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OETSimplifiedMedical

VocabularyList


OETSimplifiedMedicalVocabularyList

Whenyouspeaktoapatient(i.e.atworkorintheOETspeakingroleplay)youshould
simplified
use medicalvocabularysothatheorshecanunderstandyou.

ThelistbelowhasbothmedicalwordsanditssimpleEnglishequivalent.

Pleasenote:thislistisNOTintendedtobememorised.Werecommendthatyou:
1. findparticularwordsthatyouhavetrouble
pronouncing
2. usethesearchfunctiontofindthosewords(CTRL+F)
3. practicethemontheE2Pronouncepronunciationapp
OR
1. findparticularwordsthatyouhavetrouble
simplifying/explaining
2. usethesearchfunctiontofindthosewords(CTRL+F)
3. learntheirsimplifiedequivalent.

abdomen stomach
abdominal havingtodowiththestomach
spaceinthestomachwherethestomach,intestines,
abdominalcavity kidney,liver,gallbladder,pancreas,spleen,andureters
arefound
abdominocentesis useofneedleortubetodrainfluidfromthestomach
surgerytoremovethemiddleandendofthelarge
abdominoperinealresection
intestine
abdominoplasty surgerytofixthestomach
abduction movementawayfromthemiddleofthebody
abortion theprematureendofapregnancy
abrasion areawhereskinorothertissueisscrapedaway
abruptioplacentae prematureseparationoftheplacentafromthemother


abscess swellingfilledwithpus
thewayadrugorothersubstanceentersthebody
absorption therouteandratethatacompoundgetsintothesystem
(bloodstream)

acapnia decreasedcarbondioxideintheblood
pocketinthehipbonethatholdsthetopoftheupperleg
acetabulum
bone
acidosis increaseofacidintheblood
acne pimples
acoumeter toolusedtomeasurehearing
acousticneuroma growthintheearcanal
acquiredimmunodeficiency contagiousillnessthatresultsindecreasedabilityofthe
syndrome(AIDS) bodytoprotectitselffromotherillnesses
adiseaseofadultsinwhichthebodymakestoomuch
acromegaly
growthhormone
skindisease(bumps)causedbyextremeoverexposureto
actinickeratosis
thesun
activatedpartial atestofbloodclottingtimeusedtomeasuretheabilityof
thromboplastintime thebloodtoclot
Thepharmacologicallyactivepartofanymedication.
activeingredient Manypharmaceuticalproductscontaininactive
ingredientsthatcreatetheformulation.
acute lastingashorttimebutoftencausingaseriousproblem
seriousdisorderinwhichthereisdecreasedcortisoland
Addison'sdisease aldosteroneinthebody,resultinginweakness,lowblood
pressure,andotherseriousproblems
adduction movementtowardthemiddleofthebody
glandinthebrainthatmakesmanyhormonesthatcontrol
adenohypophysis
bodyfunctions
adenoidectomy surgerytotakeouttheadenoids
adenoiditis inflammationoftheadenoids
adenoids infectionfightingglandsinthebackofthethroat
adenomyosis agrowthofmuscleintheuterus
adenotome toolusedtoremoveadenoids
adhesion tissuestucktogether


adipose havingtodowithfat
Absorption,Distribution,MetabolismandExcretion.This
ADME describesthefourstagesthatapharmaceuticalproduct
wouldgothroughwhenadministeredtoahuman.
administer give
adrenalgland aglandfoundovereachkidney
adrenalectomy surgerytoremoveanadrenalgland
hormonemadebytheadrenalglandsthatspeedsup
adrenaline
bodyorgansandhelpsthebodydealwithstress
adrenalitis inflammationofoneorbothadrenalglands
anyofthehormonesmadebytheouterlayerofthe
adrenocorticalhormone
adrenalglands
adrenocorticohyperplasia increasedgrowthofoneorbothadrenalglands
adrenocorticotropic hormonemadebythebrainthatactivatestheadrenal
hormone glands
adrenomegaly increaseinsizeofoneorbothadrenalglands
adrenopathy diseaseofoneorbothadrenalglands
agenetherapymedicinalproduct
AdvancedTechnology asomaticcelltherapymedicinalproduct
MedicinalProduct(ATMP)
atissueengineeredproduct.

adverse harmful,bad
Inthepreapprovalclinicalexperiencewithanew
medicinalproductoritsnewusages,particularlyasthe
therapeuticdose(s)maynotbeestablished:allnoxious
andunintendedresponsestoamedicinalproductrelated
toanydoseshouldbeconsideredadversedrug
reactions.
Thephraseresponsestoamedicinalproductmeansthat
AdverseDrugReaction acausalrelationshipbetweenamedicinalproductandan
(ADR) adverseeventisatleastareasonablepossibility,i.e.the
relationshipcannotberuledout.

Regardingmarketedmedicinalproducts:aresponsetoa
drugwhichisnoxiousandunintendedandwhichoccurs
atdosesnormallyusedinmanforprophylaxis,diagnosis,
ortherapyofdiseasesorformodificationofphysiological
function


Anyuntowardmedicaloccurrenceinapatientorclinical
investigationsubjectadministeredapharmaceutical
AdverseEvent(AE)
productandwhichdoesnotnecessarilyhaveacausal
relationshipwiththistreatment.
aerosol drugorsubstancemadeasamisttobebreathedin
Aetiology Thefactorsinvolvedincausingadisease.
afferent goingtowardthecenterarea
materialthatprovidesnutritionfortheunbornbabyand
afterbirth
comesoutafterthebabyisborn(placenta)
tubethroughwhichairpassestoenterandleavethe
airway
lungs
alanineaminotransferase substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtocheckforliver
(ALT) disease
albino whitelackingpigment(lackingcolor)
albuminuria proteinintheurine
drugfoundinwhisky,wine,andbeerthatslowsdownthe
alcohol
centralnervoussystem
hormonemadebytheadrenalglandsthatcontrolsthe
aldosterone
amountofmineralsaltsinthebody
Aproceduretoassistthestructuredachievementofan
Algorithm
outcomethatinvolvesaseriesofalternativedecisions
allergy oversensitivitytoasubstance
alopecia baldness
substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtocheckforliver
alphafetoprotein
cancer,testicularcancer,andspinabifida
ALS seeamyotrophiclateralsclerosis(ALS)
Alzheimer'sdisease disorderthatcausesmentalconfusion
amenorrhea whenawomanhasnomenstrualperiod
removalofsomeofthewatersfromaroundanunborn
amniocentesis
babyforlaboratorytesting
havingtodowiththetissuesthatsurroundtheunborn
amniochorial
baby
xrayoftheuterus(womb)andunbornbabytakenafter
amniography
puttingadyeintothebagofwaters
amnion tissuethatcoverstheunbornbaby
amnionitis inflammationoftheamnion


amniorrhea leakingofwatersfromaroundtheunbornbaby
amniorrhexis breakingoftheamnion
toolinsertedthroughthecervixtolookattheamniotic
amnioscope
fluidandtheunbornbaby
amnioticfluid watersaroundtheunbornbaby
amnioticsac bagoftissuethatsurroundstheunbornbaby
ruptureofthemembranes(breakingofthetissuesaround
amniotomy
theunbornbaby)donetostartlabor
drugsthatspeedupmetabolismanddecreaseappetite
amphetamines
("speed")
amyotrophiclateral adiseaseofthenervesthatcausesweakness,also
sclerosis(ALS) knownasLouGehrig'sDisease
anal havingtodowiththeanus
drugusedtocontrolpain
analgesic Drugstorelieveorreducepain

Astatisticaltechniquetodeterminewhetherthemean
AnalysisofVariance
valuesofdifferenttreatmentgroupsarethesameor
(ANOVA)
different.
seriousallergicreactiontoasubstance(e.g.,food,drug)
Severegeneralisedformofanaphylaxiswhichmaylead
anaphylacticshock toasuddenattackofwheezing,collapse,cardiacarrest
andmayleadtodeath

Anaphylaxis Severeallergicreaction
androgen malesexhormone
anemia decreasednumberofredbloodcells
anesthesia lossofsensationorfeeling
anesthetic drugthatisusedtoproducelossofpainsensation
areawhereanarteryisswollenlikeasackbecausethe
aneurysm
wallofthearteryisweak
aneurysmectomy surgerytotakeoutananeurysm
chestpainduetodecreasedoxygenbeingsuppliedtothe
anginapectoris
heart
inflammationoftheheartandthebloodvesselsentering
angiocarditis
theheart
angioma growthmadeupofbloodvesselsorlymphvessels


angioplasty surgerytoopenupanarrowbloodvessel
angiorrhaphy stitchingabloodvessel
angioplasm crampinthebloodvessels
angiostenosis narrowingoftheinsideofabloodvessel
angled bent,notstraight
ankylosingspondylitis inflammationofthespinecausingpainandstiffness
ankylosis jointstiffness
anoplasty surgerytofixtheanus
anorexia noappetiteforfood
mentaldisorderinwhichfearofgettingfatresultsin
anorexianervosa
starvationandweightloss
anoxia nooxygen
drugusedtodecreaseacidinthestomach(e.g.,Tums,
antacid
Rolaids)
antecubital. infrontoftheelbow
antepartum beforechildbirth
anterior havingtodowiththefrontofthebody
anteriorandposterior
surgerytofixweakmusclesinthepelvicarea
colporrhaphy
anteriorlobe frontpartofanorgan
anteriorlobeofthepituitary partofthepituitaryglandthatdischargesmanyhormones
antianginal drugusedtorelievechestpain
antiarrhythmic drugusedtorestorethenaturalrhythmoftheheart
antibiotic drugusedtostoporslowdownthegrowthofgerms
typeofproteinthathelpsprotectthebodyagainstforeign
antibody
matter,suchasbacteriaandviruses
anticoagulant drugusedtostopbloodfromclotting
anticonvulsant drugusedtostopseizures
antidiarrheal drugusedtostopdiarrhea
hormonemadebythepituitaryglandthathelpsthe
antidiuretichormone kidneyskeepwaterinthebodybydecreasingurine
formation
antidote substanceusedtotreatallergicreactions


antiemetic drugusedtostopvomiting
antihistamine drugusedtotreatallergicreaction
antinauseant drugusedtostopnauseaandvomiting
antipruritic drugusedtostopitching
antiseptic substanceusedtostoporslowdownthegrowthofgerms
antrectomy surgerytoremovethelowerpartofthestomach
antrum lowerpartofthestomach
anuria nourinebeingmade
ringofmusclethatkeepstheopeningattheendofthe
anus
digestivetractclosed
aorta biggestarteryinthebody
aorticstenosis narrowingoftheaortawhereitcomesoutoftheheart
aortogram xrayoftheaorta
apepsia withoutdigestion
aphagia notabletoswallow
notabletospeakorwriteandnotabletounderstand
aphasia
spokenorwrittenwords
apnea stoppingofbreathing
aponeurorrhaphy stitchingofanaponeurosis
aponeurosis strongtissuethatjoinsmuscletobone
appendectomy surgerytoremovetheappendix
appendicitis inflammationoftheappendix
ApplicableRegulatory Anylaw(s)andregulation(s)addressingtheconductof
Requirement(s) clinicaltrialsofinvestigationalproducts.
approximately nearly,about
aqueoushumor liquidfoundinthefrontofthecavityoftheeye
arachnoid middlelayerofthemeninges
Plotofconcentrationofadrugagainsttime.Usedasa
AreaUnderCurve(AUC)
methodofcomparingbioavailabilityofdifferentproducts
areola darkcoloredskinaroundthebreastnipple
arrhythmia unevenheartbeat
arteriogram xrayusingadyetooutlineanartery
arterioles smallbranchesofarteries


arteriorrhexis breakingofanartery
arteriosclerosis hardeningoftheartery
thetypeofbloodvesselthatcarriesbloodandoxygen
artery
fromthehearttotherestofthebody
arthralgia paininajoint
arthritis inflammationofoneormorejoints
arthrocentesis useofaneedletoremovefluidfromajoint
arthroclasia surgerytofreeupajointthatitisstiffsoitcannotmove
arthrodesis surgerytofastenajointsoitcannotmove
arthrogram xrayofajoint
arthroplasty surgerytofixajoint
arthrosclerosis stiffeningofthejoints
arthroscope toolusedtolookintoajoint
arthrotomy surgerytocutintoajoint
articularcartilage smoothtissuethatcoversthebonesinsideajoint
useofatooltoputspermintothevaginaforthepurpose
artificialinsemination
ofbeginningpregnancy
ascites fluidinthestomach
aspartateaminotransferase substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtodetectliver
(AST) disease
aspermia nosperm
asphyxia suffocation
aspirate removingasubstanceusingsuction
breathingdisorderinwhichthereisawheezingand
asthma
difficultybreathing
astigmatism flawinthecurveoftheeye
ataxia uncontrolledmusclemovementincoordination
atelectasis collapseofalung
atherosclerosis hardeningofthearteries
atraumatic notdamagingtotissue
atrioventriculardefect holeintheheartpresentatbirth
atrophy wastingaway,ordecreaseinsize,ofabodyorgan
audiogram reportofahearingtest


audiologist doctorwhostudieshearing
audiology thestudyofhearing
audiometer toolusedtomeasurehearing
audiometry measurementofhearing
Asystematicandindependentexaminationoftrialrelated
activitiesanddocumentstodeterminewhetherthe
evaluatedtrialrelatedactivitieswereconducted,andthe
Audit datawererecorded,analyzedandaccuratelyreported
accordingtotheprotocol,sponsor'sstandardoperating
procedures(SOPs),GoodClinicalPractice(GCP),and
theapplicableregulatoryrequirement(s).
Adeclarationofconfirmationbytheauditorthatanaudit
AuditCertificate
hastakenplace
Awrittenevaluationbythesponsor'sauditoroftheresults
AuditReport
oftheaudit.
Documentation(paperorelectronic)thatallows
AuditTrail
reconstructionofthecourseofevents.
aural havingtodowiththeear
auricle outsideflapoftheear
auscultation useofastethoscopetolistentosoundsinsidethebody
disorderinwhichaperson'simmunesystemattacksparts
autoimmunedisease
ofhisorherownbody

