passage
6. Coolant bypass passage
Air Intake System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-34 Section F - Familiarization

Air Intake System - Overview (010-999)


General Information
Variable Geometry
To maximize the performance of the engine and also to help decrease emissions levels, a variable geometry
turbocharger is used on the ISX engine, referred to as automotive with CM870 and automotive with CM871
The variable geometry turbochargers have quicker response time, and quicker engine deceleration for quicker shifting
than fixed geometry turbochargers.
Because of the active control of the variable geometry turbocharger, intake manifold pressure and turbocharger noise
can often change. There is not a loss of power associated with the change in intake manifold pressure or turbocharger
noise; however, customer perception of engine power can be affected. Typically, when the intake manifold pressure
and turbocharger noise are changing during steady state operation, the ECM is adjusting the flow of EGR into the
engine and the engine power is not affected.
When the throttle is released, perhaps for a gear change, the variable geometry actuator closes. This prepares the
turbocharger to be ready to build intake manifold pressure quickly to provide improved turbocharger response when
the throttle is depressed after the gear change. Because of this design for improved turbocharger response, after
releasing the throttle, the engine speed of the ISX engine with a variable geometry turbocharger can decrease more
quickly than an engine without a variable geometry turbocharger. Fast deceleration in engine speed can cause drivers
to adjust their shifting styles until they become accustomed to the different deceleration speeds.
Similar to all of Cummins Inc. electronically controlled heavy duty engines, the ISX engine with a variable geometry
turbocharger incorporates a power derate to protect the turbocharger from damage while operating in high altitudes.
The ISX engine with a variable geometry turbocharger meets or exceeds the power output of the ISX engine with a
fixed geometry turbocharger at most altitudes. At and around 2.438 km [8000 ft] elevation, however, a slight power
decrease can be noticeable when operating the ISX engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, when comparing
its performance to the ISX engine with a fixed geometry turbocharger.
Automotive with CM870
The ISX with CM870 variable geometry turbocharger is
pneumatically actuated with air from the OEM air tanks.
High air pressure from the turbocharger control valve
closes the variable geometry mechanism, which
increases the exhaust gas pressure and facilitates EGR
flow through the engine. A closing variable geometry
mechanism also increases turbocharger speed and intake
manifold pressure under certain engine operating
conditions. Lower air pressure from the turbocharger
control valve opens the variable geometry mechanism,
which decreases exhaust gas pressure, turbocharger
speed, and manifold pressure under certain engine
operating conditions.
Depending on the build date, the ISX with CM870 uses
either a low mount turbocharger control valve or a high
mount turbocharger control valve.

The early ISX with CM870 use the high mount


turbocharger control valve, which is located on top of the
front gear housing.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Air Intake System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-35

The air filter is located on the air shut-off valve.

The later ISX with CM870 engines, engine serial number


first (ESN) 79031440 uses the low mount turbocharger
control valve. The low mount turbocharger control valve
does not require an air filter.
However, the vehicle must be equipped with an air dryer
to meet engine installation requirements. The vehicle air
supply will be plumbed directly to the control valve inlet
port (1). The outlet air supply port (2) to the variable
geometry turbocharger .

Automotive With CM871


The ISX with CM871 variable geometry turbocharger is
electronically actuated. The electronic control module
(ECM) sends a command directly to the variable geometry
actuator mounted on the turbocharger.
Closing the variable geometry mechanism increases the
exhaust gas pressure, facilitating EGR flow through the
engine. Turbocharger speed and intake manifold pressure
will also increase when the variable geometry mechanism
closes under certain engine operating conditions. Closing
the variable geometry turbocharger will also increase
exhaust gas temperature under certain normal engine
operating conditions and during aftertreatment
regeneration events. This is used to improve
aftertreatment component efficiency. Refer to Procedure
011-999 for further information regarding variable
geometry turbocharger and aftertreatment system
interactions.
Opening the variable geometry mechanism decreases
exhaust gas pressure, turbocharger speed and intake
manifold pressure under certain engine operating
conditions.
Air Intake System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-36 Section F - Familiarization

All Applications
The combustion air system consists of intake air piping,
turbocharger, charge-air cooler piping, charge air cooler,
and exhaust piping.

The turbocharger uses exhaust gas energy to turn the


turbine wheel. The turbine wheel drives the compressor
impeller that provides pressurized air to the engine for
combustion. The additional air provided by the
turbocharger allows more fuel to be injected to increase
the power output from the engine.
The correct turbocharger must be used. Providing too
much additional air will increase the cylinder pressures
and shorten the life of the engine.

The turbine and compressor wheels and the shaft are


supported by two rotating bearings in the bearing housing.
Passages in the bearing housing direct filtered,
pressurized engine oil to the shaft bearings and thrust
bearings. The oil is used to lubricate and cool the rotating
components to provide for smooth operation. The oil then
drains from the bearing housing to the engine sump
through the oil drain line.
An adequate supply of good, filtered oil is very important
to the life of the turbocharger.

As the intake air is compressed by the turbocharger, the


air temperature increases. This heated air is then passed
through the charge-air cooler, which cools the air. Cool air
is more dense, which allows more air to be compressed
into the cylinder, yielding a much greater combustion
efficiency.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Air Intake System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-37

Flow Diagram, Air Intake System (200-004)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

6 5
2

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc. 4

Cummins Inc.

1
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
3

00c00005

1. Intake air inlet to turbocharger 4. From charge air cooler to intake manifold
2. Turbocharger air to charge air cooler 5. Intake valve port
3. Charge air cooler 6. Intake valves.
Flow Diagram, Air Intake System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-38 Section F - Familiarization

With CM870
7 6
8
5
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
9 4
5

Cummins Inc.
3

Cummins Inc.
1
Cummins Inc.
2
10c00126

1. Intake air inlet to turbocharger 6. EGR mixer


2. Turbocharger air to charge air cooler 7. Air intake connection
3. Charge air cooler 8. Intake valve port
4. From charge air cooler to intake manifold 9. Intake valves.
5. Exhaust gas to EGR mixer
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Air Intake System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-39

Automotive With CM871

11

10
4
Cummins Inc. 5
Cummins Inc.
6 7
9
8
3
Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


1
2

10c00168

1. Intake air inlet to turbocharger 7. Exhaust to exhaust manifold


2. Turbocharger air to charge air cooler 8. Exhaust gas to EGR cooler
3. Charge air cooler 9. Exhaust cooler
4. From charge air cooler to air inlet connector 10. Exhaust gas to EGR valve
5. Intake valve port 11. Exhaust gas to mixer.
6. Intake valves
Exhaust System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-40 Section F - Familiarization

Exhaust System - Overview (011-999)


General Information
Automotive With CM871
Exhaust gas recirculates through the engine to reduce the amount of oxides of nitrogen (NO x) emitted from the engine.
The exhaust gas is cooled as if flows through an EGR cooler, and then is mixed with the compressed fresh air from
the turbocharger before entering the intake manifold. EGR was introduced to reduce the amount of in-cylinder oxygen
available for combustion while maintaining the same amount of flow through the engine. Exhaust gases present during
the start of combustion are very stable and have a very slow reaction rate. They absorb heat during combustion,
resulting in lower in-cylinder peak flame temperatures, and therefore, lower NO x emissions.
The EGR mixer was designed to completely mix the EGR gas with the turbocharged air from the charge air cooler.
Complete mixing is necessary to provide smooth operation and decreased emissions.
The variable geometry turbocharger is required for several important engine operating conditions. It is used to facilitate
EGR flow through the engine. Refer to Procedure 010-999 (Air Intake System - Overview) for variable geometry
turbocharger and EGR flow interactions.
The variable geometry turbocharger is also used for engine braking. The variable geometry mechanism closes in
order to increase exhaust manifold pressure. The increased exhaust pressure works against the pistons on the
exhaust stroke, retarding engine speed.
Automotive With CM871
The aftertreatment system is used to reduce particulate
emissions and is composed of six main components:
1. Aftertreatment inlet
2. Aftertreatment diesel particulate filter differential
pressure sensor
3. Aftertreatment diesel oxidation catalyst
4. Aftertreatment diesel particulate filter
5. Aftertreatment outlet
6. Aftertreatment exhaust gas temperature sensors.
NOTE: In some applications, the aftertreatment diesel
oxidation catalyst can be contained within the inlet section
of the aftertreatment system.

Passive regeneration occurs when the exhaust


temperatures are naturally high enough to oxidize the soot
collected in the aftertreatment diesel particulate filter
faster than the soot is collected.
Passive regeneration typically occurs when the
temperature of the aftertreatment diesel particulate filter
is above 316C [600F]. This occurs during highway
driving or driving with heavy loads.
Since passive regeneration occurs naturally, it is
considered to be normal engine operation. No fuel is
added to the exhaust stream during passive regeneration.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Exhaust System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-41

Active regeneration occurs when the exhaust


temperatures are not naturally high enough to oxidize the
soot collected in the aftertreatment diesel particulate filter
faster than it is collected.
Active regeneration requires assistance from the engine
in order to increase the exhaust temperature. This is
typically done by injecting a small amount of diesel fuel
into the exhaust stream (called aftertreatment injection)
which is then oxidized by the aftertreatment diesel
oxidation catalyst. The oxidation of this additional fuel
creates the heat needed to regenerate the aftertreatment
diesel particulate filter.
For active regeneration to occur, the ECM must detect
that the aftertreatment diesel particulate filter restriction
has reached a specified limit. Once this limit is reached,
the engine will alter its operation in order to create exhaust
temperatures high enough to actively regenerate the
aftertreatment diesel particulate filter.
An active regeneration event typically consists of two
parts: a warming up phase and a regenerating phase.
The purpose of the warm up phase is to increase the
exhaust temperatures to the point that aftertreatment
injection can occur.
Exhaust System - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-42 Section F - Familiarization

Aftertreatment injection requires that temperatures in the aftertreatment system reach approximately 288C [550F].
At this temperature and above, the small quantities of fuel injected into the exhaust will properly oxidize across the
aftertreatment diesel oxidation catalyst creating the additional heat required to actively regenerate the aftertreatment
diesel particulate filter.
Once the warm up phase is complete and the aftertreatment injection has begun, the active regeneration phase
begins.
During active regeneration, the engine ECM monitors the exhaust temperatures before and after the aftertreatment
diesel particulate filter and maintains the temperatures in a range of approximately 427 to 649C [800 to 1200F].
The quantity of fuel used for aftertreatment injection will vary as the temperature is controlled within these limits.
The temperatures achieved during active regeneration are typically higher than those achieved during passive
regeneration. The conversion of soot to carbon dioxide occurs much faster as temperatures increase.
A typical active regeneration event will take approximately 20 to 40 minutes to complete while the vehicle is operating.
The vehicle operator may notice additional turbocharger noise during this time, along with an illuminated high exhaust
temperature lamp, if equipped.
The frequency at which an engine will require an active regeneration varies greatly from application to application. In
general, vehicles with a low vehicle speed, such as urban vehicles, or a low-load duty cycle, will require more active
regeneration events than a heavily loaded vehicle or a vehicle with a high speed duty cycle.
The engine ECM also contains a time-based feature for active regenerations which is used to verify correct
aftertreatment operation when the vehicle duty cycle is typically high enough that active regeneration events are
not necessary.

Under some operating conditions, such as low speed, low load, or stop and go duty cycles, the engine may not have
enough opportunity to regenerate the aftertreatment diesel particulate filter during normal vehicle operation. When
this occurs, the engine illuminates the aftertreatment diesel particulate filter lamp to inform the vehicle operator that
assistance is required, typically in the form of a stationary (parked) regeneration.
Stationary (parked) regeneration is a form of active regeneration that is initiated by the vehicle operator when the
vehicle is not moving.
Refer to Procedure 014-013 (Aftertreatment Testing) in Section 14, for more information on Stationary (Parked)
Regeneration.

The vehicle manufacturer has the that option of installing two switches that control aftertreatment functions: the start
switch and the permit switch.
The start switch (known as the Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Start Switch in INSITE electronic service tool)
is used to start a stationary (parked) regeneration. The vehicle manufacturer may also reference this switch as a
stationary regeneration switch, start switch, or parked regeneration switch.
The permit switch (known as the Diesel Particulate Filter Permit Switch in INSITE electronic service tool) is used to
allow the vehicle operator to disable active regeneration, if necessary. The vehicle manufacturer may also reference
this switch as an inhibit switch, stop switch, or disable switch.
Refer to Procedure 011-056 (Exhaust System Diagnostics) in Section 11, for switch operation and troubleshooting.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Exhaust System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-43

Automotive with CM870


The Signature, ISX, and QSX15 engines utilize either a
wastegated, Holset HX55 or HX60 turbocharger. Some
lower horsepower automotive ratings and most industrial
applications utilize a non-wastegated, fixed geometry
Holset HX55 turbocharger.
The wastegated turbocharger is comprised of a
turbocharger, wastegate actuator, and wastegate valve in
the turbine housing. A wastegated turbocharger provides
improved response at low engine speeds without
sacrificing turbocharger durability at high speeds. This is
accomplished by allowing exhaust gases to bypass the
turbine wheel during certain modes of engine operation.
During low rpm operation, the turbocharger operates as a
closed-system turbocharger where the gases' energy is
transferred to the compressor wheel and use to compress
intake air. During high rpm operation, however, the
turbocharger becomes an open-system turbocharger and
allows exhaust gases to bypass the turbine wheel. Since
exhaust gas is gated around the turbine wheel, less
energy is absorbed through the turbine and transferred to
the compressor, reducing intake manifold pressures and
turbine speeds.

The wastegate controller is mounted on the air intake


connection and is controlled by the ECM. The wastegate
controller regulates the percentage of the intake manifold
pressures sent to the wastegate actuator. Two solenoids,
similar to the fuel pump shutoff valve of the CELECT
product, are used in conjunction with four orifices to
regulate this percentage.

The wastegate actuator is mounted on the turbocharger


and consists of a pressure canister, diaphragm, and rod.
As pressure changes in the canister, as dictated by the
wastegate controller, the actuator rod adjusts the
wastegate valve accordingly.
The wastegate valve is mounted inside the turbocharger
in the turbine housing. As the valve opens, exhaust gas is
allowed to bypass the turbine wheel, lowering turbine
speed to adjust intake manifold pressure.
Flow Diagram, Exhaust System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-44 Section F - Familiarization

Flow Diagram, Exhaust System (200-005)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570
2

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


1

Cummins Inc. 3

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

00c00006

1. Exhaust valve ports 3. Turbocharger turbine.


2. Exhaust manifold
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Exhaust System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-45

Flow Diagram, Exhaust System (200-005)


Flow Diagram
Automotive, Industrial with CM570 and Power Generation without CM570

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

12200016

Wastegate OPEN; Wastegate CLOSED


Flow Diagram, Exhaust System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-46 Section F - Familiarization

With CM870
2
1
3
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.8

Cummins Inc.
4

5 7
Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.
6 11c00066

1. Exhaust gas to manifold 5. EGR valve


2. Exhaust manifold 6. Exhaust gas to EGR cooler connection
3. Exhaust gas to turbocharger 7. EGR cooler
4. Exhaust gas to EGR valve 8. Cooled exhaust gas to EGR connection tube and
EGR mixer.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Exhaust System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-47

With CM870

1 1
2
Cummins Inc. Cummins
4 Inc.

Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


2 4
3
5
11c00067

Variable Geometry
1. Exhaust in 4. Sliding nozzle closed
2. Sliding nozzle Open 5. Exhaust gas high velocity flow.
3. Exhaust gas low velocity flow
Flow Diagram, Exhaust System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-48 Section F - Familiarization

Automotive With CM871

1 1
2
Cummins Inc. Cummins
4 Inc.

Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


2 4
3
5
11c00067

1. Exhaust gas in 4. Sliding nozzle - closed position


2. Sliding nozzle - open position 5. Exhaust gas high velocity flow.
3. Exhaust gas low velocity flow
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Exhaust System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-49

Automotive With CM871


9 10
6
4
5 7

3Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

8
Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


2 1

11c00191

1. Exhaust gas to EGR cooler 6. Front EGR connection tube


2. EGR cooler 7. EGR measurement venturi
3. Cooled exhaust gas to rear EGR connection tube 8. Cooled exhaust gas to the EGR mixer
4. EGR valve mounting bracket 9. EGR differential pressure sensing tubes
5. EGR valve 10. EGR differential pressure sensor.
Flow Diagram, Exhaust System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-50 Section F - Familiarization

Automotive With CM871


1 Cummins Inc.
3 Cummins Inc.
6
5
4
Cummins
7
Inc.
8

10
13
Cummins Inc. Cummins
14 Inc.
9
11 15
12 11c00095

Cummins Particulate Filter


1. Exhaust from turbocharger 9. Aftertreatment particulate trap differential pressure
2. Aftertreatment fuel injector sensor tubes (High)
3. Exhaust pipe with exhaust mixture 10. Installation alignment tab
4. Exhaust gas temperature sensor (number 1) 11. Aftertreatment particulate trap
5. Aftertreatment inlet 12. Aftertreatment particulate filter differential pressure
6. Aftertreatment particulate trap differential pressure sensor tube (Low)
sensor 13. Aftertreatment outlet
7. Aftertreatment catalyst 14. Exhaust gas temperature sensor (number 3)
8. Exhaust gas temperature sensor (number 2) 15. Exhaust flow exiting aftertreatment system.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Compressed Air System - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-51

Compressed Air System - Overview


(012-999)
General Information
The compressed air system normally consists of a gear-
driven air compressor, air governor, air tanks, and all
necessary plumbing.
Complete installation recommendations are found in
Cummins Inc. publication, Automotive and Bus
Installation Recommendations, Air Compressor Systems,
Bulletin 3884946.

Single Cylinder
The components listed below are commonly used in a
single cylinder air system.
(1) Air Governor
(2) Discharge line
(3) Air dryer
(4) Supply tank
(5) Check valve
(6) Primary tank
(7) Secondary tank
(8) Check valve
(9) Air compressor.
Flow Diagram, Compressed Air System Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-52 Section F - Familiarization

Flow Diagram, Compressed Air System (200-006)


Flow Diagram

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


1

Cummins Inc. 2

3Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.

00c00007

1. Coolant 3. Lubricant.
2. Air
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Flow Diagram, Compressed Air System
Section F - Familiarization Page F-53

Flow Diagram, Compressed Air System (200-006)


Flow Diagram

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


2 3

5
Cummins Inc.

Cummins Inc. Cummins Inc.


6
4
00c00008

WABCO - Type System with Air Dryer


1. Governor 4. Reservoir (wet tank)
2. Discharge 5. Air compressor
3. Intake 6. Air dryer.
Electrical Equipment - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-54 Section F - Familiarization

Electrical Equipment - Overview (013-999)


General Information
All Delco Remy America alternators are rated for inlet air temperatures of -35 to 93C [-31 to 200F], measured 25.4
mm [1 in] from the rear of the unit, except for the 26SI. The 26SI has a maximum rating of 85C [185F] because of
the sealed electronics. Avoid mounting the alternator near any heat sources, such as manifolds, turbochargers, and
so forth. Adequate clearance must also be provided at the rear of the alternator for cooling air to enter (the alternator
fan pulls air through toward the front of the unit).
The second most common cause of failure of Cummins alternators is contamination by dirt, chemicals, water, or
unknown substances. While the alternator is laboratory tested to withstand salt spray, dust, and high humidity, it is
necessary to mount the alternator to minimize environmental and application contamination. Exposure to salt spray
over an extended period of time will shorten the alternator life, as well as increase circuit resistance by causing
corrosion to terminal connections for all electrical components. Exposure to engine oil or oil mist from the engine
breather tubes can cause brush problems in brush alternators, as well as attract other debris. Any contamination of
the rear of the alternator can reduce airflow, which will eventually overheat the diodes.
If operating in extreme environments, especially off-road, the 21SI can be installed with a dust shield, which has shown
to reduce the effects of extreme environments and improve alternator life. Debris shields have been developed for
the 19SI, 22SI, and 23SI alternators. New debris shields have provisions for mounting an air duct in order to route
clean air where necessary.
Establish proper cable routing, and determine cable lengths. Avoid routing taut cables between connections. The
maximum voltage drop in the charging system at rated alternator output is 0.5 VDC for a 12 VDC system, 1.0 VDC
for a 24 VDC system, and 1.5 VDC for a 32 VDC system. The voltage drop in the charging system must be kept to a
minimum in order to make sure enough voltage exists to charge the batteries.
While all Delco Remy America alternators are negative grounds, it is suggested that a full copper return be provided
to the negative (-) terminal of the batteries. This will also make sure that as the vehicle ages, corrosion of the frame
and ground strap do not cause excessive voltage drops. Also, painted mounting brackets can prevent a complete
electrical circuit.
Be sure all electrical connections, including ground connections, are metal-to-metal connections.

CAUTION
Never use any type of toothed lock washer, internal or external tooth (also called star washers), on wiring
connections. The points of the star washer cause current to be conducted only through the points of the star
washer, rather than the larger flat surface of a standard flat washer, and lead to corrosion and a high-
resistance electrical connection.
Mounting Hardware
All capscrews must be a minimum diameter of 12.7 mm [0.5 in].
Always use a hardened steel washer under mounting capscrew heads, or use flanged-head hardware. The
washer must match the capscrew diameter.
Never use any type of lock washer, including toothed or split lock washers, on any mounting connection. Lock
washers are not recommended for mounting capscrews because their trapezoidal cross section provides less
clamping surface and higher clamping stress.
The operating range of the cranking motor and solenoid is -25 to 121C [-13 to 250F]. Military application starters
have an operating range from -54 to 121C [-65 to 250F]. Locating the motor close to the exhaust manifold or other
heat source can result in reduced motor performance with deterioration of insulation and rubber components. A
minimum 50.8 mm [2 in] clearance is recommended. Where relocation or rotation is not possible, metal shielding can
effectively be used to protect the starter from engagement in hot conditions.
Establish proper cable routing. Avoid routing a taut cable between connections. When routing battery cables from the
frame rails to the cranking motor, anchor the cables to the engine, transmission, or cranking motor, and allow for
relative movement between the engine and the frame. It is highly recommended that a copper ground return be used
and the frame not be relied upon for ground return in the starting circuit, which will prevent corrosion from creating
excessive voltage drops. Using a copper ground cable is especially critical in applications using a wet flywheel
housing, where reliance on frame grounding can create a current path through the crankshaft and main bearings.
Limit the number of cables attached to the battery terminal of the solenoid to not more than two.
When positioning the motor at the mounting location, it is desirable to place the solenoid above the centerline of the
motor (preferably a minimum of 15 degrees above the horizontal). This will prevent potential accumulation of foreign
material or moisture that can restrict operation in the tower portion of the shift lever housing. It also reduces the
possibility of road debris being thrown up and breaking the solenoid cap.
Mounting Specifications
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Electrical Equipment - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-55

The flange-to-flywheel distance is the distance on the engine from the cranking motor mounting surface to the
ring gear face. This distance is 50.8 1.52 mm [2.0 0.060 in]. This dimension must include spacers or
gaskets used on the engine. The cranking motor is designed to function within this dimension. If it is altered,
pinion or ring gear damage can occur.
Delco Remy America recommends the use of 12-point, flanged head capscrews.
No lock washers, star washers, or soft washers, including copper electrical connections can be used. Lock
washers and star washers do not have a rectangular cross section and can result in a loss of clamp force on
the mounting capscrews. The yield strength of soft washers or copper connections can be exceeded with
mounting capscrews tightened. In each case, a loose starter mounting will result.

CAUTION
If the engine does not start and must be cranked again, always wait two to three seconds to allow the pinion
and ring gear to stop. If the starter is reengaged immediately, the pinion can be milled or the armature twisted.
The starter is intended only for cranking the engine and must not be used to bump the engine.
If the engine does not start within five seconds of cranking, follow the Cold Weather Starting Using Starting Fluid -
With Mechanical or Electrical Metering Equipment (Ether) in Section 1 of the Operation and Maintenance Manual
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666311, or Procedure 101-004 (Cold Weather Starting) in Section 1 of the
Operation and Maintenance Manual Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251, or Operation and Maintenance
Manual Industrial and Power Generation QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666243. Operating the cranking motor for more
than 30 seconds at a time causes stress and/or severe internal heat buildup. A minimum two minute cooling period
is necessary between extended cranking cycles.
When mounting a magnetic switch on a vehicle, the axis of the plunger must be horizontal to the ground and
perpendicular to the axis of travel of the vehicle. This is to make sure the switch is not activated by the movement of
the vehicle. Do not mount the switch on the engine or any metal that can possibly resonate as a result of road or
engine vibration. For engines with separate fuel shutoff solenoids, Cummins Inc. requires the use of two magnetic
switches: one for the fuel shutoff circuit and one for the starting circuit. The fuel shutoff solenoid must not be wired
to the S terminal of the starting motor. Wiring to the S terminal will cause the shutoff solenoid to fail.
The basic heavy-duty electrical system consists of:
(1) Batteries
(2) Starter
(3) Alternator (generator)
(4) Magnetic switch
(5) Push-button switch
(6) Keyswitch
(7) Control (or relay) circuit wiring
(8) Battery cables or cranking circuit.

