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2010
621.92
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1780-
.
http://leidykla.vgtu.lt

ISBN 978-9955-28-643-1
doi: 10.3846/1780-

. , . , . , . , 2010
. , 2010
3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.1. . , , . 41
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.3.2. . . . . 52
2.4. ,
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.5.
. . . . . . . . . 71

3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.1. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
4

4.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.4.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.4.3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.5.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.5.3. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.6.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.6.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
4.9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
4.9.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
4.9.2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
4.10.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
4.10.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
4.10.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5

5.2.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.2.3. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.2.4.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
5.2.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 201
5.2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
5.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
5.4.
. . . . 209
5.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
5.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
6.1. . . . . . . . . . 234
6.1.1. . . . . . 234
6.1.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
6.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
6.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
6.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
6.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
6.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
6.5. ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
6

7.3. 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
7.4. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
7.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
7.8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
7.9.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
7.9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
7.9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

SANTRAUKA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
7


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30 1

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(Piyaprasit 2005) = maxc(Ks+ c), h1, (1.3)
31

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32 1

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33

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34 1

. 1.19.

(. 1.19).
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-

(Lu etal. 2000; 2002; Cox, Deshusses 2002).

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, (Chang, Lu 2003;
Liu etal. 2007). -
35

.

(. 1.21). ,
, -
. -
(Jantschak etal. 2004).
( 2000 /3)
(Sercu etal. 2006; Liu etal. 2007).

) )

CO2

CO2


H2 O

H2 O


O2

O2

O2

2
O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O2 O O2
2


O2

O2

O2

)
. 1.20. - /

: a) -
10,7

C, )-


, ) 300
(Studer,
Rohr 2008)



. 1.21. -
(Jantschak etal. 2004)
36 1

.
- (0,05 /)
, . -
. ,
0,30,8
, . (Cox,
Deshusses 2002; Deshusses, Cox 1999; Piyaprasit 2005).
(. 1.22) -
, , ,
. , ,
8090% , .

, . -
, , ,
, ,
.
: , -
. -
, .
25 .
.
,
5001000/2.
. -
, .
, 4060%.
, , , ,
-
. , . -

. 1.22. (Piyaprasit 2005)


37

, , , -
. ,
, ,
. -
, , -
(Piyaprasit 2005).
-
-
. , .


. . -
, . 1.23, -
,
95%. .
, -
. , . 1.22
1.23, , , -
.
0,8 , -
. -
,
(Delhomenie etal. 2002).
-
, , .
. -

: -

. 1.23. (Piyaprasit 2005)


38 1

, . Bacillus stearothermophilus
, -
(Ruokojarvi etal. 2001). ,
-
, ( ) -
, .
(Li etal. 2003; Ruokojarvi etal. 2001; Sercu etal.
2005). -
.
(. 1.24, 1.25).
, . 1.24, 4
, -
. , ,
.
, -
.
,
. -
(Zigmontiene,
Vaiskunaite 2005).
. 1.25 -
. ,
. -
.

400 /3 7000 /3.
, 5 /3,
.

. 1.24. -

(Piyaprasit etal. 2005)
39

7 8

. 1.25. : 1 1
; 2 ; 3 3
; 4 - 2
; 5 , - 4
; 6
; 7- 5
; 8 - 6
; 9
( ... 2006) 9

, -
, 18C
35C. 28C. -
, ,
1200 a,
, 60%- . -
.
7500 3/.
,
0,5/,
7085%. -
, -, , ,

( ... 2006).
, , -
(Shim etal. 2006)).

. 1.26.
40 1

-
(. 1.26).
,

. ,
. -
.
, -
, .
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
, , , .
2
.

2.1. .
, ,
-
.
, ,
, , , -
.

.
-
. 2.1,
, -
.
. 2.2 2.3.
, , -
, , -
,
( ).
,
. -
. -
, -
.
.

, -
,
42 2

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9

10 11

. 2.1. : 1 ; 2 ; 3
; 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7
; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ;
11

. 2.2.
. ... 43

. 2.3.