B
bacteria typeofgerms
bacterial havingtodowithbacteria
bacterialanalysis testusedtodetectandidentifybacteria
bacterialendocarditis bacterialinfectionoftheinnerliningoftheheart
bagofwaters sackcontainingliquidthatsurroundstheunbornbaby
balanitis inflammationoftheendofthepenis
balanorrhagia balanitiswithdischargeofpusfromtheendofthepenis
balanorrhea dischargeoffluidfromthepenis
groupofdrugsthatareusedfordifferentreasons,including
barbiturates
generalanesthesia,sedation,andstoppingseizures
Bartholinadenitis inflammationofthemucusproducingglandsinthevagina


Bartholin'sglands mucusproducingglandsinthevagina
basalcellcarcinoma typeofskincancer
bayonet toolthatissharplikeaknife
benign notcancerous
benignprostatic
increaseinsizeoftheprostategland
hypertrophy
betablocker drugusedtoslowdowntheheart
betaHCG(human substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtodetectcancerofthe
chorionicgonadotropin) testicles
avalveintheheartthatcontrolstheflowofbloodbyopening
bicuspidvalve
andclosingwitheachheartbeat
bilateral havingtodowithbothsidesofthebody
brownyellowgreenliquidmadeintheliverandstoredinthe
bile
gallbladderthathelpswithdigestion
bileduct tubethatcarriesbile
asubstancefoundinbileahighlevelofbilirubinintheblood
bilirubin
causesjaundice
binocular havingtodowithbotheyes
Ameasureoftheamountofactivedrugwhichentersthe
Bioavailability appropriatebodysystemandisthereforeavailableatthe
targetsite.
Bioavailabilitystudytocomparetwoproductstodetermine
BioequivalenceStudy
whethertheyhavethesamebioavailabilityprofile
biopsy removaloftissuesoitcanbelookedatunderamicroscope
testtomeasurehowlongittakesforasmallcuttostop
bleedingtime
bleeding
blepharitis inflammationoftheeyelid
blepharoplasty surgerytofixtheeyelid
blepharoptosis droopingoftheuppereyelid
Aprocedureinwhichoneormorepartiestothetrialarekept
unawareofthetreatmentassignment(s).
Blinding

Singleblindingusuallyreferstothesubject(s)beingunaware.

10


Doubleblindingusuallyreferstothesubject(s),
investigator(s),monitor,and,insomecases,dataanalyst(s)
beingunawareofthetreatmentassignment(s).

blood redliquidpumpedbytheheart
bloodpressure(BP) thepressureofbloodflowingthroughbloodvessels
bloodureanitrogen
substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtocheckkidneyfunction
(BUN)
bloodvessels tubesthatcarrybloodthroughthebody
bonemarrow softtissueinsidebonesthatmakesbloodcells
useofaneedletoremovebonemarrowsothatitcanbe
bonemarrowbiopsy
lookedatunderamicroscope
puttingnormalbonemarrowfromonepersonintoanother
bonemarrowtransplant
person
bowel theintestine
bradycardia slowheartbeat
bradykinesia movingslow
bradypepsia slowdigestion
brain mainpartofthecentralnervoussystem
brainstem joinsthebraintothespinalcolumn
brandname commercialnameortradenameforadrug
breasts milkproducingglandsofwomen
breechbirth whenfeet,buttocks,orkneescomeoutbeforeheadatbirth
bronchi morethanonebronchus
bronchitis inflammationofthebronchi
drugusedtomakethebronchitightenupandbecome
bronchoconstrictor
narrower
bronchodilator drugusedtomakethebronchiopenupandbecomebigger
bronchogenic beginninginthebronchus
bronchogram xrayofthebronchi
bronchoplasty surgerytofixthebronchi
bronchopneumonia inflammationofthebronchiandlungs
bronchoscope toolusedtolookintothebronchi
bronchospasm sudden,uncontrollednarrowingofairwaysinlungs

11


bronchus tubethatcarriesairfromthebronchi
aneatingdisorderinwhichapersoncannotstopeatingand
bulimia
oftenvomitstomakeroomformorefood
bunion bonegrowthinsidethebaseofthebigtoe
smallsackfilledwithliquidthatcushionsmovingparts,such
bursa
astwobonesinajoint
bursitis inflammationofthebursa
bursolith stoneinabursa
bursotomy surgerytocutintoabursa
anartificialpassagewayfromonebloodvesseltoanotherto
bypass
getaroundabloodclot

drugfoundincoffeeandcolasthatspeedsupthecentral
caffeine
nervoussystem,heartrate,andbloodpressure
calcaneus heelbone
calcipenia lowincalcium
cancellousbone atypeofbonethatlookslikeasponge
abnormaltissuethatgrowsandspreadsinthebodyuntilit
cancer
kills
cancerchemotherapy treatmentofcancerusingdrugs
cancerradiotherapy treatmentofcancerusingxrays
cancerous havingtodowithcancer
capillary tinybloodvesselthatconnectsarteriolestovenules
carbohydrates typeoffuelforthebodythatincludessugarsandstarches
carbuncle groupofboilsontheskin
carcinoembryonic substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtodetecttumorsof
antigen stomachorintestines
carcinogenic causingcancer
carcinoma typeofcancer
cardiac havingtodowiththeheart
cardiacarrest stoppingoftheheart
puttingacatheterintothehearttotestforortreataheart
cardiaccatheterization
problem

12


batterypoweredtoolputundertheskintocontroltheheart
cardiacpacemaker
rate
cardiacscan ultrasonographictesttoviewthestructureoftheheart
squeezingoftheheartcausedbyfluidorbloodbuildupinthe
cardiactamponade
sacaroundtheheart
cardiodynia painintheheart
cardiogenic beginningintheheart
cardiologist doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftheheart
cardiology increaseinthesizeoftheheart
cardiomegaly disorderoftheheartmuscle
cardiomyopathy disorderoftheheartmuscle
cardiopulmonary artificialpassagewaythroughwhichbloodgoesaroundthe
bypass heartduringopenheartsurgery
cardiopulmonary givingartificialrespirationandheartmassagetotrytosavea
resuscitation(CPR) personwhosebreathingorhearthasstopped
cardiotonic drugusedtostrengthenthepumpingactionoftheheart
cardiovalvulitis inflammationoftheheartvalves
useofelectricshocktomaketheheartbeatwithnormal
cardioversion
rhythm
Anyeffectofadrugwhichlastsbeyondtheperiodof
CarryoverEffect
treatment
carpal havingtodowiththewrist
carpalbones wristbones
carpaltunnelsyndrome painfuldisordercausedbyapinchednerveinthewrist
carpectomy surgerytoremoveawristbone
carpoptosis droopingwrist
Aprinted,optical,orelectronicdocumentdesignedtorecord
CaseReportForm
alloftheprotocolrequiredinformationtobereportedtothe
(CRF)
sponsoroneachtrialsubject.
arubberytypeoftissuethatpadsthejointsandkeepsthe
cartilage
shapeofthenoseandoutsideearflaps
cataract cloudingofthelensoftheeye
Datawhichareevaluatedbysortingthevaluesintovarious
CategoricalData categories(eglow,medium,high)ordatathatisonly
availableincategories(egethnicorigin,gender)

13


cathartic drugusedtostopconstipation
flexible,tubeliketoolusedtotakefluidsoutorputfluidsinto
catheter
thebody
caudal towardthelowersideofanorganorstructure
Therelationshipofanadverseeventtotheuseofstudy
medication.Thelikelihoodoftheeventbeingcausedbythe
Causality
studydrugisoftenclassifiedas:unknown,notrelated,
possible,probable,definite
thefirstpartofthelargeintestine,whichisshapedlikea
cecum
pouch
celiotomy surgerytocutintotheabdominalcavity
cell thebasicbuildingblockofalllivingthings
cellmembrane layerthatsurroundsacell
cellulitis inflammationofconnectivetissue
Asinglelaboratory(oftenacontractlaboratory)whichis
CentralLaboratory contractedtoperformlaboratorytestingforsomeorallsitesin
amulticenterclinicaltrial
centralnervoussystem
thebrainandspinalcord
(CNS)
centralnervoussystem
drugsthatspeeduporslowdownthecentralnervoussystem
drugs
cephalalgia headache
cephalic relatedtotheheadortheheadendofthebody
cephalosporin typeofantibiotic
cerebellitis .inflammationofthecerebellum
thepartofthebrainthatcontrolsthemovementofthe
cerebellum
musclesandhelpsmaintainbalance
cerebral havingtodowiththecerebrum
cerebralaneurysm aneurysminthebrain
cerebralangiography xrayofthebloodvesselsinthebrain
cerebralpalsy(CP) birthdisorderofthebrainthatresultsindifficultymoving
cerebralthrombosis bloodclotinthebrain
cerebrospinalfluid
theliquidaroundandinthebrainandspinalcord
(CSF)

14


cerebrovascular
stroke
accident(CVA)
cerebrum largestpartofthebrain,dividedintorightandleftside
cerumen earwax
ceruminoma growthinsidetheglandthatdischargesearwax
cervicalvertebrae bonesoftheneck
cervicectomy surgerytoremovethecervix
cervicitis inflammationofthecervix
chalazion pimpleontheeyelidcausedbyaninflamedgland
cheilorrhaphy surgerytostitchalip
chemicalname chemicalformulaforadrug(generic)
chemotherapeutic
anticancerdrug
agent
chemotherapy treatmentofdiseaseusingdrugs
spacewheretheheart,lungs,esophagus,trachea,bronchi,
chestcavity
andthymusarelocated
chiropodist doctorwhotreatsdisordersofthefeet
chiropractor doctorwhotreatsdisordersofthespineandnerves
chisel wedgeliketoolwithabladethatisusedforcuttingorchipping
typeofgermthatusuallyinfectstheeyes,lungs,orsex
chlamydia
organs
chloasma atumorarisingfromtheskinandotherorgans
cholangiogram xrayofthegallbladderandbileducts
cholangioma cancerofabileduct
cholecystectomy surgerytoremovethegallbladder
cholecystitis inflammationofthegallbladder
choledocholithiasis gallstonesinabileduct
choledocholithotripsy surgerytocrushgallstonesinabileduct
cholelithiasis gallstones
cholinergic typeofnerveoradrugusedtochangeitsaction
chondrectomy surgerytoremovecartilage
chondromalacia softeningofjointcartilage,usuallyinsidetheknee
chorioamnionitis inflammationofthetissuethatcoverstheunbornbaby

15


chorion outsidelayerofthetissuethatcoverstheunbornbaby
choroid middlelayeroftheeyeball
chromosomes structuresthatholdthegenes
chronic lastingalongtime
chronicobstructive
lungdisorderinwhichtheflowofairtothelungsisblocked
pulmonarydisease
(e.g.,emphysema)
(COPD)
cicatrix scar
circumcision surgerytoremovetheforeskin
seriousliverdisorderinwhichconnectivetissuereplaces
cirrhosis
normallivertissue,andliverfailureoftenoccurs
clavicle collarbone
birthdefectinwhichthereisasplitinthelipandtheroofof
cleftlipandpalate
themouth
clinicaltrial researchstudyusuallyinvolvingadrugordevice
clip metalfastenerusedtojoinorclosetheedgesofawound
sensitivefemalesextissuelocatedabovetheopeningfor
clitoris
urination
coagulationtime measureofhowlongittakesforbloodtoclotinatesttube
coarctationoftheaorta birthdisorderinwhichanareaoftheaortaisverynarrow
coccyx tailbone
cochlea theorganofhearinginsidetheear
Agroupofsubjectsinaresearchstudywhoallfulfilthe
Cohort
prespecifiedcriteriaforentrytoatrial.
Agroupofsubjectsarefollowedoveraperiodoftimefora
CohortStudy specificreason,e.g.toassesstheirexperiencesinaperiodof
time.
coitus sexualintercoursebetweenamanandawoman
colectomy surgerytoremovepartorallofthecolon
colonoscope toolusedtolookintothecolon
anopening,orthesurgerytomakeanopening,betweenthe
colostomy
colonandtheoutsideofthebody
colpitis inflammationofthevagina
colporrhaphy stitchingofthevagina

16


toolwithmagnifyingglassusedtolookintothevaginaandat
colposcope
thecervix
varyingdegreesofunconsciousnessfromwhichaperson
coma
maynotawaken
compactbone hardlayersofthebone
compensation payment,money
Forthestudyteam:Adherencetoallthetrialrelated
requirements,GoodClinicalPractice(GCP)requirements,
andtheapplicableregulatoryrequirements