Refer to the OEM service repair manual for specific


service information about the charging and starting
circuits.
Refer to the OEM service repair manual or the component
manufacturer's service bulletins for specific service
information about the starting motor and the alternator.
Engine Testing - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-56 Section F - Familiarization

Engine Testing - Overview (014-999)


General Information
This section outlines engine testing and engine run-in
recommendations for Signature engines. All engines
must be run in after a rebuild or a repair involving the
replacement of one or more piston ring sets, cylinder
liners, or pistons.
NOTE: Incorrect or insufficient break-in of the piston rings
will lead to early oil consumption or high-blowby
complaints. Adherence to these run-in guidelines will
allow the full durability of new pistons, liners, and rings to
be realized.
Before running the engine, make sure the engine is filled
with the proper coolant. Also, make sure the lubricating oil
system is filled and primed.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Testing - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-57

In-Service Run-In:
The following in-service run-in guidelines are recommended for Signature engines after a repair involving replacement
of one or more of the piston ring sets, cylinder liners, or pistons where engine or an engine dynamometer and/or
chassis dynamometer run-in can not be performed.
The majority of heavy-duty diesel applications will provide sufficient run-in under normal loaded operations. However,
light-load/high-rpm operation must be avoided during the run-in period.
Engine Dynamometer Run-In:
This is the preferred method of run-in for engines that have been rebuilt out of chassis. It is neither practical nor
recommended that an engine be removed from the application to conduct the run in after a rebuild or cylinder repair
has been performed in-chassis. There is no requirement, nor is it recommended, for an engine that has been run-in
and tested on an engine dynamometer to be run in again after it has been reinstalled in the vehicle or equipment.
Chassis Dynamometer, Portable Dynamometer, or Load Bank Run-In:
When it is not possible to load an engine immediately after rebuild or repair (example: On-highway tractor that
must be "bobtailed" for delivery, a standby generator or fire pump that can not be operated because of customer
restrictions, a fire truck that can not be loaded with the water pump, etc.), the engine must be run in on a chassis
dynamometer, portable dynamometer, or load bank following the recommendations outlined in the attached
procedures.
Fuel Flow Measurement on Engine or
Chassis Dynamometer
Accurate fuel flow measurement is important for
evaluation of engine performance and troubleshooting on
an engine or chassis dynamometer. The only way an
accurate fuel flow measurement can be obtained is
through proper use of available equipment. Below is a
description of the fuel measuring device, available from
Cummins Engine Company, along with installation and
operation recommendations. The fuel measuring device,
Part No. 3376375, can be used with either a chassis or
engine dynamometer.
Installation:
When installing the fuel measuring device, it is important
to reduce the amount of air that can be introduced into the
system when the device is not in use. Therefore, the
plumbing used must include nonrestrictive shutoff valves,
such as ballcock valves, to contain fuel in the device after
each use. Additional installation considerations are:
The fuel measuring device, Part No. 3376375,
must be mounted vertically to maintain accuracy
and proper operation.
A separate fuel supply for use on the dynamometer
is recommended. All fuel used in the measuring
device must be clean for consistent operation.
Care must be taken to reduce fuel line restriction to
and from the engine. Minimum recommended hose
size is No. 10 for the engine fuel inlet and No. 8 for
the engine fuel drain. The length of either hose must
not exceed 15 feet.
For accurate fuel consumption or flow measurement
while testing on a chassis dynamometer, it is
recommended to use a fuel cooler to maintain inlet
temperature to the fuel gear at 49C [120F] or
below.
Engine Testing - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-58 Section F - Familiarization

Operation:
This is a schematic of the fuel measuring device, Part No. 3376375. The device consists of the following components:
Fuel Filter
Flowmeter
Float Tank
Fuel Rail Pressure Gauge
Fuel cooler is not a part of fuel measuring device, Part No. 3376375; however, it must be used when conducting
a test with the flowmeter.

The fuel measuring device recirculates return fuel to the engine fuel inlet by routing the return fuel to the topside of
the float tank. The fuel is deaerated as it passes through the baffling in the float tank. A ball float valve at the bottom
of the float tank maintains an adequate volume in the tank for deaeration. The fuel is then returned to the engine fuel
inlet. Refer to the sketch for fuel line connection points on the fuel measuring device.
1. Fuel supply from tank
2. Fuel flow to fuel meter
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Vehicle Braking - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-59

3. Fuel flow from fuel meter


4. Fuel flow to fuel cooler
5. Injector return fuel
6. Fuel rail pressure.
NOTE: The fuel supply tank must be below the level of the fuel measuring device to prevent overflow of the float tank.
If an overhead fuel supply tank is used, a float-controlled reservoir must be installed between the fuel supply tank
and the fuel measuring device, and below the level of the device.

The fuel measuring device is installed in series between the fuel supply tank and the engine fuel inlet. The quantity
of fuel being drawn through the flowmeter is known as makeup fuel or the amount of fuel being burned by the engine.
The flowmeter is graduated to read fuel flow in pounds per hour. The flowmeter contains two floats with respective
scales on either side of the flowmeter. The small float is used to measure lower flows and must be read on the left
scale, as shown. The larger float is for measuring higher flows and must be read on the right scale.
To obtain an accurate fuel rate measurement, the flowmeter reading must be corrected based on the fuel temperature.
There is a fuel temperature gauge on the front panel of the fuel measuring device. The gauge is graduated in percent
of error by which the reading requires correction. By way of illustration, the fuel of an engine reads 125 lb/hr on the
flowmeter, and the temperature gauge reads +2 percent; the corrected fuel flow rate will be 125 plus 2 percent, or
127.5 lb/hr.

Vehicle Braking - Overview (020-999)


General Information
CAUTION
Do not exceed governed engine speed when
operating engine brakes. Engine damage can occur.
The engine brakes are designed to assist the vehicle's
service brakes in slowing down the vehicle. Never use
only the engine brakes to stop the vehicle. If other
engine brakes are used, refer to the component
manufacturer's manual.
Vehicle Braking - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-60 Section F - Familiarization

Signature and ISX engines are equipped with the


Intebrake system (engine brakes). The Intebrake
system is optional on QSX engines.
Engine brakes use the energy of engine compression to
provide vehicle retardation by converting the engine to an
energy-absorbing device to reduce vehicle speed. This is
accomplished by a hydraulic circuit that opens the
exhaust valves near the end of the compression stroke.
Engine brakes provide the maximum retarding power at
rated speed; therefore, gear selection is important.

The amount of braking power available on Signature, ISX,


or QSX engines is up to 600 hp. Braking power is
managed by the Intebrake system (engine brakes).

Engine brake controls consist of the following:


A six-position selector switch or a three-position
selector switch
An on/off switch
A clutch switch
A throttle sensor
A service brake pressure switch.

Other switches for cruise control that affect engine brake


operations are:
Cruise control ON/OFF and SET/RESUME switches
(if the engine brakes in cruise control feature is
turned off)
Service brake air pressure switch.
Engine brakes can operate while cruise control is turned
on. Refer to Programmable Features in this section.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Vehicle Braking - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-61

The six-position selector switch is located next to the on/


off switch in the cab, and allows you to select the retarding
power from brake positions 1 to 6.

The engine brake level specifications (six-position selector


switch):
Position 1 = 17-percent engine braking power
Position 2 = 33-percent engine braking power
Position 3 = 50-percent engine braking power
Position 4 = 67-percent engine braking power
Position 5 = 83-percent engine braking power
Position 6 = 100-percent engine braking power.
NOTE: For OEMs that use a three-position selector
switch, the engine brake level specifications are:
Position 1 = 33-percent engine braking power
Position 2 = 67-percent engine braking power
Position 3 = 100 percent engine braking power.

Signals from the on/off switch, the clutch switch, the


throttle sensor, and the cruise/PTO switches are fed into
the electronic control module (ECM).
NOTE: Any one of these switches can deactivate the
engine brakes. If the engine brakes in cruise control
feature is turned on, the cruise control/PTO switches will
not deactivate the engine brakes.

The ECM then electronically enables or disables the


engine brakes.
NOTE: Engine brakes can not be enabled:
1. When cruise control is active and if the engine
brakes in cruise control feature is turned off
2. When engine speed drops below 850 rpm, or 30 mph
3. When an electronic fault code is active.
Vehicle Braking - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-62 Section F - Familiarization

The throttle sensor is part of the accelerator pedal


assembly located in the cab and will deactivate the engine
brakes when depressed.

The clutch switch uses the motion of the clutch linkage


to deactivate the engine brakes when the clutch pedal is
depressed. Depressing the clutch while in cruise control
will disengage the cruise control.

The service brake pressure switch is attached to the


service brake air supply line.
Applying the service brakes while in cruise control will
disengage the cruise control and enable the engine
brakes.
If the pedal activated engine brake feature is enabled, the
service brake pedal must be tapped before the engine
brakes will be activated.

Idle the engine 3 to 5 minutes at approximately 1000 rpm


to warm the engine before activating the engine brakes.
Do not operate the engine brakes until the engine oil
temperature is above 30C [86F].
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Vehicle Braking - Overview
Section F - Familiarization Page F-63

To activate the engine brakes, switch the on/off switch to


the ON position. Once activated, the operation of the
engine brakes is fully automatic.
NOTE: Refer to the appropriate pages in this section for
specific information about engine brake operation under
certain road conditions.

WARNING
Do not use the engine brakes while bobtailing or
pulling an empty trailer. With the engine brakes in
operation, wheel lockup can occur more quickly when
the service brakes are applied, especially on vehicles
with single-drive axles.
Make sure the engine brakes are switched to the OFF
position when bobtailing or pulling an empty trailer.

CAUTION
The engine brakes are designed to assist the vehicle's
service brakes in slowing the vehicle to a stop.
Remember, service brakes will be required to bring the
vehicle to a stop.

CAUTION
Do not use the engine brakes to aid clutchless
gearshifting. This can cause the engine to stall or lead
to engine damage.
Vehicle Braking - Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page F-64 Section F - Familiarization

The ECM will disable the engine brakes when engine rpm
is below 850 rpm or when an electronic fault code is active.

CAUTION
Do not operate the engine if the engine brakes will not
deactivate. To do so will cause severe engine
damage.
If the engine brakes will not shut off, shut off the engine
immediately.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-a

Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms


Section Contents
Page
.........................................................................................................................................................................TS-1
General Information........................................................................................................................................TS-1
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts ...............................................................................................................TS-2
General Information........................................................................................................................................TS-2
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter Excessive Ash Cleaning................................................................TS-12
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter - Excessive Automatic and/or Stationary Regeneration......................TS-90
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter Excessive Soot Loading................................................................TS-11
Air Compressor Air Pressure Rises Slowly .....................................................................................................TS-3
Air Compressor Cycles Frequently..................................................................................................................TS-4
Air Compressor Noise is Excessive.................................................................................................................TS-5
Air Compressor Pumping Excess Lubricating Oil into the Air System .............................................................TS-6
Air Compressor Will Not Maintain Adequate Air Pressure (Not Pumping Continuously)....................................TS-8
Air Compressor Will Not Pump Air..................................................................................................................TS-9
Air Compressor Will Not Stop Pumping.........................................................................................................TS-10
Alternator Not Charging or Insufficient Charging...........................................................................................TS-13
Coolant in the Lubricating Oil........................................................................................................................TS-26
Coolant Loss - External.................................................................................................................................TS-15
Coolant Loss - Internal..................................................................................................................................TS-17
Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Gradual Overheat...............................................................................TS-19
Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Sudden Overheat...............................................................................TS-22
Coolant Temperature Below Normal..............................................................................................................TS-24
Crankcase Coalescing Filter - Frequent Replacement...................................................................................TS-28
Crankcase Gases (Blowby) Excessive...........................................................................................................TS-27
Engine Brake - Low Retarding Power or Slow to Activate..............................................................................TS-32
Engine Brake One or More Cylinders Braking with Power Switch Off........................................................TS-35
Engine Brake Does Not Operate...................................................................................................................TS-29
Engine Decelerates Slowly............................................................................................................................TS-37
Engine Noise Excessive................................................................................................................................TS-38
Engine Noise Excessive Combustion Knocks............................................................................................TS-41
Engine Noise Excessive Connecting Rod..................................................................................................TS-42
Engine Noise Excessive Main Bearing......................................................................................................TS-43
Engine Noise Excessive Piston.................................................................................................................TS-45
Engine Noise Excessive Turbocharger......................................................................................................TS-46
Engine Shuts Off Unexpectedly or Dies During Deceleration.........................................................................TS-47
Engine Speed Surges in PTO or Cruise Control............................................................................................TS-49
Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running......................................................................................................TS-51
Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Air Starter).....................................................................................TS-54
Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Electric Starter)..............................................................................TS-55
Engine Will Not Shut Off...............................................................................................................................TS-57
Fuel Consumption Excessive........................................................................................................................TS-58
Fuel in Coolant.............................................................................................................................................TS-63
Fuel in the Lubricating Oil.............................................................................................................................TS-64
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Above Specification....................................................................................TS-66
Intake Manifold Pressure (Boost) is Below Normal.........................................................................................TS-68
Lubricating Oil Consumption Excessive........................................................................................................ TS-71
Lubricating Oil Contaminated........................................................................................................................TS-74
Lubricating Oil Filter Plugged........................................................................................................................TS-75
Lubricating Oil in the Fuel.............................................................................................................................TS-70
Lubricating Oil Pressure High.......................................................................................................................TS-78
Lubricating Oil Pressure Low........................................................................................................................TS-79
Lubricating Oil Sludge in the Crankcase Excessive.......................................................................................TS-81
Lubricating Oil Temperature Above Specification..........................................................................................TS-83
Lubricating or Transmission Oil in the Coolant..............................................................................................TS-85
Stationary Regeneration Will Not Activate.................................................................................................TS-87
Stationary Regeneration - Will Not Complete.................................................................................................TS-91
Turbocharger Leaks Engine Oil or Fuel.........................................................................................................TS-86
Troubleshooting Overview ...........................................................................................................................TS-93
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-b Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Connecting Rod Bearing Noise.....................................................................................................................TS-93


Coolant Loss Pre-Troubleshooting Guide....................................................................................................TS-102
Driver Interview Questions.......................................................................................................................TS-103
Service History Review.............................................................................................................................TS-104
ECM Data Review:...................................................................................................................................TS-104
Driveability - General Information..................................................................................................................TS-93
Driveability/Low Power - Customer Complaint Form......................................................................................TS-95
Driveability/Low Power/Excessive Fuel Consumption - Checklist...................................................................TS-96
Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures - General Information...........................................................................TS-93
Fuel Consumption - Customer Complaint Form.............................................................................................TS-99
Fuel Consumption - General Information.......................................................................................................TS-98
Main Bearing Noise...................................................................................................................................... TS-93
Oil Consumption.........................................................................................................................................TS-101
Piston Noise.................................................................................................................................................TS-93
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-1

General Information
A thorough analysis of the customer's complaint is the key to successful troubleshooting. The more information known
about a complaint, the faster and easier the problem can be solved.
The Troubleshooting Symptom Charts are organized so that a problem can be located and corrected by doing the
easiest and most logical things first. Complete all steps in the sequence shown from top to bottom.
It is not possible to include all the solutions to problems that can occur; however, these charts are designed to
stimulate a thought process that will lead to the cause and correction of the problem.
Follow these basic troubleshooting steps:
Get all the facts concerning the complaint
Analyze the problem thoroughly
Relate the symptoms to the basic engine systems and components
Consider any recent maintenance or repair action that can relate to the complaint
Double-check before beginning any disassembly
Solve the problem by using the symptom charts and doing the easiest things first
Determine the cause of the problem and make a thorough repair
After repairs have been made, operate the engine to make sure the cause of the complaint has been corrected
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-2 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts


General Information
Use the charts on the following pages of this section to aid in diagnosing specific engine symptoms. Read each row
of blocks from top to bottom. Follow through the chart to identify the corrective action.

WARNING
Troubleshooting presents the risk of equipment damage, personal injury or death. Troubleshooting must be
performed by trained, experienced technicians.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-3

Air Compressor Air Pressure Rises Slowly


This is symptom tree t004
Cause Correction
Block the vehicle wheels and check the air system
for leaks with spring brakes applied and released.
STEP 1 Check for leaks from the air compressor gaskets
............ and the air system hoses, fittings, tanks, and
Air system leaks
valves. Refer to Procedure 012-019 and the OEM
service manuals. Turn the keyswitch ON. Walk
around the engine and listen for air leaks.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Check for carbon buildup. Replace the air


compressor discharge line and cylinder head
Carbon buildup is excessive in the air discharge ............
assembly if necessary. Refer to Procedure
line, downstream air valves, or cylinder head
012-003.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Check the operation of air system valves, air


............ dryers, and other OEM-installed air system
Air system component is malfunctioning
components. Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Replace the air compressor air cleaner (if
STEP 4 installed). Check the air intake piping. Check
Air intake system restriction to air compressor is ............ engine air intake restriction if the air compressor
excessive inlet is plumbed to the vehicle or equipment intake
system. Refer to Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Inspect the air compressor head assembly and
............
Air compressor intake or exhaust system leaks air replace if required. Refer to Procedure 012-003.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-4 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Air Compressor Cycles Frequently


This is symptom tree t005
Cause Correction
Block the vehicle wheels and check the air system
for leaks with spring brakes applied and released.
STEP 1 Check for leaks from the air compressor gaskets
............ and the air system hoses, fittings, tanks, and
Air system leaks
valves. Refer to Procedure 012-019 and the OEM
service manuals. Turn the keyswitch ON. Walk
around the engine and listen for air leaks.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Check the air governor for correct operation. Refer
............
Air governor is malfunctioning or not set correctly to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the operation of check valves, alcohol
STEP 3 evaporators, air dryers, and other OEM-installed
............
Air system component is malfunctioning air system components. Refer to the OEM service
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for carbon buildup. Replace the air
STEP 4 compressor discharge line and cylinder head
assembly if necessary. Refer to Procedure
Carbon buildup is excessive in the air discharge ............
012-003. Check the turbocharger for oil leaks.
line, downstream air valves, or cylinder head
Check the intake tube for oil. Refer to Procedure
010-033.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Lubricate or replace the air dryer outlet check valve
............
Air dryer outlet check valve is sticking assembly. Refer to the OEM service manual.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-5

Air Compressor Noise is Excessive


This is symptom tree t006
Cause Correction
STEP 1
............ Check for ice in low spots of the air discharge line.
Ice buildup in the air system components

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Check for carbon buildup. Replace the air


compressor discharge line and cylinder head
Carbon buildup is excessive in the air discharge ............
assembly if necessary. Refer to Procedure
line, downstream air valves, or cylinder head
012-003.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Install a ping tank between the air dryer and the
Air compressor is sending air pulses into the air ............ wet tank and check discharge line size for the
tanks application. Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the air compressor timing. Refer to
............
Air compressor timing is not correct Procedure 012-014.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5
Check air compressor mounting hardware. Refer
Air compressor mounting hardware is loose, worn, ............
to Procedure 012-014.
or broken

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Replace the air compressor. Replace the desiccant
Air compressor is excessively worn or internally ............ element on the air dryer (if equipped). Refer to
damaged Procedure 012-014 and the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7
Inspect the drive gears and gear train and repair
Air compressor drive gear or engine gear train is ............
as necessary. Refer to Procedure 012-014.
worn or damaged
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-6 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Air Compressor Pumping Excess Lubricating Oil into the Air System
This is symptom tree t007
Cause Correction
Verify the correct lubricating oil drain interval.
Refer to Procedure 102-002 in Section 2 of the
STEP 1 Operation and Maintenance Manual Signature and
............
Lubricating oil drain interval is excessive ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251, or the Operation
and Maintenance Manual Industrial and Power
Generation QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Replace the air compressor air cleaner (if
STEP 2 installed). Check the air intake piping. Check
Air intake system restriction to air compressor is ............ engine air intake restriction if the air compressor
excessive inlet is plumbed to the vehicle or equipment intake
system. Refer to Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Check the air compressor duty cycle. Install larger


............ air compressor if available. Check for and repair all
Air compressor pumping time is excessive
air system leaks. Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for carbon buildup. Replace the air
STEP 4 compressor discharge line, if necessary. Check
Carbon buildup is excessive in the air discharge ............ the turbocharger for oil leaks. Check the intake
line, check valve, or cylinder head tube for oil. Refer to Procedures 012-003 and
010-033.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5
Engine angularity during operation exceeds ............ Refer to the Engine Specification data sheet.
specification

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 6 Check for excessive blowby. Refer to the


............ Crankcase Gases (Blowby) Excessive symptom
Crankcase pressure is excessive
tree.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 If coolant temperature is above normal, refer to the


............ Crankcase Gases (Blowby) Excessive symptom
Air compressor runs hot
tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-7

Air Compressor Pumping Excess Lubricating Oil into the Air System
This is symptom tree t007
Cause Correction
STEP 8 Replace the air compressor. Replace the desiccant
Air compressor is excessively worn or internally ............ element on the air dryer (if equipped). Refer to the
damaged OEM service manual.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-8 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Air Compressor Will Not Maintain Adequate Air Pressure (Not Pumping Continuously)
This is symptom tree t008
Cause Correction
Block the vehicle wheels and check the air system
for leaks with spring brakes applied and released.
STEP 1 Check for leaks from the air compressor gaskets
............ and the air system hoses, fittings, tanks, and
Air system leaks
valves. Refer to Procedure 012-019 and the OEM
service manuals. Turn the keyswitch ON. Walk
around the engine and listen for air leaks.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Check the air governor for correct operation. Refer
............
Air governor is malfunctioning or not set correctly to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
Inspect the air compressor head assembly and
Air compressor intake or exhaust valve system ............
replace if required. Refer to Procedure 012-019.
leaks air
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-9

Air Compressor Will Not Pump Air


This is symptom tree t009
Cause Correction
Replace the air compressor air cleaner (if
STEP 1 installed). Check the air intake piping. Check
Air intake system restriction to air compressor is ............ engine air intake restriction if the air compressor
excessive inlet is plumbed to the vehicle or equipment intake
system. Refer to Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Check the unloader system and head assembly


............ system. Replace the head assembly if required.
Unloader system is malfunctioning
Refer to Procedure 012-013.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
Inspect the air compressor cylinder head and
Air compressor cylinder head is cracked or porous, ............
gasket. Refer to Procedure 012-013.
or has a leaking gasket

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Replace the air compressor. Replace the desiccant
Air compressor is excessively worn or internally ............ element on the air dryer (if equipped). Refer to
damaged Procedure 012-014 and the OEM service manual.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-10 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Air Compressor Will Not Stop Pumping


This is symptom tree t010
Cause Correction
Block the vehicle wheels and check the air system
for leaks with spring brakes applied and released.
STEP 1 Check for leaks from the air compressor gaskets
............ and the air system hoses, fittings, tanks, and
Air system leaks
valves. Refer to Procedure 012-019 and the OEM
service manuals. Turn the keyswitch ON. Walk
around the engine and listen for air leaks.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the operation of check valves, alcohol
STEP 2 evaporators, air dryers, and other OEM-installed
............
Air system component is malfunctioning air system components. Refer to the OEM service
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Inspect the air compressor head assembly and
............
Air compressor intake or exhaust system leaks air replace if required. Refer to Procedure 012-003.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the air governor for correct operation. Refer
............
Air governor is malfunctioning or not set correctly to the OEM service manual.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-11

Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter Excessive Soot Loading


This is symptom tree t011
Cause Correction

STEP 1 Refer to Section TF in the ISX CM871 and ISM


CM876 Electronic Control Systems,
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Bulletin
inactive fault codes
4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Review the repair history of the engine to


determine aftertreatment diesel particulate filter
Progressive damage from excessive black smoke ............
was replaced or needs replacement. Refer to
caused from an earlier or current failure event.
Procedure 014-013 for test procedure.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Perform stationary regeneration with the INSITE
Extended operation of engine in low duty cycle, ............ electronic service tool. Refer to Procedure
extended idling and/or low ambient temperatures 014-013.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4
............ Use lower gear.
Engine is being lugged down

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the air intake system for restriction. Refer to
............
Intake air restriction is high Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Refer to the Oil Consumption - Excessive
............
Excessive internal oil consumption Troubleshooting Symptom Tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Refer to the Black Smoke - Excessive
............
Excessive black smoke is observed. Troubleshooting Symptom Tree.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-12 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter Excessive Ash Cleaning


This is symptom tree t012
Cause Correction
STEP 1 Refer to Section TF in the ISX CM871 and ISM
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ CM876 Electronic Control System Troubleshooting
inactive fault codes and Repair Manual, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Perform stationary regeneration with the INSITE
Extended operation of engine in low duty cycle, ............ electronic service tool. Refer to Procedure
extended idling and/or low ambient temperatures 014-013.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Use an engine lubricating oil that meets CES


............ 20081. Refer to the appropriate Operation and
Lubricating oil being used has high ash content.
Maintenance.

OK
Go To Next Step
Confirm oil blending into fuel. Drain fuel and
STEP 4 replace with clean fuel. Discontinue practice of
............
Blending of engine lubricating oil into fuel. blending oil with fuel. Refer to the appropriate
Operation and Maintenance Manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Discontinue use of the fuel supplement/additive
Fuel supplement/additive used has high ash ............ being used. Refer to Cummins Fuel
content. Recommendation Bulletin 3379001.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Review the air intake filtration system for
Intake air filtration system malfunctioned allowing ............
malfunction. Refer to Procedure 010-024.
dust contamination.