. -
:
( ) , 3/3;
S. , 2/3.
:
= 1 ( /), (2.1)
: ; -
.
-
:
S. = S1.(1 ), (2.2)
S1 .
, d:

(2.3)

d :

(2.4)


(. 2.4).
. 2.52.8.
44 2

. 2.4.


z z

A A

H
y x
h = 2r


AA


y
x

. 2.5.


A z A z A
H

y x
h


AA

2r
x

. 2.6.
. ... 45

z
A A z

y x

H

AA

y h

2r
. 2.7.
x

z z

A A
h

y x


AA

h
y
. 2.8. 2r

-
d (
). -
S. :

(2.5)

46 2

-
.
:

(2.6)

V ; F .

2.2.

-
, -
, , -
.
,
, .

. 2.9.
-
. 2.10.

, .

.
, ,
Silcarbon Aktivkohle GmbH,
. 2.11.

. 2.9.
. ... 47

1 2

. 2.10. :
1 ; 2

. 2.11. -
-
Silcarbon Aktivkohle GmbH

-
.
. (2009).
, -
ZEE (), -
.
,
, , ,
. -
, , ,
, , , . ZEE
:
, 6,43,2 ;
960/3;
1200 2/ ( );
40 90 ;
0,5/ 60 /25 .
ZEE
, , -
.
48 2

-
:
;
.
1,5 5,0
(. 2.1).
-
2.2.

2.1. (1984)


()
,
..
/3 , ,
3/ 2/
1 - 1 0,42 1,10 300
2 2 0,380,45 1,051,25 300350
3 2,5 0,440,49 0,901,10 350450
4 - 3 0,50,55 0,760,85 500600
5 4 0,560,65 0,610,75 550650
6 - 5 0,650,75 0,460,60 580680
7 6 0,8 0,250,45 400550
8 6 0,8 0,250,38 600750

2.2. ,
(1984) (1987)

,
, ,
.. 3/3
, /3 , 2/3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 - 499 0,0012 0,386 1268
,
d.= 3,32
-2
2 , 743 0,52 1140

35
3 -3 , 450
1,52,7
4 -5 , 450
11,5
. ... 49

2.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
5 - , 450
15

6 , 400
15
7 - , 380
13,5

-3
8 - , 430
13,5

-4
9 - 0,6 470


-6
10 , 450
15


,
2.3.
2.4.

2.3.


, , ,
..
d/l, / 2/ 3/
1 -1 4/6 400550 180220 0,81,0
2 5/25
3 -2 5/25 550750
4 -15 2,6/3,0 60050 200 0,7
5 3/7
6 -64 1,5/2,0 60050 200 0,7
7 3/7
8 4,5/3,5 610630 200170
9 2,8/3,5 610630 200170
10 -64 4/5 600700 200 0,6
11 4/7
50 2

2.4. ,

-
,
, - - -

.. , , ,
,
/ 2/ 3/
1 417; 830 300 0,47
, ;
1,6; 2,4;
3,2; 4,0
2 403; 816840 300350 0,50,65
, ;
2,04,0
3,77,0
3 , 1-0104; 815 90 0,280,33
; 3,2

4 -201; 720 380 0,51
, ;
0,66,0
5 RA-320; 760840 210240 0,20,25
,



6 , F-1, F-3; 830 210
; 712
, F-7; ; 875 210
0,05
, -20; ; 1080 210
0,170,075
, -151; 810 390
;
3,06,0

2.3.

2.3.1.
-
, -

. -
. ... 51

, . -

(. . 2.12).
-
,
( . 2009) 95
1,6 , 2.5.
) ) ) ) )

. 2.12. : ) ; ) -
; )
,
; ), )

2.5.
,


, 3/3

, 2/3
,


..

/3

1 R 14,5 11,40 6,20 0,91 0,507 327


2 4 13,39 14,90 14,99 3,03 0,98 0,444 471
3 4t 12,60 16,70 14,75 3,40 0,76 0,569 490
4 C7 16,30 14,0 10,30 3,0 0,89 0,515 425
5 C7 18,70 15,70 11,50 3,9 0,85 0,523 339

-
-8 ( 1987)
, 2.6.

2.6. -8
,
,
, 3 3
/
, /3 S., 2/3
1800 0,35 590
-8 65,9
52 2

2.3.2.


