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EDR 317/318
BLANK SLO/Case Study Template

Examiner: Aleah Costello

Class/Course Target Population (or name of student) : Alyssa Smith Class Frequency Typical Class Duration
Reading Practicum MWF Science, ELA,
A EDR 317/318 Occasionally Social Studies Science/Social Studies 40 minutes
ELA 2.5 hours

Class Size : 27 Grade Level : 4 District School

West Chester Area School Fern Hill Elementary School


After meeting with the mentor teacher and carefully observing all students in the class, the examiner was
Analysis of
able to make a decision on which student needed extra support and who would greatly benefit from her
Performance intervention strategies. The mentor teacher shared the students reading group level, most recent test scores, and
(Stage 1) Elementary Spelling Inventory. Once the examiner was given this data, she administered a few interest
Danielson 1b inventories, which allowed her to learn more about Alyssas interests and her motivation when it comes to
reading. The data given from the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project benchmark assessment
Describe the data
sources used indicated that the student was having trouble with fluency and overall comprehension. It specified that she was
(NWEA, DIBELS, an Independent reader at level N and an Instructional reader at level O. She was placed in the lowest reading
Unit test, and etc.) group that allows for more scaffolding at her level and her most recent tests displayed scores lower than the
that provide
class average. At the beginning of the year she was placed in the Syllables and Affixes (Early) stage of Word
evidence of a
potential Study. Within this spelling stage, Alyssa learns about adding ing, -ed, inflectional endings (base word s, -es,
instructional -ing), unusual past and present tense, along with many other types of sorts. On her first Words Their Way test,
concern that she scored a 40/50, which is an 80%.
Through careful observation during the school day, the examiner noticed the student would often answer
academic support. comprehension questions wrong or give an answer that is unrelated to the question. This was also seen true in
Describe your any application-type question on a test. The student struggled with some of the basic multiple choice questions
analysis of the as well and the mentor teacher cut up post-it notes and put the choices on the post-it notes. Alyssa was then able
data and areas of
to move the answers to the correct spots. Through this, it was evident that she needed to focus on fluency and
concern with
respect to one comprehension strategies and skills.
academic standard.

Identification of
Instructional Need
& Identification of
Target Population To determine the level of instruction needed, the examiner began observing and administering leveled passages
(Stage 1) with comprehension questions. Based on Alyssas rate, accuracy, prosody and comprehension the examiner was
Danielson 1b
able to determine that the student was struggling with reading fluently and because of this she was unable to
Based on the data answer comprehension questions accurately. The answers to the comprehension questions proved that the
collected above student was not consistently using strategies nor using them effectively in order to aid comprehension. This
identify the information identified that the student has instructional needs in all aspects of fluency and in comprehension.
instructional needs
and how it will The goal is for the student to accurately read a passage with a 98% accuracy rate and answer 4/5
relate to your goal, comprehension questions correct.
essential question
and standards.
What research was
conducted on
Education Plan
[IEP], English
Language Leaner
[ELL]) and
rational for
selecting the target


Goal Statement
Danielson 1c Alyssa will be able to demonstrate fluency while reading by being 98% accurate on her instructional level.
A description of
the enduring Alyssa will be able to demonstrate comprehension by reading and being able to answer 4/5 of the
understanding or comprehension questions.
C big ideas that
students will
possess at the end
of the Learning
plan based on
grade level content
standards and

Essential Why is fluency important as a reader?

Questions How does comprehension help us?
Danielson 1c How does fluency lead to comprehension?

Essential questions
center on major
issues, problems,
concerns, interests,
or themes relevant
to the classroom.
Essential questions
D should lead
students to
discover the goal
They need to go
beyond who, what
and where. They
need to lead to the
how and why.