OK
Go To Next Step
Measure the engine blowby. If blowby is above
specification, refer to the Crankcase Gases
STEP 7 (Blowby). Excessive symptom tree. Replace the
............
Crankcase pressure is excessive blowby sensor if there were not any sensor fault
codes. Refer to Crankcase Gases (Blowby)
Excessive Troubleshooting Symptom Tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Refer to the Oil Consumption - Excessive
............
Excessive internal oil consumption Troubleshooting Symptom Tree.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-13

Alternator Not Charging or Insufficient Charging


This is symptom tree t013
Cause Correction
STEP 1
Check the battery cables and connections. Refer
Battery cables or connections are loose, broken, or ............
to Procedure 013-009.
corroded (excessive resistance)

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Check the condition of the batteries, replace if


............ necessary. Refer to Procedure 013-007 and the
Batteries have failed
OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check the battery heater. Refer to the OEM service
............
Batteries are cold manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the fuses, wires, and connections. Refer to
Electrical system is "open" (blown fuses, broken ............ the OEM service manual and the manufacturer's
wires, or loose connections) wiring diagrams.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the alternator belt tension. Refer to
............
Alternator belt is loose Procedure 008-080 or 013-021.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the vehicle gauge. Refer to the OEM service
............
Vehicle gauge is malfunctioning manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Tighten the pulley. Refer to the manufacturer's
............
Alternator pulley is loose on the shaft instructions.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 8 Test the alternator output. Replace the alternator


............ or voltage regulator if necessary. Refer to
Alternator or voltage regulator is malfunctioning
Procedure 013-001 and the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9
Install an alternator with a higher capacity. Refer to
Alternator is overloaded, or alternator capacity is ............
Procedure 013-001 and the OEM service manual.
below specification

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-14 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Alternator Not Charging or Insufficient Charging


This is symptom tree t013
Cause Correction
STEP 10 Position the batteries away from heat sources.
............
Battery temperature is above specification Refer to the OEM service manual.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-15

Coolant Loss - External


This is symptom tree t020
Cause Correction
Before troubleshooting, it is important to determine
STEP 1 the exact complaint by interviewing the driver,
............ looking at the service history, and looking at the
Excessive internal or external engine coolant loss
ECM information. Refer to the Coolant Loss Pre-
Troubleshooting Guide at the end of Section TS.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Check the coolant level. Refer to the OEM service
............
Coolant level is above specification manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Inspect the engine for coolant leaking from hoses,
draincocks, water manifold, expansion and pipe
plugs, fittings, radiator core, exhaust heat shield,
STEP 3 heat exchanger, air compressor and cylinder head
............ gaskets, lubricating oil cooler, water pump seal,
External coolant leak
and OEM-mounted components that have coolant
flow. If necessary, pressure-test the cooling
system, exhaust heat shield, or heat exchanger.
Refer to Procedure 008-018.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4
Check the radiator pressure cap. Refer to
Radiator cap is not correct, is malfunctioning, or ............
Procedure 008-047.
has low-pressure rating

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the vent lines and the fill line for correct
Fill line or vent lines are restricted, obstructed, or ............ routing and for restriction. Refer to the OEM
not routed correctly service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Cooling system hose is collapsed, restricted, or ............ Inspect the hoses. Refer to Procedure 008-045.
leaking

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7
Check for air or combustion gases in the cooling
Air or combustion gases are entering the cooling ............
system. Refer to Procedure 008-019.
system

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-16 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant Loss - External


This is symptom tree t020
Cause Correction

STEP 8 Refer to the Coolant Temperature Above Normal -


............ Gradual Overheat and Coolant Temperature
Engine is overheating
Above Normal - Sudden Overheat symptom trees.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Check the turbocharger bearing housing. Refer to
............
Turbocharger leaking coolant Procedure 010-033.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 10 Check the EGR valve assembly. Refer to
............
EGR valve leaking coolant Procedure 011-022.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Check the EGR cooler for leaks. Refer to
............
EGR cooler leaking coolant Procedure 011-019.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-17

Coolant Loss - Internal


This is symptom tree t021
Cause Correction
Before troubleshooting, it is important to determine
the exact complaint by interviewing the driver,
STEP 1 looking at the service history, and looking at the
............ ECM information. Refer to the Coolant Loss Pre-
Excessive internal or external engine coolant loss
Troubleshooting Guide at the end of Section TS. If
the truck is equipped with an Auxiliary Power Unit,
make sure the unit is not leaking.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2
Check the radiator pressure cap. Refer to
Radiator cap is not correct, is malfunctioning, or ............
Procedure 008-047 in Section 8.
has low-pressure rating

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check the EGR cooler core for leaks. Refer to
............
EGR cooler core is leaking Procedure 011-019 in Section 11.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the aftertreatment fuel injector for coolant
............
Aftertreatment fuel injector is leaking coolant leaks. Refer to Procedure 011-061 in Section 11.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Replace the injector o-rings and install and tighten


the injectors again to reseat the injector cups.
Injector Sleeve is leaking - even with no noticeable ............
Return the engine to operation. Refer to Procedure
defect to the injector o-rings
006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
For the first investigated instance of internal
coolant loss, perform the corrections in the steps
STEP 6 above and then stop here. Return the engine to
............
First investigated instance of internal coolant loss operation and check for continuing leaks. If the
leaks continue, complete the remaining steps of
this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Check the lubricating oil cooler for coolant leaks.
............
Lubricating oil cooler is leaking Refer to Procedure 007-003 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Inspect the air compressor air inlet and outlet tubes
Air compressor cylinder head is cracked or porous, ............ for signs of coolant. Refer to Procedure 012-007 in
or has a leaking gasket Section 12.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-18 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant Loss - Internal


This is symptom tree t021
Cause Correction
STEP 9
Inspect the air compressor cylinder head and
Air compressor cylinder head is cracked or porous, ............
gasket. Refer to Procedure 012-003 in Section 12.
or has a leaking gasket

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 10 If the unit is equipped with a water cooled


............ turbocharger, refer to Procedure 010-033 in
Turbocharger leaking coolant
Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Check the fuel heater for coolant leaks. Refer to
............
Fuel heater is leaking coolant the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12 Check the transmission oil cooler and torque
Transmission oil cooler or torque converter cooler ............ converter cooler for coolant leaks. Refer to the
is leaking OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 13 Check the cylinder head gasket. Refer to
............
Cylinder head gasket is leaking Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 14 Pressure test the cylinder head. Refer to
............
Cylinder head is cracked or porous Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 15 Refer to Cummins Inc. and request additional
............
Base engine problem technical assistance.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-19

Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Gradual Overheat


This is symptom tree t022
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
STEP 1 Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX and
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ QSX Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the
inactive fault codes Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault code
troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Inspect the engine and cooling system for external


............ coolant leaks. Repair if necessary. Add coolant.
Coolant level is below specification
Refer to Procedure 008-018.

OK
Go To Next Step
Open the cold weather radiator cover or the
winterfront. Maintain a minimum of 784 cm2 [122
in2] or approximately 28 x 28 cm [11 x 11 in] of
opening at all times. Refer to the Cold Weather
STEP 3
............ Starting Aids, Procedure 101-005 in Section 7 of
Cold weather radiator cover or winterfront is closed the Operation and Maintenance Manual Signature
and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666257 or Winterfronts
in Section 1 of the Operation and Maintenance
Manual Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin
3666311.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the automatic belt tensioner. Refer to
............
Fan drive belt is loose Procedure 008-002 and 008-080.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Inspect the charge air cooler, air conditioner
Charge air cooler fins, radiator fins, or air condenser, and radiator fins. Clean, if necessary.
............
conditioner condenser fins are damaged or Refer to Procedures 010-027, 008-042 and the
obstructed with debris OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the fan drive and controls. Refer to
............
Fan drive or fan controls are malfunctioning Procedure 008-027.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-20 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Gradual Overheat


This is symptom tree t022
Cause Correction
STEP 7
Check the radiator pressure cap. Refer to
Radiator cap is not correct, is malfunctioning, or ............
Procedure 008-047.
has low-pressure rating

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Inspect the radiator shutters. Repair or replace if
Radiator shutters are not opening completely, or ............ necessary. Check the shutterstat setting. Refer to
the shutterstat setting is wrong the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 9 Test the temperature gauge. Repair or replace the


............ gauge, if necessary. Refer to Procedure 008-049
Coolant temperature gauge is malfunctioning
and the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 10
Cooling system hose is collapsed, restricted, or ............ Inspect the hoses. Refer to Procedure 008-045.
leaking

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Inspect the shroud and the recirculation baffles.
Fan shroud is damaged or missing or the air ............ Repair, replace, or install, if necessary. Refer to
recirculation baffles are damaged or missing Procedure 008-038 and the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12 Check the vent lines and the fill line for correct
Fill line or vent lines are restricted, obstructed, or ............ routing and for restriction. Refer to Procedure
not routed correctly 008-017 and the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 13 Check the thermostat for the correct part number


............ and for correct operation. Refer to Procedure
Thermostat is not correct or is malfunctioning
008-013.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 14
Refer to the Intake Manifold Air Temperature
Intake manifold air temperature is above ............
Above Specification symptom tree.
specification

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-21

Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Gradual Overheat


This is symptom tree t022
Cause Correction

STEP 15 Check the oil level. Add or drain oil, if necessary.


............ Refer to Procedure 007-037. Check the dipstick
Lubricating oil level is above or below specification
calibration. Refer to Procedure 007-009.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 16
Check the swing check valve for correct operation.
Radiator swing check valve is malfunctioning (if ............
Refer to the OEM service manual.
equipped)

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 17 Check the water pump for correct operation.


............ Replace the water pump if necessary. Refer to
Water pump is malfunctioning
Procedure 008-062.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 18
Inspect the radiator and clean if necessary. Refer
Radiator core is internally obstructed or damaged, ............
to Procedure 008-042.
or the check valve or J-tube is malfunctioning

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 19
Inspect the check valve. Replace if necessary.
Check valve is damaged (with remote-mounted ............
Refer to the OEM service manual.
engine coolant heater)

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 20
Check for air or combustion gases in the cooling
Air or combustion gases are entering the cooling ............
system. Refer to Procedure 008-019.
system

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 21 Check the torque converter. Refer to the OEM
............
Torque converter is malfunctioning service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 22 Verify that the engine and vehicle cooling systems


............ are using the correct components. Refer to the
Vehicle cooling system is not adequate
OEM service manual.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-22 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Sudden Overheat


This is symptom tree t023
Cause Correction

STEP 1 Inspect the engine and cooling system for external


............ coolant leaks. Repair if necessary. Add coolant.
Coolant level is below specification
Refer to Procedure 008-018.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 2 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the Troubleshooting
inactive fault codes
and Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for
fault code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check the fan drive belt. Replace the belt, if
............
Fan drive belt is broken necessary. Refer to Procedure 008-002 or 008-003.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the fan drive and controls. Refer to
............
Fan drive or fan controls are malfunctioning Procedure 008-027.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Inspect the radiator shutters. Repair or replace if
Radiator shutters are not opening completely, or ............ necessary. Check the shutterstat setting. Refer to
the shutterstat setting is wrong Procedure 008-049.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Cooling system hose is collapsed, restricted, or ............ Inspect the hoses. Refer to Procedure 008-045.
leaking

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7
Check the radiator pressure cap. Refer to
Radiator cap is not correct, is malfunctioning, or ............
Procedure 008-047.
has low-pressure rating

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 8 Check the thermostat for the correct part number


............ and for correct operation. Refer to Procedure
Thermostat is not correct or is malfunctioning
008-013.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-23

Coolant Temperature Above Normal - Sudden Overheat


This is symptom tree t023
Cause Correction

STEP 9 Check the water pump for correct operation.


............ Replace the water pump if necessary. Refer to
Water pump is malfunctioning
Procedure 008-062.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 10
Check the swing check valve for correct operation.
Radiator swing check valve is malfunctioning (if ............
Refer to the OEM service manual.
equipped)

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11
Check for air or combustion gases in the cooling
Air or combustion gases are entering the cooling ............
system. Refer to Procedure 008-019.
system

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12
Check the disc for correct installation. Refer to
Torque converter cooler disc is not installed ............
Procedure 008-062.
correctly
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-24 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant Temperature Below Normal


This is symptom tree t024
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
STEP 1 Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX and
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the
inactive fault codes Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault code
troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Use an electronic service tool to check the coolant
temperature sensor circuit. Refer to Procedure
019-019 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
Procedure 019-019 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
STEP 2 Signature, ISX and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
............ 3666259, or Procedure 019-019 in the
Coolant temperature sensor is malfunctioning
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
PowerCommand Control Version 3200 QSX15,
QSK45 and QSK60 Generator Sets, Bulletin
3666394, or Procedure 019-019 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Test the temperature gauge. Repair or replace the


............ gauge, if necessary. Refer to in the OEM service
Coolant temperature gauge is malfunctioning
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the winterfront, shutters, and under-the-
STEP 4 hood air. Use under-the-hood intake air in cold
............ weather. Refer to Cold Weather Operation, Bulletin
Engine is operating at low ambient temperature
3387266 and the correct Operation and
Maintenance manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the fan drive and controls. Refer to
............
Fan drive or fan controls are malfunctioning Procedure 008-027.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-25

Coolant Temperature Below Normal


This is symptom tree t024
Cause Correction
STEP 6 Check the routing of the coolant fill line. Refer to
............
Coolant fill line is not routed correctly the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 Check the shutter operation. Repair or replace the


............ shutters if necessary. Refer to the OEM service
Radiator shutters are stuck open or opening early
manual and Procedure 008-049.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8
Check the swing check valve for correct operation.
Radiator swing check valve is malfunctioning (if ............
Refer to the OEM service manual.
equipped)

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Check the thermostat seal. Check the thermostat
Thermostat seal is damaged, missing, or not ............ for correct seating. Refer to Procedure 008-013 or
installed correctly 008-016.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 10 Check the thermostat for the correct part number


............ and for correct operation. Refer to Procedure
Thermostat is not correct or is malfunctioning
008-013.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Check for correct coolant flow through the radiator.
............
Coolant flow through the radiator is not correct Refer to Procedure 008-042.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-26 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant in the Lubricating Oil


This is symptom tree t025
Cause Correction
STEP 1 Check the EGR cooler for leaks. Refer to
............
EGR cooler leaking coolant Procedure 011-019 in Section 11.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Replace the injector o-rings and install and torque


the injectors again to reseat the injector cups.
Injector Sleeve is leaking - even with no noticeable ............
Return the engine to operation. Refer to Procedure
defect to the injector o-rings
006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
For the first investigated instance of internal
STEP 3 coolant loss, perform the appropriate corrections
in the steps above and STOP. Return the engine
First investigated instance of coolant in the ............
to operation. For repeat instances, verify the
lubricating oil
completion of the steps above and continue to the
next steps.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the lubricating oil cooler for coolant leaks.
............
Lubricating oil cooler is leaking Refer to Procedure 007-003 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5
Inspect the air compressor cylinder head and
Air compressor cylinder head is cracked or porous, ............
gasket. Refer to Procedure 012-003 in Section 12.
or has a leaking gasket

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the cylinder head gasket. Refer to
............
Cylinder head gasket is leaking Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Pressure test the cylinder head. Refer to
............
Cylinder head is cracked or porous Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Refer to Cummins Inc. and request additional
............
Base engine problem technical assistance.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-27

Crankcase Gases (Blowby) Excessive


This is symptom tree t027
Cause Correction
STEP 1 Check the turbocharger compressor and turbine
............
Turbocharger oil seal is leaking seals. Refer to Procedure 010-033.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Isolate the air compressor by disconnecting the air


............ inlet and outlet lines. Refer to the OEM service
Air compressor is malfunctioning
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Check the valve guides for wear. Replace the


............ cylinder head if necessary. Refer to Procedure
Cylinder head valve guides are excessively worn
002-004.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the rocker lever housing gasket. Refer to
............
Rocker lever housing gasket is leaking Procedure 003-011.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Check for air intake system leaks. Refer to


Procedure 010-024. Check the pistons, piston
Piston, cylinder liner, or piston rings are worn or ............
rings, and liners for wear or damage. Refer to
damaged
Procedures 001-043, 001-047, or 001-028.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-28 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Crankcase Coalescing Filter - Frequent Replacement


This is symptom tree t028
Cause Correction
Review the engine's maintenance records to
STEP 1 determine if the crankcase breather filter
Filter miles or hours is at expected maintenance ............ replacement is at expected interval, based on
interval for replacement crankcase blowby. Replace the filter if it is
acceptable per the records.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick calibration


............ and oil pan capacity. Fill the system to the specified
Lubricating oil level is above specification
level. Refer to Procedure 007-009 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check and clean the crankcase breather and vent
............
Crankcase ventilation system is plugged tube. Refer to Procedure 003-001 in Section 3.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 4 Analyze an oil sample for fuel dilution percentage,


............ coolant in oil, and foreign contamination. Repair
Lubricating oil is contaminated
the source of contamination.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Refer to Crankcase Gases (Blowby) Excessive
............
Engine Crankcase Gases (Blowby) excessive. Troubleshooting Symptom Tree.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-29

Engine Brake Does Not Operate


This is symptom tree t036
Cause Correction
STEP 1
............ Turn on the switch.
Engine brake on/off switch is off

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the programmable parameters and the
STEP 2 selected features with an electronic service tool.
Programmable parameters or selected features ............ Set the parameters and features again, if
are not correct necessary. Refer to the electronic service tool
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Refer to the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual
STEP 3 Electronic Control System Signature, ISX and
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259, for fault code
inactive fault codes troubleshooting. Refer to the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419, for
fault code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine brake on/off switch and circuit.
Refer to Procedures 019-034 and 019-035 in
Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 4 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Engine brake on/off switch or circuit is ............ Refer to Procedures 019-034 and 019-035 in
malfunctioning Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual Electronic Control System Signature, ISX
and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259. Refer to
Procedure 020-012 in Section 20. Refer to
Procedure 020-015 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine brake circuit, solenoid, and
harness connectors. Check the engine brake
harness, solenoids, and grounding for continuity.
STEP 5 Refer to Procedure 019-136 in Section 19 in the
Engine brake solenoid, harness or connectors are ............ ISX and ISM CM871 and CM876 Electronic Control
loose, broken or have an open circuit Systems Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Bulletin 4021560. Refer to Procedure 020-004 in
Section 20. Refer to Procedure 020-012 in Section
20. Refer to Procedure 020-015 in Section 20..

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-30 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Brake Does Not Operate


This is symptom tree t036
Cause Correction
Check the clutch switch adjustment, switch, and
circuit. Refer to Procedures 019-009 or 019-010 in
Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
STEP 6 Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
............ Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Clutch switch or circuit is malfunctioning
Refer to Procedures 019-009 or 019-010 in Section
19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual
Electronic Control System Signature, ISX and
QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for foot pedal restriction. Check the
accelerator pedal or lever position sensor and
circuit. Refer to Procedures 019-085 and 019-086
STEP 7 in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Accelerator pedal or lever position sensor or circuit ............ Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
is malfunctioning Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Refer to Procedures 019-085 and 019-086 in
Section 19 in the ISX Fuel System Troubleshooting
and Repair Manual, Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8
Check the service brake pressure switch and
Service brake pressure switch or circuit is ............
circuit. Refer to the OEM service manual.
malfunctioning

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for poor battery and chassis grounds.
Check ground wires or cables for loose
connections. Check the following grounds, make
STEP 9 sure they are secure, clean, and on a non-painted
............
Engine electrical ground is malfunctioning surface: engine block ground, chassis (or frame
rail) grounds, ECM grounds, alternator and starter
negative posts. Disconnect and clean battery cable
connections.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine brake control valve and the
STEP 10 engine brake piston. Refer to Procedure 020-017
............
Lubricating oil leak (internal) in Section 20. Refer to Procedure 020-019 in
Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Check the engine brake assembly for restriction.
............
Engine brake lubricating oil passage is restricted Refer to Procedure 020-004 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-31

Engine Brake Does Not Operate


This is symptom tree t036
Cause Correction
STEP 12 Adjust the engine brakes. Refer to Procedure
............
Engine brake adjustment is not correct 020-004 in Section 20.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-32 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Brake - Low Retarding Power or Slow to Activate


This is symptom tree t037
Cause Correction
Refer to Driveability-General Information, the
STEP 1 Driveability/Low-Power Customer Complaint Form,
............ and the Driveability Checklist at the end of Section
Interview the operator to verify the complaint
TS. Follow the instructions on the forms before
continuing with this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 2 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System Signature, ISX, and QSX15
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
Engines Bulletin 3666259, or Troubleshooting and
inactive fault codes
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault
code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the programmable parameters and the
STEP 3 selected features with an electronic service tool.
Programmable parameters or selected features ............ Set the parameters and features again, if
are not correct necessary. Refer to the electronic service tool
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Allow the engine to warm to operating temperature.
STEP 4 If the engine will not reach operating temperature,
............
Engine is cold refer to the Coolant Temperature Below Normal
symptom tree in Section TS.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Adjust the engine brakes. Refer to Procedure
............
Engine brake adjustment is not correct 020-004 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-33

Engine Brake - Low Retarding Power or Slow to Activate


This is symptom tree t037
Cause Correction
Check the engine brake on/off switch and circuit.
Refer to Procedure 019-034 in Section 19.
Procedure 019-035 in Section 19. These
procedures are found in the Signature and ISX
CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 6 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Bulletin
Engine brake on/off switch or circuit is ............ 4021334. Procedure 019-034 in Section 19.
malfunctioning Procedure 019-035 in Section 19. These
procedures are found in the Signature, ISX and
QSX15 Electronic Control System,
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Bulletin
3666259. Procedure 020-012 in Section 20.
Procedure 020-015 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine brake circuit, solenoid, and
harness connectors. Check the engine brake
harness, solenoids, and grounding for continuity.
STEP 7 Refer to Procedure 019-136 in Section 19. This
procedure is found in the ISX and ISM CM871 and
Engine brake solenoid, harness or connectors are ............
CM876 Electronic Control Systems
loose, broken or have an open circuit
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual Bulletin
4021560. Procedure 020-004 in Section 20.
Procedure 020-012 in Section 20. Procedure
020-015 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for poor battery and chassis grounds.
Check ground wires or cables for loose
connections. Check the following grounds, make
STEP 8 sure they are secure, clean, and on a non-painted
............
Engine electrical ground is malfunctioning surface: engine block ground, chassis (or frame
rail) grounds, ECM grounds, alternator and starter
negative posts. Disconnect and clean battery cable
connections.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Check the oil level. If the level is high, contact a
............
Air in the lubricating oil system Cummins Authorized Repair Location.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 10 Check the engine brake control valve and the


............ engine brake piston. Refer to Procedure 020-017
Lubricating oil leak (internal)
in Section 20 and Procedure 020-019 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-34 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Brake - Low Retarding Power or Slow to Activate


This is symptom tree t037
Cause Correction
STEP 11
............ Refer to Procedure 020-012 in Section 20.
Engine brake solenoid(s) is malfunctioning

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 12 Check the engine brake control valve(s). Replace


............ the engine brake control valve(s) if necessary.
Engine brake control valve(s) is malfunctioning
Refer to Procedure 020-017 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 13 Check the engine brake assembly for restriction.
............
Engine brake lubricating oil passage is restricted Refer to Procedure 020-004 in Section 20.

OK
Go To Next Step
Perform diagnostics to determine if the
turbocharger has failed. Replace the turbocharger
STEP 14 as necessary. Refer to Bulletin 4021334, for ISX
............
Turbocharger is malfunctioning CM870, Section TT, 70-t02-1001, Guided Step 6.
For ISX CM871 refer to Bulletin 4021560, Section
TT, 16-t02-1001a, Guided Step 6.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-35

Engine Brake One or More Cylinders Braking with Power Switch Off
This is symptom tree t038
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
STEP 1 Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Section TF in the
inactive fault codes Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault code
troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine brake enable circuit. Refer to
Procedure 019-034 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 2 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
............
Engine brake enable circuit is malfunctioning Procedure 019-034 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
Signature, ISX and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine brake on/off switch and circuit.
Refer to Procedures 019-034 and 019-035 in the
STEP 3 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Engine brake on/off switch or circuit is ............
Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or Procedures 019-034
malfunctioning
and 019-035 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX
and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Adjust the engine brakes. Refer to Procedure
............
Engine brake adjustment is not correct 020-004.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Remove the solenoid valve and inspect the top and
............ bottom o-rings. Replace the o-rings if necessary.
Solenoid valve o-ring seals are leaking
Procedure 020-004

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check for voltage at the solenoid valve. Refer to
............
Solenoid valve is malfunctioning Procedure 020-012.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-36 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Brake One or More Cylinders Braking with Power Switch Off
This is symptom tree t038
Cause Correction
STEP 7 Replace the solenoid valve. Refer to Procedure
............
Solenoid valve is stuck in the on position 020-012.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-37

Engine Decelerates Slowly


This is symptom tree t041
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Bulletin 4021334, or Troubleshooting and Repair
STEP 1 Manual, Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX
and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Section
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
TF in the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
inactive fault codes
Power Generation Control Systems QSX15,
QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30
Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault code
troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the percent accelerator pedal or lever
reading on an electronic service tool. Verify that it
STEP 2 reads 100 percent with the accelerator pedal
Accelerator pedal or lever is restricted or ............ depressed and 0 percent when released. Calibrate
malfunctioning the accelerator if possible. Replace the accelerator
pedal if necessary. Refer to the OEM service
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Procedure
............
Air in the fuel system 006-003.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Remove and check the injectors. Replace the
............
Injector o-rings are damaged or missing injector o-rings. Refer to Procedure 006-026.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Perform the automated cylinder performance test.


