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ESD Simulation Training

Global Technical Training Specialists

COURSE OUTLINE

Control & Operation of Centrifugal Gas Compressors


A Practical Introduction

ESD Simulation Training uses dynamic simulation models to deliver


hands-on training that will help you make better decisions in the
operation and maintenance of equipment and in the design of systems.
The capacity to create real scenarios in real time provides an engaging
learning environment and measurable results. Our courses are taught by a
highly qualified faculty of experienced engineers and operations
professionals and are broken into 40-minute sessions comprised of
lectures, simulation model exercises, videos, CBT + multi-media training
and group discussions. With a firm focus on hands-on training and
interaction these courses will keep you engaged, and result in a deeper
and more lasting understanding of process operations.

Summary: Intensive, three-day, hands-on course using dynamic simulation models to


give a practical introduction to centrifugal gas compressors, their performance
characteristics and operation within a process plant. Topics will include compressor
performance and selection, control strategies for capacity and surge protection and
compressor operations.

Pre-requisites: This course is designed for participants with no prior knowledge of


centrifugal gas compressors, and for those with experience who want to learn more.

Participant profile: Engineers, Operations and maintenance personnel who are either
supervisors or are responsible for the day-to-day operation and maintenance of
centrifugal compressors. Other categories may consist of process operators, technicians
and engineers, including those responsible for the design or modification of a process
plant, as well as rotating machinery engineers seeking a deeper understanding of the
principles of operation and control of centrifugal compressors.

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COURSE OUTLINE

Learning Outcomes:
At the end of this course delegates will:
Be able to identify the most common types of compressors in use.
Understand the thermodynamic and physical principles of compression
systems.
Be able to explain the purpose and function of the main compressor
components.
Appreciate the impact of suction condition variations (molecular
weight/composition, pressure, temperature) on compressor performance.
Be familiar with the most commonly used capacity control systems.
Appreciate how the design of an overall plant control scheme relates to the
compression system.
Have a thorough understanding of surge and its consequences for the
machine.
Understand the principles of more complex anti-surge control systems.
Be able to set-up simple anti-surge control systems for both fixed and
variable speed compressors.
Be able to explore typical compressor operating scenarios (including
start-up) and identify commonly encountered problems.
Appreciate how to prevent a compressor surging on trip and the use of
hot-gas bypass valves.
Course Curriculum:
This course will cover compressor performance and selection, instrumentation and
control, surge protection and compressor operation within the following sessions:
1. Compression Principles
a. Explore the differences between positive displacement (PD) and dynamic
compressors and how they influence the technical selection process.
b. Understand the principles of the compression process and how they relate
to the laws which govern the performance of the machine.
c. Learn how a centrifugal compressor raises pressure.
2. Compressor Performance
a. Explore the ways in which compressor performance is mapped and
identify the important variables used. (Head, Flow, Efficiency and Speed)
b. Study the effects on performance of changes to suction and discharge
conditions, primarily pressure and gas composition.
c Study the main differences in performance between fixed and variable
speed compressors.
d. Explore compressor efficiencies and how they are defined and mapped.
Hands-on: Instructor gives a demonstration using a simulator to show how
fixed and variable speed compressors move on their curves/maps.
Hands-on: Using dynamic simulation, participants investigate the
performance of compressors (fixed and variable speed) against changing
suction and discharge conditions. They are encouraged to identify the
suitability of using different variables to define the performance map.
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COURSE OUTLINE

3. Capacity Control
a. The common methods of capacity control are explored for both fixed and
variable speed compressors.
b. For each method, a summary based on applicability and efficiency is considered.
i. Applications
ii. Energy efficiency
iii. Choice of controlled variable
iv. Choice of manipulated variable
c. The concept of shared load control for parallel compressor configurations is
introduced.
Hands-on: Short dynamic simulation exercises are used to explore some typical
applications of capacity control.
Hands-on: Three case studies are presented showing typical control strategies and
delegates are encouraged to identify the strategies in question, identify potential
problem areas and summarise the operational characteristics of each.

4. Simple Anti-Surge Control


a. Explore the phenomena of surge
i. How it occurs
ii. Speed of onset
iii. Consequences
b. Introduction to the basic principles and the theory of anti-surge control
c. Explore the significance of the safety margin and its magnitude.
d. Explore the principles and design of a flow/deltaP anti-surge control system.
Hands-on: Dynamic simulation is used to allow delegates to investigate the
dynamics of the responses of an anti-surge control loop.
Hands-on: Dynamic simulation is used to allow delegates to investigate the
structure and tuning of typical anti-surge control systems.
Hands-on: Delegates carry out a surge test on a fixed speed compressor.