PA Standards
Standard - CC.1.1.4.E
http://www.pdesas Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension: Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. Read on-level
.org/Standard/view text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. Use context to confirm or self-correct word
or recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

ISTE Standards
What key terms are essential to this content?
Academic Comprehension, background knowledge, evidence, support, schema, leveled passages, rate, automaticity,
prosody, expression, tone, punctuation, phrasing
Danielson 1a
and 1b What terms are essential to develop and extend students vocabulary?
What key terms Comprehension, background knowledge, evidence, support, tone, expression
are essential to
this content?
What terms are What opportunities will you provide for students to practice the new language and develop fluency, both written and oral?
essential to The student will be reading, out loud, a leveled passage that will lead into comprehension questions.
develop and The student will have the comprehension question read out loud to her and she will answer the
E extend students question. The student will go back a few days later, reread the passage silently and find the answer
What in the text where the answer is confirmed.
opportunities will The student will be practicing reading with expression and focusing on what it means to read with
you provide for expression. She will be using the word expression and explaining what it means to read with
students to expression. She will also be practicing expression with different voices and discussing how she
practice the new

language and should be reading with expression even when she is silently reading.
develop fluency,
both written and


The various tools/assessments which will be used to measure student achievement toward a specific goal.

The pre and post assessments are leveled passages that correlate with comprehension questions. Both
Describe the pre
and post of the pre and post assessment passages are about a topic that Alyssa enjoys, which was learned from
assessment (such her interest survey. The pre and post assessments are from the Reading A-Z Website
as performance (https://www.readinga-z.com/). The assessments include a passage along with 5 comprehension
task and rubrics)
F that measure questions. The first nonfiction preassessment was titled Rhino Rescue and was a level R. This passage
students is the same level as the Teachers College level N. The second fiction preassessment was titled The
understanding of
the goal.
Field Day Flash Mob and was a level S. This passage is the same level as the Teachers College level
O. The student read both of these passages orally to the examiner. The first nonfiction postassessment
was titled Billy Mills, Olympic Star and was a level R. This passage is the same level as the Teachers
College level N. The second fiction postassessent was titled The Hidden House and was a level S.
This passage is the same level as the Teachers College level O. The examiner rotated between
nonfiction and fiction due to the information given from the student on her interests.

The examiner will ensure the assessments are valid and reliable data. The assessments come from the
How will you
ensure the Reading A-Z Website (https://www.readinga-z.com/) where the assessments are leveled benchmark
G assessments are assessments and are both reliable and valid. The assessments are valid because they measure fluency
valid and reliable and comprehension and the data taken shows whether or not the student is fluent in reading and
data? If using a
proprietary comprehension. The assessments are also reliable because they are consistent across the board. They
assessment are leveled passaged that include 5 comprehension questions, both implicit and explicit. The
information on the
assessments include a passage along with comprehension questions. The first preassessment was
tool and why it titled Rhino Rescue and was a level R. This passage is the same level as the Teachers College level
was selected. If N. The second preassessment was titled The Field Day Flash Mob and was a level S. This passage is
the tool is not
proprietary discuss the same level as the Teachers College level O. The first nonfiction postassessment was titled Billy
how you will Mills, Olympic Star and was a level R. This passage is the same level as the Teachers College level
ensure content N. The second fiction postassessent was titled The Hidden House and was a level S. This passage is
validity and
reliability? the same level as the Teachers College level O.
Preassessment 1: October 16, 2017
Assessment Preassessment 2: October 20, 2017
H Assessment Postassessment 1: Novemember 29, 2017
window should Postassessment2: November 29, 2017
not be included as
part of the
learning plan
activities. Pre-
assessment should
be administered
well in advance of
delivery. Post-
assessment should
be administered
after the last day
of formal

Baseline and The preassessment was administered one-on-one in the hallway with minimal distractions. The
Trend Data
student was able to focus on the reading in front of her. During both preassessments, Alyssa had
administering the awkward phrasing and would become uncomfortable and avoid reading if anyone were to be passing
pre-assessment, by in the hallway. Throughout the reading, she was able to self-correct a few of her mistakes, but
describe the data
used to identify most mistakes did not change the meaning of the passage. For both passages, the student had an
assessment and accuracy rate of 96%. In the first preassessment, Rhino Rescue, Alyssa inserted the in the second

I growth targets. and third paragraph and changed words to similar words. For example, she changed the word these
Explain how this
data helped you to those and roam to room. After reading, her comprehension score was a 3/5 (60%). In the
identify the second preassessment, The Field Day Flash Mob, Alyssa changed words to similar words again. For
growth targets for
your students.
example, she changed surprise to super often changed the ending of a word. She changes urged
How was the to urges and others to other. In this passage, she After reading the second passage, her
assessment done? comprehension score was also 3/5 (60%). The goal is for Alyssa to increase her fluency and accuracy,
What were the
results of the data
which will aid to increasing her comprehension.