............ Replace injectors as necessary. Refer to
Injector is malfunctioning
Procedure 006-026 or 014-008.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the turbocharger compressor and turbine
............
Turbocharger oil seal is leaking seals. Refer to Procedure 010-033.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-38 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Noise Excessive


This is symptom tree t047
When troubleshooting engine noise complaints, make sure the engine accessories (air compressor, fan clutch,
refrigerant compressor, or hydraulic pump) are not the cause of the noise. Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic
Procedures - General Information at the end of Section TS before using this symptom tree.
Cause Correction
Refer to Driveability-General Information, the
STEP 1 Driveability/Low-Power Customer Complaint Form,
............ and the Driveability Checklist at the end of Section
Interview the operator to verify the complaint
TS. Follow the instructions on the forms before
continuing with this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Inspect the air intake and exhaust systems for air
............
Air intake or exhaust leaks leaks. Refer to Procedure 010-024 in Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334,or
the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
STEP 3 Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX and
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259,or
inactive fault codes Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems, QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78 and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault code
troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick calibration
STEP 4 and the oil pan capacity. Fill the system to the
............
Lubricating oil level is below specification specified level. Refer to Procedures 007-009 and
007-037 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5
Isolate each component and check for noise. Refer
Fan clutch, hydraulic pump, or refrigerant ............
to the OEM service manual.
compressor noise is excessive

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the fan. Refer to Procedure 008-040 in
............
Fan is loose, damaged, or not balanced Section 8.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Inspect the air piping, chassis, and cab for contact
Air intake or exhaust piping is contacting the ............ points. Refer to Procedure 010-031 in Section 10
chassis or cab or Procedure 010-080 in Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-39

Engine Noise Excessive


This is symptom tree t047
When troubleshooting engine noise complaints, make sure the engine accessories (air compressor, fan clutch,
refrigerant compressor, or hydraulic pump) are not the cause of the noise. Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic
Procedures - General Information at the end of Section TS before using this symptom tree.
Cause Correction
STEP 8 Verify the condition of the mounts. Refer to
Engine mounts are worn, damaged, loose, or not ............ Procedure 016-010 in Section 16. Refer to the OEM
correct service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Refer to the Engine Noise Excessive -
............
Turbocharger noise Turbocharger symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Remove the vibration damper and operate the
STEP 10 engine at the rpm where the noise normally occurs.
............ If the noise is still present, proceed to the next step.
Vibration damper has failed
If the noise is eliminated, replace the vibration
damper. Refer to Procedure 001-052 in Section 1.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Disconnect the drivetrain. Check for engine noise.
............
Drivetrain noise is excessive Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12 Refer to the Air Compressor Noise Is Excessive
............
Air compressor noise is excessive symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 13 Measure and adjust the overhead settings. Refer
............
Overhead adjustments are not correct to Procedure 003-004 in Section 3.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 14 Inspect the rocker levers, rocker shafts, and valves


............ for damage or excessive wear. Refer to Procedure
Overhead components are damaged
003-009 in Section 3.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 15 Perform the single-cylinder cutout test. Replace


............ the injectors as necessary. Refer to Procedure
Injector is malfunctioning
006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-40 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Noise Excessive


This is symptom tree t047
When troubleshooting engine noise complaints, make sure the engine accessories (air compressor, fan clutch,
refrigerant compressor, or hydraulic pump) are not the cause of the noise. Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic
Procedures - General Information at the end of Section TS before using this symptom tree.
Cause Correction
STEP 16 Check the flywheel. Refer to Procedure 016-005 in
............
Flywheel is loose or damaged Section 16.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 17 Check the gear backlash and the gear teeth for
Gear train backlash is excessive or the gear teeth ............ excessive wear. Refer to Procedure 001-088 in
are damaged Section 1 and Procedure 007-031 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 18 Refer to the Engine Noise Excessive - Main


............ Bearing or Engine Noise Excessive - Connecting
Main bearing or connecting rod bearing noise
Rod symptom trees.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 19
Refer to the Engine Noise Excessive - Piston
Piston, piston rings, or cylinder liner is worn or ............
symptom tree.
damaged

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 20
Disassemble and repair the REPTO as necessary.
Rear engine power take-off (REPTO) noise is ............
Refer to Procedure 016-007 in Section 16.
excessive

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 21 Refer to the Engine Noise Excessive - Combustion
............
Combustion knocks Knocks symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 22 Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate an


............ area of probable damage. Refer to Procedure
Internal engine damage
007-013 in Section 7.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-41

Engine Noise Excessive Combustion Knocks


This is symptom tree t048
Cause Correction
Check the winterfront, shutters, and under-the-
STEP 1 hood air. Use under-the-hood intake air in cold
............
Engine is operating at low ambient temperature weather. Refer to Cold Weather Operation, Bulletin
3387266.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Repair or replace the ether starting aids. Refer to
............
Ether starting aid is malfunctioning the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Operate the engine from a tank of high-quality fuel.
Refer to Procedure 018-002 (Fuel
STEP 3 Recommendations and Specifications) in Section
V of the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Fuel grade is not correct for the application or the ............
Signature and ISX, Bulletin 3666251 or the
fuel quality is poor
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Industrial and
Power Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Procedure
............
Air in the fuel system 006-003 (Air in Fuel) in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
Remove the vibration damper and operate the
engine at the rpm where the noise normally occurs.
STEP 5 If noise is still present, proceed to the next step. If
............
Vibration damper has failed the noise is eliminated, replace the vibration
damper. Refer to Procedure 001-052 (Vibration
Damper, Viscous) in Section 1.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Refer to the Coolant Temperature Below Normal
............
Coolant temperature is below specification symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 Perform the single-cylinder cutout test. Replace


............ the injectors as necessary. Refer to Procedure
Injector is malfunctioning
006-026 (Injector) in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Measure and adjust the overhead settings. Refer
............
Overhead adjustments are not correct to Procedure 003-004 (Overhead Set) in Section 3.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-42 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Noise Excessive Connecting Rod


This is symptom tree t049
Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures General Information at the end of this section before using this
symptom tree.
Cause Correction
Refer to Driveability-General Information, the
STEP 1 Driveability/Low-Power Customer Complaint Form,
............ and the Driveability Checklist at the end of Section
Interview the operator to verify the complaint
TS. Follow the instructions on the forms before
continuing with this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 2 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX Engines,
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
Bulletin 3666259, or Troubleshooting and Repair
inactive fault codes
Manual, Power Generation Control Systems
QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and
QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault
code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick calibration
STEP 3 and the oil pan capacity. Fill the system to the
............
Lubricating oil level is below specification specified level. Refer to Procedures 007-009 and
007-037.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the oil pressure. If the pressure is low, refer
............
Lubricating oil pressure is below specification toProcedure 007-028.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate an


............ area of probable damage. Refer to Procedure
Internal engine damage
007-083.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Check the torque on the connecting rod
Connecting rod capscrews are loose or not ............
capscrews. Refer to Procedure 001-014.
tightened correctly

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7
Inspect the connecting rod bearings. Refer to
Connecting rod bearings are damaged or worn, are ............
Procedure 001-005.
not assembled correctly, or are the wrong bearings
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-43

Engine Noise Excessive Main Bearing


This is symptom tree t050
Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures General Information at the end of this section before using this
symptom tree.
Cause Correction
Refer to Driveability-General Information, the
STEP 1 Driveability/Low-Power Customer Complaint Form,
............ and the Driveability Checklist at the end of Section
Interview the operator to verify the complaint
TS. Follow the instructions on the forms before
continuing with this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF Section TF in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or the Troubleshooting
STEP 2 and Repair Manual Electronic Control System
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Signature ISX and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
inactive fault codes 3666259, or the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Power Generation Control Systems
QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and
QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for fault
code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick calibration
STEP 3 and the oil pan capacity. Fill the system to the
............
Lubricating oil level is below specification specified level. Refer to Procedure 007-009 and
007-037.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the oil pressure. If the pressure is low, refer
............
Lubricating oil pressure is below specification to Procedure 007-028.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5
............ Check the flywheel. Refer to Procedure 016-005.
Flywheel is loose or damaged

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the torque converter. Refer to the OEM
............
Torque converter is loose service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Check the torque on the main bearing capscrews.
Main bearing capscrews are loose, worn or not ............ Inspect the capscrews for wear. Refer to
tightened correctly Procedure 001-006.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-44 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Noise Excessive Main Bearing


This is symptom tree t050
Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures General Information at the end of this section before using this
symptom tree.
Cause Correction
STEP 8 Inspect the main bearings for damage, excessive
Main bearings are damaged or worn, or the wrong ............ wear, and the correct part number. Refer to
bearings are installed Procedure 001-006.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Inspect the thrust bearing for damage. Refer to
............
Thrust bearings are damaged Procedure 001-007.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 10 Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate an


............ area of probable damage. Refer to Procedure
Internal engine damage
007-013.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-45

Engine Noise Excessive Piston


This is symptom tree t051
Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures General Information at the end of this section before using this
symptom tree.
Cause Correction
Operate the engine from a tank of high-quality fuel.
STEP 1 Refer to Procedure 018-002 in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX Engines,
Fuel grade is not correct for the application or the ............
Bulletin 3666251, and the Operation and
fuel quality is poor
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Perform the single-cylinder cutout test. Replace


............ the injectors as necessary. Refer to Procedure
Injector is malfunctioning
006-026.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Remove the pistons and inspect the piston pin and
Piston pin or bushing is loose, worn, or not ............ bushing for damage, wear, and correct installation.
installed correctly Refer to Procedure 001-043.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the pistons, piston rings, and cylinder liner.
Cylinder liner, pistons, or piston rings are worn or ............ Refer to Procedures 001-043, 001-047, and
damaged 001-028.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-46 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Noise Excessive Turbocharger


This is symptom tree t052
Refer to Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures General Information at the end of this section before using this
symptom tree.
Cause Correction
Inspect the air piping, chassis, and cab for contact
points. Refer to Procedure 010-058 in the
STEP 1 Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
Air intake or exhaust piping is contacting the ............ and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251 and the
chassis or cab Operation and Maintenance Manual, Industrial and
Power Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Inspect the air intake and exhaust systems for air
............
Air intake or exhaust leaks leaks. Refer to Procedure 010-024.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Inspect the air intake system for restriction. Clean


............ or replace filter and inlet piping as necessary.
Air intake system restriction is above specification
Refer to Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the exhaust system for any restrictions.
............
Exhaust system restriction Refer to Procedure 011-009.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the turbocharger for damage. Measure the
STEP 5 turbine and compressor wheel clearances. Refer
............ to Procedure 010-033. Perform the EGR/VGT
Turbocharger is worn or damaged
Operation Test. Perform the Turbocharger
Actuator Test.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the turbocharger part number and compare
STEP 6 it to the Control Parts List (CPL), Bulletin 3379133
............
Turbocharger is not correct or 4021327. Replace the turbocharger if
necessary. Refer to Procedure 010-033.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-47

Engine Shuts Off Unexpectedly or Dies During Deceleration


This is symptom tree t064
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual Electronic
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Control System Signature, ISX and QSX15
inactive fault codes Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the Troubleshooting
and Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Check the time limit on idle and PTO shutdowns
Idle shutdown or PTO shutdown features are ............ with an electronic service tool. Refer to the
activated electronic service tool manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Refer to the Engine Performance TT tree in this
............
Engine will not restart manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
View the fault codes and the engine protection data
with an electronic service tool. Refer to the
appropriate electronic service tool manual. Refer
to the corresponding fault code in Section TF
Section TF in the Troubleshooting and Repair
STEP 4 Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
............ Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
Engine protection fault code(s) inactive
the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual Electronic
Control System Signature, ISX and QSX15
Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the Troubleshooting
and Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the vehicle keyswitch circuit. Refer to
Procedure 019-064 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 5 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
............
Keyswitch circuit is malfunctioning Procedure 019-064in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual Electronic Control System,
Signature, ISX and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check for fuel inlet restriction. Refer to Procedure
............
Fuel inlet restriction 006-020.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-48 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Shuts Off Unexpectedly or Dies During Deceleration


This is symptom tree t064
Cause Correction
STEP 7 Bleed the fuel system and correct source of the
............
Air in fuel system leak. Refer to Procedure 006-003.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 8 Check the engine brake operation, adjustment,


............ and solenoid resistance. Repair or adjust as
Engine brakes are malfunctioning
necessary. Refer to Procedure 020-004.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Remove and check the injectors. Replace the
............
Injector o-rings are damaged or missing injector o-rings. Refer to Procedure 006-026.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-49

Engine Speed Surges in PTO or Cruise Control


This is symptom tree t068
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual Electronic
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Control System Signature, ISX and QSX15
inactive fault codes Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the cruise control/PTO on/off switch and the
circuit. Refer to Procedures 019-021 and 019-022
in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
STEP 2 Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Cruise control/PTO on/off switch or circuit is ............ Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
malfunctioning Procedures 019-021 and 019-022 in Section 19 in
the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual Electronic
Control System Signature, ISX and QSX15
Engines, Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
Verify the ECM calibration is correct. Check the
calibration revision history for applicable fixes to
the calibration stored in the ECM. Refer to the
calibration history spreadsheet
ecm_calibration_rev_history.xlson QuickServe
Online or the INCAL CD-ROM. Compare the
calibration stored in the ECM with the engine rating
and Control Parts List (CPL), Bulletin 4021326 or
STEP 3 4021327. If necessary, calibrate the ECM. Refer to
Electronic control module (ECM) calibration is ............ Procedure 019-032 in Section 19 in the
malfunctioning Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or ISX Fuel System
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Bulletin
3666259, or Procedure 019-032 in Section 19 in
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-50 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Speed Surges in PTO or Cruise Control


This is symptom tree t068
Cause Correction
Check the Performance Options of the calibration
stored in the electronic control module (ECM). Use
INSITE electronic service tool and INCAL
STEP 4 Calibration DVD_ROM to check the Performance
Options section for the specific calibration under
Engine is operating in a unique application with a ............
Calibration Selection. If the Performance Option
specific calibration
reads Vacuum Truck, the condition may be
normal. A slight oscillation/surging of the engine
speed during unloaded PTO is a normal
consequence of these unique calibrations.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine position sensor and circuit. Refer
to Procedure 019-363 in Section 19 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or Procedure 019-038
STEP 5 in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Engine position sensor (EPS) or circuit is ............ Manual Electronic Control System Signature, ISX
malfunctioning and QSX15 Engines Bulletin 3666259, or
Procedure 019-038 in Section 19 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Refer to the Engine Performance Troubleshooting
Engine speed surges while in the normal operating ............
Tree in Section TT.
range and not in PTO or cruise control

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Dry the connectors with Cummins electronic
............
Moisture in the wiring harness connectors cleaner, Part Number 3824510.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Refer to the Engine Performance Troubleshooting
............
Engine speed also surges at idle Tree in Section TT.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-51

Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running


This is symptom tree t072
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Also, refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting
STEP 1 and Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
Signature, ISX and QSX Engines, Bulletin
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
3666259. Also, refer to Section TF in the
inactive fault codes
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419, for fault code
troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Turn OFF the keyswitch for 5 seconds. Turn ON


the keyswitch and check fault lamp operation. Use
Idle shutdown or PTO shutdown features are ............
INSITE electronic service tool to check Idle
activated
Shutdown and PTO parameters.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Fill the supply tank. Refer to the OEM service
............
Fuel level is low in the tank manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the batteries and the unswitched battery
supply circuit. Refer to Procedure 019-087
(Unswitched Battery Supply Circuit) in Section 19
in the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Engines, Bulletin 4021334. Also, refer to
Procedure 019-087 (Unswitched Battery Supply
STEP 4 Circuit) in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and
............
Battery voltage is low Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
Signature, ISX and QSX Engines, Bulletin
3666259. Also, refer to Procedure 019-087
(Unswitched Battery Supply Circuit) in Section 19
in the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check for fuel inlet restriction. Refer to Procedure
............
Fuel inlet restriction 006-020 (Fuel Inlet Restriction) in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-52 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running


This is symptom tree t072
Cause Correction

STEP 6 Bleed the fuel system and correct source of the


............ leak. Refer to Procedure 006-003 (Air in Fuel) in
Air in fuel system
Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the vehicle keyswitch circuit. Refer to
Procedure 019-064 (Key Switch Battery Supply
Circuit) in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 7 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
............
Keyswitch circuit is malfunctioning Also, refer to Procedure 019-064 (Key Switch
Battery Supply Circuit) in Section 19 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX Engines,
Bulletin 3666259, for fault code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the fuel shutoff valve and circuit. Refer to
Procedures 019-049 (Fuel Shutoff Valve Circuit) in
Section 19 and 019-050 (Fuel Shutoff Valve
Solenoid) in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Also, refer to Procedure 019-049 (Fuel Shutoff
Valve Circuit) in Section 19. Also, refer to
Procedure 019-050 (Fuel Shutoff Valve Solenoid)
STEP 8 in Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX
Fuel shutoff valve(s) closed (electronically ............
and QSX Engines, Bulletin 3666259. Also, refer to
controlled injection)
Procedure 019-049 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419, for
fault code troubleshooting. Also, refer to Procedure
019-050 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Power Generation Control Systems
QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and
QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419, for fault
code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Operate the engine from a tank of high-quality fuel.
Refer to Fuel Recommendations and
STEP 9 Specifications in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin
Fuel grade is not correct for the application or the ............
3666251. Also, refer to Fuel Recommendations
fuel quality is poor
and Specifications in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-53

Engine Starts But Will Not Keep Running


This is symptom tree t072
Cause Correction

STEP 10 Check for transmission malfunctioning, cooling fan


............ operation cycle time, and engine-driven units.
Vehicle parasitics are excessive
Refer to the OEM service manual.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-54 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Air Starter)


This is symptom tree t077
Cause Correction
STEP 1 Increase air pressure with an external air source.
............
Air pressure is low in the air tanks Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2
............ Disengage engine-driven units.
Engine-driven units are engaged

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filters. Refer to Procedure
018-003 in the Operation and Maintenance
STEP 3 Manual, Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin
3666251 and 018-003 in the Operation and
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
operating conditions
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.
Use the oil type recommended in Section V of the
engine operation and maintenance manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the starting motor operation. Compare the
Starting motor is malfunctioning or starting motor ............ starting motor with the engine and vehicle
is not correct specifications. Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Remove the starting motor, and inspect the gear.


............ Refer to Procedure 013-020, 016-005, and the
Starting motor pinion or ring gear is damaged
OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the crankshaft for ease of rotation. Refer to
............
Crankshaft rotation is impaired Procedure 001-016.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 Remove the injectors and rotate the crankshaft.


............ Look for the source of fluid in the cylinder. Refer to
Hydraulic lock in a cylinder
Procedures 006-026 and Procedure 001-016.

OK
Go To Next Step
Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate an
area of probable damage. Refer to Procedure
STEP 8 018-003 in the in the Operation and Maintenance
............ Manual, Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin
Internal engine damage
3666251 and 018-003 in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-55

Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Electric Starter)


This is symptom tree t078
Cause Correction
Check the batteries and the unswitched battery
supply circuit. Refer to Procedure 013-009 in this
manual and Procedure 019-087 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
STEP 1 Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or Procedure 019-087
............ in the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Battery voltage is low
Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX and
QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Procedure
019-087 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Power Generation Control Systems QSX15,
QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30
Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2
Check the battery cables and connections. Refer
Battery cables or connections are loose, broken, or ............
to Procedure 013-009.
corroded (excessive resistance)

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
............ Disengage engine-driven units.
Engine-driven units are engaged

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filters. Refer to Procedure
018-003 in the Operation and Maintenance
STEP 4 Manual, Industrial and Power Generation, QSX15
Engines, Bulletin 3666423 or 018-003 in the
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
operating conditions
and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251. Use the oil
type recommended in Section V of the operation
and maintenance manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Refer to Procedure 018-021. Replace the batteries
............
Battery capacity is below specification if necessary.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the battery heater. Refer to the
............
Batteries are cold manufacturer's instructions.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Check the starting circuit components. Refer to the
............
Starting circuit component is malfunctioning OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-56 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Electric Starter)


This is symptom tree t078
Cause Correction

STEP 8 Remove the starting motor, and inspect the gear.


............ Refer to Procedure 013-020, 016-005, and the
Starting motor pinion or ring gear is damaged
OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Check the crankshaft for ease of rotation. Refer to
............
Crankshaft rotation is impaired Procedure 001-016.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 10 Remove the injectors and rotate the crankshaft.


............ Look for the source of fluid in the cylinder. Refer to
Hydraulic lock in a cylinder
Procedures 006-026 and 001-016.

OK
Go To Next Step
Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate an
area of probable damage. Refer to Procedure
018-003 in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Industrial and Power Generation, QSX15
STEP 11 Engines, Bulletin 3666423 or 018-003 in the
............
Internal engine damage Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251. Remove the oil
pan and inspect for damaged camshaft, cam
followers, push rods, pistons and liners. Refer to
Procedure 007-025.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-57

Engine Will Not Shut Off


This is symptom tree t081
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX and
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
QSX Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the
inactive fault codes
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the vehicle, equipment, or vessel keyswitch
circuit. Refer to Procedure 019-064 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
STEP 2 Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
............
Keyswitch circuit is malfunctioning Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or Procedure 019-064
in the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX and
QSX Engines, Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
Fuel shutoff valve (FSOV) solenoid or circuit is
............ Check the fuel shutoff valve solenoid and circuit.
malfunctioning (electronically controlled fuel
systems)

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 4 Perform the automated cylinder performance test.


............ Replace injectors as necessary. Refer to
Injector is malfunctioning
Procedure 006-026.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the air intake ducts. Locate and isolate the
Engine is running on fumes drawn into the air ............ source of the fumes. Repair as necessary. Refer to
intake the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the turbocharger compressor and turbine
............
Turbocharger oil seal is leaking seals. Refer to Procedure 010-033.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-58 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Fuel Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t087
Cause Correction
Refer to Fuel Consumption General Information
STEP 1 and Customer Complaint Form in Procedure
............ t00-004 (Troubleshooting Overview) at the end of
Interview the operator to verify the complaint
this section. Follow the instructions on the form
before continuing with this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Explain correct engine operation to the operator.
Refer to Procedure 101-015 the Operation and
STEP 2 Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX Engines,
............
Operator technique is not correct Bulletin 3666251 or 101-015 Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Review the VE/VMS data and compare to the
STEP 3 vehicle and engine specifications. Do not use
............
VE/VMS analysis uses incorrect data more than 20 percent for the Aero value. Refer to
the VE/VMS User's Manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Consider ambient temperatures, wind, tire size,
Equipment and environmental factors are affecting ............ axle alignment, routes, and use of aerodynamic
fuel consumption aids when evaluating fuel consumption.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check for correct gearing and drivetrain
............
Drivetrain is not correctly matched to the engine components. Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to Section TF or the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
STEP 6 Signature, ISX and QSX Engines, Bulletin
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ 3666259, or the Troubleshooting and Repair
inactive fault codes Manual, Power Generation Control Systems
QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and
QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the programmable parameters and the
STEP 7 selected features with an electronic service tool.
Programmable parameters or selected features ............ Set the parameters and features again if
are not correct necessary. Refer to the electronic service tool
manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-59

Fuel Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t087
Cause Correction
Check the turbocharger part number and compare
STEP 8 it to the Control Parts List (CPL), Bulletin 3379133
............ or 4021327. Replace the turbocharger if
Turbocharger is not correct
necessary. Refer to Procedure 010-033
(Turbocharger) in Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 9 Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel


............ filters for leaks. Check the fuel lines to the supply
Fuel leak
tanks. Refer to the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the hubometer and odometer calibrations.
STEP 10 Calibrate or replace the hubometer or odometer, if
............
Hubometer or odometer is miscalibrated necessary. Calculate fuel consumption with new
mileage figures.

OK
Go To Next Step
Operate the engine from a tank of high-quality fuel.
STEP 11 Refer to Procedures 018-002 in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX Engines,
Fuel grade is not correct for the application or the ............
Bulletin 3666251 or 018-002 Operation and
fuel quality is poor
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick calibration
STEP 12 and oil pan capacity. Fill the system to the specified
............ level. Refer to Procedures 007-009 (Lubricating Oil
Lubricating oil level is above specification
Dipstick) in Section 7 and 007-037 (Lubricating Oil
System) in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-60 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Fuel Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t087
Cause Correction
Verify the electronic control module (ECM)
calibration is correct. Check the calibration
revision history for applicable fixes to the
calibration stored in the ECM. Refer to the
calibration history spreadsheet
ecm_calibration_rev_history.xlson QuickServe
Online Internet Website or the INCAL calibration
CD. Compare the calibration stored in the ECM
with the engine rating and the Control Parts List
STEP 13 (CPL), Bulletin 4021326 or 4021327. If necessary,
recalibrate the ECM. Refer to the appropriate
Electronic control module (ECM) calibration is ............
electronic service tool manual and Procedure
malfunctioning
019-032 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, and
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or 019-032 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Use an electronic service tool to monitor the
vehicle speed while the vehicle is not moving.
Refer to the appropriate electronic service tool
manual. If necessary, install the correct VSS. Refer
STEP 14 to Procedure 019-091 in the Troubleshooting and
............ Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) is not correct
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
Procedure 019-091 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
Signature, ISX and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the vehicle speed sensor and circuit. Refer
to Procedures 019-090 and 019-091 in the
STEP 15 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) or circuit is ............
Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or Procedure 019-090
malfunctioning
and 019-091 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX
and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-61

Fuel Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t087
Cause Correction
Check the vehicle speed sensor and circuit for
tampering. Check for Fault Code 242. Repair the
circuit as necessary. Refer to Procedures 019-090
and 019-091 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 16 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) tampering has ............ Procedure 019-090 and 019-091 in the
occurred Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or the Troubleshooting
and Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 17 Check the air intake system for restriction. Clean


............ or replace the air filter and inlet piping as
Air intake system restriction is above specification
necessary. Refer to Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 18
Check the exhaust system for restrictions. Refer to
Exhaust system restriction is not within ............
Procedure 011-009.
specification

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 19 Perform the single-cylinder cutout test. Replace


............ the injectors as necessary. Refer to Procedure
Injector is malfunctioning
006-026 or 014-008.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 20
Check the wastegate for correct operation. Refer
Turbocharger wastegate is malfunctioning (if ............
to Procedure 010-050.
equipped)

OK
Go To Next Step
Monitor the turbocharger boost pressure with an
STEP 21 electronic service tool. Refer to Engine
............ Performance Troubleshooting in Section TT.
Turbocharger is malfunctioning
Check the turbocharger variable geometry
operation (if applicable).