Compliance
Forthesubject:Completingallstudyrelatedactivitiesexactly
asdescribedintheinformedconsent.Examplesinclude:
takingastudymedicationasprescribedorattendanceatall
studyvisits.

complications difficulties,problems
computerized xraymachinethatusesacomputertomakepicturesofthe
tomography(CT) organsofthebody
computerizedaxial xraymachinethatusesacomputertomakepicturesofthe
tomography(CAT) body
thebeginningofpregnancywhenthefertilizedeggimplantsin
conception
theuterus
concomitant givenatthesametime
unconsciousnessresultingfromablowtotheheadaffecting
concussion
thebrain
Preventionofdisclosure,tootherthanauthorizedindividuals,
Confidentiality
ofasponsor'sproprietaryinformationorofasubject'sidentity.
coverwornoverthepenisduringsexualintercourseto
condom
preventinfectionorpregnancy
congenitalanomaly birthdefect
congenitalheart
heartdiseasepresentatbirth
disease(CHD)
congenitalheartfailure failureoftheheartresultinginfluidbuildupinthelungs,other
(CHF) bodytissues,orboth
tissuethatlinestheeyelidsandcoverspartoftheeyeinside
conjunctiva
itssockets
conjunctivitis inflammationoftheconjunctiva

17


typeoftissuethatconnects,supports,touches,andsurrounds
connectivetissue
variousbodyparts
conscious awakeandaware
consequences outcomes,results
constipation decreasednumberofordifficultymakingbowelmovements
medicalreasonsthatpreventapersonfromusingacertain
contraindications
drugortreatment
contusion bruise
convulsion seizure
bloodtesttodetectantibodiesagainstredbloodcellsthatis
Coombs'test usedinanalyzingbloodproblemsandcrossmatchingblood
fortransfusions
heartdiseaseorheartfailurecausedbyadisorderofthe
corpulmonale
lungs
cornea cleartissuecoveringthefrontpartoftheeye
corneoiritis inflammationofthecorneaandiris
coronaryartery arterythatsuppliesbloodtotheheart
coronaryarterybypass
surgerytomakeanewpassagewayforbloodtotheheart
graft(CABG)
coronaryischemia notenoughbloodgoingtotheheart
coronarythrombosis bloodclotinacoronaryartery
corpus mainportionofabodypartororgan
cortex outerlayerofanorganorotherstructureinthebody
cortical havingtodowithacortex
corticotropin hormonemadebythebrainthatactivatestheadrenalglands
importanthormonemadebytheadrenalglandthataffects
cortisol
metabolismandmineralbalance
costectomy surgerytoremovearib
cough sudden,loudflowifairfromthelungs
CPR seecardiopulmonaryresuscitation(CPR)
cranial relatedtotheheadortopofthebody
cranialcavity spaceinsidetheskullthatholdsthebrain
cranioplasty surgerytofixtheskull
craniotomy surgeryontheskullortomakeanopeningintheskull

18


craniumbifidum birthdefectinwhichthereisacrackintheskull
creatinineclearance bloodtestusedtoseeifthekidneyscaneffectivelyremove
test creatininefromtheblood
abirthdefectinwhichlackofthyroidhormoneresultsin
cretinism
stoppingofphysicalandmentaldevelopment
Crohn'sdisease seriousinflammationofanypartofthegastrointestinaltract
bloodtesttocheckifitissafetogivebloodtransfusiontoa
crossmatch
person
children'sbreathingdisorderresultingincoughingandharsh
croup
breathing
cryoextractionofthe
surgeryusinglowtemperaturestoremoveacataract
lens
cryoretinopexy surgeryoftheinnermostlayeroftheeye
removaloffluidfromthepouchbetweenthevaginaandthe
culdocentesis
rectum
toolusedtolookintothepouchbetweenthevaginaandthe
culdoscope
rectum
cumulation increasedactionofadrugwhengivenoveraperiodoftime
curt(curette) spoonshapedtoolusedforscrapingorcutting
curved havingacurvedhandleoracurvedblade
disordercausedbytoomuchoftheadrenalhormonesor
Cushing'ssyndrome longtimeuseofcortisonetypedrugsinwhichtherearemany
symptoms,includingafat,roundfaceandweakness
bluecoloroftissuessuchastheskinorgumscausedbytoo
cyanosis
littleoxygen
cyesiology thestudyofpregnancy
cyesis pregnancy
anyclosedsacinthebody,especiallyonethatcontainsfluid
cyst
orsemisolidmaterial
surgerytoremovetheurinarybladderorgallbladder,also,
cystectomy
removalofacyst
geneticdisorderofglandsresultinginlunganddigestive
cysticfibrosis(CF)
problems
cystitis inflammationoftheurinarybladder
typeofherniainwhichtheurinarybladderbulgesintothe
cystocele
vagina

19


cystogram xrayoftheurinarybladder
cystolith stoneintheurinarybladder
cystolithotomy surgerytoremoveastonefromtheurinarybladder
cystoscope toolusedtolookintotheurinarybladder
cystostomy surgerytomakeanopeningintotheurinarybladder
cystotrachelotomy surgicalcutintotheneckoftheurinarybladder
cystoureterogram xrayoftheurinarybladderandureters
cytogenic makingcells
cytoid likeacell
cytology thestudyofcells
cytomegalovirus(CMV) typeofherpesvirus
cytoplasm materialinsideacell

D
dacryocystitis inflammationofthetearsac
dacryocystorhinostom surgerytomakeanopeningbetweenthetearsacand
y thenose
surgerytocleanforeignmaterialanddeadtissueoutof
debridement
awound
decubitusulcer bedsore
decubitusulcer bedsore
deep insidethebody
deepveinthrombosis bloodclotinadeepvein
defecation makingabowelmovement
useofelectricshocktomaketheheartstartbeating,or
defibrillation
tocorrectanabnormalheartrateorrhythm
dementia mentaldecline
deoxyribonucleicacid
materialthatmakesupthegenes
(DNA)
drugthatslowsdowntheactionofthecentralnervous
depressant
system
dermabrasion methodusedtoremovescarsfromtheskin
dermatitis skininflammation

20


skingraftingusingskinfromanotherareaofthe
dermatoautoplasty
patient'sbody
dermatofibroma typeofbenignskingrowth
dermatoheteroplasty skingraftingusingskinfromanotherperson
dermatologist doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftheskin
toolusedtocutthinslicesoftheskintouseasskin
dermatome
grafts
dermatoplasty surgerytorepairtheskin
dermis innerlayeroftheskin
detachedretina separationoftheretinafromthemiddlelayeroftheeye
determine findout,seeif
whentheinnerwallseparatingthetwosidesofthenose
deviatedseptum
isofftooneside
excessivedischargeofurinefromthebodycausedbya
diabetesinsipidus deficiencyinthequantityofantidiuretichormonebeing
producedinthebody
disorderinwhichthereisdecreasedinsulininthebody
orthebody'sinsulinisnoteffective,resultinginhigh
diabetesmellitus
bloodsugar,increasedthirstandurine,andmanyother
sideeffects
diagnosis determinationofthecauseofamedicalproblem
diaphoresis heavysweating
thinflatmusclethathelpswithbreathingandseparates
diaphragm
thechestcavityfromtheabdominalcavity
bulgingoftheabdominalorgansintothechestarea
diaphragmatocele
throughaholeinthediaphragm
diaphysis thelongpartofarmandlegbones
diarrhea frequent,loosebowelmovement
thetimewhentheheartrestsbetweencontractionsand
diastole
fillswithblood
examusingafingerinsidetherectumtofeelinternal
digitalrectalexam
organssuchastheprostateglandanduterus
surgerytoremovethecontentsandinnerliningofthe
dilationandcurettage
uterusafteramiscarriageorabortionprocedureisalso
(D&C)
usedtotreatabnormalbleeding

21


dilator toolusedforstretchingorenlarginganopeningortube
diplopia seeingdouble
Asubject'sparticipationinaclinicaltrialmaybestopped
Discontinuationofa bythesubjectortheinvestigatoratanytime.Among
TrialSubject otherthingsthismaybebecauseofsideeffects,
intercurrentillnessorwithdrawalofconsent.
surgerytoremoveoneoftheringsbetweenthebones
diskectomy
thatmakeupthespine
dissector toolusedtoseparateorcutaparttissue
disseminate scatterorspread
distal awayfromthecenterofthebodydistant
distended stretchedoutorswollen,suchasafullbladder
diuresis increaseddischargeofurine
drugusedtogetexcesswateroutofthebodyand
diuretic
increaseurine"waterpill"
diverticulectomy surgerytoremoveabnormalpoomingofftothecolon
inflammationofabnormalpouchescomingoffofthe
diverticulitis
colon
diverticulosis abnormalpouchescomingoffthecolon
useofultrasonographytoseebloodflowinsideblood
Dopplerflowstudies
vessels
dorsal havingtodowiththebackofthebody
testorexperimentinwhichneitherthepersongivingthe
doubleblindtrial treatmentnorthepatientknowswhichtreatmentthe
patientisreceiving
birthdisorderinwhichthereisoneextrachromosome,
Down'ssyndrome mentalretardation,andchangedappearanceofthe
head,hands,andfeet
duct tubethatcarriesabodyfluid
ductusdeferens tubethatcarriesspermoutofthetesticle
dull notsharp
duodenalulcer soreintheduodenum
duodenum firstpartofthesmallintestine

22


outerlayerofthemembranesthatsurroundbrainand
duramater
spinalcord
duritis inflammationoftheduramater
dyscrasia disorder,usuallyofthebloodcells
inflammationoftheintestine,usuallythecolon,resulting
dysentery
inpainandinbloodandmucusinbowelmovements
dysmenorrhea painfulmenstruation
dyspepsia troubledigestingfoodwithdiscomfortaftermeals
dysphagia troubleswallowing
dysphasia difficultyspeakingandputtingwordstogether
dysphonia troublewiththevoiceandspeaking
dysplasia abnormaldevelopmentorcellgrowth
dyspnea troublebreathing
dystocia difficultchildbirth
dysuria painwhenurinating

ecchymosis blackandbluemarkbruise
pictureoftheheartinmotionmadeusing
echocardiogram
ultrasonography
echoencephalograph
useofultrasonographytorecordtheshapeofthebrain
y
convulsionsinapregnantwomancausedbyhighblood
eclampsia
pressureandothermedicalproblems
pregnancygrowingoutsidetheuterus,ofteninfallopian
ectopicpregnancy
tubes
eczema typeofitchyskinrash
edema swellingcausedbyfluidheldinthetissues
efferent goingawayfromthecenterofthebody
dischargeofsemenfromthepenisduringtheclimaxof
ejaculation
sexualintercourse
electrocardiogram
pictureoftheelectricalactionoftheheart
(ECG)

23


electrocardiograph machinethatrecordstheelectricalactionoftheheart
electroencephalogra
pictureofbrainwaveactivity
m(EEG)
electroencephalograp
machinethatrecordsbrainwaveactivity
h
elevator toolusedforliftingtissue
embolectomy surgerytoremoveabloodclot
embolus bloodclot
embryo unbornbabyfrom2to8weeksafteritisformed
embryoid lookinglikeanembryo
embryology thestudyofthedevelopmentoftheunbornbaby
emesis vomiting
drugusedtomakeapersonvomitusefulintreating
emetic
poisoning
normalconditionoftheeyewhenlightfocusescorrectly
emmetropia
ontheretina
emollient substancethatsoftenstheskin
emphysema disorderinwhichtoomuchaircollectsdeepinthelungs
encephalitis inflammationofthebrain
encephalomyeloradic inflammationofthebrain,thespinalcord,andthespinal
ulitis nerveroots
encephalosclerosis hardeningofthebrain
endocervicitis inflammationoftheinnerliningofthecervix
doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftheglandsthatmake
endocrinologist
hormones
diseaseoftheglandsthatmakehormoneshormonal
endocrinopathy
imbalance
growthsoutsideoftheuterusmadeupofthetissues
endometriosis
thatlinestheuterus
endometritis inflammationoftheinnerliningoftheuterus
endometrium innerliningoftheuterus
endophthalmitis inflammationofthecontentsoftheeye
endorphin substancemadebythebodytostoppain

