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Dr. Jose P.

Rizal
(1861-1896)
The Philippines' national hero. Born in Calamba, Laguna, on June 19, 1861. Published his
masterpiece Noli Me Tangere in Berlin(Germany) in 1887 and his second novel El Filibusterismo in
Ghent(Belgium) in 1891. His two novels stirred the conscience of his people. He contributed various
literary works to La Solidaridad. For his leadership in the reform movement and for his incendiary novels,
Rizal was arrested and later killed by musketry in Bagumbayan, Manila, on December 30, 1896. His
execution was the last straw for other Filipinos who called for a bloody revolution against Spain.

General Gregorio del Pilar


(1875-1899)
Hero of Tirad Pass. Born on November 14, 1875, in Bulacan, Bulacan. Died on December 2, 1899, in
the battle of Tirad Pass, to enable Aguinaldo to escape from the Americans. One of the youngest and
bravest generals ever produced by the Philippines.

Andres Bonifacio
(1863-1897)
He founded the secret society, Katipunan, on July 7, 1892, to fight Spain. He was also president of the
Tagalog republic from August 24, 1896 to May 10, 1897. Born in Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863.
He grew up in the slums and never knew the benefits of a prosperous life. He married Gregoria de Jesus
in 1892. He was killed on May 10, 1897, near Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.

General Emilio Aguinaldo


(1899-1964)
He officially proclaimed the Philippine independence in Malolos, Bulacan, on January 23, 1899, with him
as the first president. It was the first republic in Asia. Born in Kawit, Cavite, on March 22, 1869. Died at
the Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City, on February 6, 1964.

Apolinario Mabini
(1864-1903)
Sublime paralytic and the brain of the revolution. Born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas, on June 22, 1864.
He joined La Liga Filipina in 1892 and Aguinaldo's revolutionary government from June 1898 to May
1899. He was captured by the American forces in December 1899 and deported to Guam in January
1901. He died in Manila on May 13, 1903.

GOMBURZA
Three intellectuals who crusaded for reform. Father Jose Burgos Killed by garrote in Bagumbayan,
Manila on February 17, 1872, for allegedly instigating the Cavite mutiny.

Emilio Jacinto
(1875-1899)
Brain of the Katipunan. Born in Trozo, Manila, on December 15, 1875. He joined the
Katipunan in 1894 and became Bonifacio's trusted friend and advicer. He wrote the Kartilya ng
Katipunan, theprimer of the Katipunan which embodied the teachings of the organization. He
founded and edited the Katipunan newspaper; Kalayaan, whose first issue came out in January
1896. Died on April 16, 1899. He was one of the heroic figures in the Phillipine history.

General Antonio Luna


(1866-1899)
The greates general of the revolution. Younger brother of juan Luna, the famous painter. Editor
o La Independencia, whose first issue came out on September 3, 1898. Born in Binon, Manila,
on October 29, 1866. He was one of the propagandists in Spain who were working for
piliticalreforms in the Philippines. He contributed articles to La Solidaridad. He assassinated in
Cabanatuan City, on June 5, 2899.

Melchora Aquino
(1812-1919)
B etter known as Tandang Sora. Born in Banlat, Kalookan City, on January 6, 1812. She helped the
Katipuneros under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio by providing them food, shelter, and other material
goods. She is recognized as the Grand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak. She died
on March 12, 1919.

Graciano Lopez-Jaena
(1856-1896)
Founder and first editor of the newspaper La Solidaridad, which became the vehicle of expression for
Filipino propaganda in Spain. Together wtih Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar, he undertook
propaganda campaigns in Spain. Born in Jaro, Iloilo, on December 18, 1856. He died on January 20,
1896, in Barcelona, Spain.

Panday Pira
(1483-1576)
First Filipino cannon-maker. He forged the cannons which Rajah Sulayman used in defending the
Muslim Kingdom of Manila against the Spanish invaders. Born in one of the islands in Southern
Philippines in 1483. He died in 1576.

Mariano Ponce
(1863-1918)
Researcher, historian, bibliographer, propagandist, diplomat, physician, folklorist, and an outstanding
reformist. Born in Baliwag, Bulacan, on March 23, 1863. While in Spain, he joined the propaganda
movement and became one of the initiators of La Solidaridad, later becoming its managing editor. Died in
HongKong on May 23, 1918.

Gregoria de Jesus
(1875-1943)
One of the brave and patriotic women who played a heroic role in the Philippine revolution. Born in
Kalookan City, on May 9, 1875. Wife of Andres Bonifacio and Lakambini of the Katipunan. She actually
fought alongside her husband during the revolution, aside from being the custodian of the Katipunan
documents. She organized the Katipunan's Women Chapter. She died on March 15, 1943.