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 22 Measure and adjust the overhead settings. Refer
............
Overhead adjustments are not correct to Procedure 003-004.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-62 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Fuel Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t087
Cause Correction

STEP 23 Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate an


............ area of probable damage. Refer to Procedure
Internal engine damage
007-083.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-63

Fuel in Coolant
This is symptom tree t091
Cause Correction
Check the bulk coolant supply. Drain the coolant
and replace with noncontaminated coolant.
Replace the coolant filters. Refer to Procedure
STEP 1 018-003 in the Operation and Maintenance
............
Bulk coolant supply is contaminated Manual, Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin
3666251 or 018-003 in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Check the fuel heater and replace, if necessary.
............
Fuel heater is malfunctioning (if equipped) Refer to the manufacturer's instructions.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
Remove and check the injectors. Check o-rings
Injector o-rings and sleeves are damaged. Injector ............
and injector sleeves. Refer to Procedure 006-026.
o-rings are missing

OK
Go To Next Step
Remove intake and exhaust manifolds. Check for
STEP 4 evidence of coolant leak. If necessary, operate
............
Cylinder head is cracked or porous engine at low idle. Pressure-test the cylinder head.
Refer to Procedure 002-004.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-64 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Fuel in the Lubricating Oil


This is symptom tree t092
Cause Correction
Check the bulk oil supply. Drain the oil and replace
STEP 1 with non-contaminated oil. Replace the oil filters.
............
Bulk oil supply is contaminated Refer to Procedure 007-083 in Section 7 and
Procedure 007-013 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
Low oil and coolant temperatures can be caused
by long idle times (greater than 10 minutes). Shut
STEP 2 off the engine rather than idle for long periods. If
............
Engine idle time is excessive idle time is necessary, raise the idle speed. Refer
to Bulletin 4021334 for ISX CM870 engines and
Bulletin 4021560 for ISX CM871 engines.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Inspect the fuel drain lines for restrictions. Remove


............ any restrictions found. Refer to Procedure 006-012
Fuel drain line is restricted
in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 4 Perform the fluorescent dye tracer test to confirm


............ the fuel leak. Replace the fuel pump if necessary.
Fuel pump seal is leaking
Refer to Procedure 005-016 in Section 5.

OK
Go To Next Step
Perform diagnostics to find the damaged injector
(s). Replace the injector(s) as necessary. Refer to
Bulletin 4021334, Section TT, 70-t02-1001, Guided
STEP 5 Step 5, for ISX CM870 engines. Refer to Procedure
............
Injector(s) are malfunctioning 014-008 for ISX CM870 and ISX CM871 engines.
Refer to Bulletin 4021560, Section TT, Procedure
16-t02-1001a, Guided Step 5, for ISX CM871
engines..

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Perform the fluorescent dye tracer test to find the
Top injector o-ring or injector timing plunger is ............ damaged injector. Replace the injector or o-ring.
damaged Refer to Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Inspect the injectors for blown or missing plug
............
Injector has blown or missing plug ball balls. Refer to Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-65

Fuel in the Lubricating Oil


This is symptom tree t092
Cause Correction
STEP 8 Perform the fuel passage leak test in the cylinder
............
Cylinder head is cracked or porous head. Refer to Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine for high crankcase pressure, low
STEP 9 compression, static injection timing, damaged
............
Base engine problem pistons, camshaft, and other parts. Refer to
Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-66 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Intake Manifold Air Temperature Above Specification


This is symptom tree t096
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
inactive fault codes Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the intake manifold temperature sensor.
Refer to Procedure 019-159 in the Troubleshooting
and Repair Manual, Electronic Control System,
Signature, ISX and QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
STEP 2 3666259, or Procedure 019-059 in Troubleshooting
Intake manifold temperature sensor is ............ and Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
malfunctioning Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 or
Procedure 019-059 in Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.

OK
Go To Next Step
Open the cold weather radiator cover or the
winterfront. Maintain a minimum of 784 cm2 [122
in2] or approximately 28 x 28 cm [11 x 11 in] of
STEP 3 opening at all times. Refer to Procedure 101-015 in
............ the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
Cold weather radiator cover or winterfront is closed
and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251 or Procedure
101-015 Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Industrial and Power Generation, QSX15 Engines,
Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Inspect the charge air cooler, air conditioner
Charge air cooler fins, radiator fins, or air condenser, and radiator fins. Clean, if necessary.
............
conditioner condenser fins are damaged or Refer to Procedures 010-027, 008-042 and the
obstructed with debris OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the belt tension and tighten if necessary.
............
Fan drive belt is loose Refer to Procedure 008-003.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the fan drive and controls. Refer to
............
Fan drive or fan controls are malfunctioning Procedure 008-027.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-67

Intake Manifold Air Temperature Above Specification


This is symptom tree t096
Cause Correction
STEP 7 Inspect the shroud and the recirculation baffles.
Fan shroud is damaged or missing or the air ............ Repair, replace, or install, if necessary. Refer to
recirculation baffles are damaged or missing Procedure 008-038 and the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Inspect the radiator shutters. Repair or replace if
Radiator shutters are not opening completely, or ............ necessary. Check the shutterstat setting. Refer to
the shutterstat setting is wrong Procedure 008-049.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Verify that the fan is the correct size. Refer to the
............
Fan is not an adequate size for the application OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 10 Check the EGR cooler. Refer to Procedure
............
EGR cooler malfunctioning 011-019.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 11 Refer to Procedures 010-024, 010-057, or the


............ Engine Performance Troubleshooting in Section
Intake air or exhaust leaks
TT.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the EGR differential pressure sensor
mounting for leaks. Refer to Procedure 011-028,
STEP 12 Engine Performance Troubleshooting in Section
............
EGR differential pressure sensor leaking TT, and Procedure 019-370 in Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 13 Check the tubes for leaks. Refer to Procedure


............ 011-026 and Engine Performance Troubleshooting
EGR differential pressure sensor tubes leaking
in Section TT.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-68 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Intake Manifold Pressure (Boost) is Below Normal


This is symptom tree t097
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............
Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Troubleshooting and
inactive fault codes
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for
fault code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the intake manifold pressure sensor. Refer
to Procedure 019-061 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 2 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
............
Intake manifold pressure sensor is malfunctioning Procedure 019-061 in Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Power Generation Control Systems
QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and
QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Inspect the air intake and exhaust systems for air
............
Air intake or exhaust leaks leaks. Refer to Procedure 010-024.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Inspect the charge air cooler for air restrictions or
............
Charge air cooler is restricted or leaking leaks. Refer to Procedure 010-027.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Check the air intake system for restriction. Clean


............ or replace the air filter and inlet piping as
Air intake system restriction is above specification
necessary. Refer to Procedure 010-031.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the wastegate for freedom of movement.
Turbocharger wastegate is damaged or is stuck ............ Inspect the wastegate for damage. Refer to
open Procedure 010-050.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 Check the turbocharger for damage. Measure the


............ turbine and compressor wheel clearances. Refer
Turbocharger is worn or damaged
to Procedure 010-033.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-69

Intake Manifold Pressure (Boost) is Below Normal


This is symptom tree t097
Cause Correction
STEP 8 Check the connection between the manifold and
............
Air compressor connection is loose or damaged the air compressor. Repair or replace if necessary.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the turbocharger part number and compare
STEP 9 it to the Control Parts List (CPL), Bulletin 3379133
............
Turbocharger is not correct or 4021327. Replace the turbocharger if
necessary. Refer to Procedure 010-033.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 10 Check the exhaust system for any restrictions.
............
Exhaust system restriction Refer to Procedure 011-009.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Refer to Engine Performance Troubleshooting in
............
Engine power output is low Section TT.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-70 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil in the Fuel


This is symptom tree t101
Cause Correction
STEP 1 Refer to the Centinel Master Repair Manual,
............
Engine equipped with Centinel Bulletin 3666231.

OK
Go To Next Step
Perform oil dye test. Refer to Procedure 007-024 in
Section 7. Add dye to oil. Inspect for dye in fuel
STEP 2 tank with black light. If no dye was found in the fuel
............
Check for lubricating oil in fuel Asphaltines are the likely cause of the dark fuel. To
verify, take a fuel sample and perform an analysis
to check for Asphaltines.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 3 Remove and check the injectors. Replace the


............ injector o-rings. Refer to Procedure 006-026 in
Injector o-rings are damaged or missing
Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Inspect the cylinder head for Injector bore damage.
............
Cylinder head has damaged injector bore Refer to Procedure 002-004 in Section 2.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Replace the upper plunger seal in the fuel injector.
............
Damaged injector upper plunger seal Refer to Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Inspect the IFSM mounting gasket and sealing
Integrated Fuel System Module (IFSM) mounting ............
surfaces. Refer to Procedure 005-073 in Section 5.
gasket leaking

OK
Go To Next Step
Inspect the cylinder head for cracked or porous fuel
passages per the Fuel Passage Leak Test. Refer
STEP 7 to Procedure 002-004 in Section 2. Note: It is not
............
Cylinder head is cracked or porous necessary to remove the cylinder head to perform
this procedure unless the tools will not fit on the
cylinder head in chassis.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Replace the malfunctioning injector. Refer to
............
Injector is malfunctioning Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-71

Lubricating Oil Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t102
Cause Correction
Check the amount of oil added versus the mileage.
STEP 1 Refer to Procedure 502-016 in Section 2. This
............
Verify the oil consumption rate procedure is in the Warranty Administration
Manual, Bulletin 4021290.

OK
Go To Next Step
Inspect the engine for external oil leaks. Tighten
STEP 2 the capscrews, pipe plugs, and fittings. Replace
............
Lubricating oil leak (external) gaskets, if necessary. Refer to Procedure 007-024
in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check and clean the crankcase breather and vent
............
Crankcase ventilation system is plugged tube. Refer to Procedure 003-001 in Section 3.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 4 Check the air lines for carbon buildup and


lubricating oil. Refer to the Air Compressor is
Air compressor is pumping lubricating oil into the ............
Pumping Excessive Lubricating Oil into the Air
air system
System symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the dipstick calibration. Refer to Procedure
............
Lubricating oil dipstick calibration is not correct 007-009 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
Verify the correct lubricating oil drain interval.
Refer to Procedure 102-002 in Section 2 in the
STEP 6 Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
............ and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251. Refer to
Lubricating oil drain interval is excessive
Procedure 102-002 in Section 2 in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-72 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t102
Cause Correction
Change the oil and filters. Refer to Service Bulletin
3810340. The following can be found in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251. Refer to
Procedure 018-003 in Section V. The following can
STEP 7 be found in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Industrial and Power Generation, QSX15
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............
Engines, Bulletin 3666423. Refer to Procedure
operating conditions
018-003 in Section V. The following can be found
in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Industrial and Power Generation, QSX15 Engines,
Bulletin 3666423. Refer to Procedure 007-002 in
Section 4. Use the oil type recommended in
Section V.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Check the turbocharger compressor and turbine
............
Turbocharger oil seal is leaking seals. Refer to Procedure 010-033 in Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Refer to the Centinel Master Repair Manual,
............
Engine equipped with Centinel Bulletin 3666231.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 10 Check for lubricating oil in the coolant. Refer to the


............ Lubricating or Transmission Oil in the Coolant
Lubricating oil cooler is leaking
symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Refer to the Lubricating Oil Contaminated
............
Lubricating oil is contaminated with coolant or fuel symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 12 Check blowby. Refer to Section 14. If blowby is


excessive, check the piston rings for correct
Piston rings are not seated correctly (after an ............
seating. Refer to Procedure 001-043 and
engine rebuild or piston installation)
Procedure 001-047 in Section 1.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 13 Check for air intake system leaks. Refer to
Piston, cylinder liner, or piston rings are worn or ............ Procedure 001-043, Procedure 001-047, and
damaged Procedure 001-028 in Section 1.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-73

Lubricating Oil Consumption Excessive


This is symptom tree t102
Cause Correction
Perform oil dye test. Refer to Procedure 007-024 in
Section 7. Add dye to oil. Inspect for dye in fuel
STEP 14 tank with black light. If no dye was found in the fuel
............
Check for lubricating oil in fuel Asphaltines are the likely cause of the dark fuel. To
verify, take a fuel sample and perform an analysis
to check for Asphaltines.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 15 Remove and check the injectors. Replace the


............ injector o-rings. Refer to Procedure 006-026 in
Injector o-rings are damaged or missing
Section 6..

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 16 Replace the fuel injector upper seals. Refer to
............
upper seal is worn or damaged Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 17 Replace the malfunctioning injector. Refer to
............
Injector is malfunctioning Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-74 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Contaminated


This is symptom tree t103
Cause Correction
STEP 1 Perform an oil analysis to determine the
............
Identify lubricating oil contamination contaminants.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Check the bulk oil supply. Drain the oil and replace
............ with non-contaminated oil. Replace the oil filters.
Bulk oil supply is contaminated
Refer to Procedure 007-083 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
............ Refer to the Coolant Loss - Internal symptom tree.
Internal coolant leaks

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 4 Change the oil and filters. Refer to the Lubricating


............ Oil Sludge in the Crankcase is Excessive symptom
Lubricating oil sludge is excessive
tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Refer to the Fuel in the Lubricating Oil symptom
............
Fuel in the lubricating oil tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6
Transmission or hydraulic fluid is in the lubricating ............ Refer to the OEM service manual.
oil
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-75

Lubricating Oil Filter Plugged


This is symptom tree t103-56
Cause Correction

STEP 1 Measure the differential pressure drop across the


............ lubricating oil filter. Refer to Procedure 007-013 in
Verify the plugged lubricating oil filter complaint
Section 7 .

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filters. Refer to Procedure
007-037 and Procedure 007-013 in Section 7. For
STEP 2 oil type recommendations, refer to Procedure
018-003 in Section V, in the Signature and ISX
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Bulletin
operating conditions
3666251, or Procedure 018-003 in Section V, in the
QSX15 Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filters. Refer to Procedure
007-037 and Procedure 007-013 in Section 7. Use
INSITE electronic service tool to verify the
STEP 3 average kilometers per liter (km/liter) [miles per
The present lubricating oil drain interval was gallon (mpg)]. For the correct oil drain intervals,
............
missed or is exceeded based on duty cycle, or oil refer to Procedure 102-002 in Section 2 of the
and filter combination Signature and ISX Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Bulletin 3666251, or Procedure 102-002 in
Section 2 in the QSX15 Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filter. Refer to Procedure
007-037 and Procedure 007-013 in Section 7. For
oil type recommendations, refer to Procedure
018-003 in Section V, in the Signature and ISX
STEP 4 Operation and Maintenance Manual, Bulletin
Engine has history of missed or excessive oil drain ............ 3666251, or Procedure 018-003 in Section V, in the
intervals QSX15 Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Bulletin 3666423. Clean any contaminated
residual engine oil from the oil pan and cylinder
head. Return the engine to operation. Repeat, if
necessary, to reach a full oil drain interval.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Refer to the Lubricating Oil Contaminated
Lubricating oil is visually contaminated with ............ symptom tree, if a visual inspection reveals
coolant or fuel contamination.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-76 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Filter Plugged


This is symptom tree t103-56
Cause Correction
Review the customer oil analysis records if
available. If recent customer oil analysis results are
not available and the results of an oil analysis can
be obtained within a reasonable time frame,
STEP 6 perform an oil analysis. If the results of an oil
analysis can not be obtained within a reasonable
The filter plugging interval is less than 16,093 ............
time frame, proceed with the next step in this
kilometers [10,000 miles]
troubleshooting procedure. Refer to Cummins
Engine Oil and Oil Analysis Recommendations,
Bulletin 3810340. Refer to the appropriate
troubleshooting symptom tree if lubricating oil
contamination is identified.

OK
Go To Next Step
For the correct fuel recommendations, refer to
STEP 7 Procedure 018-002 in Section V in the Operation
An inspection or customer interview reveals that and Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX
............
the fuel grade may not be correct for the Engines, Bulletin 3666251, or Procedure 018-002
application or the fuel quality is poor in Section V of the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for excessive engine blowby. Refer to
STEP 8 Procedure 014-002 in Section 14 . If crankcase
............
Combustion gas contamination gases are excessive, refer to the Crankcase Gases
(Blowby) Excessive symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 9 Check or replace the fuel lines, check valves, or


............ tank vents as needed. Refer to Procedure 006-012
Fuel drain line restriction
in Section 6.

OK
Go To Next Step
Perform diagnostics to find the damaged injector
(s). Replace the injector(s) as necessary. Refer to
Guided Step 5 in Troubleshooting Tree t02-1001 in
STEP 10 Section TT of the Signature, ISX, and QSX15
............ Service Manual, Bulletin 4021334, or Guided Step
Injector(s) are malfunctioning
5 in Troubleshooting Tree t02-1001a in Section TT
of the CM871 and CM876 Electronic Control
Systems, ISX and ISM Engines, Bulletin 4021560.
Return the engine to operation.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-77

Lubricating Oil Filter Plugged


This is symptom tree t103-56
Cause Correction
If no documentation of repeat occurrences of
premature oil and filter changes is available in
engine warranty history, or from the customer,
STEP 11 perform the appropriate corrections in the steps
First investigated instance of premature filter ............ above and STOP. Return the engine to operation.
plugging For repeat instances without improvement,
measure and record the pressure drop across the
filter. Verify the completion of the steps above and
continue to the next steps.

OK
Go To Next Step
Review the customer oil analysis records, if
available. If recent customer oil analysis records
STEP 12 are not available, perform an oil analysis to identify
Lubricating oil is contaminated with coolant or fuel ............ potential contamination. For used oil
with no clear visual indication contamination guidelines refer to Cummins
Engine Oil and Oil Analysis Recommendations,
Bulletin 3810340.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 13 Inspect the injectors for missing or damaged o-


rings and plug balls. Replace the o-rings or
Injector has a blown plug ball or a cut o-ring not ............
injector, as necessary. Refer to Procedure 006-026
detected by diagnostics
in Section 6 .

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine base timing and adjust the
overhead. Refer to Procedure 001-088 in Section
STEP 14 1 and Procedure 003-004 in Section 3. Return the
............
Engine timing incorrect engine to operation. If no improvement, request
additional Cummins Inc. technical assistance
before continuing to the next step.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine for damaged pistons, rings,
STEP 15 liners, and other parts. Refer to Procedure 002-004
............
Base engine problem in Section 2. Request additional Cummins Inc.
technical assistance.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-78 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Pressure High


This is symptom tree t104
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX15
inactive fault codes Engines, Bulletin 3666259, Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Check the oil pressure switch, gauge, or sensor for
Lubricating oil pressure switch, gauge, or sensor is ............ correct operation and location. Refer to Procedure
malfunctioning or is not in the correct location 007-028 or the OEM service manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Change the oil and filters. Refer to Service Bulletin
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............ 3810340. Use the oil type recommended in Section
operating conditions V of the operation and maintenance manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Remove and inspect the high pressure relief
Lubricating oil high pressure relief valve or ............ valve or lubricating oil pump. Refer to Procedures
lubricating oil pump is malfunctioning 007-021 and 007-031.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-79

Lubricating Oil Pressure Low


This is symptom tree t105
Cause Correction
Check the lubricating oil pressure sensor and
circuit. Refer to Procedures 019-155 or 019-066 in
Section 19 in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Power Generation Control Systems
QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and
STEP 1 QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419, or
Lubricating oil pressure sensor or circuit is ............ Procedure 019-155 in Section 19 in
malfunctioning (electronic controlled fuel system) Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Electronic
Control System, Signature, ISX and QSX
Engines, Bulletin 3666259, or Procedure 019-066
in Section 19 in Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filters. Refer to Service Bulletin
3810340 or Procedure 018-003 in Section V in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
STEP 2 and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251 or Procedure
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............ 018-003 in Section V in the Operation and
operating conditions Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.
Use the oil type recommended in Section V of the
operation and maintenance manual.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3 Check the oil level. Add or drain oil, if necessary.
............
Lubricating oil level is above or below specification Refer to Procedure 007-037 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4
Engine angularity during operation exceeds ............ Refer to the Engine Specification data sheet.
specification

OK
Go To Next Step
Measure the differential pressure drop across the
lubricating oil filter. Refer to Procedure 007-013 in
STEP 5 Section 7 or the Lubricating Oil Pressure Low
............
Lubricating oil filter is plugged symptom tree. If lubricating oil filter is plugged,
refer to the Lubricating Oil Filter Plugged symptom
tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Refer to the Lubricating Oil Contaminated
............
Lubricating oil is contaminated with coolant or fuel symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-80 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Pressure Low


This is symptom tree t105
Cause Correction
STEP 7
Inspect the lubricating oil pump and o-rings. Refer
Lubricating oil pump is malfunctioning or the o- ............
to Procedure 007-031 in Section 7.
rings are damaged

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Remove and inspect the high-pressure relief valve
Lubricating oil high-pressure relief valve or ............ or lubricating oil pump. Refer to Procedures
lubricating oil pump is malfunctioning 007-021 and 007-031 in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Refer to the Lubricating Oil Temperature Above
............
Lubricating oil temperature is above specification Specification symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 10
Remove and inspect the oil pan or suction tube.
Lubricating oil suction or transfer tube is loose or ............
Refer to Procedure 007-025 in Section 7.
broken, or the gasket or o-rings are leaking

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Check the piston cooling nozzles for damage and
Piston cooling nozzles are damaged or are not ............ correct installation. Refer to Procedure 001-046 in
installed correctly Section 1.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12 Check the oil cooler. Refer to Procedure 007-003
............
Lubricating oil cooler is plugged in Section 7.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 13 Analyze the oil and inspect the filters, pistons,


............ camshaft, and other parts to locate an area of
Internal engine damage
probable damage.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-81

Lubricating Oil Sludge in the Crankcase Excessive


This is symptom tree t106
Cause Correction

STEP 1 Check the bulk oil supply. Drain the oil and replace
............ with noncontaminated oil. Replace the oil filters.
Bulk oil supply is contaminated
Refer to Procedure 007-083.

OK
Go To Next Step
Change the oil and filters. Refer to 007-083. Use
the oil type recommended in 018-003 of the
STEP 2 Operation and Maintenance Manual, Signature
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for ............ and ISX Engines, Bulletin 3666251 or 018-003
operating conditions Operation and Maintenance Manual, Industrial and
Power Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Verify the correct lubricating oil drain interval.
Refer to Section 2 in 102-002 of the Operation and
STEP 3 Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX Engines,
............
Lubricating oil drain interval is excessive Bulletin 3666251 or 102-002 Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
Operate the engine from a tank of high-quality fuel.
STEP 4 Refer to Procedure 018-002 in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX Engines,
Fuel grade is not correct for the application or the ............
Bulletin 3666251 or 018-002 Operation and
fuel quality is poor
Maintenance Manual, Industrial and Power
Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin 3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Refer to the Coolant Temperature Below Normal
............
Coolant temperature is below specification symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Refer to the Lubricating Oil Contaminated
............
Lubricating oil is contaminated with coolant or fuel symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 Check for excessive blowby. Refer to the


............ Crankcase Gases (Blowby) Excessive symptom
Crankcase pressure is excessive
tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-82 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Sludge in the Crankcase Excessive


This is symptom tree t106
Cause Correction
STEP 8 Check the injector cups for damage and for correct
............
Injector cup is damaged or is not correct part numbers. Refer to Procedure 006-026.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 9 Replace the malfunctioning injector. Refer to
............
Injector is malfunctioning Procedure 006-026.

OK
Go To Next Step
Replace the timing or fueling actuator Procedure
019-110 and 019-111 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 10 019-110 and 019-111 Troubleshooting and Repair
............ Manual, Electronic Control System, Signature, ISX
Timing or fueling actuator malfunctioning
and QSX Engines, Bulletin 3666259, 019-110 and
019-111 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Power Generation Control Systems QSX15,
QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30
Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the engine position sensor or circuit. Refer
to Section TF and or Procedure 019-038 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
STEP 11 Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or ISX Fuel System
Engine position sensor (EPS) or circuit is ............
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Bulletin
malfunctioning or wiring is not correct
3666259, or Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Power Generation Control Systems QSX15,
QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30
Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 .

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12 Check base engine timing. Refer to Procedure
............
Engine is out of time 001-088.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-83

Lubricating Oil Temperature Above Specification


This is symptom tree t107
Cause Correction
Refer to Section TF in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
STEP 1 ISX Fuel System Troubleshooting and Repair
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Manual, Bulletin 3666259, or Troubleshooting and
inactive fault codes Repair Manual, Power Generation Control
Systems QSX15, QSK23, QSK45, QSK60, QSK78,
and QST30 Series Engines, Bulletin 4021419 for
fault code troubleshooting.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the oil temperature switch, gauge, or sensor
for correct operation and location. Refer to
Procedure 019-067 in the Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control System,
STEP 2 Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or
Lubricating oil temperature switch, gauge, or ............ 019-155 ISX Fuel System Troubleshooting and
sensor malfunctioning or not in the correct location Repair Manual, Bulletin 3666259, or 019-155
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the lubricating oil temperature sensor and
circuit. Refer to Procedure 019-067 in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System, Signature and ISX
STEP 3 Engines, Bulletin 4021334, or 019-155
Lubricating oil temperature sensor or circuit is ............ Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, Power
malfunctioning (electronic controlled fuel system) Generation Control Systems QSX15, QSK23,
QSK45, QSK60, QSK78, and QST30 Series
Engines, Bulletin 4021419 or 019-155 ISX Fuel
System Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Bulletin 3666259.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4 Check the oil level. Add or drain oil, if necessary.
............
Lubricating oil level is above or below specification Refer to Procedure 007-037.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Refer to the Coolant Temperature is Above Normal


............ - Sudden Overheat or the Coolant Temperature is
Coolant temperature is above specification
Above Normal - Gradual Overheat symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-84 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Lubricating Oil Temperature Above Specification


This is symptom tree t107
Cause Correction
STEP 6 Check the oil thermostat. Refer to Procedure
............
Lubricating oil thermostat is malfunctioning 007-039.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7
............ Check the oil cooler. Refer to Procedure 007-003.
Lubricating oil cooler is malfunctioning
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-85

Lubricating or Transmission Oil in the Coolant


This is symptom tree t108
Cause Correction
Check the bulk coolant supply. Drain the coolant
STEP 1 and replace with noncontaminated coolant.
............
Bulk coolant supply is contaminated Replace the coolant filters. Refer to Procedure
008-018.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2
Check the oil cooler transfer housing and the
Lubricating oil cooler transfer housing or ............
support. Refer to Procedure 007-003.
lubricating oil cooler support is cracked or porous

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 3
............ Check the oil cooler. Refer to Procedure 007-003.
Lubricating oil cooler is malfunctioning

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4
Remove and inspect the cooler cores and o-rings.
Torque converter cooler or hydraulic oil cooler is ............
Refer to the OEM service manual.
malfunctioning

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Check the cylinder head gasket. Refer to
............
Cylinder head gasket is leaking Procedure 002-004 or 002-021.