24


toolusedtolookintobodystructuresandholloworgans,
endoscope
suchasthestomach
endoscopic
retrograde xrayofthebileandpancreaticductsmadeusingan
cholangiopancreatogr endoscope
aphy(ERCP)
endosteum tissuethatlinestheinsideofbone
endotracheal insidethewindpipe
liquidthatisinjectedintotherectumtopromotebowel
enema
movement
enterorrhaphy surgerytostitchtheintestine
enucleation surgerytoremovetheeye
epidermal havingtodowiththeouterlayeroftheskin
epidermis outerlayerofskin
epididymis tubesthatstoresandcarriessperm
epigastricregion areaabovethenavel
flapofskinthatkeepsfoodfromgoingdownthe
epiglottis
windpipe
epiglottitis inflammationoftheepiglottis
epilepsy seizuredisorder
hormonemadebytheadrenalglandsthatspeedsup
epinephrine
bodyorgansandhelpsthebodydealwithstress
epiphysis growthareaofalongbone
episioperineoplasty surgerytofixthevulvaandperineum
episiorrhaphy stitchingatearinthevulva
surgicalcutinthevaginatokeepitfromtearingwhena
episiotomy
babyisbeingborn
epistaxis nosebleed
epithelial havingtodowiththeepithelium
epithelioma benignormalignantgrowthmadeupofepithelialtissue
typeoftissuethatcoverstheoutsideofthebodyand
epithelium makesuptheliningandouterlayersofmostbody
organsandparts
equivalent equal,same
25


erythema redness
erythrocytecount thenumberoferythrocytesintheblood
erythrocyte bloodtestthatmeasureshowlongittakesfor
sedimentationrate erythrocytestosinktothebottomofatubeusedto
(ESR) checkforinflammationinthebody
erythrocytes cellsinbloodthatcarryoxygenredbloodcells
erythrocytosis increaseinnumberofredbloodcells
erythroderma redskin
esophagogastroduod useofanendoscopetolookintotheesophagus,
enoscopy stomach,andduodenum
esophagoscope toolusedtolookintotheesophagus
estrogen femalesexhormone
estrogenreceptor bloodtestusedtodetecttumorcellsinpatientswith
assay breastcancer
etiology thecauseorcausesofanillness
eupnea normalbreathing
eustachiantube tubethatconnectsthemiddleearandthethroat
eversion turninginsideout
excretion thewaythatsubstancesleavethebody
exophthalmic hasabulgingeyeballoreyeballs
exophthalmos bulgingofoneorbotheyeballs
exostosis bonygrowthonthesurfaceofabone
extension thestraightpositionofanarmorleg
externalauditory openingorpassagewaybetweentheoutsideoftheear
meatus andtheeardrum
externalear outsidepartoftheear
sexorgansontheoutsideofthebody:penis,scrotum,
externalgenitalia
andurethrainmenvulva,clitoris,andurethrainwomen
extracorporeal outsideofthebody
extravasation escapeofbloodfrombloodvesselsandintotissue

26


tubeattachedtotheuterusdownwhichtheeggtravels
fallopiantube
fromtheovarytotheuterus
bloodtestusedtomeasuretheamountofsugarinthe
fastingbloodsugar bloodafternoteatingordrinkingforasetamountof
time
feces materialexcretedduringbowelmovement
femoral havingtodowiththethigharea
femoropopliteal surgerytomakeapassagewayfromonearteryto
bypass anotherintheleg
femur thighbone
unbornbabyfrom9weeksafteritisformeduntilitis
fetus
born
fibrillation fastuncontrolledheartbeat
fibroidtumor growthmadeupoffibroustissue
fibula thelowerlegbonebehindtheshin
tissuethatlookslikeafringeontheendoftheuterine
fimbria
tubes
havingthinjawsortips,suchasatoolusedfordelicate
fine
orsmallprocedures
fissure crackorgrooveintissue
flatus passinggas
flexion bentpositionofthearmorleg
fluorescent
treponemalantibody
bloodtestusedtodetectsyphilis
absorption
(FTAABS)test
FoodandDrug
governmentagencythatregulatesfoodsanddrugs
Administration(FDA)
toolwithtwobladesandahandleusedforhandling
forceps
tissueordressings
foldofskinthatcoversthepenisandisremovedin
foreskin
circumcision
fracture brokenbone
fulguration useofelectricsparkstoremovetissuesuchastumors
fundus topoftheuterusorbackoftheeye
27


fungal havingtodowithfungi
fungaltest testusedtodetectandidentifyafungus
fungi morethanonefungus
typeoflivingorganisms,suchasyeasts,molds,and
fungus mushrooms,someofwhichcauseinfectionandsomeof
whichlooklikeplants
furuncle painfulskinboil

G
gait thewayapersonwalks
galactorrhea toomuchdischargeofmilkfromthebreast
gallbladder smallsackundertheliverthatholdsbile
gammaglobulin typeofpronthathelpsthebodyfightinfection
groupofnervecellsfoundoutsidethecentralnervous
ganglion systemorabenigntumoronmuscleconnectivetissue
oronatendon
ganglionectomy surgerytoremoveaganglion
ganglionitis inflammationofaganglion
deathoftissuecausedbylossofbloodflowandusually
gangrene
followedbyinfection
gastrectomy surgerytoremoveallorpartofthestomach
gastriclavage washingthestomachout
gastriculcer soreinthestomach
gastritis inflammationofthestomach
gastrodynia paininthestomach
gastroenteritis inflammationofthestomachandintestines
gastroscope toolusedtolookintothestomach
surgerytomakeanopeningfromtheoutsideofthe
gastrostomy
bodyintothestomach
feedingapersonthroughatubethatgoesintothe
gavage
stomach
physicalstateofunconsciousnessandlossofpain
generalanesthesia
sensationcausedbyanestheticdrugs
genericname chemicalnameforadrug

28


materialpassedfromparenttochildthatdetermines
genes
themakeupofthebodyandmind
genetic havingtodowiththegenes
genital havingtodowiththesexorgans
diseasecausedbyaherpesvirusinwhichthereare
genitalherpes
blistersonthegenitalia
genitalia maleandfemalesexorgans
gingiva thegums
gingivectomy surgerytoremovegumtissue
gingivitis inflammationofthegums
tissuethatproducesamaterial,suchasthesalivaora
gland
hormone
glanspenis endofthepenis
increasedpressureinsidetheeyethatcausesvisual
glaucoma
problems
globulins proteinsintheblood
glomerulonephritis inflammationofthekidney
glomerulus placeinthekidneywhereurineisformed
glossitis inflammationofthetongue
glossopathy diseaseofthetongue
glossorrhaphy surgerytostitchthetongue
drugsornaturalsubstancesmadebytheadrenal
glucocorticoids glandsthathavemanyeffectsonbodymetabolism,
raisesugarlevelintheblood,andreduceinflammation
glucose typeofsugarfoundintheblood
testthatmeasuresbloodsugarlevelsoveracertain
glucosetolerancetest amountoftimeinapatientafterhedrinksabeverage
thatcontainsameasuredamountofsugar
glycosuria sugarinurine
gonad sexgland:femaleovaryormaletesticle
typeofbacterialinfectioninthesexorgansand
gonorrhea
sometimesintheskinandjoints
disorderinwhichcrystalsofuricaciddepositinand
gout
aroundjoints,causingpainandarthritis
29


granulocytopenia dropinwhitebloodcellcount
hormonemadebythepituitaryglandthatcontrolsthe
growthhormone(GH)
growthofthebody
guaiactest testforbloodinstool
gynecologist doctorwhotestdisordersofthesexorgansofwomen
gynecology thestudyofthereproductivesystemofwomen

thinstrandsofproteinthatgrowupfromthehair
hair
follicles
heart musclethatmovesorpumpsbloodthroughthebody
whentheheartinadequatelypumpsbloodthroughthe
heartfailure
body
swishingsound,heardwhenlisteningtotheheart
heartmurmur throughastethoscope,causedbyabnormalflowof
bloodthroughtheheart
hematemesis bloodinvomit
hematocrit thepercentageofbloodmadeupofredbloodcells
hematocytopenia notenoughbloodcells
hematologist doctorwhotreatsblooddisorders
hematology thestudyofblood
pocketofbloodcausedbybleedingfromabroken
hematoma
bloodvesselappears"blackandblue"
hematopoiesis themakingofbloodcells
hematosalpinx bloodintheuterinetube
hematuria bloodintheurine
muscleweaknessorpartialparalysis,usuallywithloss
hemiparesis
offeeling,onhalfofthebody
totallossofmusclemovement,usuallywithlossof
hemiplegia
feeling,onhalfofthebody
hemodialysis methodusedtoremovewastematerialfromtheblood
substancethatcarriesoxygenandgivesblooditsred
hemoglobin(Hgb)
color
hemolysis burstingopenofredbloodcells

30


hemophilia geneticdefectinwhichbloodclotstooslowly
hemorrhage bleeding,escapeofbloodfrombloodvessels
hemorrhoidectomy surgerytoremovehemorrhoids
hemorrhoids twistedandbulgingveinsintherectalarea
hemostasis thestoppingofbleeding
hemothorax bloodinthechestcavity
hepatitis inflammationoftheliver
hepatoma growthontheliver
bulgingofanorganthroughanabnormalopeningina
hernia
musclewall
breakingofaringshapedpadinthespine,whichoften
herniateddisk
pinchesanerveslippeddisk
herniorrhaphy surgerytofixahernia
groupsoftinyblistersfoundontheskincausedby
herpes
infectionwithaherpesvirus
heterosexual personwhoisattractedtotheoppositesex
hiccup sudden,uncontrolledspasmofthediaphragm
hidradenitis inflammationofasweatgland
hipbone boneatthelowerpartofthebodytrunk
abnormalhairiness(inwomen,anadultmalepatternof
hirsutism
hairdistribution
histology thestudyoftissueunderthemicroscope
Hodgkin'sdisease acancerofwhitebloodcells
homosexual personwhoisattractedtothesamesex
hordeolum infectionoftheoilglandsoftheeyelids
substancemadebyaglandinthebodythatregulates
hormone
anotherpartofthebody
listofdrugsandtheirproperdosesmaintainedbyeach
HospitalFormulary
hospital
humeral havingtodowiththeupperarmbone
humerus upperarmbone
increaseinfluidinusuallycausingpressureonthe
hydrocephalus
brainwateronthebrain
31


abnormalcollectionofurineinthekidneycausinga
hydronephrosis
swollenkidney
hydrosalpinx fluidintheuterinetube
hymen foldoftissueattheopeningofthevagina
hymenectomy surgerytoremovethehymen
hypercalcemia toomuchcalciumintheblood
hypercapnia toomuchcarbondioxideintheblood
hyperesthesia verysensitivetotouch
hyperglycemia toomuchsugarintheblood
hyperkalemia toomuchpotassiumintheblood
hyperkinesis overactivemovements
hyperopia farsightedness
hyperplasia abnormalincreaseinthenumberofnormalcells
hypertension highbloodpressure
hypertensiveheart
heartproblemscausedbyhighbloodpressure
disease
hyperthyroidism overactivethyroidgland
hyperventilation breathingthatistoofast
hypnotic drugusedtomakeapersonsleep
hypocalcemia notenoughcalciumintheblood
hypocapnia notenoughcarbondioxideontheblood
hypochondriacregion areatotherightorleftabovethenaval
hypodermic undertheskin
hypodermicinjection injectionofasubstanceundertheskin
stateofhavinglessthannormalsensitivityto
hypoesthesia
stimulation
hypogastricregion areabelowthenaval
hypoglycemia notenoughsugarintheblood
hypokalemia notenoughpotassiumintheblood
hypopnea weak,slowbreathing
birthdefectinwhichtheurethraopensunderthepenis
hypospadias
insteadofthetipofthepenis

32


hypotension lowbloodpressure
hypothermia lowbodytemperature
hypothyroidism underactivethyroidgland
hypotonia decreasedmuscletone
hypoventilation toolittleairenteringthelungs
hypoxemia notenoughoxygenintheblood
hypoxia notenoughoxygeninthetissues
birthdefectinwhichtheuterusdoesnotopentothe
hysteratresia
outsideofthebody
hysterectomy surgerytoremovetheuterus
hysteropexy surgerytofastendowntheuterusinitsnormalposition
hysterosalpingooopho surgerytoremovealloftheinternalfemale
rectomy reproductiveorgans
takinganxrayoftheuterusandtheuterinetubes
hysterosalpingography
usingadyetooutlinethem
hysteroscope toolusedtolookintotheuterus

I
iatrology thescienceofmedicine
toomuchbileinthebloodcausingayellowcolorto
icterus
theskin,gums,eye,andothertissues
idiopathic ofunknowncause
raresideeffectofadrugunusualreactionofa
idiosyncrasy
persontoadrug
ileocecal havingtodowiththeileumandthececum
ileum thirdandlastpartofthesmallintestine
ileus blockageoftheintestines
iliacregions areastotherightandleftbelowthenaval
iliofemoral havingtodowiththehipandthighbones
ilium wingshapedupperpartofthehipbone
proteinsthathelpprotectthebodyfrominfectionand
immuneglobulins
foreignmatter

33


thecellsandsubstancesthatprotectthebodyfrom
immunesystem
infectionandforeignmatter
immunity protectionagainstinfection
immunodeficiency weaknessoftheimmunesystem
impedance
testusedtofindbloodclots
plethysmography
impetigo skininfection
notabletohaveortokeepanerectionduringsexual
impotent
intercourse
incontinence notabletocontrolbladderorbowelactions
induration hardspot
inferior towardthelowerpartofthebody
swelling,redness,andpainintissuescausedby
inflammation
injuryordamage
influenza theflu
placingaliquidsubstanceintoaveinbylettingitflow
infusion
inwithgravity
substancegiventhroughthenoseormouthtoreach
inhalant
thelungs
insulin thehormonethatcontrolsbloodsugarlevels
interictal happeningbetweenseizures
painandweaknessinthelegswhenwalkingis
intermittentclaudication
impossibleandthengoesawayafterarest
intervertebraldisks padsfoundbetweeneachring(bone)inthespine
intracavityinjection injectionofasubstanceintoabodycavity
intracoronary injectionofmedicinetodissolveabloodclotinan
thrombolytictherapy arteryoftheheart
intracranial insidetheskull
intradermally givenintotheskin
intradermalinjection injectionofasubstanceintotheskin
allergytestsperformedbyinjectingallergycausing
intradermaltests substancesunderneaththeskintoseeiftheycause
areaction