5. Recycle Valve Sizing


a. Introduction to the theory of sizing valves, demonstrating the ways in which
recycle valves are used to protect compressors during run-down and normal
operation.
Hands-on: Participants are given some practical methods to work out the size of a
recycle valve.

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COURSE OUTLINE

6. Complex Anti-Surge Control


a. Demonstration of the CCC (Compressor Control Corporation) anti-surge
control technology is used to explain the principles of complex anti-surge control.
i. Explanation of the mapping technologies used to determine the position of
a compressor within its operating envelope.
ii. Defining the Surge map.
iii. Explore the control safety margin.
iv. Explore how an anti-surge controller is configured to provide consistent
surge protection.
v. Explanation of parallel compressor load share techniques.
Hands-on: A dynamic model is linked to real CCC hardware to allow the tuning and
configuration of the system to be explained in detail.

7. Compressor Operations
a. Developing a start-up strategy for a pipeline compressor
b. Investigating multi-stage compressor operation
Hands-on: Delegates are given the opportunity to conduct a start-up of a
compressor using a dynamic simulation model.
Hands-on: Various exercises are performed on a multi-stage centrifugal
compressor.

8. Compressor Protection
a. Explore methods of protecting compressors from surge or damage on trip.
i. Parallel recycle valves
ii. Hot-gas bypass valves
b. Understand the principles to be adopted for the optimum design and layout of
equipment around the compressor.
i. Non-return valves
ii. Coolers
iii. Scrubbers
iv. Recycle lines/valves
c. Appreciate the impact of poor design on the performance of the anti-surge
control system.
i. Coolers
ii. Recycle lives/valves

9. Performance and efficiency monitoring


a. Introduction to factory testing (PTC10)
b. Methods for monitoring and tracking the performance of a centrifugal
compressor on a day to day basis.

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FACULTY

In addition to leading-edge computer models and simulation tools, ESD Simulation


Training has a highly qualified faculty of experienced engineers and operations
professionals who have undergone extensive training within their areas of expertise. The
depth of their collective knowledge in the process industries has won the trust and respect
of over 30,000 delegates during the past 20 years.

MARK DIXON, B.Sc. (Hons) C.Eng. MIChemE MIGasE


Managing Director of ESD and a Chartered Chemical Engineer, Mark has been working as
a Chemical Engineer and delivering training courses for 28 years. He is a member of the
Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) and the Institution of Gas Engineers.

COLIN BAKER, ONC Science


With 47 years experience in operations in the oil, gas, chemical and petrochemical
industries, Colin is one of the most knowledgable simulator trainers in the world. His
expertise extends to the operation of Ethylene plants, LNG production, Oil Refineries and
Oil and Gas production facilities.

ROBERT HODDER, MAIChE


Robert is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and has 45 years of
practical experience working as a Process Engineer, Operations Supervisor and Training
Manager on Oil Refineries, LNG Plants, Offshore and Onshore Oil and Gas Production
Facilities.

DAVID LLEWELLYN, B.Sc. (Hons) C.Eng.


A Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers and the Institution of Gas Engineers,
David is a process engineer with 47 years experience in the energy industry with a wealth
of experience working in the production, storage and transportation of LNG, Natural Gas,
LPG and Ammonia.

PETER WATSON, B.Sc. (Hons), C.Eng.


Peter is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (Eur. Ing. MEI) and a Chartered
Engineer with 40 years experience in the oil and gas processing business, including many
senior management positions around the world.

ROGER EDWARD, Power Engineer, First Class


Roger brings 36 years of training experience as a consultant to the industry in a wide range
of process facilities on several continents, specializing in implementing site-specific
training, safety and emergency response procedures.

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ESD Simulation Training
Global Technical Training Specialists

FACULTY

BOB ROBERTSON, Eur. Ing., C.Eng.


Bob is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering Technology, a Member of the Institution of
Gas Engineers & Managers and the Institution of Diesel and Gas Turbine Engineers with
over 40 years of practical experience in the field with an emphasis on trouble-shooting and
efficiency measures.

EDWARD DILLEY, B.Sc. (Hons) C.Eng.


A Member of the Institution of Chemical Engineers with 40 years experience in process
control, process engineering and planning within the Oil Refining, Petrochemical, Synthetic
Rubber and Power Industries, Edward brings a wealth of practical knowledge.

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