OK
Go To Next Step
Remove intake and exhaust manifolds. Check for
STEP 6 evidence of coolant leak. If necessary, operate
............
Cylinder head is cracked or porous engine at low idle. Pressure-test the cylinder head.
Refer to Procedure 002-004.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 7 Check the cylinder liners for corrosion or cracks.
............
Cylinder liner is corroded or cracked Refer to Procedure 001-028.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 8 Inspect the cylinder block. Refer to Procedure
............
Cylinder block is cracked or porous 001-026.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-86 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Turbocharger Leaks Engine Oil or Fuel


This is symptom tree t122
Cause Correction
Review the engine operating instructions in
Section 1 Procedure 101-015 (Operating the
Engine) in Section 1 in the Operation and
STEP 1 Maintenance Manual, Signature and ISX
Engine is operating for extended periods under ............ Engines, Bulletin 3666251 or Procedure 101-015
light- or no-load conditions (slobbering) (Operating the Engine) in Section 1 in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Industrial and
Power Generation, QSX15 Engines, Bulletin
3666423.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 2 Remove the intake and exhaust piping, and check
............
Lubricating oil or fuel is entering the turbocharger for oil or fuel.

OK
Go To Next Step
Remove the turbocharger oil drain line and check
STEP 3 for restriction. Clean or replace the oil drain line.
............
Turbocharger oil drain line is restricted Refer to Procedure 010-033 (Turbocharger) in
Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for excessive blowby. Refer to Procedures
014-001 (Dynamometer Worksheet) in Section 14,
014-002 (Engine Testing (Chassis Dynamometer))
in Section 14, 014-003 (Engine Run-In (Chassis
Dynamometer)) in Section 14, 014-004 (Engine
STEP 4 Run-In (Without Dynamometer)) in Section 14,
............
Crankcase pressure is excessive 014-005 (Engine Testing (Engine Dynamometer))
in Section 14, 014-006 (Engine Run-In (Engine
Dynamometer)) in Section 14, 014-008 (Engine
Testing (In Chassis) in Section 14, and 014-009
(Engine Testing (Portable Dynamometer or Load
Bank)) in Section 14.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the turbocharger compressor and turbine
STEP 5 seals. Refer to Procedure 010-033 (Turbocharger)
............
Turbocharger oil seal is leaking in Section 10 and 010-040 (Turbocharger
Compressor Seal Leaks) in Section 10.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 6 Check the actuator cross shaft oil seal for leakage.
Turbocharger actuator cross shaft oil seal is ............ Refer to Procedure 010-137 (Variable Geometry
leaking Turbocharger Cross Shaft) in Section 10.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-87

Stationary Regeneration Will Not Activate


This is symptom tree t146
The steps in this tree are intended to cover vehicles equipped with an on vehicle method of activating a stationary
regeneration. This troubleshooting tree can also be used if INSITE electronic service tool Aftertreatment Diesel
Particulate Filter Regeneration Test will not operate.
Cause Correction
View and troubleshoot the fault codes with
INSITE electronic service tool. Refer to Section
STEP 1 TF for active fault code troubleshooting or
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Procedure 019-362 for inactive fault code
inactive fault codes troubleshooting in the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM871 and CM876 Electronic Control
Systems, ISX and ISM Engines, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 A stationary regeneration can not be performed


while the soot load is in the normal range. Refer to
Soot load of the Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate ............
the Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter
Filter is too low
Regeneration Test section of Procedure 014-013.

OK
Go To Next Step
Refer to the OEM instructions on how to perform a
STEP 3 stationary regeneration via the drive/vehicle
interface or refer to the Aftertreatment Diesel
The correct Stationary Regeneration procedure is ............
Particulate Filter Regeneration Test in Procedure
not being followed
014-013 for the INSITE electronic service tool
procedure

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4
Refer to the OEM instructions on Regeneration
OEM or customer-selected inhibit feature is ............
inhibit features.
preventing a stationary regeneration

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the programmable parameters and the
selected features with an electronic service tool.
Set the parameters and features again if
STEP 5 necessary. Refer to Procedure 019-078 in the
Programmable parameters or selected features ............ Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM871 and
are not correct CM876 Electronic Control System, ISX and ISM
Engines, Bulletin 4021560 and to Multiplexing
Troubleshooting, Service Manual, Bulletin
4021378.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the vehicle brake switch and circuit. Refer
STEP 6 to Refer to Procedures 019-088 and 019-089 in the
............ Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM871 and
Vehicle brake switch or circuit is malfunctioning
CM876 Electronic Control Systems, ISX and ISM
Engines, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-88 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Stationary Regeneration Will Not Activate


This is symptom tree t146
The steps in this tree are intended to cover vehicles equipped with an on vehicle method of activating a stationary
regeneration. This troubleshooting tree can also be used if INSITE electronic service tool Aftertreatment Diesel
Particulate Filter Regeneration Test will not operate.
Cause Correction
Use an electronic service tool to monitor the
vehicle speed while the vehicle is not moving.
STEP 7 Refer to the appropriate electronic service tool
manual. If the monitor shows speed, check the
Vehicle speed sensor (VSS) or circuit is ............
sensor and circuit. Refer to Procedures, 019-091,
malfunctioning
and 019-093 the Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, CM871 and CM876 Electronic Control
Systems, ISX and ISM Engines, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the clutch switch adjustment, switch, and
circuit. Refer to Procedure 019-009 or 019-010 the
STEP 8 Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM871 and
............ CM876 Electronic Control Systems, ISX and ISM
Clutch switch or circuit is malfunctioning
Engines, Bulletin 4021560. If available, use an
electronic service tool to monitor the clutch switch
status.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check for foot pedal restriction. Check the
STEP 9 accelerator pedal or lever position sensor and
circuit. Refer to Procedure 019-085 the
Accelerator pedal or lever position sensor or circuit ............
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM871 and
is malfunctioning
CM876 Electronic Control Systems, ISX and ISM
Engines, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the cruise control/PTO selector switch and
STEP 10 circuit. Refer to Procedures 019-021 and 019-022
Cruise control/PTO selector switch or circuit is ............ the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM871
malfunctioning and CM876 Electronic Control Systems, ISX and
ISM Engines, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 11 Verify the parking brake is set. Refer to the OEM
............
Vehicle parking brake is not set instructions.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 12 Verify the transmission is in Park, if provided,
Transmission is not in Park, if provided, otherwise ............ otherwise in Neutral. Refer to the OEM
in Neutral instructions.

OK
Go To Next Step
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-89

Stationary Regeneration Will Not Activate


This is symptom tree t146
The steps in this tree are intended to cover vehicles equipped with an on vehicle method of activating a stationary
regeneration. This troubleshooting tree can also be used if INSITE electronic service tool Aftertreatment Diesel
Particulate Filter Regeneration Test will not operate.
Cause Correction
Verify the electronic control module (ECM)
calibration is correct. Check the calibration
revision history for applicable fixes to the
calibration stored in the ECM. Refer to the
calibration history spreadsheet
ecm_calibration_rev_history.xlson QuickServe
STEP 13 Online Internet Website or the INCAL calibration
Electronic control module (ECM) calibration is ............ CD. Compare the calibration stored in the ECM
malfunctioning with the engine rating and the Control Parts List
(CPL), Bulletin 4021326 or 4021327. If necessary,
recalibrate the ECM. Refer to the appropriate
electronic service tool manual and Procedure
019-032 the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
CM871 and CM876 Electronic Control Systems,
ISX and ISM Engines, Bulletin 4021560.
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-90 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter - Excessive Automatic and/or Stationary


Regeneration
This is symptom tree t147
For vehicles that have the diesel particulate lamp illuminating frequently, high exhaust temperature lamp (if equipped)
illuminating frequently, and/or requires frequent stationary regenerations.
Cause Correction
View and troubleshoot the fault codes with
STEP 1 INSITE electronic service tool. Refer to the
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM871 and
inactive fault codes CM876 Electronic Control System, ISX and ISM
Engines, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the aftertreatment system inhibit feature
STEP 2 with INSITE electronic service tool. Change the
OEM or customer selected inhibit feature is vehicle route and/or duty cycle so the inhibit
............
preventing active regeneration during vehicle feature does not prevent active regeneration or
operation contact OEM/customer about changing inhibit
features.

OK
Go To Next Step
Check the aftertreatment system trip information
with INSITE electronic service tool. Low duty
STEP 3 cycle applications can possibly require more active
regeneration time to keep the aftertreatment
Extended operation of engine in low duty cycle, ............
system functioning correctly. Change the vehicle
extended idling and/or low ambient temperatures
route and/or duty cycle to increase the load on the
engine in order to decrease the amount of active
regeneration time.

OK
Go To Next Step
Maintenance interval for ash cleaning has been
reached. See the corresponding Owners or
STEP 4 Operation and Maintenance manual for the engine
............
Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter is full of ash being serviced. Refer to the Aftertreatment Diesel
Particulate Filter - Excessive Ash Cleaning
Troubleshooting Symptom Tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 5 Refer to the Troubleshooting Performance
............
Engine produces excessive black smoke Symptom Tree.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-91

Stationary Regeneration - Will Not Complete


This is symptom tree t149
This tree is to be used when the engine speed changes after the stationary (parked) regeneration has been started
and either stops after a short period of time, or continues for an excessive period of time. If the engine speed does
not increase when the stationary (parked) regeneration is started, refer to the Stationary Regeneration - Will Not
Activate TS tree (t146).
Cause Correction
View and troubleshoot the fault codes with
INSITE electronic service tool. Refer to Section
STEP 1 TF for active and inactive fault code
Electronic fault codes active or high counts of ............ troubleshooting, Procedure 019-362 in Section 19
inactive fault codes of the ISX and ISM CM871 and CM876 Electronic
Control System, Troubleshooting and Repair
Manual, Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 2 Verify that all of the conditions that allow a


stationary (parked) regeneration to activate are still
Stationary (Parked) Regeneration stops after a ............
valid. Refer to Stationary Regeneration - Will Not
short period of time
Activate symptom tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
Allow the stationary (parked) regeneration to run
until completion, which can take up to 2.5 hours.
Refer to Procedure 014-013 in Section 14. NOTE:
STEP 3 The 2.5 hours is the maximum time that a
Stationary (Parked) Regeneration not allowed to ............ regeneration will take to complete. If the Diesel
run to completion Oxidation Catalyst temperature is not at or above
316C [600F] and the aftertreatment injector has
not turned on within 1 hour, abort the regeneration
and continue through this tree.

OK
Go To Next Step
STEP 4
Inspect the OEM exhaust piping and the
Exhaust leaks in the OEM exhaust piping leading
............ aftertreatment system for exhaust leaks. Refer to
to the aftertreatment system or leaks in the
Procedure 010-024 in Section 10.
aftertreatment system

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 5 Monitor the aftertreatment gas temperature sensor


values with INSITE electronic service tool during
Aftertreatment Gas Temperature Sensors are not ............
the stationary (parked) regeneration. Refer to
functioning properly
Procedure 011-056 in Section 11.

OK
Go To Next Step
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-92 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Stationary Regeneration - Will Not Complete


This is symptom tree t149
This tree is to be used when the engine speed changes after the stationary (parked) regeneration has been started
and either stops after a short period of time, or continues for an excessive period of time. If the engine speed does
not increase when the stationary (parked) regeneration is started, refer to the Stationary Regeneration - Will Not
Activate TS tree (t146).
Cause Correction
Monitor the engine percent load value with
INSITE electronic service tool during the
stationary (parked) regeneration. If this value stays
STEP 6 consistently above 8% the metering actuators are
Fuel metering actuators are not functioning ............ over fueling and need to be replaced. Refer to
properly Procedure 019-110 in Section 19 of the ISX and
ISM CM871 and CM876 Electronic Control
System, Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
Bulletin 4021560.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 7 Verify that the EGR valve is closed during the


............ stationary (parked) regeneration. Refer to
EGR valve is not functioning properly
Procedure 011-022 in Section 11.

OK
Go To Next Step
Use INSITE electronic service tool to verify that
the turbocharger actuator position is maintained at
89 percent closed or higher during the stationary
STEP 8 (parked) regeneration. If the turbocharger actuator
............
Turbocharger is not functioning properly position does not maintain 89 percent closed or
higher, verify that the turbocharger sector gear has
full travel. Refer to Procedure 010-134 in Section
10.

OK
Go To Next Step

STEP 9 Check for progressive damage to the


............ aftertreatment system. Refer to Procedure 014-013
Aftertreatment System is damaged
in Section 14.

OK
Go To Next Step
Verify that the electronic control module (ECM)
calibration is correct. Check the calibration
revision history for applicable fixes to the
calibration stored in the ECM. Refer to the
calibration history spreadsheet
STEP 10 ecm_calibration_rev_history.xlson QuickServe
Online Internet Website or the INCAL calibration
Electronic control module (ECM) calibration is ............
CD. Compare the calibration stored in the ECM
malfunctioning
with the engine rating and the Control Parts List
(CPL), Bulletin 4021326 or 4021327. If necessary,
calibrate the ECM. Refer to Procedure 019-032 in
Section 19 of the ISX and ISM CM871 and CM876
Electronic Control System, Troubleshooting and
Repair Manual, Bulletin 4021560.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Overview
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-93

Troubleshooting Overview
Engine Noise Diagnostic Procedures - General Information
NOTE: When diagnosing engine noise problems, make sure that noises caused by accessories, such as the air
compressor and power takeoff, are not mistaken for engine noises. Remove the accessory drive belts to eliminate
noise caused by these units. Noise will also travel to other metal parts not related to the problem. The use of a
stethoscope can help locate an engine noise.
Engine noises heard at the crankshaft speed, engine rpm, are noises related to the crankshaft, rods, pistons, and
piston pins. Noises heard at the camshaft speed, one-half of the engine rpm, are related to the valve train. A handheld
digital tachometer can help to determine if the noise is related to components operating at the crankshaft or camshaft
speed.
Engine noise can sometimes be isolated by performing a cylinder cutout test. Refer to the Electronic Service Tool
Manual. If the volume of the noise decreases or the noise disappears, it is related to that particular engine cylinder.
There is not a definite rule or test that will positively determine the source of a noise complaint.
Engine driven components and accessories, such as gear-driven fan clutches, hydraulic pumps, belt-driven
alternators, air-conditioning compressors, and turbochargers can contribute to engine noise. Use the following
information as a guide to diagnosing engine noise.
Main Bearing Noise
(Refer to Engine Noise Excessive - Main Bearing symptom tree)
The noise caused by a loose main bearing is a loud dull knock heard when the engine is pulling a load. If all main
bearings are loose, a loud clatter will be heard. The knock is heard regularly every other revolution. The noise is the
loudest when the engine is lugging or under heavy load. The knock is duller than a connecting rod noise. Low oil
pressure can also accompany this condition.
If the bearing is not loose enough to produce a knock by itself, the bearing can knock if the oil is too thin, or if there
is no oil at the bearing.
An irregular noise can indicate worn crankshaft thrust bearings.
An intermittent sharp knock indicates excessive crankshaft end clearance. Repeated clutch disengagements can
cause a change in the noise.
Connecting Rod Bearing Noise
(Refer to Engine Noise Excessive - Connecting Rod symptom tree)
Connecting rods with excessive clearance knock at all engine speeds, and under both idle and load conditions. When
the bearings begin to become loose, the noise can be confused with piston slap or loose piston pins. The noise
increases in volume with engine speed. Low oil pressure can also accompany this condition.
Piston Noise
(Refer to Engine Noise Excessive - Piston symptom tree)
It is difficult to tell the difference between piston pin, connecting rod, and piston noise. A loose piston pin causes a
loud double knock which is usually heard when the engine is idling. When the injector to this cylinder is cut out, a
noticeable change will be heard in the sound of the knocking noise. However, on some engines the knock becomes
more noticeable when the vehicle is operated on the road at steady speed condition.
Driveability - General Information
Driveability is a term which in general describes vehicle performance on the road. Driveability problems for an engine
can be caused by several different factors. Some of the factors are engine related and some are not.
Before troubleshooting, it is important to determine the exact complaint and whether the engine has a real driveability
problem or if it simply does not meet driver expectations. The Driveability-Low Power Customer Complaint Form is a
valuable list of questions that must be used to assist the service technician in determining what type of driveability
problem the vehicle is experiencing. Complete the checklist before troubleshooting the problem. The form can be
found at the end of this section. If an engine is performing to factory specifications but does not meet the customer's
expectations, it must be explained to the customer that nothing is wrong with the vehicle and why.
The troubleshooting symptom charts have been set up to divide driveability problems into two different symptoms:
Engine Power Output Low and Engine Acceleration or Response Poor.
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Page TS-94 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Low power is a term that is used in the field to describe many different performance problems. However, in this manual
low power is defined as the inability of the engine to produce the power necessary to move the vehicle at a speed that
can be reasonably expected under the given conditions of load, grade, wind, and so on. Low power is usually caused
by the lack of fuel flow which can be caused by any of the following factors:
- Lack of full travel of the throttle pedal
- Failed boost sensor
- Excessive fuel inlet, intake, exhaust, or drainline restriction
- Loose fuel pump suction lines
Low power is not the inability of the vehicle to accelerate satisfactorily from a stop or the bottom of a grade. Refer to
the symptom tree Engine Power Output Low for the proper procedures to locate and correct a low power problem.
The chart starts off with basic items which can cause lower power. It then breaks off into application specific items
that can cause lower power. All of the application specific trees end with a step called Fuel or air delivery problem.
This step leads to an engine performance check which requires engine measurements. The last section of this chart
is titled Performance Measurement. This leads the mechanic through the causes and corrections based on the
outcome of the performance check.
Poor acceleration or response is described in this manual as the inability of the vehicle to accelerate satisfactorily
from a stop or from the bottom of a grade. It can also be the lag in acceleration during an attempt to pass or overtake
another vehicle at conditions less than rated speed and load. Poor acceleration or response is difficult to troubleshoot
since it can be caused by factors such as:
- Engine or pump related factors
- Driver technique
- Improper gearing
- Improper engine application
- Worn clutch or clutch linkage
Engine related poor acceleration or response can be caused by several different factors such as:
- Failed boost sensor
- Excessive drainline restriction
- Throttle deadband
Refer to the symptom tree Engine Acceleration or Response Poor for the proper procedures to locate and correct a
poor acceleration or response complaint. For additional information, see Troubleshooting Driveability Complaints,
Bulletin 3387245.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Overview
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-95

Driveability/Low Power - Customer Complaint Form


Customer Name/Company __________________________________________________________ Date ________________
1. How did the problem occur? .... Suddenly ________ Gradually ________
2. Does the vehicle also experience poor fuel economy? .... Yes ____ No ____
3. At what hour/mileage did the problem begin? .... Hours ________ Miles ________ Since New ________
i. After engine repair? .... Yes ____ No ____
ii. After equipment repair? .... Yes _____ No ____
iii. After change in equipment use? .... Yes ____ No ____
iv. After change in selectable programmable parameters? .... Yes ____ No ____
v. If so, what was repaired and when? ........................................................................................
Answer questions 4 through 8 using selections (A through F) listed below. Circle the letter or letters that best describes
the complaint.
A. Compared to fleet D. Personal expectation
B. Compared to competition E. Won't pull on hill
C. Compared to previous engine F. Won't pull on flat
4. A B C D E F Can the vehicle obtain the expected road speed? .... Yes ____ No ____ What is desired speed? ....
rpm/mph ________ What is achieved speed? .... rpm/mph ________ GVW ________________
5. A B C D Is the vehicle able to pull the load? .... Yes ____ No ____ When? In the hills ________ With a loaded
trailer ________ On the flat ________ Other_______
IF QUESTION 4 OR 5 WAS ANSWERED NO, FILL OUT THE DRIVEABILITY/LOW POWER/EXCESSIVE
FUEL CONSUMPTION CHECKLIST AND GO TO THE LOW POWER SYMPTOM TREE.
6. A B C D E F Is the vehicle slow to accelerate or respond? .... Yes ____ No ____ From a stop? .... Yes ____ No
____ After a shift? .... Yes ____ No ____ rpm ________ Before a shift? .... Yes ____ No ____ rpm ________ No
shift? .... Yes ____ No ____ rpm ________
7. A B C D Does the vehicle hesitate after periods of long deceleration or coasting? .... Yes ____ No ____ rpm
________
IF QUESTION 6 OR 7 WAS ANSWERED YES, FILL OUT THE DRIVEABILITY/LOW POWER/EXCESSIVE
FUEL CONSUMPTION CHECKLIST AND GO TO THE POOR ACCELERATION/RESPONSE SYMPTOM
TREE.
8. A B C D E F Additional Comments: .... ....
This Page Can Be Copied For Your Convenience.
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Page TS-96 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Driveability/Low Power/Excessive Fuel Consumption - Checklist


Vehicle/Equipment Specifications
Year/Type/Model: _____________________________________________________________________________________
Wheel Base: ____________________ Vehicle Configuration (ex. 6 X 4 - 2S):___________________________
Transmission Mfg: ________________________ Transmission Model: ___________________
Rear Axle Model: ________________ Rear Axle Ratio: _______________________
Application: On Highway _______ Off Highway _______ Genset _______ Marine _______
Typical GVW: _________________________lbs/kg
Trailer Type (Van, round smooth, etc.): ____________________ Height __________ Width __________
Gap between Tractor and Trailer: _________________
Description of Vehicle aerodynamic aids: ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
General Engine Information
ESN: ___________ CPL: ___________ EPA Certification Year: ___________
ECM Code: ___________ Engine Model: ___________
Engine Rating: ___________ Rated Speed: ___________
Date in Service: ___________ Mpg (average if multiple units): ___________
Engine Brake: Yes ___________ No ___________
Throttle Type: Variable Speed ___________ Automotive ___________
Tires
Steer: Tire Mfg __________ Tire Model __________ Rev/Mile __________
Drive: Tire Mfg __________ Tire Model __________ Rev/Mile __________
Trailer: Tire Mfg __________ Tire Model __________ Rev/Mile __________
Fan Type: Direct Drive _____ Viscous ________ Clutch ________ Est. HP ________
Auxiliary Devices
Power Steering: Yes ___________ No ___________
Air Conditioner: None _____ Standard _____ Bus _____ High Capacity _____
Alternator: Amps@Volts ___________
Road Speeds
Maximum Cruise Control Speed: ___________
Maximum Accelerator Vehicle Speed: ___________
Shift Technique: Progressive Shift _________ Governed Speed Shift ___________
Electronic Features
Gear Down Protection - Heavy Load: ___________mph
Gear Down Protection - Light Load: ___________mph
Cruise Control Upper Droop: ___________mph
Cruise Control Lower Droop: ___________mph
Road Speed Governor Upper Droop: ___________mph
Road Speed Governor Lower Droop: ___________mph
Typical Routes
Route:
Interstate ____ Dump ____ Rural ____ Urban ____ Bus ____
Grades:
Level 1-2% _______ Short 1-5% _______ Long 1-5% _______
Additional Comments:
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Overview
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-97

Vehicle/Equipment Specifications
Recommended Literature:
Troubleshooting Driveability Complaints, Bulletin 3387137
Troubleshooting Overview Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TS-98 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Fuel Consumption - General Information


The cause of excessive fuel consumption is hard to diagnose and correct because of the potential number of factors
involved. Actual fuel consumption problems can be caused by any of the following factors:
- Engine factors
- Vehicle factors and specifications
- Environmental factors
- Driver technique and operating practices
- Fuel system factors
- Low power/driveability problems
Before troubleshooting, it is important to determine the exact complaint. Is the complaint based on whether the
problem is real or perceived, or does not meet driver expectations? The Fuel Consumption - Customer Complaint
Form (on the next page) is a valuable list of questions that can be used to assist the service technician in determining
the cause of the problem. Complete the form before troubleshooting the complaint. The following are some of the
factors that must be considered when troubleshooting fuel consumption complaints.
1. Result of a Low Power/Driveability Problem: An operator will change his driving style to compensate for a
low power/driveability problem. Some things the driver is likely to do are, (a) shift to a higher engine rpm or (b)
run on the droop curve in a lower gear instead of upshifting to drive at part throttle conditions. These changes
in driving style will increase the amount of fuel used.
2. Driver Technique and Operating Practices: As a general rule, a 1 mph increase in road speed equals a 0.1
mpg increase in fuel consumption. This means that increasing road speed from 50 to 60 mph will result in a loss
of fuel mileage of 1 mpg.
3. Environmental and Seasonal Weather Changes: As a general rule, there can be as much as a 1 to 1.5 mpg
difference in fuel consumption depending on the season and the weather conditions.
4. Excessive Idling Time: Idling the engine can use from 0.5 to 1.5 gallons per hour depending on the engine idle
speed.
5. Truck Route and Terrain: East/west routes experience almost continual crosswinds and head winds. Less fuel
can be used on north/south routes where parts of the trip are not only warmer, but see less wind resistance.
6. Vehicle Aerodynamics: The largest single power requirement for a truce is the power needed to overcome air
resistance. As a general rule, each 10 percent reduction in air resistance results in a 5 percent increase in mpg.
7. Rolling Resistance: Rolling resistance is the second largest consumer of power on a truck. The type of tire and
tread design have a sizeable effect on fuel economy and performance. Changing from a bias ply to a low profile
radial tire can reduce rolling resistance by about 36 percent.
Additional vehicle factors, vehicle specifications, and axle alignment can also affect fuel consumption. For additional
information on troubleshooting fuel consumption complaints, refer to Troubleshooting Excessive Fuel Consumption,
Bulletin 3387245.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Overview
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-99