Fernando Ma. Guerrero


(1873-1890)
Musician, journalist, politician, and lawyer. Considered the greatest lyric poet in Spanish. Born in Ermita,
Manila, on May 30, 1873. When the revolution broke out, General Antonio Luna invited him to join the
editorial staff of La Independencia, the organ of the revolution. Thus, he fought for the Filipino cause with
his pen. Died in Manila June 12, 1929.
Felipe Agoncillo
(1859-1941)
Outstanding diplomat of the Philippine revolution. Born in Taal, Batangas, on May 26, 1859. Gen. Emilio
Aguinaldo appointed him as Minister Plenipotentiary to the peace conference in Washington and Paris.
Died on September 29, 1941, at the Manila Doctor's Hospital.

Juan Luna
(1857-1899)
A genius of the brush and a patriot of the highest order. Creator of the world-famous painting,
SPOLARIUM, which was awarded the gold medal in the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in
1884. It is also known as the greatest painting of all times. Born in Badoc, Ilocos, Norte, on October 23,
1857. He was closely associated with the Reform Movement, together with Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, Ponce,
etc. He died in Hongkong on December 7, 1899.

Rafael Palma
(1874-1939)
Orator, statesman, scholar, educator, and writer. Born in Tondo, Manila, on October 24, 1874. He was
involved in the propaganda campaign against the Spaniards. He cofounded with Gen. Antonio Luna the
revolutionary newspaper, La Independencia. Later, he also founded El Nuevo Dia, Cebu's first daily. Died
in Manila on May 24, 1939.

Marcelo H. Del Pilar


(1850-1896)
Political analyst of the Filipino colony in Spain. Born in Kupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, on August 30, 1850.
In 1882, he founded the nationalistic newspaper, Diariong Tagalog. In December 1889, he became the
editor of La Solidaridad and became the moving spirit behind the propaganda movement. Died on July 4,
1896.

Pedro Paterno
(1858-1911)
Statesman, poet, writer, and peacemaker. Born in Manila on February 27, 1858. He was the
negotiator/mediator of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. He helped prepare the Malolos constitution. Died on April
26, 1911.

Leona Florentino
(1849-1884)
First poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, on April 19, 1849. Her poems were given
international recognition at the Exposicion in Madrid in 1887 and in Paris in 1889. Died on October 4,
1884.

Isabelo delos Reyes


(1864-1938)
Last of the propagandists. Gifted son of Leona Florentino, first poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan,
Ilocos Sur, on July 7, 1864. He aroused the hostility of the friars and government officials when he openly
criticized the evils of the Spanish rule and he advocated reforms. He was the founder of the first
Philippine labor union, as well as the first independent Filipino Catholic church. Died on October 9, 1938.

Artemio Ricarte
(1866-1945)
The unconquerable hero of the revolution. Born in Batac, Ilocos Norte, on October 20, 1866. Known as
Viborra, he was a gentle public school teacher who became a dashing revolutionary general. Died in the
jungles of Sierra Madre on July 31, 1945.

Jose Palma
(1876-1903)
Poet and soldier. Born in Tondo, Manila, on June 3, 1876. Younger brother of Dr. Rafael Palma. He was
a staff member of La Independencia. He wrote Filipinas, a patriotic poem in Spanish, which became the
lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. Died in Manila, on February 12, 1903.

Rajah Lakandola
( -1575)
One of the most illustrious ancient Filipinos. Chief of Tondo, when Legazpi came to Manila in 1571. He
became a Christian and took the name of Carlos, after the king of Spain. He made the blood compact
with Goiti. He fought alongside the Spaniards against the Chinese pirate, Limahong. Died in 1575.

Rajah Soliman
( -1571)
The last rajah of Manila, noted for his daring and bravery. Nephew of Rajah Lakandola. Of all of the early
rulers of Manila, he was feared most by the Spaniards. He was killed on June 3, 1571, in the Battle of
Bangkusay.

Jose Ma. Panganiban


(1863-1890)
Avenger of Filipino honor. Born in Mambulao, Camarines Norte, on February 1, 1863. A good friend and
co-worker of Rizal. He was Bicolandia's greatest contribution to the historic campaign for reforms, more
popularly called the Propaganda Movement. He wrote articles for La Solidaridad, under the pen names
Jomapa and J.M.P. Died in Barcelona, Spain, on August 19, 1890.

Diego Silang
(1730-1763)
He led the revolt of the Ilocanos in opposition to the tribute and abuses of the Spanish officials. Born in
Aringay, La Union, on December 16, 1730. The revolt started in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. He was killed by
Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo who bore grievances against Diego Silang.

Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang


After the death of Diego Silang on May 28, 1763, the fight was carried on by his wife, MARIA JOSEFA
GABRIELA SILANG, and his uncle, Nicolas Cario. She too lost her life for freedom's sake on September
30, 1763.

Lapu-Lapu
(c. 16th century)
Chief of Mactan who led the first successful Filipino armed resistance against Spanish aggression. He
fought and killed Magellan in a battle in Mactan, on April 27, 1521.

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