Select the type of growth that will be used for the SLO
__Tiered __ Uniform Growth Target X Individualized Growth Target (Half-Split Target)

From October to December, Alyssa will demonstrate the ability to read fluently by only making 4-5
Identify actual
performance (e.g., miscues on both nonfiction and fiction Reading A-Z passages at level N and O (level R and S on
grades, test or Reading A-Z).
rubric score)
targets from the
baseline data From October to December, Alyssa will demonstrate the ability to comprehend both nonfiction and
J collected. Include fiction passages by receiving a score of 80% (4/5) at the level N and O (level R and S on Reading A-
patterns and
themes and
Z) on comprehension questions.
qualitative data
collected. The data
should be
presented in a Student Name Type of Baseline Growth or Final Score Exceeds/Meets
table format. passage (Preassessm Achievement (Postassessmen Goal (yes/no)
ent) Goal t)
Alyssa Nonfiction 96% (6 4-5 miscues per 97% (4 yes
(FLUENCY) (R) miscues) passage miscues)
Alyssa Fiction (S) 96% (7 4-5 miscues per 96% (6 no
(FLUENCY) miscues) passage miscues)
Alyssa Nonfiction 60% (3/5) 80% (4/5) 40% (2/5) no
Alyssa Fiction (S) 60% (3/5) 80% (4/5) 60% (3/5) no

While reading, Alyssa would trip over a word and giggle or uncomfortably laugh.
Alyssa often answered oral comprehension questions incorrectly because she would talk about
something that had nothing to do with what the question asked.
The examiner noted that while Alyssa was reading, she would read similar to a robot in a very
monotone voice, which affected the comprehension of the passage.
During the postassessment Alyssa was showing skills of reading with expression.
During the postassessment, Alyssa was phrasing correctly and showing proper fluency while reading.
Alyssa will demonstrate the ability to read fluently by only making 4-5 miscues on nonfiction and fiction Reading A-Z passages.
Achievement Goal Alyssa will demonstrate the ability to comprehension the passage by receiving a score of 0% (4/5) at the level N and O (level R and S on
Reading A-Z) on comprehension questions.

3 INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN OUTLINE: Outline the daily evidenced based instructional strategies and/or grouping strategies that will be used to teach the
content. (STAGE 2 SLO RUBRIC)