Fuel Consumption - Customer Complaint Form


Customer Name/Company __________________________________________________________ Date ________________
Customer Contact _________________________________________________Customer Phone Number ________________
Describe the issue/complaint in detail, including current fuel economy being achieved:
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Answer the following questions. Some questions require making an X next to the appropriate answer.
1. What is the expected fuel mileage? _______________
2. What is the average GVW? _______________
3. What are the expectations based on?
Original mileage ________ Other units in fleet ________ Competitive engines ________
Previous engine ________ Expectations only ________ VE/VMS report ________
NOTE: If the answer to number 3 is based on comparison (i.e. Other units in fleet, Competitive engines, Previous
engine), the Customer Complaint Form and the Driveability/Low Power/Excessive Fuel Consumption - Checklist
must be filled out for the comparison unit(s) in order to properly troubleshoot the complaint.
4. When did the problem occur?
Since New ________ Suddenly ________ Gradually ________
5. Did the problem start after a repair? Yes ________ No ________
If so, what was repaired and why? ____________________________________________________________
6. Is the vehicle also experiencing a Driveability problem (Low Power or
Poor Acceleration/Response)? Yes ________ No ________
If number 6 is answered Yes, fill out the Driveability/Low Power/Excessive Fuel Consumption Checklist.
7. Is the problem seasonal? Yes ________ No ________
8. Weather conditions during fuel consumption check?
Rain _____ Snow _____ Windy _____ Hot Temperatures _____ Cold Temperatures _____
9. How is the fuel usage measured?
Tank _____ Trip _____ Month _____ Year _____
Road Relay _____ ECM _____ Inspec _____
10. If number 9 is answered Road Relay, ECM, or Inspec, how do these fuel numbers compare to actual?
Percent Difference ________
11. If tractor pulls a refrigerated trailer, are fuel tickets kept separate for tractor and trailer fuel?
Yes ________ No ________
12. How is the distance measured?
Hub _____ Odometer _____ Road Relay _____ ECM _____ Inspec _____ Map Miles _____ Dispatch/Paid Miles
_____
13. If number 12 is answered Road Relay, ECM, Inspec, Map, or Dispatch/Paid, how do these distance numbers
compare to actual?
Percent Difference ___________
14. Are accurate records kept of fuel added on the road? Yes ________ No ________
15. Do routes vary between compared vehicles? Yes ________ No ________
16. Have routes changed for the engine being checked? Yes ________ No ________
17. Has driver changed for the engine being checked? Yes ________ No ________
18. Has typical load changed for the engine being checked? Yes ________ No ________
19. Has the fuel source changed? Yes ________ No ________
20. What are the loads hauled, compared to comparison unit? GVW _______________
Heavier ________ Lighter ________
21. At what altitude is the truck operating?
Below 10,000 feet ________ Above 10,000 feet ________
22. According to the driver, how many hours per day is the truck idling? Hours/day __________
The Service Location should fill out the remaining section
Distributor Name __________________________________________ Date __________________
Distributor Contact _________________________________________ Distributor Phone Number
__________________
23. Record the following parameters from Trip Information in INSITE:
Version of INSITE used ______________
Percent Time in Top Gear ______________%
Percent Time One Gear Down ______________%
Percent Time in Cruise Control ______________%
Percent Time at Idle ______________%
PTO Time ______________hrs
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Page TS-100 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Trip Distance ______________mi/km


Trip Fuel Used ______________gal/L
Trip Gear Down Distance ______________mi/km
Trip Top Gear Distance ______________mi/km
Cruise Control Distance ______________mi/km
Vehicle Overspeed 1 Distance ______________mi/km
Vehicle Overspeed 1 Threshold ______________mph/kph
Vehicle Overspeed 1 Time ______________hrs
Vehicle Overspeed 2 Distance ______________mi/km
Vehicle Overspeed 2 Threshold ______________mph/kph
Vehicle Overspeed 2 Time ______________hrs
24. Is the driver technique or operating practices affecting fuel economy?
Incorrect shift rpm? Yes ________ No ________
Rpm at cruise control speed? Yes ________ No ________
Is customer compensating for low power? Yes ________ No ________
25. Have fuel tank vents been verified to be working properly? Yes ________ No ________
26. Has vehicle been checked for brake drag? Yes ________ No ________
27. Has vehicle been checked for tractor and trailer alignment? Yes ________ No ________
28. Has vehicle been checked for fuel leaks? Yes ________ No ________
29. Does vehicle have either a fuel heater or cooler? Yes ________ No ________
30. Is customer using proper fuel for ambient conditions? Yes ________ No ________
31. Are all charge air cooler clamps present and tight? Yes ________ No ________
IF AFTER FILLING OUT THIS FORM IT APPEARS THAT THE PROBLEM IS NOT CAUSED BY VEHICLE
FACTORS, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, OR DRIVER TECHNIQUE, FILL OUT THE DRIVEABILITY/LOW
POWER/EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION CHECKLIST.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Overview
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-101

Oil Consumption
In addition to the information that follows, a service publication is available titled Technical Overview of Oil
Consumption, Bulletin 3379214.

Engine Lubricating Oil Consumption Report


Owner's Name Date of Delivery Engine Serial Number
Month Day Year Engine Model and Horsepower
Address Equipment Manufacturer
City State/Province Equipment Serial Number Fuel Pump Serial Number
Engine Application (describe) Oil and Filter Change Interval Complaint Originally Registered
Oil Filters Date Miles/Hours/Kilometers
Lubricating Oil Added
Date Added Oil Engine Operation Miles/ Quarts/Liters Oil Brand and Viscosity of Oil Used
Hours/Kilometers Added
Start Test

Last Mileage/Hours/Kilometers _________________________ Minus Start Mileage/Hours/Kilometers


___________________________________
Equals Test Mileage/Hours/Kilometers ____________________________ Divided by Oil Added
__________________________________________
Equals ___________________________________________ Usage
Rate________________________________________________________________
Customer Signature Cummins Dealer Cummins Distributor
Cummins Inc. Form 4755
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Page TS-102 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Coolant Loss Pre-Troubleshooting Guide


Before troubleshooting, it is critical to know where the coolant is being lost. It is not always obvious where the missing
coolant has gone.
Before troubleshooting, it is important to determine the exact complaint by interviewing the driver, looking at the
service history and looking at the ECM information.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Troubleshooting Overview
Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms Page TS-103

Driver Interview Questions


Driver's Name:....
ESN:....
What is your complaint?....
How is this engine used?....
What sort of load factors?....
Where is the vehicle driven?....
1. How often do you add coolant?....
2. How do you fill the radiator?....
3. Do you fill to the High or Low mark when the engine is cold (less than 60C [140F])?....
4. What type of coolant do you add?....
5. Have you seen any coolant on the ground under your truck?....
6. Have you seen green or white streaks on the engine or near the coolant overflow hose?....
7. Is there any specific condition when you get indications of coolant loss (weather, altitude or load)?....
8. Does the engine ever overheat?....
9. Does the warning light flash?....
10. Under what condition?....
11. What temperature does the coolant run at normally?....
12. Does the cooling fan operate correctly (fan on at 99C [210F])?....
13. Have you seen any white smoke at operating temperature, or has anyone told you that white smoke is coming
out of the exhaust?....
14. Do you have oil analysis performed as part of your maintenance?....
15. Are there elevated levels of sodium or potassium?....
16. Have you noticed any increase in moisture condensation on the dipstick or oil fill cap, or moisture in the blowby?
....
17. Have you noticed a milky appearance in your lube oil that might indicate coolant is present?....
18. What other comments do you have that might help us make the right repair?....
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Page TS-104 Section TS - Troubleshooting Symptoms

Service History Review


Repeat cylinder head or cylinder head gasket repairs can indicate the problem is likely not the cylinder head or cylinder
head gasket. Repeat problems can indicate a deeper problem in the engine. Keep this information in mind while going
through the troubleshooting procedure.
Look at this engine's warranty claims history: who worked on the engine last and what did they do? How many miles/
kilometers are on this engine? Has a cylinder head or cylinder head gasket been replaced before? At how many miles
were the repairs made?
ECM Data Review:
Print out an INSITE Image Report from the ECM. Look for high temperature alarms or low coolant level alarms. Either
indication confirms a complaint of loosing coolant.
Are any fault codes logged in the Engine Protection Fault History?
ECM Fault Code 235 - Low Coolant (how many times)?
ECM Fault Code 151 - High Coolant Temperature (how many times)?

At this point, do you know where the coolant is going? If not and the coolant loss is not severe, suggest mounting a
catch bottle on the radiator overflow tube to catch any overflow that can possibly be blowing out and becoming lost
while at speed. Send the vehicle out to collect more data about where the coolant is or is not going. If the catch bottle
has some coolant in it, refer back to the Coolant Loss External (out the overflow) interview questions.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-a

Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)


Section Contents
Page
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - ISX with CM871 ....................................................................TT-61
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature and ISX CM870 ....................................................TT-1
Fuel Economy Troubleshooting Tree .........................................................................................................TT-110
Fuel Economy Troubleshooting Tree .........................................................................................................TT-141
Vibration Excessive .....................................................................................................................................TT-146
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This Page Left Intentionally Blank


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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-1

Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature and ISX CM870


This troubleshooting procedure should be followed for the following symptoms:
Engine Acceleration or Response Poor
Cranking Fuel Pressure is Low
Engine Operating Fuel Pressure is Low
Engine Difficult to Start or Will Not Start (Exhaust Smoke)
Engine Difficult to Start or Will Not Start (No Exhaust Smoke)
Engine Run On
Engine Power Output Low
Engine Runs Rough at Idle
Engine Runs Rough or Misfires
Engine Speed Surges at Low or High Idle
Engine Speed Surges Under Load or in Operating Range
Smoke, Black - Excessive
Smoke, White - Excessive
Engine Shuts Off or Dies Unexpectedly or Dies During Deceleration
Engine Starts But Will Not Keep operating
Engine Will Not Reach Rated Speed (rpm).

How to Use This Troubleshooting Procedure:


This symptom tree can be used to troubleshoot all performance based symptoms listed above. Start by performing
Step 1 troubleshooting. Step 2 asks a series of questions and will provide a list of troubleshooting steps to perform
depending on the symptom. Perform the list of troubleshooting in the sequence shown in the Specifications/Repair
section of the tree.

Shop Talk:
Prior to operating INSITE electronic service tool EGR Valve and EGR Valve/Turbocharger Operational Test, the ECM
Calibration Software Phase can possibly need to be updated to the latest Software Phase. The ECM Calibration Phase
Software can be checked in INSITE electronic service tool, under 'Features and Parameters'. Expand the selection
for 'System ID and Dataplate' and go to 'Calibration Information'. If the Software Phase is earlier than shown below,
calibrate the ECM, use the January 2006 INCAL CD-ROM, or later. Engines with the Software Phase listed below
or later do not require a calibration.
ISX engines with CM870 (engines built after January 2004) require Software Phase 06050302.
ISX engines with CM870 (engines built before January 2004) require no changes at this time.
This is a warrantable calibration change.
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-2 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

TROUBLESHOOTING SUMMARY

CAUTION
To reduce the possibility of pin and harness damage, use the following test leads when taking a measurement:
Part Number 3822758 - 20 AWG male Deutsch/AMP/Metri-Pack test lead and Part Number 3824811 - 12
AWG male Deutsch/AMP/Metri-Pack test lead.

STEPS SPECIFICATIONS SRT CODE


STEP 1: Perform basic troubleshooting procedures.
STEP 1A: Check for active fault codes or Active fault codes or high counts
high counts of inactive fault of inactive fault codes?
codes.
STEP 1B: Perform basic troubleshooting All steps have been verified to
checks. be correct?
STEP 2: Determination of engine symptom.
STEP 2A: Low power, poor acceleration, Is the engine symptom low
or poor response. power, poor acceleration, or
poor response?
STEP 2B: Engine misfire. Is the engine symptom Engine
Runs Rough or Misfires?
STEP 2C: Excessive black smoke. Is the engine symptom
Excessive Black Smoke?
STEP 2D: Excessive white smoke. Is the engine symptom
Excessive White Smoke and the
engine is using coolant?
STEP 2D-1: Excessive white smoke. Is the engine symptom
Excessive White Smoke and the
engine is not using coolant?
STEP 2E: Engine speed surge or engine Is the engine symptom Engine
speed unstable. Speed Surge or Engine Speed
Unstable?
STEP 2F: Engine will not start or difficult Is the symptom Engine Difficult
to start. to Start or Will Not Start?
STEP 2G: Engine stalls or shuts off Is the symptom Engine Stalls or
unexpectedly. Shuts Off Unexpectedly?
STEP 2H: Engine run on or will not shut Is the engine symptom Engine
down. Run On or Slow to Shut Down
after operated at high idle for 1
minute then keyed off?
STEP 3: No-start troubleshooting procedures.
STEP 3A: Verify the fuel system has been Has the fuel system properly
primed. primed?
STEP 3B: Check fuel shutoff valve voltage. Is the fuel shutoff valve voltage
greater than 11-VDC?
STEP 3B-1: Check ECM keyswitch Is the keyswitch voltage equal to
voltage. battery voltage?
STEP 3B-2: Check the fuel shutoff valve Less than 10 ohms?
wire.
STEP 3B-3: Check the ECM power and Is the ECM battery supply
ground. voltage equal to the battery
voltage?
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-3

STEP 3C: Check fuel shutoff valve Is the fuel shutoff solenoid
resistance. resistance 1 to 5 ohms for 6-VDC
solenoids, 6 to 15 ohms for 12-
VDC solenoids, 24 to 50 ohms
for 24-VDC solenoids, 42 to 80
ohms for 32-VDC solenoids, 46
to 87 ohms for 36-VDC
solenoids, 92 to 145 ohms for 48-
VDC solenoids, 315 to 375 ohms
for 74-VDC solenoids, 645 to 735
ohms for 115-VAC solenoids?
STEP 3D: Check fuel shutoff valve Debris or damage found on the
actuator. valve disc, valve seat, or
actuator disc?
STEP 3E: Check for correct priming pump Does the lift pump operate after
operation, if equipped. turning the keyswitch ON?
STEP 3E-1: Check priming pump Does pump pressure meet the 69
pressure. kPa [10 psi] specification?
STEP 3F: Check for coolant in the EGR Is coolant present in the
transfer tube. crossover tube?
STEP 4: Fuel system checks.
STEP 4A: Verify the fuel system has been Has the fuel system been
primed. properly primed?
STEP 4B: Check for air in the fuel. Are air bubbles visible in the coil
of clear tubing?
STEP 4C: Check fuel inlet restriction. Is fuel inlet restriction less than
the specifications?
STEP 4D: Check drain line restriction. Is fuel drain line restriction less
than 229 mm-Hg [9 in-Hg]?
STEP 4E: Check rail fuel pressure. Does the rail fuel pressure meet
the specification?
STEP 4E-1: Check the pressure side fuel Is the pressure side fuel filter
filter restriction. pressure drop less than 517 kPa
[75 psi]?
STEP 4E-2: Check 1724 kPa [250 psi] Is the 1724 kPa [250 psi]
pressure regulator. pressure regulator free of debris
or damage?
STEP 4E-3: Check 2206 kPa [320 psi] or Is the pressure regulator free of
2620 kPa [380 psi] pressure debris or damage?
regulator.
STEP 5: Injector and Actuator Diagnostics.
STEP 5A: Perform the injector check valve Did the injector leak test detect
leak test. a leaking injector?
STEP 5B: Perform INSITE electronic Does performing INSITE
service tool Cylinder electronic service tool Cylinder
Performance Test. Performance Test isolate to a
single malfunctioning injector?
STEP 5B-1: Perform INSITE electronic Does performing INSITE
service tool Cylinder electronic service tool Cylinder
Performance Test at 600 Performance Test isolate to a
rpm. single malfunctioning injector?
STEP 5B-2: Perform INSITE electronic Does performing INSITE
service tool Cylinder electronic service tool Cylinder
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Page TT-4 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

Performance Test at 700 Performance Test isolate to a


rpm. single malfunctioning injector?
STEP 5B-3: Perform INSITE electronic Does performing INSITE
service tool Cylinder electronic service tool Cylinder
Performance Test at 800 Performance Test isolate to a
rpm. single malfunctioning injector?
STEP 5C: Perform INSITE electronic Do all cylinders pass the cylinder
service tool Cylinder Cutout cutout test?
Test.
STEP 5C-1: Perform INSITE electronic Can a malfunctioning bank of
service tool Cylinder Cutout injectors be isolated by
Test on both injector banks. operating the engine on either
bank of injectors?
STEP 5C-2: Perform INSITE electronic Can a malfunctioning injector be
service tool Cylinder Cutout isolated by operating the engine
Test. on a single injector?
STEP 5C-3: Verify overhead Are the overhead settings within
adjustments are correct for the reset limits outlines in
the suspected Procedure 003-004 in Section 3?
malfunctioning injector.
STEP 5D: Swap the front and rear Does the malfunctioning bank
metering actuators. follow the metering actuator?
STEP 5E: Swap the front and rear timing Does the malfunctioning bank
actuators. follow the timing actuator?
STEP 6: Air handling diagnostic checks.
STEP 6A: Start the engine and read the Active fault codes?
fault codes.
STEP 6B: Inspect the turbocharger blades Damage found on turbocharger
for damage. blades?
STEP 6C: Determine turbocharger type. Is the turbocharger a variable
geometry turbocharger?
STEP 6D: Check the variable geometry Does the turbocharger actuator
actuator rod for correct travel. rod extend between 10 and 12
mm [0.394 and 0.472 in]?
STEP 6D-1: Check for air leaks and Air leaks found in the system?
inspect air lines.
STEP 6D-2: Check the engine and Connections tight and corrosion-
vehicle grounds. free?
STEP 6D-3: Check for air pressure at the Is vehicle air tank pressure
turbocharger control valve present at the turbocharger
outlet. control valve outlet?
STEP 6D-4: Check for air pressure at the Does the pressure gauge read
turbocharger control valve more than 103 kPa [15 psi] after
outlet. 5 minutes?
STEP 6D-5: Check for correct Does the turbocharger actuator
turbocharger actuator rod travel at least 12 mm [0.472
travel. in]?
STEP 6D-6: Check for air pressure at the Can air be heard escaping from
turbocharger control shutoff the turbocharger control shutoff
valve outlet. valve outlet?
STEP 6D-7: Check for air pressure at the Can air be heard escaping from
turbocharger control shutoff the turbocharger control shutoff
valve inlet. valve inlet?
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-5

STEP 6D-8: Check for plugged Is an air leak present at the


turbocharger control shutoff turbocharger control shutoff
valve filter. valve filter head?
STEP 6E: Perform INSITE electronic Does the Turbocharger
service tool EGR Valve/ Operational Test pass?
Turbocharger Operational Test.
STEP 6E-1: Check the engine and Connections tight and corrosion-
vehicle grounds. free?
STEP 6F: Inspect the wastegate actuator Holes or cracks found in the
hose. wastegate actuator hose?
STEP 6G: Inspect the wastegate actuator Does the wastegate actuator rod
rod for travel. move?
STEP 6G-1: Inspect wastegate actuator Does the wastegate actuator rod
rod for travel. move?
STEP 6H: Measure resistance of the four- Are the wastegate controller
stage wastegate controllers, if solenoid resistances between
equipped. 7.0 and 8.0 ohms?
STEP 6I: Inspect four-stage wastegate Damage or debris found on the
controller, if equipped. valve disc, valve seat, or
actuator disc?
STEP 7: Check EGR valve for proper operation.
STEP 7A: Check for air leaks in the EGR Air leaks found in the EGR
system. connection tubing?
STEP 7B: Check the repair history. Is there a record of the poppet
head missing?
STEP 7C: Perform EGR Valve Test. Does the EGR Valve Test pass?
STEP 8: Verify electronic features are operating correctly.
STEP 8A: Verify accelerator pedal travel. Does the Accelerator Pedal read
0 when the accelerator is
released and 100 percent when
the accelerator is depressed?
STEP 8B: Monitor vehicle speed. Does the vehicle speed read 0
when the vehicle is not moving?
STEP 8C: Verify electronic feature settings Are the electronic features set
are correct. correctly?
STEP 8D: Check the barometric pressure Is the barometric pressure
sensor reading. sensor reading in INSITE
electronic service tool within 5
percent of the present local
barometric pressure reading?
STEP 9: Perform base engine mechanical checks.
STEP 9A: Verify overhead adjustments are Are the overhead settings within
correct. the reuse limits?
STEP 9B: Check air intake restriction. Is air intake restriction greater
than 635 mm-H 2O [25 in-H 2O]
for a used air filter or 254 mm-H
2O [10 in-H 2O] for a new filter?

STEP 9C: Check exhaust restriction. Is exhaust restriction between


518 mm-H 2O [20.4 in-H 2O] or 38
mm-Hg [1.5 in-Hg] and 1036 mm-
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Page TT-6 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

H 2O [40.8 in-H 2O] or 76 mm-Hg


[3.0 in-Hg]?
STEP 9D: Pressure test the charge air Is the pressure drop 34 kPa [5
cooler. psi] or less in 15 seconds?
STEP 9E: Verify engine brake adjustment. Are the engine brake settings
within the reuse limits?
STEP 9F: Measure turbocharger axial and Are the axial and radial
radial clearance. clearances within specification?
STEP 9G: Verify engine blowby is within Are the engine blowby
specification. measurements within
specification?
STEP 9G-1: Verify turbocharger Did the total engine blowby drop
contribution to engine more than 30 percent?
blowby.
STEP 9H: Verify base engine timing is Is the base engine timing within
correct. specification?
STEP 9I: Check for a damaged vibration Is the vibration damper damaged
damper. or out of specification?
STEP 10: Check the EGR differential pressure sensor and exhaust gas pressure sensor
tubes.
STEP 10A: Check the EGR differential Are cracks, restrictions, or leaks
pressure tubes for cracks, present?
restrictions, or leaks.
STEP 10B: Check the exhaust gas pressure Are cracks, restrictions, or leaks
sensor tubes for cracks, present?
restrictions, or leaks.

TROUBLESHOOTING STEP

STEP 1: Perform basic troubleshooting procedures.


STEP 1A: Check for active fault codes or high counts of inactive fault codes.
Condition:
Connect INSITE electronic service tool.
Turn keyswitch ON.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Check for active fault codes or high counts of Active fault codes or high counts of inactive Go to
inactive fault codes. fault codes? appropriate
Use INSITE electronic service tool to read the YES fault code
fault codes. troubleshooti
ng tree

Active fault codes or high counts of inactive 1B


fault codes?
NO
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-7

STEP 1B: Perform basic troubleshooting checks.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

The following items must be checked or verified All steps have been verified to be correct? 2A
before continuing: YES
Verify the fuel level in the tanks
Verify there have not been any changes to
CPL components on the engine All steps have been verified to be correct? Repair
Verify ECM calibration is correct NO complete
Verify fuel grade is correct for the application
Repair:
Verify the engine is operating within the
recommended altitude Correct the condition and verify complaint is
Verify engine oil is at the correct level no longer present after repair.
Verify engine parasitics have not changed
Verify engine duty cycle has not changed
Verify engine cranking speed is greater than
150 rpm.

STEP 2: Determination of engine symptom.


STEP 2A: Low power, poor acceleration, or poor response.
Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom low power, poor Perform the
acceleration, or poor response? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the procedure
recommended order listed below:
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 6 - Air Handling Checks
With EGR - Step 7 - EGR Checks
Step 8 - Electronic Checks
Step 5 - Injector Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks
With EGR - Step 10 - EGR Differential
Pressure and Exhaust Gas Pressure
Checks.

Is the engine symptom low power, poor 2B


acceleration, or poor response?
NO
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Page TT-8 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 2B: Engine misfire.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom Engine Runs Rough Perform the
or Misfires? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the procedure
recommended order listed below:
Step 5 - Injector Checks
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks
With EGR - Step 10 - EGR Differential
Pressure and Exhaust Gas Pressure
Checks.

Is the engine symptom Engine Runs Rough 2C


or Misfires?
NO

STEP 2C: Excessive black smoke.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom Excessive Black Perform the
Smoke? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the procedure
recommended order listed below:
Step 6 - Air Handling Checks
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 5 - Injector Checks
With EGR - Step 7 - EGR Checks
With EGR - Step 10 - EGR Differential
Pressure and Exhaust Gas Pressure
Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks.

Is the engine symptom Excessive Black 2D


Smoke?
NO
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-9

STEP 2D: Excessive white smoke.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom Excessive White Perform the
Smoke and the engine is using coolant? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the procedure
recommended order listed below:
See the Coolant Loss - Internal symptom
tree.

Is the engine symptom Excessive White 2D-1


Smoke and the engine is using coolant?
NO

STEP 2D-1: Excessive white smoke.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom Excessive White Perform the
Smoke and the engine is not using coolant? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the procedure
recommended order listed below:
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 5 - Injector Checks
Step 6 - Air Handling Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks.

Is the engine symptom Excessive White 2E


Smoke and the engine is not using coolant?
NO
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Page TT-10 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 2E: Engine speed surge or engine speed unstable.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom Engine Speed Surge Perform the
or Engine Speed Unstable? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the procedure
recommended order listed below:
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 5 - Injector Checks
With EGR - Step 10 - EGR Differential
Pressure and Exhaust Gas Pressure
Checks
Step 6 - Air Handling Checks
Step 8 - Electronics Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks.

Is the engine symptom Engine Speed Surge 2F


or Engine Speed Unstable?
NO

STEP 2F: Engine will not start or difficult to start.


Condition:
None

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver to verify the complaint. Is the symptom Engine Difficult to Start or Perform the
Will Not Start? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the steps that pertain to difficult to procedure
start or will not start concerns per the
troubleshooting steps in the recommended
order listed below:
Step 3 - No Start Checks
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 5 - Injector Checks
Step 6 - Air Handling Checks
Step 8 - Electronics Checks
Check the engine base timing. Use the
following procedure in the Signature,
ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin
3666239. Refer to Procedure 001-088 in
Section 1.
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks.

Is the symptom Engine Difficult to Start or 2G


Will Not Start?
NO
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-11

STEP 2G: Engine stalls or shuts off unexpectedly.