NOx ( SCR)
, .
SCR , :
,
.
;
22 .
, -
-
100
1 2;
, -
. -
, .
DNX . 2.13. . 2.14 -

150150 (
1200 ) -
450650 , 470470. -

,
.

950
950
1000
1300

. 2.13. DNX . 2.14. -


/

. ... 53

) )
950
950

470
470

1140
650

1300
. 2.15. () ()

(. 2.15)
SCR, -
.

, , / (-
), ( 2001) 2.7.

2.7. /

DNX 13 DNX 15 DNX 16
DNX 23 DNX 25 DNX 26
, 3,1 4,6 6,4
, % 61 66 73
, 2/3 770 580 455
, 55 49 42


-
. DNX1
, ,
DNX2 .
(. 2.8).
54 2

2.8.
/

, ,
-
, , 3
B 774 946 1398 6 123 0,651 265 355
C 1302 946 1398 12 223 1,303 530 710
D 744 946 932 4 122 0,434 180 240
E 1302 946 932 8 222 0,869 353 469
F 744 946 1864 8 124 0,869 353 469
G 1302 946 1864 16 224 1,737 710 940

-
. , 7,4/440
, ( ) 7,4 , -
440 2/3.
.
2.9 -
.

2.9.
,

3,3 3,7 4,2 4,5 5,0 6,0 6,7 7,0 7,4
, 150150
, . 4545 4040 3535 3333 3030 2525 2222 2121 2020
500 600 750 750 750 750 1000 1000 1000
,
1,0 1,15 1,35 1,3 1,3 1,4 1,3 1,8 1,3
,
0,65 0,7 0,78 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,15
,
2,65 3,01 3,45 3,5 3,95 4,93 5,7 6,1 6,23
,
, 3,3 3,71 4,23 4,5 4,95 5,93 6,7 7,1 7,38
, % 63,2 64,4 64 59,3 62,4 67,5 69,9 71,0 693
954 856 751 678 632 548 490 478 443

, 2/3
. ... 55

, :
, 410,
, 1,52,
, 464464(650),
, 2/3 250500,
, % 6075,
, 470470.
-
, , -
-
-
.
-

( 2001).
, -
,
2 /3.
-
, .
,
2.10.

2.10.
( 150150 , 1000 )



, 6,2 5,0 3,4
, 1,2 1,0 0,8
, . 2020 2525 3535
, 2/3 443 548 751

-
: 1550 /3;
515 /3 ;
150 /3.
-
2.11.
56 2

2.11.

, - ,
, ,
/3
, 2/3 %
-20/8-1 150150 380 0,65
7,47,4
-20/8-2 150150 580 0,65
4,24,2
-20/9 7575 320 0,65
7,47,4
7575 480
4,04,0
-94 7575 640 64 0,68
5,05,0
150150 430 57 0,84
-1 7,27,2
9393 325 57 0,55
6,06,0
-337 5555 389 58 0,92
4,04,0
150150 360 63 0,78
-2 7,07,0
150150 470 71 0,60
-3 6,06,0
150150 613 63 0,70
-4 4,14,1

0,50,7 /3, -
20
0,7 . ,
1 NOx, 400 ,
SO2 2% (370 ).

2.4. ,
,
-
. -
. -
, , -
. ... 57

( ), -
(Chan 2006).
, , ,
(Mohseni, Allen 2000). -
(Vaiknait 2004a). -
.

. :
, -
; -
; ,
; ;
-
; (Wani etal. 1998;
Shareefdeen etal. 2003).
(Oh, Choi 2000; Zilli etal. 2001),
, (Delhomenie etal. 2002; Gnther 2005). ,

9799% (Hartikainen etal. 2002). -
(Hartikainen etal.
2002). , ,
, (Shareefdeen etal. 2003; Zigmontien
2007).
.
35 (Tymczyna etal. 2004). -
,
. -

, , , ,
. (Yamamoto etal. 2005; Aizpuru etal. 2003). -

. -

(Deshusses, Johnson 1999; Sheridan etal. 2002).