Outline or brief Instructional Window

description of
instructional Start (first formal instruction after the administration of the pre-assessment)
strategies to 10/18, whole group lesson
support the
learning goal.
Reflection on End (last day of formal Instruction before administration of the post-assessment)
Planning: theory 11/20, one-on-one instruction
or research that
supports the
selection of the Outline of Instructional Strategies
Day 1: The first day of formal instruction was a whole-group lesson on reading with expression. This
Instructional instruction was given during the Shared Reading time. All students were guided through a think-aloud
Window regarding reading with expression and the class had a discussion about what reading with expression
sounds like and looks like. Although this lesson was conducted whole-class, the examiner was able
___Start (first
formal instruction to touch base with Alyssa throughout the following weeks and ask her about reading with expression.
K after the The examiner would often ask her to stop wherever she is reading in her independent reading book
administration of and read the next paragraph out loud. The examiner would listen for reading with expression and
the pre- when Alyssa did not read with expression, the examiner would give her a friendly reminder. The
examiner continued this practice at least once a week.
___ End (last day Day 2: The second day of formal instruction was one-on-one. The examiner used the Qualitative
of formal Reading Inventory (QRI) Passages to focus on the next level of instruction. After administering the
instruction before QRI passages the first time, the examiner took a look at which level would be most appropriate for
administration of
the post- her to begin on focusing on her comprehension. The examiner chose the passage Cats Lions and
assessment ) Tigets in Your House because Alyssa was able to read it at an instructional level and comprehend it
teetering between instructional and frustration. The examiner asked Alyssa to read the passage
silently to herself again since she had already once read it before. After reading, the examiner
explained that she would read the question out loud and then Alyssa would use a highlighter to find
the answer in the text. The examiner explained that this comprehension strategy allows her to be a
close reader and focus on finding our answers in the text. The importance of comprehension and
comprehension strategies were discussed in this session. Through this informal instruction, Alyssa
was able to feel confident by using look-backs to find the answer in the text. Alyssa was able to
make it higher on the level of instructional by answering 6.5/8 questions correct. She was only 1.5
points away from being independent on the comprehension aspect of the passage. The examiner
discussed how these comprehension strategies could be used in any subject.
Day 3: The third day of informal instruction was a whole-class lesson. During this lesson, the class
was guided through a think-aloud that taught rereading for clarification. The examiner discussed with
the class that often times if we do not understand we just continue reading. The examiner explained
how ineffective this practice was because if the students are not comprehending what they are
reading they are not being effective and engaged readers. The class was asked to share examples in
which they maybe did not understand something they were reading and they had decided to go back
and reread the selection in order to better understand. The class was instructed to use sticky notes
as they read during independent time to mark any points that might have confused them or they did
not understand. They were then instructed to go back and reread the selection, use the dictionary
and context clues as needed in order to better understand. When they had finally understood they
were instructed to write on that sticky note the information they learned from rereading. While
students worked independently, the examiner floated around the room and asked many students to
share with her what they wrote down and where they reread. The examiner stopped at Alyssa and
asked her to share what she had written down. The examiner noted that Alyssa did in fact understand
what it meant to reread for clarification and was using the strategy effectively. Through the following
weeks, the examiner would ask Alyssa if she was still using the strategy at all. A few times she had
said she did not use it anymore until she once prompted the examiner that she did not understand
what they text was saying. The examiner provided her with the reminder to return back to the book
and use context clues, reread, and the dictionary if needed to better understand the selection. After
allowing Alyssa time to do this, she came back and exclaimed that she finally understood what was
happening in the selection and the examiner stressed the importance of the strategy one more time.

Reflection on Planning:
Based upon the examiners observation and research, she determined it would be beneficial to
conduct several different instructional strategies. She recognized that the student would benefit from
both whole-class and one-on-one instruction. The examiner decided the student needed to be

instructed on reading with expression, close reading, and implementing comprehension checking
strategies. She consulted the Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI) and the Pennsylvania Department
of Education Standards Aligned System in order to find grade-level appropriate materials and
standards aligning with the instruction. Two of the instructions were met through whole-class
activities in which the students were guided through a strategy or skill before practicing it on their
own. The instructions were done so through a shared reading book that all students were reading at
the time where every student had the chance to feel confident while reading.
The examiner differentiated her instruction to meet the learners needs by having both whole-
group and one-on-one sessions with the student. The one-on-one sessions were tailored to fit the
needs of the student. The materials and procedures supported the learner through each of the
sessions. The passages were tailored to her interests. The examiner administered Affective Factor
Assessments in order to determine the interests and motivation of the student. She considered the
students background knowledge, experiences, and interests by incorporating more stories and
activities with information the student provided that she enjoyed.

4 REFLECTION: Identify the results of the pre- and post-assessment of the targeted population. (SLO RUBRIC STAGE 3 REFLECTION ONLY)

Not applicable for 317/318

Record the actual
number or
percentage of
students who
L achieved the
target in a table
(Danielson 4f)

(1) Alyssa did meet the target goal of obtaining only 4-5 miscues on the final benchmark passage,
What % or # of
Billy Mills, Olympic Star (Level R), administered on November 29, 2017.
students met your
(2) Alyssa did meet the target goal of obtaining only 4-5 miscues on the final benchmark passage,
The Hidden House (Level S), administered on November 29, 2017.