Condition:
None

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver to verify the complaint. Is the symptom Engine Stalls or Shuts Off Perform the
Unexpectedly? troubleshooti
YES ng steps
suggested in
Repair: the repair
Perform the steps that pertain to stalls or procedure
shuts off unexpectedly per the
troubleshooting steps in the recommended
order listed below:
Step 3 - No Start Checks
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 5 - Injector Checks
Step 6 - Air Handling Checks
Step 8 - Electronics Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks.

Is the symptom Engine Stalls or Shuts Off 2H


Unexpectedly?
NO

STEP 2H: Engine run on, or will not shut down


Condition:
None

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Interview the driver and verify the complaint. Is the engine symptom Engine Run On or Perform the
Slow to Shut Down after operated at high idle troubleshooti
for 1 minute then keyed off? ng steps
YES suggested in
the repair
Repair: procedure
Perform the troubleshooting steps in the
recommended order listed below:
Step 5 - Injector Checks
Step 4 - Fuel System Checks
Step 9 - Base Engine Checks.

Is the engine symptom Engine Run On or Return to the


Slow to Shut Down after operated at high idle appropriate
for 1 minute then keyed off? symptom
NO tree
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Page TT-12 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 3: No-start troubleshooting procedures.


STEP 3A: Verify the fuel system has been primed.
Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

If entering this tree after a component has been Has the fuel system been properly primed? 3B
replaced in the fuel system, or after the engine YES
was run out of fuel, verify the fuel system has
been properly primed before proceeding.
Verify the fuel system has been properly Has the fuel system been properly primed? Repair
primed. NO complete
Use the following procedure for fuel system
Repair:
priming information found in the Signature,
ISX, and QSX15, Service Manual, Bulletin Prime the fuel system.
3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-015 in Use the following procedure for fuel
Section 6. system priming information found in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15, Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 006-015 in Section 6.

STEP 3B: Check fuel shutoff valve voltage.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch ON.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the voltage from the fuel shutoff valve Is the fuel shutoff valve voltage greater than 3C
post to engine block ground. 11-VDC?
YES

Is the fuel shutoff valve voltage greater than 3B-1


11-VDC?
NO
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-13

STEP 3B-1: Check ECM keyswitch voltage.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Disconnect the OEM harness from the ECM.
Turn keyswitch ON.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the voltage from the keyswitch input Is the keyswitch voltage equal to battery 3B-2
SIGNAL wire of the OEM harness to engine block voltage?
ground. YES

Is the keyswitch voltage equal to battery Repair


voltage? complete
NO
Repair:
Repair or replace the OEM power harness,
keyswitch, or check the battery connections.
Use the following procedure in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System Signature and
ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334. Refer to
Procedure 019-064 in Section 19.
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Page TT-14 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 3B-2: Check the fuel shutoff valve wire.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Disconnect the engine harness from the ECM.
Disconnect the fuel shutoff valve wire from the valve terminal post.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the resistance from the fuel shutoff Less than 10 ohms? 3B-3
valve SIGNAL pin in the ECM connector to the YES
fuel shutoff valve eyelet.
Use the circuit diagram or wiring diagram for Less than 10 ohms? Repair
connector pin identification. complete
NO
Use the following procedure for general
resistance measurement techniques. Use the Repair:
following procedure in the Troubleshooting and Repair or replace the engine harness.
Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic Control
System Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin Use the following procedure in the
4021334. Refer to Procedure 019-360 in Section Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System Signature and
19.
ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334. Refer to
Procedure 019-043 in Section 19.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-15

STEP 3B-3: Check the ECM power and ground.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Disconnect the ECM power supply connector from the ECM.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the voltage from the ECM battery Is the ECM battery supply voltage equal to Repair
SUPPLY (-) to the ECM battery SUPPLY (+) pins the battery voltage? complete
in the ECM power harness connector. YES
Repair:
Call for authorization to replace the ECM.
Upon receipt of authorization, replace the
ECM. Use the following procedure in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Electronic Control System Signature and
ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334. Refer to
Procedure 019-031 in Section 19.

Is the ECM battery supply voltage equal to Repair


the battery voltage? complete
NO
Repair:
Repair or replace the ECM power harness.
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Page TT-16 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 3C: Check fuel shutoff valve resistance.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Disconnect fuel shutoff valve SIGNAL wire from the fuel shutoff solenoid.
Fuel shutoff valve temperature between 20C [68F] and 25C [78F].

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the resistance from the fuel shutoff Is the fuel shutoff solenoid resistance: 3D
solenoid post to engine block ground. 1 to 5 ohms for 6-VDC solenoids
Note: The fuel shutoff solenoid must be between 6 to 15 ohms for 12-VDC solenoids
20C [68F] and 25C [78F] before using the 24 to 50 ohms for 24-VDC solenoids
resistance specifications listed. 42 to 80 ohms for 32-VDC solenoids
46 to 87 ohms for 36-VDC solenoids
92 to 145 ohms for 48-VDC solenoids
315 to 375 ohms for 74-VDC solenoids
645 to 735 ohms for 115-VAC solenoids?
YES

Is the fuel shutoff solenoid resistance: Repair


1 to 5 ohms for 6-VDC solenoids complete
6 to 15 ohms for 12-VDC solenoids
24 to 50 ohms for 24-VDC solenoids
42 to 80 ohms for 32-VDC solenoids
46 to 87 ohms for 36-VDC solenoids
92 to 145 ohms for 48-VDC solenoids
315 to 375 ohms for 74-VDC solenoids
645 to 735 ohms for 115-VAC solenoids?
NO
Repair:
Replace the fuel shutoff solenoid. Use the
following procedure in the Troubleshooting
and Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic
Control System Signature and ISX Engines,
Bulletin 4021334. Refer to Procedure
019-050 in Section 19.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-17

STEP 3D: Check fuel shutoff valve actuator.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Remove the fuel shutoff valve solenoid, valve disc, valve seat, and actuator.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Check the valve disc, valve seat, and actuator Debris or damage found on the valve disc, Repair
disc for dirt, metal debris, bonding separation, valve seat, or actuator disc? complete
corrosion, cracks, or wear. YES
Repair:
Replace the damaged fuel shutoff valve
component. Use the following procedure in
the Troubleshooting and Repair Manual,
CM870 Electronic Control System
Signature and ISX Engines, Bulletin
4021334. Refer to Procedure 019-050 in
Section 19.

Debris or damage found on the valve disc, 3E


valve seat, or actuator disc?
NO
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Page TT-18 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 3E: Check for correct priming pump operation, if equipped.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Assemble fuel shutoff valve components.
Turn keyswitch ON.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Listen for lift pump operation after the keyswitch Does the lift pump operate after turning the 3E-1
is turned to the ON position. keyswitch ON?
Note: Not all ISX engines use a priming pump YES
and not all ISX engines use a priming pump that
actuates at keyswitch ON. Understand which Does the lift pump operate after turning the Repair
system is present on this engine before keyswitch ON? complete
beginning this step.
NO
Repair:
Check or replace the lift pump. Use the
following procedure in the Signature, ISX,
and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin
3666239. Refer to Procedure 005-045 in
Section 5.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...]
Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-19

STEP 3E-1: Check priming pump pressure.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Turn keyswitch ON.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the priming pressure at the quick Does pump pressure meet the 69 kPa [10 psi] 3F
connect fitting located on the top of the specification?
integrated fuel system module (IFSM). YES
Use the following procedure in the Signature,
ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin Does pump pressure meet the 69 kPa [10 psi] Repair
3666239. Refer to Procedure 005-045 in Section specification? complete
5.
NO
Repair:
Replace the lift pump.
Use the following procedure in the
Signature ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual,
Bulletin 3666239. Refer to Procedure
005-045 in Section 5.
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-20 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 3F: Check for coolant in the EGR transfer tube.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Remove the EGR transfer hose from the EGR Is coolant present in the crossover tube? Repair
cooler outlet. YES complete
Repair:
See the Coolant Loss - Internal symptom
tree.

Is coolant present in the crossover tube? 2A


NO
Repair:
Perform the next troubleshooting procedure
as outlined in Step 2

STEP 4: Fuel system checks.


STEP 4A: Verify the fuel system has been primed.
Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

If entering this tree after a component has been Has the fuel system been properly primed? 4B
replaced in the fuel system, or after the engine YES
has been run out of fuel, verify the fuel system
has been properly primed before proceeding.
Verify the fuel system has been properly Has the fuel system been properly primed? repair
primed. NO complete
Use the following procedure for fuel system
Repair:
priming information found in the Signature,
ISX, and QSX15, Service Manual, Bulletin Prime the fuel system.
3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-015 in Use the following procedure for fuel
Section 6. system priming information found in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15, Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 006-015 in Section 6.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-21

STEP 4B: Check for air in the fuel.


Condition:
Engine operating at low idle (engine cranking if troubleshooting No-Start).

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Connect the equipment to the quick-connect Are air bubbles visible in the coil of clear Repair
fitting at the fuel module as shown. tubing? complete
Put a coil in the clear hose. YES
Put the end of the clear hose in a clean
container. Repair:
Operate the engine at low idle with no load. Locate and correct the cause of air ingestion
Slightly open the valve until a steady stream of in the OEM fuel supply system or damaged
fuel is visible. suction-side fuel filter sealing ring.
With EGR:
Check the ECM cooling plate, associated
plumbing, and o-ring seals for failures that
can cause air ingestion. Repair or replace the
malfunctioning component. Use the following
procedure in the Signature, ISX, and
QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin 3666239.
Refer to Procedure 006-020 in Section 6.

Air bubbles visible in the coil of clear tubing? 4C


NO
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-22 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 4C: Check fuel inlet restriction.


Condition:
Connect vacuum gauge to the suction side Compuchek fitting.
Turn keyswitch ON.
Engine operating at high idle (engine cranking if troubleshooting No-Start).

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

If the engine uses a priming pump, wait until after Is fuel inlet restriction less than the 4D
the priming pump has turned off and observe the specifications listed below?
reading on the vacuum gauge. Dirty - 305 mm-Hg [12 in-Hg]; New - 203 mm-
Check the fuel inlet restriction. Hg [8 in-Hg]
Use the following procedure in the Signature, YES
ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin
3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-020 n Section Is fuel inlet restriction less than the Repair
6. specifications listed below? complete
Dirty - 305 mm-Hg [12 in-Hg]; New - 203 mm-
Hg [8 in-Hg]
NO
Repair:
Locate the cause of high fuel inlet restriction.
Check the suction-side fuel filter and fuel
supply lines.
Note: For QSX15 only, check the 300 micron
inlet filter screen for debris. Use the following
procedure in the Signature, ISX, and
QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin 3666239.
Refer to Procedure 005-073 in Section 5.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-23

STEP 4D: Check drain line restriction.


Condition:
Connect pressure gauge, Part Number 3375278.
Turn keyswitch ON.
Engine operating at high idle (engine cranking if troubleshooting No-Start).

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Observe reading on the pressure gauge. Is fuel drain line restriction less than 229 mm- 4E
Hg [9 in-Hg]?
YES

Is fuel drain line restriction less than 229 mm- Repair


Hg [9 in-Hg]? complete
NO
Repair:
Locate cause of high fuel drain line restriction
in OEM fuel return line.
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-24 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 4E: Check rail fuel pressure.


Condition:
Connect pressure gauge, Part Number 3375932, on the Compuchek fitting (as shown)
Turn keyswitch ON.
Engine operating at low idle (engine cranking if troubleshooting No-Start).

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Read the rail fuel pressure at low idle and high Does the rail fuel pressure meet the Perform the
idle. specification? next
Read the rail fuel pressure while cranking if the YES troubleshooti
ng procedure
engine will not start.
as outlined in
Cranking: greater than 689 kPa [100 psi] at Step 2
130 rpm for at least 10 seconds.
Low idle: 1689 to 1889 kPa [245 to 274 psi] at
Does the rail fuel pressure meet the 4E-2
600 rpm.
specification?
High idle: 1896 to 2068 kPa [275 to 325 psi] at With EGR
1800 rpm. NO 4E-1
With EGR Repair:
Cranking: greater than 689 kPa [100 psi] at Note: When cranking, make sure the fuel
130 rpm for at least 10 seconds. system is primed for at least 30 seconds.
Low idle: 1586 to 1889 kPa [230 to 274 psi] at
600 rpm.
High idle: 1896 to 2068 kPa [275 to 325 psi] at
1800 rpm.
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...] Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...]
Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-25

STEP 4E-1: Check the pressure side fuel filter restriction.


Condition:
Connect pressure gauge, Part Number 3375932, on the rail fuel pressure Compuchek fitting.
Connect pressure gauge, Part Number 3375932, on the gear pump output pressure Compuchek fitting.
Engine operating at high idle (engine cranking if troubleshooting no-start).

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Read the fuel pressure drop across the pressure Is the pressure side fuel filter pressure drop 4E-2
side fuel filter at high idle or while cranking if the less than 517 kPa [75 psi]?
engine will not start. YES

Is the pressure side fuel filter pressure drop Repair


less than 517 kPa [75 psi]? complete
NO
Repair:
Replace the pressure side fuel filter. Use the
following procedure in the Signature, ISX,
and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin
3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-015 in
Section 6.
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-26 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 4E-2: Check 1724 kPa [250 psi] pressure regulator.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Remove the 1724-kPa [250-psi] fuel pressure Is the 1724 kPa [250 psi] pressure regulator 4E-3
regulator. free of debris or damage?
Inspect for debris or damage or incomplete YES
sealing of the regulator.
Is the 1724 kPa [250 psi] pressure regulator Repair
free of debris or damage? complete
NO
Repair:
Replace 1724 kPa [250 psi] regulator.
Use the following procedure in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 005-073 in Section 5.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-27

STEP 4E-3: Check 2206 kPa [320 psi] or 2620 kPa [380 psi] pressure regulator.
Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Remove the 2206 kPa [320 psi] fuel pressure Is the pressure regulator free of debris or Repair
regulator. damage? complete
Inspect for debris, damage, or incomplete YES
sealing of the regulator. Repair:
With EGR Replace the fuel pump.
Remove the 2620 kPa [380 psi] fuel pressure Use the following procedure in the
regulator. Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service
Inspect for debris, damage, or incomplete Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
sealing of the regulator. Procedure 005-016 in Section 5.

Is the pressure regulator free of debris or Repair


damage? complete
NO
Repair:
Replace the 2206 kPa [320 psi] regulator.
With EGR
Replace the 2620 kPa [380 psi] regulator.
Use the following procedure in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 005-073 in Section 5.
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-28 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 5: Injector and Actuator Diagnostics.


STEP 5A: Perform the injector check valve leak test.
Condition:
None

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Perform the injector check valve leak test to Did the injector leak test detect a leaking Repair
check for internal injector check valve damage. injector? complete
Use the following procedure in the Signature, YES
ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin Repair:
3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-026 in Section
6. Replace the leaking injector. Use the
following procedure in the Signature, ISX,
Note: INSITE electronic service tool Injector and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin
Check Valve Diagnostics Test can be used as an 3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-026 in
initial test before performing the mechanical Section 6.
check outlined in Procedure 006-026 in Section
6. If INSITE electronic service tool does not
detect a failed injector, perform the injector leak Did the injector leak test detect a leaking 5B
test. Use the following procedure in the injector?
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual, NO
Bulletin 3666239. Refer to Procedure 006-026 in
Section 6.

STEP 5B: Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test.
Condition:
Troubleshoot any active fault codes before performing the test.
Engine coolant temperature must be greater than 83C [180F].
Connect INSITE electronic service tool.
Engine idling.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Does performing INSITE electronic service 5C-3
Performance Test. tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
single malfunctioning injector?
During the initial 30 seconds of the Cylinder
Performance Test, INSITE electronic service YES
tool is checking to make sure all parameters have
been met to enter the test. Does performing INSITE electronic service 5B-1
Once the initial Pass or Fail reading is displayed, tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
the test is live for the next 2 minutes. Monitor the single malfunctioning injector?
display to see if cylinders or banks drop out NO
during this 2 minute window. A cylinder can
switch from pass to fail and back to pass quickly,
so monitor the screen closely.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-29

STEP 5B-1: Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test at 600 rpm.
Condition:
Troubleshoot any active fault codes before performing the test.
Engine coolant temperature must be greater than 83C [180F].
Connect INSITE electronic service tool.
Engine idling at 600 rpm.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Skip this step and move on to step 5B-2 if the rpm Does performing INSITE electronic service 5C-3
value is the same as that used in step 5B. tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
single malfunctioning injector?
Adjust the low speed to 600 rpm and perform the
INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder YES
Performance Test.
During the initial 30 seconds of the Cylinder Does performing INSITE electronic service 5B-2
Performance Test, INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
tool is checking to make sure all parameters have single malfunctioning injector?
been met to enter the test. NO
Once the initial Pass or Fail reading is displayed,
the test is live for the next 2 minutes. Monitor the
display to see if cylinders or banks drop out
during this 2 minute window. A cylinder can
switch from pass to fail and back to pass quickly,
so monitor the screen closely.

STEP 5B-2: Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test at 700 rpm.
Condition:
Troubleshoot any active fault codes before performing the test.
Engine coolant temperature must be greater than 83C [180F].
Connect INSITE electronic service tool.
Engine idling at 700 rpm.
Note: The idle speed may need to be adjusted to perform this test. Toggle the cruise control increment/decrement
switch to see if the idle speed can be adjusted. If not, use INSITE electronic service tool to either enable the
Adjustable Low Idle Speed feature or adjust the Low Idle Speed.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Skip this step and move on to step 5B-3 if the Does performing INSITE electronic service 5C-3
RPM value is the same as that used in step 5B. tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
single malfunctioning injector?
Adjust the low speed to 700 rpm and perform the
INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder YES
Performance Test.
During the initial 30 seconds of the Cylinder Does performing INSITE electronic service 5B-3
Performance Test, INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
tool is checking to make sure all parameters have single malfunctioning injector?
been met to enter the test. NO
Once the initial Pass or Fail reading is displayed,
the test is live for the next 2 minutes. Monitor the
display to see if cylinders or banks drop out
during this 2 minute window. A cylinder can
switch from pass to fail and back to pass quickly,
so monitor the screen closely.
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Page TT-30 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 5B-3: Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test at 800 rpm.
Condition:
Troubleshoot any active fault codes before performing the test.
Engine coolant temperature must be greater than 83C [180F].
Connect INSITE electronic service tool.
Engine idling at 800 rpm.
Note: The idle speed may need to be adjusted to perform this test. Toggle the cruise control increment/decrement
switch to see if the idle speed can be adjusted. If not, use INSITE electronic service tool to either enable the
"Adjustable Low Idle Speed" feature or adjust the Low Idle Speed.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Skip this step and move on to step 5C if the rpm Does performing INSITE electronic service 5C-3
value is the same as that used in step 5B. tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
single malfunctioning injector?
Adjust the low speed to 800 rpm and perform the
INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder YES
Performance Test.
During the initial 30 seconds of the Cylinder Does performing INSITE electronic service 5C
Performance Test, INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Performance Test identify a
tool is checking to make sure all parameters have single malfunctioning injector?
been met to enter the test. NO
Once the initial Pass or Fail reading is displayed,
the test is live for the next 2 minutes. Monitor the
display to see if cylinders or banks drop out
during this 2 minute window. A cylinder can
switch from pass to fail and back to pass quickly,
so monitor the screen closely.

STEP 5C: Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Cutout Test
Condition:
Air conditioning is turned off.
Fan is turned off.
Any electrical loads are disabled.
Engine idling at the engine speed at which the misfire is present.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Perform INSITE electronic service tool cylinder Do all cylinders pass the cylinder cutout test? 5C-1
cutout test. YES
Note: a failing cylinder will have no effect on
engine sound and operation when cut out using Do all cylinders pass the cylinder cutout test? 5C-3
this test.
NO
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-31

STEP 5C-1: Perform INSITE electronic service tool cylinder cutout test on individual injector banks.
Condition:
Air conditioning is turned off.
Fan is turned off.
Any electrical loads are disabled.
Engine idling at the engine speed at which the misfire is present.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Perform the INSITE electronic service tool Can a malfunctioning bank of injectors be 5D
cylinder cutout test. isolated by operating the engine on either
Operate the engine on the front bank of bank of injectors?
injectors identified by the cylinder cutout test YES
by disabling the rear three cylinders 4, 5, 6
cylinders with INSITE electronic service tool.
Operate the engine on the rear bank of Can a malfunctioning bank of injectors be 5C-2
injectors identified by the Cylinder isolated by operating the engine on either
Performance Test by disabling the front three bank of injectors?
cylinders (1,2,3) with INSITE electronic NO
service tool.
To disable one bank of cylinders with INSITE
electronic service tool, click on the cylinder
numbers associated with that bank. The front
bank consists of cylinders 1, 2, and 3 and the
rear bank is cylinders 4, 5, and 6.
A malfunctioning bank of injectors will cause
the engine to run poorly when the opposite
bank is cut out using this test.
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Page TT-32 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 5C-2: Perform INSITE electronic service tool Cylinder Cutout Test single cylinder operation.
Condition:
Air conditioning is turned off.
Fan is turned off.
Any electrical loads are disabled.
Engine idling at the engine speed at which the misfire is present.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Perform the INSITE electronic service tool Can a malfunctioning injector be isolated by 5C-3
cylinder cut out test. operating the engine on a single injector?
Operate the engine on the cylinder identified by YES
the Cylinder Performance Test by disabling 5
cylinders with INSITE electronic service tool Can a malfunctioning injector be isolated by 5D
and only operating on the suspect cylinder. operating the engine on a single injector?
To disable 5 cylinders with INSITE electronic NO
service tool, click on the cylinder numbers until
only 1 cylinder is enabled.
The engine should roughly maintain idle speed
when operating on a single cylinder. A weak or
misfiring cylinder will be detected if the engine
dies or can not maintain idle speed when
operating on a single cylinder.
Continue testing all 6 cylinders by operating the
engine on each individual injector.
Note: If the engine will not run on 1 cylinder
regardless of the cylinder selected, increase the
idle RPM and retest.
Note: Do not run the engine on 1 cylinder for an
extended period of time.
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-33

STEP 5C-3: Verify overhead adjustments are correct for the suspected malfunctioning injector.
Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Remove the rocker lever cover. Use the following procedure in the Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual,
Bulletin 3666239. Refer to Procedure 003-011 in Section 3.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Measure the overhead settings for the suspected Are the overhead settings within the reset Repair
malfunctioning injector. limits outlined in Procedure 003-004 in complete
Check the valve lash and injector pre-load Section 3?
torque before replacing the injector. YES
Use the following procedure in the Signature,
ISX, and QSX15 Service Manual, Bulletin Repair:
3666239. Refer to Procedure 003-004 in Replace the malfunctioning injector.
Section 3.
Use the following procedure in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 006-026 in Section 6.

Are the overhead settings within the reset 5B


limits outlined in Procedure 003-004 in
Section 3?
NO
Repair:
Adjust the overhead settings.
Use the following procedure in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 003-004 in Section 3.
Perform the Cylinder Performance Test to
determine if a misfire still exists after
adjusting the overhead settings.
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signature an [...] Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Eng [...]
Page TT-34 Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format)

STEP 5D: Swap the front and rear metering actuators.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Disconnect the engine harness from the timing and metering actuators.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Swap the front and rear metering actuator to Did the cylinder performance test find a Repair
determine if the failed bank of cylinders follows a malfunctioning bank? complete
specific metering actuator. YES
Use the following procedure in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870 Repair:
Electronic Control System Signature and ISX Replace the malfunctioning metering
Engines, Bulletin 4021334. Refer to Procedure actuator. Use the following procedure in the
019-110 in Section 19. Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870
Perform INSITE electronic service tool Electronic Control System Signature and
Cylinder Performance Test. ISX Engines, Bulletin 4021334.
Refer to Procedure 019-110 in Section 19.

Did the cylinder performance test find a 5E


malfunctioning bank?
NO

STEP 5E: Swap the front and rear timing actuators.


Condition:
Turn keyswitch OFF.
Disconnect the engine harness from the timing and metering actuators.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Swap the front and rear timing actuator to Does the malfunctioning bank follow the Repair
determine if the failed bank of cylinders follows a timing actuator? Complete
specific timing actuator. YES
Use the following procedure in the
Troubleshooting and Repair Manual, CM870 Repair:
Electronic Control System Signature and ISX Replace the timing actuator. Use the
Engines, Bulletin 4021334. Refer to Procedure following procedure in the Troubleshooting
019-111 in Section 19. and Repair Manual, CM870 Electronic
Perform INSITE electronic service tool Control System Signature and ISX Engines,
Cylinder Performance Test. Bulletin 4021334.
Refer to Procedure 019-111 in Section 19.

Does the malfunctioning bank follow the Perform the


timing actuator? next
NO troubleshooti
ng procedure
as outlined in
Step 2
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Section TT - Troubleshooting Symptoms (New Format) Page TT-35

STEP 6: Air handling diagnostic checks.


STEP 6A: Start the engine and read the fault codes.
Condition:
Connect INSITE electronic service tool electronic service tool.
Engine is operating at low idle.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Check the fault codes with the engine running. Active fault codes? Go to
Use INSITE electronic service tool to read the YES appropriate
fault codes. fault code
troubleshooti
ng tree

Active fault codes? 6B


NO

STEP 6B: Inspect the turbocharger blades for damage.


Condition:
Engine OFF.
Remove intake and exhaust connections for turbocharger.

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Inspect the compressor and turbine blades for Damage found on turbocharger blades? Repair
damage or wear. YES complete
Repair:
Replace the turbocharger.
Use the following procedure in the
Signature, ISX, and QSX15 Service
Manual, Bulletin 3666239. Refer to
Procedure 010-033 in Section 10.

Damage found on turbocharger blades? 6C


NO

STEP 6C: Determination of turbocharger type.


Condition:

Action Specification/Repair Next Step

Determine if the turbocharger is a wastegated or Is the turbocharger a variable geometry 6D


variable geometry turbocharger. turbocharger?
YES

Is the turbocharger a variable geometry 6F


turbocharger?
NO
Engine Performance Troubleshooting Tree - Signa