34


intramuscularinjection injectionofasubstanceintoamuscle(e.g.,upper
(IM) armorbackside)
intraocular withintheeye
injectionofasubstanceintothespacesurrounding
intrathecalinjection
thespinalcord(i.e.,spinalcanal)
intravenous(IV)injection injectionofasubstanceintoavein
xrayofthekidneysanduretersusingdyethatis
intravenouspyelogram
injectedintotheblood
intussusception telescopingoftheintestineintoitself
inversion turninginward
investigation study
iritis inflammationoftheiris
boweldisorderinwhichthereispainanddiarrheaor
irritablebowelsyndrome
constipation
ischium lowerpartofthepelvicbone,partyousiton
tissueinthepancreasthatmakesanddischarges
isletsofLangerhans
insulinandotherhormones
isthmus thinstripoftissuethatjoinstwopartsofthebody

toomuchbileinthebloodcausingayellowcolorto
jaundice
theskin,gums,eye,andothertissues
jejunum secondandlongestpartofthesmallintestine

purpleorbrowncancerouspimplesontheskin,often
Kaposi'ssarcoma
associatedwithAIDS
karyocyte cellwithacenter
karyoplasm materialinsidethecenterofacell
keloid typeofscartissuethatkeepsgrowinginside
keratin proteinthatisfoundinthehair,nails,andskin
keratoplasty surgerytofixthecornea
substancesthatincreaseinthebloodandurinewhen
ketonebodies
toomuchbodyfatandtoomanycarbohydratesare

35


beingbrokendown,usuallybecauseofstarvationor
serious,untreateddiabetesmellitus
oneoftwoorgansinthelowerbackthatfilterblood
kidney
andmakeurine
knife toolwithasharpbladeusedforcuttingtissue
kyphosis hunchback

labyrinth structureintheinnerear
labyrinthectomy surgerytoremovetheinnerear
labyrinthitis inflammationoftheinnerear
laceration torn,raggedcut
lacrimal havingtodowiththetears
passagewayintheeyelidsthatdrainstearsatypeof
lacrimalduct
tearduct
lactating makingmilk
lacticdehydrogenase substancemeasuredinabloodtesttoassess
(LDH) damagetoheartandotherorgans
lactogenic causingthemakingofbreastmilk
lactorrhea toomuchdischargeofmilkfromthebreast
laminectomy surgerytoremovethetopofvertebra
laparoscope toolusedtolookintotheabdominalcavity
surgerytomakeanopeningintothewallofthe
laparotomy
stomachtolookinsidewithalaparoscope
thebowelbetweenthesmallintestineandtheanus,
largeintestine
includingthececum,colon,andrectum
laryngeal havingtodowiththevoicebox
laryngectomy surgerytoremovethevoicebox
laryngitis inflammationofthevoicebox
laryngocentesis surgerytopuncturethevoicebox
laryngoplasty surgerytofixthevoicebox
laryngoscope toolusedtolookintothevoicebox
laryngospasm sudden,uncontrolledcrampinthevoicebox

36


laryngectomy surgerytomakeanopeningintothevoicebox
inflammationofthelarynx,windpipe,andbronchi
laryngotracheobronchitis
croup
larynx voicebox
laserangioblast usingalaserlighttoopenblockedarteries
lateral towardorhavingtodowiththesideofthebody
latexagglutinationtest bloodtestusedtodetectantibodies
laxative drugusedtostopconstipation
bloodtestusedtodetectthepresenceofacertain
LE(lupus
typeofwhitebloodcellseeninpeoplewithlupus
erythematosus)celltest
erythematosusandsimilardisorders
seriousdisordercausedbybacterialinfectionin
legionnaires'disease whichthereishighfever,stomachpain,headache,
andpneumonia
leiodermia disorderinwhichtheskinistoosmoothandshiny
leiomyoma smoothmusclegrowth
leiomyosarcoma cancerofsmoothmuscle
structureintheeyethatisnormallyclearandhelpsto
lens
focuslightcomingintotheeye
abnormalareaoftissue,suchasawound,sore,
lesion
rash,orboil
leukemia cancerofwhitebloodcells
leukocoria whitepupil
oneoftheinfectionfightingcellsinthebloodand
leukocyte
bodytissueswhitebloodcells
leukocytecount numberofwhitebloodcellsintheblood
leukocytosis increaseinnumberofwhitebloodcellsintheblood
leukoderma whiteskin
leukokoria whitepupil
libido sexualdesire
ligament elastictissuethatconnectsboneorcartilage
lipid fat
lipidtests bloodteststhatmeasurehowmuchfatisintheblood

37


lipoid fatty
lipoma growthmadeupoffatcells
lipoprotein bloodtestthatmeasurestheamountsoffatand
electrophoresis proteinintheblood
lithotripsy surgeryorothermethodtocrushastone
largeorganthathelpsinmanybodyfunctions,
liver includingdigestion,metabolism,andstorageof
substances
lobarpneumonia bacterialinfectionofoneormoresectionsofthelung
lobectomy surgerytoremoveasectionofthelung
normaldischargefromthevaginafor1to2weeks
lochia
afterchildbirth
bonethatislongandslender,suchasalegorarm
longbone
bone
forwardcurvingofthespine,causingsaddlebackor
lordosis
swayback
LouGehrig'sDisease
muscledisorder
(ALS)
lowerGI xrayusingadyegivenasanenematooutlinethe
(gastrointestinal)series largeintestine
spinaltapusinganeedletoremovespinalfluidfor
lumbarpuncture
testingfromthelowerback
lumbarregion lowerbackofthebody
lumbarvertebrae bonesofthespineinthelowerback
thespaceinsideatubelikebodystructure,suchasa
lumen
bloodvessel
lunglobe oneoffivesectionsofthetwolungs
lungs thetwomainorgansforbreathing
chronicdisordersofconnectivetissueinwhichthere
lupuserythematosus
canbeskinrash,arthritis,kidneyproblems,and
(LE)
anemia,amongotherproblems
lymph clearliquidtissue
tissuethatfiltersdiseasegermsfromthebloodalso
lymphnode
calledalymphgland
lymphadenitis inflammationofthelymphnodes
38


lymphangiography xrayofthelymphnodes
lymphocyte typeofwhitebloodcell
lymphoidtissue tissuethatcontainslymphocytes
cancerousgrowthmadeupoflymphoidtissue,
lymphoma
particularlylymphocytes

M
macro describessomethingthatislargeorlong
macule flat,coloredspotontheskin
magneticresonance theuseofmagneticwavestolookatsofttissuesof
imagining(MRI) thebody
malignant cancerous
mallet hammerliketoolusedforstrikingobjects
mammaryglands milkproducingtissueinthebreasts
mammarypapilla breastnipple
mammogram xrayofthebreast
mammoplasty surgerytoreconstructthebreast
mandible lowerjawbone
Mantouxtest skintestusedtocheckfortuberculosis
mastalgia paininthebreast
mastectomy surgerytoremoveabreast
mastitis inflammationofthemammaryglandorofthebreast
mastoidcells airspacesinsidethemastoidprocess
protrudingpartofabonelocatedintheskullbehind
mastoidprocess
theear
surgerytoremovethemastoidprocessormastoid
mastoidectomy
cells
inflammationoftheairspacesinthemastoidprocess
mastoiditis
thatcommunicatewiththemiddleear
mastoidotomy surgerytocutintothemastoidprocess
mastoptosis droopingbreasts
maxilla upperjawbone
maxillectomy surgerytoremovetheupperjawbone

39


maxillitis inflammationoftheupperjawbone
meconium firststoolofthenewborn
medial towardorhavingtodowiththemiddleofthebody
medications medicines,drugs
tissueandorgansinthemiddleofthechestbetween
mediastinum
thetwolungs
partofthebrainthatcontrolsbreathing,blood
medullaoblongata pressure,andotherimportantbodyfunctionsbrain
stem
pimpleontheeyelidcausedbyaninflamedgland
meibomiancyst
(stye)
melanin materialthatmakesthecoloroftheskinandhair
melanoma cancerousblackgrowthontheskin
ablotchybrownstainontheskin,usuallyoverthe
cheeks,forehead,orneckoftenassociatedwith
melasma
pregnancy,menopause,ortheuseoforal
contraceptives
timeinlifewhenagirlstartshavingamenstrual
menarche
period
disorderoftheinnerearinwhichthereisdizziness,
Meniere'sdisease
ringingintheears,andlossofhearing
threelayeredtissuethatcoversthebrainandspinal
meninges
cord
meningitis inflammationofthemeninges
meningocele bulgingofthemeningesthroughaholeinbone
inflammationofthemeningesandrootsofthespinal
meningomyeloradiculitis
nerves
meniscectomy surgerytoremoveameniscus
inflammationofthemeningesandrootsofthespinal
meniscitis
nerves
meniscus oneoftwocrescentshapedpadsinsidethekneejoint
toomuchbleedingfromtheuterusduring
menometrorrhagia
menstruationandatothertimes
timeinlifewhenawomanstopshavingamenstrual
menopause
period

40


dischargeofbloodandtissuefromtheuterusthat
menses happensaboutevery4weeksinwomenwhoarenot
pregnant
menstrual havingtodowithmenstruation
menstrualperiod thetimeofmenstruation
dischargeofbloodandtissuefromtheuterusthat
menstruation happensaboutevery4weeksinwomenwhoarenot
pregnant
totalofalltheimportantactionsinthebodythatkeep
metabolism
italive
metacarpalbones .bonesofthehandbetweenthewristandfingers
spreadofdiseasefromoneplaceinthebodyto
metastasis
anotherplaceinthebodythatisnotnearby
metatarsalbones footbones
metrorrhea dischargefromtheuterus
micro describessomethingthatissmallordelicate
microcephalus personwithaverysmallhead
micturate urinate
middleear thespacebetweentheeardrumandtheinnerear
typeofsevereheadachethatoccursperiodicallyand
migraine isoftenassociatedwithnausea,vomiting,sightor
hearingsensitivities
substancethatmakesthepupiloftheeyesmaller
miotic
(e.g.,narcotic)
lossofanunbornbabyfromtheuterusbeforeitis
miscarriage
abletosurviveoutsidethemother'sbody
surgerytorepairthemitralvalvetoenlargethe
mitralcommissurotomy openingbetweenthetwopartsoftheleftsideofthe
heart
valvebetweentwochambersontheleftsideofthe
mitralvalve
heart
molecular thestudyoftheactionbetweentwopartsoftheleft
pharmacology sideoftheheart
weakmusclemovementandlossoffeelinginone
monoparesis
armoroneleg

41


lossofmovementandlossoffeelinginonearmor
monoplegia
oneleg
motility abilitytomove
openingthroughwhichfoodpassesintothebodyto
mouth
bedigested
mucopurulent slimyandwithpusinit
mucus slimyfluid
multigravida womenwhohasbeenpregnanttwoormoretimes
multipara womanwhohasgivenbirthtwoormoretimes
slowlyworseningdisorderofthecentralnervous
multiplesclerosis(MS) systemthatcausesweakness,incoordination,
numbness,andprobhtalkingandseeing
muscle typeoftissuethatcausesmovement
musculardystrophy geneticproblemresultinginmuscleweaknessand
(MD) atrophy
myasthenia muscleweakness
myastheniagravis disorderthatcausesmusclestogettiredquickly
mydriatic substancethatmakesthepupiloftheeyebigger
xrayofthespinalcordusingdyethatisinjectedinto
myelogram
thespinalarea
cancerofthetypesofcellsnormallyfoundinbone
myeloma
marrow
myelomalacia softeningofthespinalcord
myocardialinfarction
heartattack
(MI)
myocardialischemia notenoughbloodgoingtotheheart
myocarditis inflammationoftheheartmuscle
myocardium muscleoftheheart
myoma growthmadeupofmuscletissue
myomectomy surgerytoremoveamyomaorapieceofmuscle
myometritis inflammationofthemuscleoftheuterus
myometrium muscleoftheuterus
myopathy muscledisorder

42


myopia nearsightedness
myoplasty surgerytofixamuscle
myorrhaphy surgerytostitchamuscle
myringitis inflammationoftheeardrum
myringoplasty surgerytofixarupturedeardrum
disordercausedbylackofthyroidhormoneinwhich
myxedema
areasoftheskinareswollen

toughplateoftissuecoveringthetopoftheendof
nail
eachfingerandtoe
stronghabitformingdrugthatstopspainand
narcotic
depressesthecentralnervoussystem
nasal havingtodowiththenose
nasalseptum wallthatdividesthenoseintotwosides
tubethatgoesthroughthenoseandintothestomach
nasogastrictube
usedforfeedingliquidfoodtoapatient
tubethatdrainstearsfromtheeyeintothenosetear
nasolacrimalduct
duct
nasopharyngeal havingtodowiththenasopharynx
nasopharyngitis inflammationofthenasopharynx
natal havingtodowithchildbirth
nausea sicktothestomach
deviceusedtoturnliquidsintomistsforbreathing
nebulizer
treatments
necrosis deathoftissueorskin
neonate newborninfant
neonatology thestudyofdisordersofnewborninfants
neoplasm newgrowththatisnotnormaltumor
nephrectomy surgerytoremoveakidney
nephritis kidneyinflammation
nephroblastoma typeofmalignantkidneytumor
nephrogram xrayofthekidney