(3) Alyssa did meet the target goal of receiving an 80% (4/5) on the final benchmark passage, Billy
Mills, Olympic Star (Level R), in comprehension, administered on November 29, 2017.

(4) Alyssa did meet the target goal of receiving an 80% (4/5) on the final benchmark passage, The
Hidden House (Level R), in comprehension, administered on November 29, 2017.
Candidate Self- Based on the data gathered how would you rate your performance?
Does Not Meet---- Based upon the data gathered, the examiner rated herself with a Needs Improvement because Alyssa was only
0 69% of
M students
able to meet one of her four goals. Alyssa was able to meet her fluency goal on a nonfiction level R passage.
performed worse Alyssa was unable to meet her other 3 goals. The examiner believes if she would have met with Alyssa more to
than expected administer one-on-one instruction, she would have been able to grow in her other goals.
70% - 79% of
performed as
expected but
overall the group
is below
expectation (need
a minimum of 80
Meets ---- 80% -
94% of students

performed as
Exceeds over
95% of student
performed better
than expected.

Reflective The examiner looked at all instruction and each postassessment in order to reflect on the process.
What did you
She is aware that her instructional goal was partly met. She had 4 instructional goals based on
learn about the fluency and comprehension. The examiner assessed at two reading levels, one of which was
N process? considered independent and one of which was considered instructional. The examiner noted that
Based on the data Alyssas first fluency goal about miscues was met because Alyssa only made 4 miscues on the
gathered and self-
rating what do
passage, giving her a 97%. Alyssas other three instructional goals were not met because for fluency
you believe were she read 6 miscues and for comprehension she received a 40% and 60%. The examiner made made
challenges or the decision it is important for Alyssa to receive more time working on comprehension strategies and
changes you learning how to better her overall comprehension.
would have made
in the delivery of
A challenge the examiner often faced was focus. Alyssa has been diagnosed with ADHD and has
instruction that a current IEP regarding this. It was very hard for Alyssa to stay focused and would easily get
will support the distracted throughout instruction. The examiner did her best to administer assessments and other
learning instruction in a quiet space where the student would not easily become distracted but it was a
What was the
struggle with 26 other distractions in the classroom or others passing in the hallways. The examiner
rationale for felt this often was a reason for low comprehension because the student was easily distracted no
selecting the matter what she was completing.
learning During the examiners individual conferences with the student, she was able to identify if the
Please use the
student was continuing to consciencely use the comprehension strategies taught. In some cases, the
SLO rubric to student was not using the strategies and after a prompt she began to use them. In the
support the postassessment, the examiner noted multiple times that the student was using expression while
development of reading and it was evident that instruction stuck with her. The examiner realized that there were
the narrative.
some areas that could be improved for instruction. Instead, she could have done more one-on-one
instruction with the student instead of two whole class instructions. The examiner did not want to
make the student feel uncomfortable by solely working with her and thought the entire class would
benefit from the instruction but Alyssa could have used more intensive instruction. If the examiner
were to continue this case study and to monitor Alyssa, she would make more of an effort to work
one-on-one with her.
From this teaching experience, the examiner has thought about what types of professional
development would be appropriate for her to explore in order to further her understanding of
instructing based upon a target goal. One professional development experience she believes she
would benefit from is about comprehension strategies and skills and the types of vocabulary to use
within these instructional periods. She has and will continue to watch TedTalks about education and
incorporating strategies into the classroom. She has also found webcasts on Reading Rockets in
order to continue her professional development on comprehension. Reflecting on this allows her to
think about what her goals are for the future. She has decided she would like to further explore
comprehension as a whole and focus on how to implement these strategies within the classroom.
She would also like to work on differentiating her instruction, including with technology, in order to
better suit all of the students in the classroom. These two goals will be satisfied throughout the rest of
the year.

Source: Document adapted from SLO template provided by Pennsylvania Department of Education pdesas.org. Some of the categories and descriptions were revised to
meet the needs of teacher candidates.

Educational References

Leslie, L., & Caldwell, J. (2006). Qualitative reading inventory. Boston: Pearson.