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The development of civilization has relied heavily on the discovery of

Prehistoric man used metals to build tools, weapons and as our knowledge of
metallurgy has developed.
Metals have played an essential role in the advancement of agriculture,
warfare, transport, arts and crafts-forging the path to todays modern society.
No substance has been as important as metal in the story of mans of his
Metals as a structural material begun with cast iron used on a 100ft.(30m) arc
span which was built in England in 1777-1779.
Mostly, Arch shaped with girders consisting of individual cast iron pieces
forming bars and trusses.
Cast Iron was also used for chain links on suspension bridges until about
Wrought Iron began replacing cast iron soon after 1840. The earliest
important example being the Britain Bridge over Menai Straits in Whales which
was built in 1846-1850. This was a Tubular girder bridge which can was made
from Wrought Iron plate and angles.

Properties of Metals
a. Hardness- The property of metal to be able to cut, scratch indent other metals
or to resist filling, cutting and wear abrasion.
b. Brittleness- Is the property of metal that allows little bending or deformation
without shuttering.
c. Malleability- A metal that can be hammered, rolled or pressed into various
shapes without cracking, breaking or other detrimental effects is said to be
d. Ductility- A property of metal that permits it to be permanently drawn, bent or
twisted into various shapes without breaking.
e. Toughness- The property of metal offers to breaking when a force is applied.
f. Conductility- The property that enables a metal to carry heat or electricity.
g. Fusibility- Is defined as the ability of a metal to become liquid by application of
h. Plasticity- Is the property of metal which enables it to be permanently
deformed without rupture.
i. Tenacity- Is the property of metal to resist fracture when under the action of a
tensile or pulling force.
j. Strength- Is the ability of a metal to resist the application of a force without
k. Ultimate Strength- Is the load required to fracture a one unit square across
section of a metal.
l. Resilience- The ability of a material to absorb energy under elastic
deformation and to recover this energy upon removal of load.
m. Yield Strength- The ability of a material to resist plastic deformation and
represent the stress below which the deformation is entirely elastic in nature.
n. Impact Strength- Ability of material to resist or absorb energy before it
fractures during plastic deformation.
o. Fatigue- When a body is subjected to repeated and fluctuating load it tend to
develop a characteristic behavior under which failure occurs.


1) Ferrous Metals- Are those metals which contains iron. They may have small
amounts of other metals or other elements added, to give the required
properties. All ferrous metals are magnetic and give a little resistance to
corrosion. Example: Cast Iron Wrought Iron and Steel.
2) Non-Ferrous Metals- Are metals which do not contain iron, they are not
magnetic and usually more resistant to corrosion that ferrous metals. Example:
Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Bronze, German Silver and Brass.

-Are metals which do not contain iron. These are not magnetic and are
usually more resistant to corrosion that ferrous metals.
A. Aluminum- A lightweight, silvery-white metallic element that is ductile, is found
chiefly in bauxite and is a good conductor of heat. It is the most abundant metal in
the Earths crust and is used to make wide variety of products from soda cans to
airplane components.
Properties:Gray- white, soft, malleable conductive to heat and electricity.
It is corrosion resistant. It can be welded but this is difficult. It needs
special processes.
Uses: Aircraft, boats, window frames, sauce pans, packaging and
insulation, piston and cranks.
B. Brass- A yellowish alloy of copper and zinc, usually 67% copper and 33% zinc.
It sometimes includes small amounts of other metal.
Properties: Very corrosive, yellow in color, famishes very easily. It is
harder than copper. Good electrical conductor.
Uses: for casting or aments, valves and forgings.
C. Copper- A malleable ductile reddish metallic element occuring as the free
metal, copper glance, copper pints. Used as an electrical and thermal conductor
and in such alloys a brass and bronze.
Properties: Red, tough, ductile, high electrical conductor, corrosion resistant,
can work hot or cold, needs frequent annealing.