43


nephrohypertrophy overgrowthofthekidney
nephrolithiasis stonesinthekidney
nephroma growthinthekidney
nephromegaly overgrowthofthekidney
nephropexy surgerytotiedownakidney
nephroptosis saggingkidney
nephrosonography useofultrasonography
stringliketissuethatcarriesmessagestoandaway
nerve fromthebrainandspinalcordandtellsmusclesto
move
typeoftissuethatmakesupthecentralnervous
nervoustissue
systemandnerves
neuralgia nervepain
neurectomy surgerytoremovepartofanerve
neuritis inflammationofanerve
disorderofthejointsandthecentralnervoussystem
neuroarthropathy
ornerves
neuroblast cellthatwilldevelopintoanerve
partofthebrainthatdischargeshormonesincluding
neurohypophysis
oxytocinandvasopressin
neuroid likeanerve
doctorwhotreatsdisordersofthecentralnervous
neurologist
systemandnerves
surgerytoopenthecoveringofanervetodestroya
neurolysis
nerve
neuroma growthmadeupofnervetissue
adisturbanceinthefunctionofthebrainorspinal
neuropathy cordthatmayaffectthenervesandmusclesofthe
body
neuropharmacologic
drugthatactsonthenervoussystem
drug
neuroplasty surgerytofixanerve
neurorrhaphy stitchingacutnerve
neurosis mentalandemotionaldisorder
44


neurotomy surgerytomakeabreakinanerve
nevus molebirthmark
nocturia toomuchurinationatnight
hormonedischargedfromnerves,thebrain,andthe
norepinephrine adrenalglandsthathelpsthebodydealwithstress
andlowbloodpressure
nucleus centerofacell
nulligravida womanthathasnevergivenbirth
womanthathasnevergivenbirthtoaninfantthat
nullipara
lived
nyctalopia difficultyseeingatnight

O
doctorwhotakescareofpregnantwomenand
obstetrician
deliversbabies
obstetrics thestudyofpregnantwomenandchildbirth
breathingproblemswhilesleepingbecausethe
obstructivesleepapnea
airwayscollapseorgetclosedoff
occlude closeoff
oculomycosis fungusinfectionintheeye
oculusdexter(OD) righteye
oculussinister(OS) lefteye
oculusuterque(OU) eacheye
occasionalandirregularmenstruationthatoccurs
oligomenorrhea
every35daysto6months
oligospermia deceasedamountofsperminsemen
oliguria decreasedamountofurine
omphalitis inflammationofthebellybutton
abirthdefectinwhichthereisbulgingofthe
omphalocele intestinethroughthebodywallinthebellybutton
region
oncogenic causingtumorstoform
oncologist doctorwhotreatscancer
oncology cancer

45


onychectomy surgerytoremoveanail
onychocryptosis ingrownnail
onychomalacia softeningofthenails
onychomycosis fungalinfectionofthenail
onychophagia nailbiting
oophorectomy surgerytoremovetheuterusandovaries
oophoritis inflammationoftheovary
oophorohysterectomy surgerytoremovetheuterusandovaries
opportunity chance
ophthalmalgia painintheeye
opthalmic havingtodowiththeeye
ophthalmologist doctorwhotreatseyedisorders
ophthalmology thestudyofeyedisorders
ophthalmopathy disorderoftheeye
ophthalmorrhagia bleedingfromtheeye
optic havingtodowiththeeye
nervethatcarriesvisualmessagesfromtheretinato
opticnerve.
thebrain
optician .personwhomakesglasses
optometer .toolusedineyeexaminations
optometry thestudyoftheeyeandvision
oral havingtodowiththemouth
oraladministration givingadrugbymouth
orchidopexy .surgerytotiedownatesticleinthescrotum
orchiectomy surgerytoremoveoneorbothtesticles
orchiepididymitis inflammationofatesticleandepididymis
orchiopexy surgerytotiedownatesticleinthescrotum
orchioplasty surgerytofixatesticle
orchitis inflammationofatesticle
.twoormorekindsoftissuesthatworktogetherto
organ
makeupapartofthebodywithauniquefunction

46


orgasm theclimaxofsexualexcitement
orthodontist dentistwhotreatsteethandjawdisorders
orthopedics thestudyofthebonesandjoints
orthopedist doctorwhotreatsboneandjointdisorders
orthopnea difficultbreathingexceptwhensittingup
personwhoputsonandteachestheusebracesand
orthotist
splints
ossicles bonesofthemiddleearthatcarrysound
disorder,whichisseenmostlyinolderpersons,in
osteoarthritis(OA)
whichthejointsbecomepainfulandstuff
osteoblasts cellthatmakesbone
osteocarcinoma .bonecancergrowth
osteochondritis inflammationofboneandcartilage
osteoclasis surgerytobreakabone
osteocyte bonecell
osteofibroma benigntumorofboneandconnectivetissue
geneticdisorderinwhichthebonesaredelicateand
osteogenesisimperfecta
breakeasily
osteomalacia softbones
osteomyelitis infectionandinflammationofbone
osteonecrosis deathofbonetissue
osteoplasty surgerytofixabone
lossofcalciumfrombonetissueresultinginbones
osteoporosis thatbreakeasilyprevalentinpostmenopausal
women
osteosarcoma cancerofbone
osteotome chiselliketoolusedforcuttingormarkingbone
otalgia earache
otitis inflammationoftheear
otitisexterna .inflammationoftheouterearcanal
otitisinterna inflammationoftheinnerear
otitismedia inflammationofthemiddleear

47


otologist doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftheear
otology thestudyoftheear
otomastoiditis inflammationoftheeartogetherwithmastoiditis
otomycosis fungusinfectionintheouterearcanal
otopyorrhea dischargeofpusfromtheear
doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftheear,nose,and
otorhinolaryngologist
throat
bonedepositsintheinnerearwhichfusesthebones
otosclerosis
together
otoscope toolusedtolookintotheear
ovaries morethanoneovary
ovulation dischargeofaneggfromtheovary
thefemalesexcellthatjoinswiththemalespermto
ovum
makeazygoteandeventuallyababyegg
toolusedtomeasuretheamountofoxygeninthe
oximeter
blood
hormonemadebythebrainthatmakestheuterus
oxytocin
crampandmilkcomeoutofthebreasts

P
pachyderma thickeningoftheskin
palate roofofthemouth
palatitis inflammationoftheroofofthemouth
palatoplasty surgerytofixtheroofofthemouth
pallor palecoloroftheskin
palmar havingtodowiththepalmofthehand
organthatmakeshormones,includinginsulin,and
pancreas
digestivejuices
pancreatic havingtodowiththepancreas
pancreatitis inflammationofthepancreas
panplegia totallossofmusclecontrolandfeeling
inflammationoftheallthesinusesononesideofthe
pansinusitis
body

48


microscopetestusedtodetectvirusinfectionofthe
Paptest cervixorcancerofthevagina,cervix,orliningofthe
uterus
papule pimple
para womanwhohasgivenbirth
paralysis lossofabilitytomovemuscleswithlossoffeelingalso
aircavitiesinsidethebonesofthefacearoundthe
paranasalsinuses
nose
completelossofmusclecontrolandtotallossof
paraplegia
feelingfromthewaistdownward
parasympatholytic drugthatblocksakindofnerve
parasympathomimetic drugthatimitatestheactionofakindofnerve
glandthatmakesanddischargesahormonethathelps
parathyroidgland
controltheamountofcalciumintheblood
parathyroidectomy surgerytoremovetheparathyroidgland
parathyroidoma growthorcancerontheparathyroidgland
parenteral
givingasubstancebyinjectionratherbymouth
administration.
paresis muscleweaknesspartialparalysis
parietallayer layeroftissueinthewallofacavity
parietallayerofthe
layeroftissueinthesackaroundtheheart
pericardium
disorderofthecentralnervoussystem,seenusuallyin
Parkinson'sdisease olderpersons,inwhichthereismuscleweakness,
trembling,sweating
paronychia inflammationaroundthenail
paroxysm suddenworseningofanillnessoraspasmorseizure
partialthromboplastin atestofbloodclottingtimeusedtomeasure
time(PTT) substancesthathelpthebloodtoclot
participate takepart
parturition childbirth
allergytestperformedbyputtinganallergycausing
patchtest
materialontheskintoseeifitcausesareaction
patella kneecap

49


patellectomy surgerytoremovethekneecap
patent open
pathogenic causingdisease
doctorwhostudiesthechangesinthebodyandits
pathologist
tissuescausedbydisease
thestudyofthechangesinthebodyandbodytissue
pathology
causedbydisease
pediculosis infectionwithlice,whicharetinybugs
pelvicbone hipbone
spacewheretheurinarybladder,certainreproductive
pelviccavity organs,partofthelargeintestine,andtherectumare
found
infectionofanyofthefemalereproductiveorgans
pelvicinflammatory
insidethepelvicspace,includingtheuterus,uterine
disease(PID)
tubes,andovaries
xrayofthepelvisofthemothertomakesureher
pelvimetry pelvisislargeenoughforthebodytocomethrough
duringbirth
pelvisofthekidney placewhereurineleavesthekidney
penicillin typeofantibiotic
artificialdeviceputintothepenistohelpamangetan
penileimplant
erection
penis outermalesexorgan
pepticulcer soreinthestomachorintheliningofthestomach
tappingofabodysurfacewiththefingerstocheckthe
percussion
organsundertheskinbythesoundthatismade
percutaneous throughtheskin
percutaneous
procedureinwhichasmallballoonisblownupinside
transluminalcoronary
thebloodvesseltoopenupabloodvessel
angioplasty(PTCA)
pericardiotomy surgerytomakeanopeningintothepericardium
pericarditis inflammationofthepericardium
pericardium twolayersackoftissuearoundtheheart
perimetritis inflammationoftheperimetrium

50


perimetrium outerlayeroftissuearoundtheuterus
perineorrhaphy stitchingatearintheperineum
areabetweenthevulvaandrectuminwomenand
perineum
betweenthescrotumandrectuminmen
periosteum layeroftissuethatcoversbone
pertussis whoopingcough
tinyredorpurplespotonskinorothertissuecaused
petechia
bybleeding
methodofremovingacataractbyusingsoundwaves
phacoemulsification
tobreakitup
phalanges fingerandtoebones
personlicensedtoprepareanddispensedrugsandfill
pharmacist
prescriptions
pharmacodynamics thestudyofhowdrugsactonthebody
thestudyofthewayadrugentersandleavesthe
pharmacokinetics
bloodandtissuesovertime
pharyngitis sorethroat
areabetweenthemouthandesophagusthatperforms
pharynx
theswallowingactionthroat
phenothiazines groupofdrugsusedforthecontrolofmentalillness
dangerousbuildupoftoxicmaterialsinthebody
phenylketonuria(PKU)
resultingfromageneticdefectthataffectsmetabolism
phlebectomy surgerytoremovepartorallofavein
phlebography xrayofaveinorveinsusingadyetooutlinethem
phlebotomy nickingorputtinganeedleintoaveintoremoveblood
phonocardiogram detailedrecordofheartsounds
photophobia irritationoftheeyecausedbylight
inflammationofthebackoftheeyecausedbystrong
photoretinitis
light
havingtodowiththemindorhavingtodowitha
phrenic
diaphragm
phrenopathy mentaldisorder
piamater innerlayerofthemeninges

51


pinna outerflapoftheear
glandthatsitsunderthebrainandmakesmany
pituitarygland
hormones,includingsomethatcontrolotherglands
apretendtreatment(withnodruginit)thatis
placebo comparedinaclinicaltrialwithadrugtotestifthedrug
hasarealeffect
placenta tissuesthatprovidefoodfortheunbornbaby
plantar havingtodowiththesoleofthefoot
plasma liquidpartofbloodwherecellsfloat
removingplasmafrombloodthathasbeendrawnfrom
plasmapheresis
aperson
plateletcount. thenumberofplateletsintheblood
platelets smallstructuresinbloodthathelpittoclot
thintissuethatcoversthelungsandinnerwallsofthe
pleura
chest
pleuraleffusion fluidinthechestcavity
inflammationofthepleurawithdischargeinthechest
pleurisy
cavity,makingbreathingpainful
pleuropexy surgerytofixthefilmthatcoversthelungs
pneumatocele bulgingofthelungsthroughanabnormalopening
pneumobronchotomy incisionintothelungs
pneumoconiosis dustinthelungs
typeofparasiteorfungusthatcausespneumoniain
Pneumocystiscarinii infantsandweakenedpatients,suchasthosewith
AIDS
pneumonectomy surgerytoremovealung
inflammationofthelungsinwhichthelungsbecome
pneumonia
heavy
pneumonitis inflammationofthelungs
pneumothorax. freeairinthechestcavity
podiatrist footdoctor
infectionwithavirusinwhichtherecanbefever,
poliomyelitis headache,andstiffneckfollowedbyparalysisand
wastingawayofmuscles