(. 2.16). -
-
(Chitwood, Devinny 2001).
, , -
, -
. -
58 2

. 2.16. ,
(Chitwood, Devinny 2001; Park 2004; Biofilters ... 2009)

. ,
, -
, -
.
1 105 a.
-
. -
, (Al,Si)O4,
SiO2:Al2O3. -
,
(Baltrnas, Paliulis 2002; Cheng, Reinhard 2006).
A, X, Y, K,
L, P . ( ,
).
. ... 59

, . . n (n= SiO2/Al2O3),
(Baltrnas, Paliulis 2002) :
n= 1,82,0, 0,5 ,
n= 2,23,0, 1,0 ,
Y n= 3,06,0, 1,0 .

:
XM2O(1 X)MOAl2O3nSiO2mH2O, (2.7)
X ; M ; n SiO2,
m (n 2 12).
, , -
, ,
, -
(10150C).
.
-
, .
, -
( 600800 2/), ,
.
, , -
,
. -
-
(, , ).
,
.
-
. , -
. -
-
, (Lakova etal. 2007).
-

, . -
, , ,
.
.
60 2

(. 2.17). -
. .
Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Mycobacterium,
Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Streptococcus , -
(Malhautier etal. 2005; Tymczyna etal. 2004; Kiared etal.
1997). 70
(Jankeviius, Liuinas 2003).

Pseudomonas aeruinosa Micrococcus mucilaginosis Rhodococcus sp.

. 2.17. ,
(Pseudomonas ... 2006; Micrococcus ... 2006; Rhodococcus ... 2006)

Pseudomonas , -
, (, ).
, -
( ) (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida), (Pseudomonas
aeruinosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Tekorien, Lugauskas 2001).
Rhodococcus , -
.
. .
Rhodococcus -
, ,
. , ,
,
, ., Pseudomonas (Amanullah
etal. 2000; Jankeviius, Liuinas 2003).
, -
.
Fusarium (Arriaga etal. 2006), Pencillium, Aspergillus,
Cladosporium, Alternaria, Botrytis, Mucor (Jankeviius, Liuinas 2003).
. ... 61

, ,
Rhodotorula, Candida, Trichosporius, Pichia, Debaryomyces.
Candida.
C. Maltosa, C. Intermedia, C. Rugosa, C.
Tropicalis, C. Parapsilosis.
, -
, , -
.
, ., Nutrient Agaras
(Delhomenie etal. 2001), -
, -
.
(Jankeviius, Liuinas 2003).
,
,
, (Devinny etal. 1999; Iliuta etal.
2005).
, -
, , , -
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).
. , -
. ,
. 75% ( ) -
. ,
80100%. -
, ,
.
,
. ,
.

(CO2) , .
1 1,5 .
, -
. -
4070% (Jankeviius, Liuinas
2003; Yamamoto etal. 2005; Ottengraf, Konings 1991).
( 2.12).
62 2

2.12.
, ,

% %
2550 55

2040 5373

6570


6070 2550

4070 5055

1020 45

, -
, ,
. ,
2030%,
1117 %.
, -
. -
.
,
, , . -
730C.

, (Lim etal. 2005).
1020. -

, -
2045 C (Darlington
etal. 2001; Jin etal. 2007; Yamamoto etal. 2005). -
4575C (Dhamwichukorn etal.
2001; Kong etal. 2001; Van Liere, Van Groenestijn 2003).
(99%)
, .
. ... 63

53C (
) 60C ( ) (Cox etal. 2001; Kong etal. 2001).
. -
(0,53%) . -
6%-,
14%- (Cox etal. 2001).
,
, -
, (pH),
-, . -
, , ,
, . -
, -
, .
, ,
. Pseudomonas cepacia
100 .
, -
, pH. -
.
,
, (pH) -
68 (MacNevin, Barford 2001). , -
,
(pH= 7).

. , -
. ,
, , , -
.
.
. . -
-
.
, , , , -
(MacNevin, Barford 2001).
. -
, -
, ,
. -
64 2

, ,
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).

, , , -
.
( 23 ) -
. -
, 530 ,
.
. -
,
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).
, -
, :
, ,
;
,
;
-
;
-
;
-
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).
-
, . -
. ,
, -
,
( .), , -
. . ,

(Baltrnas etal. 2004).
-
. -
, .
(110 /). -
, -
. (Kennes,
Thalasso 1998).
. ... 65

1 2 3

-
-
,
.
,
,
. . 2.18 . 2.18. :
- 1 ; 2 ;
3
, .
-
, , , ,
, .