52


polyarteritis inflammationofmanyarteries
polycystickidney kidneywithmanycystsinit
polydipsia toomuchthirst
polymyositis inflammationofmorethanonemuscle
polyneuritis inflammationofseveralnerves
polyp typeofgrowththatsticksupoutoftissue
polypectomy surgerytoremoveapolyp
polyuria toomuchurinebeingmade
partofthebrainthroughwhichthetwosidesand
pons
differentareasofthebraincommunicate
disturbanceofmetabolismthatcanbeseenas
porphyria
disordersoftheskinorotherorgans
posterior havingtodowiththebackofthebody
posteriorlobeofthe partofthepituitaryglandthatdischargesoxytocin,
pituitary vasopressin,andsomeproteins
postictal happeningafteraseizure
postpartum afterchildbirth
increaseindrugactionfromusingtwodrugstogether
potentiation
insteadofusingeachdrugalone
seriousproblemofpregnancyinwhichthereishigh
preeclampsia bloodpressureandexcessfluidinthetissuesofthe
mother
pregnancy carryinganunbornbaby
preictal happeningbeforeaseizure
infantbornbeforeithasfullydevelopedweightless
prematureinfant
than5.5lbs
foldofskin(foreskin)thatcoversthepenisandis
prepuce
removedincircumcision
presbycusis lossofhearingbecauseofoldage
presbyopia problemswithvisionbecauseofoldage
primigravida womangoingthroughherfirstpregnancy
womanwhohasonepregnancythatlastedatleast20
primipara
weeks

53


proctologist doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftherectumandanus
proctology. thestudyofthedisordersoftherectumandanus
proctoptosis fallenanusprotrudingfromthebody
proctoscope toolusedtolookintotherectum
typeoffemalehormonesthatpreparetheuterusfor
progestins
pregnancy
prognosis forecastoftheprobableoutcomeofadisease
prolapseduterus fallenuterusprotrudingfromthebody
prone lyingfacedown
prostategland glandthatmakesfluidthataidsmovementofsperm
prostatespecific substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtocheckfor
antigen(PSA) prostaticcancer
prostatectomy surgerytoremoveallorpartoftheprostategland
prostaticcancer canceroftheprostategland
prostatitis inflammationoftheprostategland
inflammationoftheneckofthebladderandthe
prostatocystitis
bladder
prostatolith stoneintheprostategland
prostatorrhea dischargeofliquidfromtheprostate
prosthesis artificialbodypart
atestofbloodclottingtimeusedtomeasure
prothrombintime(PT)
substancesthathelpthebloodtoclot
proximal nearest
pruritus itchiness
pseudocyesis falsepregnancy
psoriasis scalyskinrash
psychiatry thestudyofmentaldisorders
psychogenic causedbythemind(ratherthanthebody)
doctorwhotreatsdisordersofthemind,thoughts,and
psychologist
behavior
psychology thestudyofmentalactionandbehavior
psychopathy anydisorderofthemind

54


psychosis severementaldisordercraziness
havingaconnectionbetweenthemindandphysical
psychosomatic
symptoms
pterygium unusualfoldoffilmontheeye
puberty yearswhenthesexorgansmature
puerpera awomanwhohasjustgivenbirthtoaninfant
puerperal rightafterchildbirth
puerperium thefirst3to6weeksafterchildbirth
pulmonary havingtodowiththelungs
pulmonaryedema fluidinthelungs
pulmonaryembolism bloodclotinthelungs
pulmonaryneoplasm lungtumor
blackspotinthemiddleoftheeye,whichisthe
pupil
openinginthecenteroftheiris
pupillometer toolthatmeasureshowwidethepupilis
purgative drugusedtocausethebowelstoempty
purifiedprotein
substanceusedintuberculosisskintest
derivative(PPD)
smallpurpleredmarksinskinorothertissuecaused
purpura
bybleeding
pustule pimplefilledwithpus
pyelitis inflammationofthekidneyanditspelvis
pyelogram xrayofthekidneyandureters
pyelolithotomy surgerytoremoveakidneystone
pyelonephritis inflammationofthekidneyanditspelvis
pyeloplasty surgerytofixthepelvisofthekidney
surgerytomakeanopeningintothepelvisofthe
pyelostomy
kidney
ringofmusclesbetweenthestomachandthesmall
pyloricsphincter
intestine
surgerytocutmusclesofapyloricsphincterthatistoo
pyloromyotomy
narrow
pyloroplasty surgerytofixthepyloricsphincter
55


pylorus theopeningofthestomachintothesmallintestine
pyosalpinx pusintheuterinetubes
pyuria pusintheurine

Q
lossofmusclemovementandlossoffeelinginbotharms
quadriplegia
andlegs

rachiotomy surgerytocutintoaboneorbonesofthespine
rachischisis birthdefectinwhichthereisagrooveinthespine
radialkeratotomy surgerytofixnearsightedness
radiculitis inflammationofaspinalnerveroot
radioimmunoassay laboratorymethodtomeasureasubstance,suchasa
(RIA) hormone
radius oneofthetwolowerarmbones
rectal
givingasubstancebyputtingitintotherectum
administration
rectocele bulgingoftherectumintothevagina
rectouterinepouch pouchintheareabetweentheuterusandtherectum
redbloodcell
acellinbloodthatcarriesoxygen
(RBC)
redbloodcell
thenumberofredbloodcellsintheblood
count
redbloodcell thesizeandshapeofindividualredbloodcellsasseen
morphology underamicroscope
conditionthatoccurswhensignsofanillnessare
remission
decreasedorgone
renal havingtodowiththekidney
removingapieceofkidneytissuetolookatitundera
renalbiopsy
microscope
renalcalculi kidneystones
renalpelvis placewhereurineleavesthekidney
renaltransplant kidneytransplant

56


xraytocheckkidneyfunctionbymeasuringhowfastadye
renogram
passesthroughthekidneysandtotheurinarybladder
reproduction makingbabies
reproductive havingtodowithreproduction
toolusedtoremoveorbiopsytissuefromtheurinary
resectoscope
bladder,prostate,orurethra
retina innermostlayeroftheeye
retinal havingtodowiththeretina
retinal useofalaserlighttotreatdisordersoftheretinaortumors
photocoagulation intheeye
retinitis eyedisorderinwhichtheretinalatrophiesandvision
pigmentosa graduallyworsens
retinoblastoma cancerintheeyegrowingoffoftheretina
retractor toolusedforholdingbacktissue
retrograde xrayofthekidneyanduretermadebyinjectingdye
pyelogram backwardintotheureter
seriousdisorderofchildren,whichoftenoccursafteraviral
Reye'ssyndrome
infection,affectingthebrain,liver,andotherbodyorgans
rhabdomyoma benigntumorofamuscle
rhabdomyosarcom
cancerofamuscle
a
bacterialdiseaseinwhichthereisfeverandinflammation
rheumaticfever
oftheheart,bloodvessels,andjoints
rheumaticheart damagetotheheartcausedbyrheumaticfever,especially
disease deformedheartvalves
substanceinbloodthatismeasuredtocheckfor
rheumatoidfactor
rheumatoidarthritis
rhinitis inflammationofthenose
rhinomycosis fungusinfectioninthenose
rhinoplasty surgerytofixthenose
rhinorrhagia nosebleed
rhinorrhea runnynose
rhizotomy surgerytocutapartanerveroot
rhytidectomy surgerytoremovewrinkles
57


rhytidoplasty surgerytoremovewrinklesfromtheface
rongeur toolusedforcuttinghardtissue,suchasbone

S
largetriangleshapedboneatthebottomofthespinejust
sacrum
abovethetailbone
sagittalplane dividesthebodyintoarightandleftside
saliva liquidinthemouththathelpswithswallowingfoodspit
salivaryglands glandsthatmakesaliva
salpingectomy surgerytoremovetheuterinetube
salpingitis inflammationoftheuterinetubes
salpingooophorecto
surgerytoremoveanovaryanduterinetube
my
salpingocele uterinetubebulgingoutofanabnormalopening
salpingocyesis pregnancygrowingintheuterinetube
surgerytomakeanopeningintoortoopenablockageof
salpingostomy
auterinetube
tubedownwhichtheeggtravelsfromtheovarytothe
salpinx
uterus
sarcoma cancerofconnectivetissuecells
saw toolwithanotchedbladeusedforcutting
itchyskininfectionbyamicroscopicbugcalledamite
scabies
mange
scapule shoulderblade
Schicktest skintestusedtodetectdiphtheria
painrunningdownfromthelowerbacktothebuttocksto
sciatica
thebackorsideoftheleg
scissors toolwithtwosharpbladesusedforcuttingtissue
sclera outerprotectivelayeroftheeye"whitesoftheeyes"
scleralbuckling surgerytofixadetachedretina
scleroderma hardeningandthickeningoftheskin
sclerokeratitis inflammationofthescleraandthecornea

58


softeningofthescleraseeninpatientswithrheumatoid
scleromalacia
arthritis
sclerotomy surgerytocutintothesclera
scoliosis Sshaped(sidetoside)curveofthespine
allergytestperformedbyputtingasmallamountof
scratchtest allergycausingmaterialonsmallskinpatchestoseeifit
causesareaction
scrotum pouchthatholdsthetesticles
sebaceousgland glandthatdischargesoilintotheskin
seborrhea veryoilyskin
sedation calmness
drugusedtorelaxapersonwithoutmakingtheperson
sedative
sleepy
sudden,uncontrolledmusclespasmsandlossof
seizure
consciousnessresultingfromabnormalbrainfunction
selfretaining staysinplacewithoutbeingheld
fluidcontaining,sperm,whichisdischargedfromthe
semen
penisduringtheclimaxofsexualintercourse
semenanalysis testusedtocountandexaminethespermcells
semicircularcanals channelsinthelabyrinthoftheear
valvesthatcontroltheflowofbloodoutoftheheartby
semilunarvalves
openingandclosingwitheachheartbeat
septoplasty surgerytofixthewallinsidethenose
septotomy incisionintothewallinsidethenose
smallgroovesintheedgesortipsoftoolsthathelpto
serrations
holdtissue
serum clearliquidpartofblood
serumbilirubin bloodtestusedtodetectliverdisorder
bloodtestusedtofindouthowmuchcalciumisinthe
serumcalcium
blood
serumcreatine
bloodtestusedtomeasurecreatine
kinase

59


bloodtestusedtodetectthepresenceofcertain
serumenzymetest chemicalsdischargesintothebloodfromdyingheart
muscle
bloodtestusedtomeasuretheamountofphosphorus
serumphosphorus
present
bloodtestusedtomeasuretheamountofendocrine
serumtest.
materialintheblood
sexuallytransmitted
disorderspreadbysexualcontact
disease(STD)
sharp withanedgeortipthatcuts
painful,fluidfilledblisterscausedbyherpesvirus
shingles
infection
artificialornaturalchannelrunningbetweentwoother
shunt
channels
sialolith stoneinasalivaryglandorduct
geneticdefectofhemoglobincausingredbloodcellsto
sicklecellanemia changeshapesymptomsincludepaininthejointsand
stomach,andulcersonthelegs
aneffectofadrugthatisnotrelatedtothereasonthe
sideeffect
drugisused
sigmoidcolon thelowerpartofthecolonjustbeforetherectum
sigmoidoscope toolusedtolookintothesigmoidcolon
testorexperimentinwhichthepersongivingtreatment,
singleblindtrial butnotthepatient,knowswhichtreatmentthepatientis
receiving
sinusotomy incisionintothesinus
sleepapnea breathingproblemswhilesleeping
bulgingoutofapadbetweenbonesofthespine,which
slippeddisk
oftencausespinchednerveroots
thebowelbetweenthestomachandthelargeintestine,
smallintestine
includingtheduodenum,jejunum,andileum
smooth withoutteethorgroovesnotrough
snare toolwithawireloopusedforremovingtissuegrowth
somatic havingtodowiththebody
somatogenic causedbythebody(ratherthanthemind)

60


somatopathy disorderofthebodyasopposedtothemind
amusclecontractionthatproducespainandinterferes
spasm
withuseofthemuscle
testusedtomeasuretheamountofsolidmaterialand
specificgravity
mineralsinaliquid,suchastheurine
toolsusedtostretchandholdopenanopeningintoa
speculum
bodychannel,suchasthenoseorvagina
themalesexcellthatjoinswithafemaleeggtomakea
sperm
zygoteandeventuallyababy
sphygmocardiograph toolusedtorecordarterialbloodpressure
sphygmomanometer toolformeasuringbloodpressure
birthdefectinwhichthespinedoesnotdevelopfullyand
spinabifida
closeup
spaceinsidethespinalcolumnwherethespinalcordis
spinalcavity
found
thecordofnervecellsandnervefibersrunningdownthe
spinalcord
spinethathelpsguidemessagestoandfromthebrain
toolusedtomeasuretheamountofairgoingintoand
spirometer
outofthelungsduringbreathing
spleen largestlymphorganinthebody
splenectomy surgerytoremovethespleen
splenomegaly enlargedspleen
splenopexy surgerytotiedownthespleen
spondylosyndesis fusionofthespine
fluidandmaterialbroughtupfromthelungsand
sputum
windpipeandspitoutthroughthemouth
squamouscell
cancerthatusuallyoccursontheskinorinthelungs
carcinoma
staphylococcus typeofbacteria
stenosis narrowingofachannel
stereotacticbreast biopsyofbreasttissuetakenbyusinga
biopsy threedimensionalbodymaptolocatethetissue
thekillingofalllivinggermsoraprocesstomakeaman
sterilization
orwomannotabletohavechildren