. ,
, .
.
. -
-
.
2533%, 40%.
, . -
,
,
, .
, , -
.
13 . , ,
, 8590% (
) (Jang etal. 2004).
-
.
. -
.
,
(. 2.19, ). -
, .
, . . , ,
-
. ,
66 2

) ) )

. 2.19. a: ) ; ) ; )

: -
, ,
.
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).
(), , -
-
. , 14 -
- 814.
( 89%)
, ( 76%) , ,
(37%).
,
(
20% 15%). , ,
, . , -
,
. , -
, -
. ,
, -
,
(Air ... 2009).

: 60% -
, 69% H2S 61% NH3. -
. 12-
80%. ,

: 48 60%,
812 70% (Aizpuru etal. 2003).
. ... 67


. -
-
. , 71%
.
, H2S
NH3 (. 2.19, ) (Engesser, Plaggemeier 2000).

. -
, , , , .

, , , .
(. 2.20, ) (Baltrnas etal. 2004).
.
, , pH
. -
, - -
.
, (
) (Baltrnas etal. 2004).

Pseudomonas 38%, Aerobacter 17%, Flavobacter 12%, Achromobacter
12%. ,
, 1 30
. / c/. -
, ,
, pH , (Baltrnas
etal. 2004). -
,
, -
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).

) )

. 2.20. : ) Aerobacter
; )
68 2

, -
, .
, -
7085% (Baltrnas etal. 2004).
.
,
, -
. .

22,4 (Baltrnas etal. 2004).

: . -
, .
, 40% ,
50% . ,
. , -
, , ,
.

C, N, P. .
H, K, Ca, S, Mg . -

(Fe, B, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Co) (Baltrnas etal. 2004).
, -
,
,
.
2.13 -
: , , ,
(Leson, Winer 1991).
. -

, . -
(Baltrnas
etal. 2004).
. 2.13 , -
.

, . ,
, ,
. ... 69

2.13.




()


(Baltrnas etal. 2004). , -


, , , .
(. 2.21, ) 60300
. ,

, .
.

. , -
.
(Amanullah etal. 1999).

. . -
, .
, ,
. ,
, , , -
(Amanullah etal. 1999).

) ) )

. 2.21. : ) ; ) ; )

70 2

2003 . - -
() .
, , 2,46,0 ,
0,69/c3, 50,5% 66,8%. -
pH, 6,97,2.
99%-
(Amanullah
etal. 2000).
,

.
. ,
, (. 2.22, ) (Angerer 1999).
, 26%
. (870C)
, , -
20 , ,
.
, ,
32240/3.
.

, , , ,
(. 2.22, ).
, -
, ,
, .
-

) ) )

. 2.22. : ) ; ) ( ); )

. ... 71

-
.
, , -
, (Biofilter ... 2006). -
, , 99% , -
(. 2.22, ) (Amanullah etal. 1999).

2.5.


-
, , .
,
.
-
, , -
.
,
, , ZeoVit . -

. -

.
. 2.23.

. 2.23.
72 2


, 500 /3.
( 500 /3) -
.
(. 2.24)
1,900,7552,20
, 0,850,650,15 .
1000 3/. -
, -
: 4060%,
30C, pH= 7.
-
, , .
,
,
. -
, .
, -
. ,
,

) )

. 2.24. : a) ,
) , )
. ... 73

(
100%),
.

-
. ,
, -
, -
20C 35C. -
,
.
.
. -

, . -
-
, . -
,
.
,
100% .

. ,

. -

.
. ,
. . -
.
-
, , -
().
. , ,
. .
, -
. ,

.
74 2

- (. 2.25)

, -
.
, -
.
, -
.
-
, -
.
(20%), (6090%).
, -
,
, .
,
.
, -
, ,
.
,
. , -
. -
-
, .

8 9


7
15 10

6 16

11

5 18 17

4
12
3
13
H2O
H2O
14
2 1 . 2.25. -
. ... 75


10 9
. -
.
.
14,
2. , -
, -
. -
6080%.
. 4, -
(30C),
. -
2.
15. 17,
, 16 18.
13.
3. , 12,
5,
.