61


sternoclavicular havingtodowiththebreastboneandthecollarbone
sternoid likethebreastbone
sternum breastbone
toolusedtolistentothesoundsmadebytheheart,
stethoscope
lungs,intestines,andotherorgans
stimulant. drugusedtospeedupthecentralnervoussystem
thefirstpartoftheintestinesthatholdsfoodfordigestion
stomach
afteritisswallowed
inflammationinsidethemouththatsometimesoccursas
stomatitis
anallergicreactioncanalsoresultfrominfectionorvirus
stomatogastric themouthandstomach
stool bowelmovementfeces
stoolculture testforbacteriainstool
abnormalpositionoftheeye,asinwalleyeorcrossed
strabismus
eyes
streptococcus typeofbacteria
streptomycin typeofantibiotic
stricture areawhereatubeinthebodyistoonarrow
stye pimpleontheeyelid
subcostal belowtheribs
subcutaneous(SC) undertheskin
subdural belowtheouterlayerofthemeninges
sublingual underthetongue
sublingual givingasubstancebyplacingitunderthetongue(notto
administration beswallowed)(e.g.,nitroglycerin)
submandibular belowthelowerjaw
submaxillary belowtheupperjaw
subscapular belowtheshoulderblade
sulfonamide typeofantibiotic
superficial closetotheoutsideofthebody
superior towardthetopofthebody
supine lyingontheback

62


drugthatisgivenbyputtingitintotherectum,vagina,or
suppository
urethra
suprarenal abovethekidneyorhavingtodowiththeadrenalgland
suprascapular abovetheshoulderblade
sweatglands structuresinandundertheskinthatmakessweat
swimmer'sear inflammationoftheouterearcanal
drugusedtoslowdowntheactionofcertaintypesof
sympatholytic
nerves
drugusedtospeedupheartrate,raisebloodpressure,
sympathomimetic
andopenupairpassages
typeofjointwheretwobonesmeetbutthereisno
symphysis
movement
syncope faintingspell
syndrome setofsignsthathappenatthesametimeinthebody
combinedactionoftwodrugsusedtogetherthatisbetter
synergism
thanusingeachdrugalone
synoviosarcoma cancerofthejoint
syphilis bacterialinfectionspreadbysexualcontact
system havingtodowiththewholebody
chronicdisorderofconnectivetissueinwhichtherecan
systemiclupus
beskinrash,arthritis,kidneyproblems,andanemia,
erythematosus(SLE)
amongotherproblems
thetimewhentheheartcontractstopumpbloodtothe
systole
body

T
tachypnea fastbreathing
tarsalbones anklebones
tarsectomy surgerytoremoveoneormoreoftheanklebones
tendinitis inflammationoftendons
tendon elasticbandthatattachesmuscleateachend
tenodynia paininatendon
tenomyoplasty surgerytostitchtogetherarippedtendon
tenorrhaphy surgerytofixatendonandmuscle

63


tenosynovitis inflammationofcoveringlayeraroundatendon
surgerytocuttendonofaneyemuscletofix
tenotomy
strabismus
testicle oneoftwomalesexglandsthatmakesperm
testicularcarcinoma cancerofthetesticles
testis oneoftwomalesexglandsthatmakesperm
tetany musclecrampscausedbyalowamountofcalcium
tetracycline typeofantibiotic
totallossofmusclemovementandlossoffeelingin
tetraplegia
botharmsandlegs
thoracalgia paininthechestorwallofthechest
thoracentesis usinganeedletoremovefluidfromthechestcavity
spacewheretheheart,lungs,esophagus,trachea,
thoraciccavity
bronchi,andthymusarefound
thoracicvertebrae bonesofthespineinbackofthechest
thoracoscope toolusedtolookintothechestcavity
thoracotomy surgerytocutintothechest
thorax thechest
areabetweenthemouthandesophagusthatperforms
throat
theswallowingaction
aclottingofbloodfactorsthatfrequentlyblocksblood
thrombus
flow
thymectomy surgerytoremovethethymus
thymoma tumorofthethymus
lymphorganinthechest,whichismostactiveat
thymus
puberty,whereatypeoflymphocyteismade
glandintheneckthatmakesthethyroidhormones,
thyroidgland
whichareimportantincontrollingmetabolism
thyroidstimulating
hormonethatmakesthethyroidglandactive
hormone(TSH)
thyroidectomy surgerytoremovethethyroidgland
thyroparathyroidectomy surgerytoremovethethyroidandparathyroidglands
thyrotoxicosis disordercausedbytoomuchthyroidhormone

64


tibia thelargerofthetwolowerlegbonestheshinbone
tinea fungalinfectionofskinringworm
tinnitus ringing,roaring,buzzing,orclickingnoisesintheears
tissue groupofcellsthatworktogether
slowincreaseindrugdosage,guidedbypatient's
titration
responses
decreaseinresponsetoafixeddosageofdrugover
tolerance time,higherandhigherdosesofadrugareneededto
getdesiredeffect
tonometer toolthatmeasurespressureinsidetheeye
tonsil lymphoidtissueinthebackofthemouth
tonsillectomy surgerytoremoveatonsilortonsils
topicalapplication givingamedicationbyputtingitdirectlyontheskin
toxicity anyharmfuleffectofadrugorpoison
surgerythatmakesaplaceforfluidtodrainfromthe
trabeculectomy
eye,reducingeyepressureinpatientswithglaucoma
trachea windpipe
tracheitis inflammationofthewindpipe
trachelocystitis inflammationoftheneckoftheurinarybladder
tracheoplasty surgerytofixthewindpipe
surgerytomakeaholethroughtheneckfromthe
tracheostomy
windpipetotheoutsideofthebody
tranquilizer drugusedtocontrolanxiety
transdermal throughtheskin
patchcontainingadrugthatisputontheskinsothe
transdermalpatch
drugwillenterthebodythroughtheskin
transientischemic suddenlossofbloodflowtothebrainthatlastsfora
attack(TIA) fewminutestoanhourbuthasnolastingeffect
ultrasonographyoftheorgansinthestomachdone
transrectalultrasound
usingaprobeintherectum
transverseplane dividesthebodytomakeatopandbottom
traumatic causingdamage,likeatoolusedtocrushtissue
treadmillstresstest testusedtodetermineheartfunction

65


trichomoniasis parasiteinfectionthatisspreadbysexualcontact
trichomycosis fungusinfectioninthehair
avalveintheheartthatcontrolstheflowofbloodby
tricuspidvalve
openingandclosingwitheachheartbeat
surgerytoclosetheuterinetubestoprevent
tuballigation
pregnancy
tuberculin substanceusedinskinteststotestfortuberculosis
bacterialinfectionthatusuallyresultsinaseriouslung
tuberculosis
disorder
tympanicmembrane eardrum
tympanitis inflammationoftheeardrum
tympanometer toolusedtofixtheeardrum
tympanoplasty surgerytofixtheeardrumandbonesofthemiddleear

ulcer sore
ulcerativecolitis soresinthecolon
ulna oneofthetwolowerarmbones
makingapictureofinternalorgansbybouncingsound
ultrasonography.
wavesoffthemandrecordingtheechoes
makingapictureofinternalorgansbybouncingsound
ultrasound
wavesoffthemandrecordingtheechoes
umbilicalregion areaaroundthenaval
umbilicus navelbellybutton
unconscious notawakeandnotawareknockedout
ungual havingtodowiththenails
unilateral havingtodowithonlyonesideofastructure
upperGI xrayusingadyetoshowtheupperpartofthe
(gastrointestinal)series digestivesystem
upperrespiratory
acoldorflu
infection(URI)
buildupofpoisonsintheblood,usuallybecauseof
uremia
kidneyfailure

66


tubethatcarriesurinefromakidneytotheurinary
ureter
bladder
ureterectomy surgerytoremoveallorpartofaureter
ureteritis inflammationoftheureter
bulgingofauretertakenafterputtingadyeinitto
ureterocele
outlineit
xrayofauretertakenafterputtingadyeinitto
urethrogram
outlineit
ureterolithiasis stonesintheureter
ureterostenosis narrowareainaureter
ureterostomy surgerytomakeanopeningintoaureter
ureterotomy surgerytocutintoaureter
tubethatcarriesurinefromtheurinarybladdertothe
urethra
outsideofthebody
urethritis inflammationoftheurethra
urethrocystitis inflammationoftheurethra
urethrometer toolusedtomeasuretheurethra
urethropexy surgerytotiedowntheurethra
urethroplasty surgerytofixtheurethra
surgerytomakeanopeningfromtheurethratothe
urethrostomy
outsideofthebody
bloodtestusedtomeasuretheamountofuricacidin
uricacidtest
theblood
urinal containerthatholdsurine
urinalysis seriesoftestsdoneonurine
urinary havingtodowithurine
urinarybladder sackthatholdsurinebeforeitleavesthebody
passingatubeintotheurinarybladdertoremove
urinarycatheterization
urine
urinaryretention abnormalholdingofurine
urinarysuppression notabletodischargeurine
allthestructuresthatmakeandpassurine,including
urinarytract
thekidneys,ureters,urinarybladder,andurethra

67


urinarytractinfection
infectionoftheurinarysystem
(UTI)
urination theactofpassingurine
urine paleyellowliquidwastematerialandsediment
urinetesttocheckminerallevelsandsedimentinthe
urinecastsandcrystals urineandtocheckforinfectionorinflammationinthe
urinarytract
urinecolor normalcolorforurineisstrawyellow
urinetesttofindoutthechemicalmakeupofurine
urinepH
(acidity)
urinetestusedtomeasurehowmuchproteinisinthe
urineprotein
urine
urinometer toolusedtomeasurethespecificgravityofurine
urodynamics theforceandflowofurine
doctorwhotreatsdisordersoftheurinarytractofmen
urologist
andwomenandthegenitaltractofmen
urticaria hives
tubedownwhichtheeggtravelsfromtheovarytothe
uterinetube
uterus
uterus organwheretheunbornbabydevelopsandgrows
vshapedtissuethathangsfromtheroofofthebackof
uvula
themouth
uvulectomy surgerytoremovetheuvula
uvulitis inflammationoftheuvula

V
vagina tubethatconnectstheuterustotheoutsideofthebody
vaginitis inflammationofthevagina
vaginodynia paininthevagina
vaginoperineorrhgaphy surgerytofixtearsinthevaginaandvaginalareas
vaginoplasty surgerytofixthevagina
surgerytocutthevagusnerveornerves,usuallydone
vagotomy
toslowdownthemakingofstomachacid
varicoseveins twistedandbulgingveinsthatarelargerthannormal

68


vasdeferens tubethatcarriesspermoutofthetesticle
surgerytocutoutpartoralloftheductus
vasectomy deferensdonetomakeamannotableproduce
children
drugusedtomakebloodvesselstightenupand
vasoconstrictor
becomenarrower
drugusedtomakebloodvesselsopenupandbecome
vasodilator
bigger
surgerytoundoavasectomybyconnectingupthe
vasovasostomy ductusdeferensagaindonetomakeamanableto
producechildrenagain
VDRLtest bloodtestusedtodetectsyphilis
thetypeofbloodvesselthatcarriesbloodbacktothe
vein
heartfromtherestofthebody
veinligationand
surgerytoremovetwisted(varicose)veinsinthelegs
stripping
venacava largestveininthebody
venipuncture puttinganeedleintoavein
venogram. xrayofavein
ventilator machineusedtohelpapersonbreathe
ventral towardorhavingtodowiththefrontofthebody
smallspace,suchasoneofseveralthatholdspinal
ventricle fluidinsidethebrainandthetwolowerchambersofthe
heart
venule littlevein
verruca wart
vertebra oneofthe33bonesinthespine
vertebralcolumn thespine
vertebrocostal havingtodowithavertebraandarib
vertigo lightheadednessdizziness
vesicle blister
vesicourethral havingtodowiththeurethraandthebladder
vesicovaginalfistula abnormalopeningbetweenthebladderandvagina
viral havingtodowithavirus
69


virus tinytypeofgene
visceral havingtodowiththeinternalorgans
vitreousbody jellylikeliquidfoundinthebackchamberoftheeye
void urinate
volvulus twistingoftheintestinescausingablockage
vomit matterdischargedfromthestomachoutofthemouth
vulva thetissuesaroundtheopeningtothevagina
vulvectomy surgerytoremovethevulva
vulvovaginal havingtodowiththevaginaandvulva
vulvovaginitis inflammationofthevaginaandvulva

wheal hivewelt
oneofseveraltypesofinfectionfightingcellsinthe
whitebloodcell(WBC)
bloodandbodytissues
bloodtesttofindoutthetypesandnumbersofmature
whitebloodcell
andimmatureformsofwhitebloodcellsthatareinthe
differential
blood
whitecellcount numberofwhitebloodcellsintheblood
whoopingcough bacterialinfection,usuallyseeninyoungchildren,in
(pertussis) whichthereisaserious,loud,drycough
withdraw,discontinue stoptakingpart

xanthochromic havingayellowcolor
xanthoderma yellowcolortotheskin
xanthosis yellowcolor
xeroderma dryskin
xeroma abnormallydrymembranesoftheeye
abnormaldrynessofmembranesoftheeyedueto
vitaminAdeficiencysymptomsmaybeginintheform
xerophthalmia
ofnightblindness,andtheybecomeprogressively
worse

70


drynessofthemouthduetodysfunctionofthesalivary
xerostomia
gland
xiphoidprocess lowerpartofthebreastbone

thecellmadebyjoiningofthefemaleeggandmale
zygote
spermatthebeginningofpregnancy

71