( , ),
. -
7, 6
. 8
. , , pH
11.

-
, -

. , ,
, . -
,
(. 2.26, ).

.

(2035C). -
76 2

.
(. 2.26, ), -

.
.
,
.
-
(. 2.26, ).

.
. -
.
. -
,
().
. -
, , .
.

) )

. 2.26. : a) -
, ) ,
)
. ... 77


. 2.27 .
.
.
,
.


. -
. 30C
.
, -
2035C. -
, -
. , ,
.

. ,

) )

. 2.27. : a) -
; ) , )

78 2

. -
-
, .
,

. -
, -
. ,
, ,
, .

, . -

. .
-
, , -
.
,

. 2.28 , -
.
.
, -
.
, -
. (
)
. -
.

.
-
, . -
,
. ,
, . -
,
0,01/ 0,5 /.
-
, 80100%.
. ... 79

) )

. 2.28. , -
: a) ,
) , )

,
, , ( -
, ). -
. , , -
.
.
, ,

, , , ZeoVit
. -
.
.
,
.
. -
, , ,
.
, -
.
80 2


. 2.29
. ,
.
.
, ZeoVit.
.
. ,
.
. -

.

, ,
.

20C 35C. -
,
. , , -

) )

. 2.29. : a) -
, ) -
, )

. ... 81

.
,
.
, , -
.
, . -
.
-
, . -
. -
.

, . -
, .

.
-
( 98%), .
,
-
.
, , , , , ,
, .,
, , , -
. , -
, ,
.
, . -
.
-
.
. -
,
, ,
. -

, . , -
, .

.
3

3.1. .

,
(Morales etal. 1951; Schuter, Vortmeyer 1981;
1951; , 1968; . 1979; 1983; , 1980),
( -
),
( 1951; , 1968;
. 1978, 1979; 1980; Schwartz, Smith 1953; . 1976;
. 1980, 1981; 1944; Ridgway, Tarbuck 1968, 1967; Pillai
1977; Gupte 1971; Puschnow 1973; . 1971; . 1982).
,
(Furnas 1929), , -
. -
. .
,
V -
, d, V= 5d (Saunders, Ford 1940; Roblee etal. 1958;
Benenati, Brosilow 1962; Ridgway, Tarbuck 1968). -
4 -
. -
. (1978); Lyczkowski (1982).
-

(Stroh etal.
1979; Lyczkowski 1982; . 1982; Tringate 1973).
-
(, 1968; . 1979; Lyczkowski 1982; ,
1980; Martin 1978; Vortmeyer, Winter 1984; 1983; Puschnow
1973; Buchlin etal. 1977; . 1949).
. 3.1, , (Benenati, Brosilow
1962) , D/d= 20,3 = 1, V= 0,5d -
83

(= 0,233). , V= 1d
= 0,533.
V (45)d (
0,4). . (1971), -
, a D/d = 40, V= 0,5d.
.
(1978),
, .
. 3.1,
. ,
. -
(Roblee etal. 1958) ,
. , . 3.1, -
= f(V/d) .

)  ) 
D/d = 20,3
D/d =  0,5
1,0 1
0,8
0,6 2
0,4
0,2

0 1 2 3 4 y/d 0,1
0 1 2 3 4 y/d

) 

0,7 1
(1 )

0,6 ) 1
2
0,5 0,6
D/d = 13,7 2
0,4
D/d = 6,4 0,4
3
0,3 D/d = 13,7
0,2
0,2 D/d = 13,7
D/d = 10
0 1 2 3 4 y/d 0 1 2 3 4 y/d

. 3.1. -
: ) (Benenati, Brosilow 1962);
) . (Roblee etal. 1958) ( I)
. (1978) ( 2); (Roblee etal. 1958) ( 3); )
( I) ( 2) (Benenati, Brosilow 1962); ) -
= (1 ) -
(Roblee etal. 1958) ( I)
. (1976) ( 2)
84 3

(Vortmeyer, Schuster 1983) , ,


, = f(V/d)
, . ,
H
(
. 1978).
( . 1968; , 1971) -
.
(1944) , . (1976) , -
, .
, -
. ,
(1963), , , 30%.
. (1976),
. (1982). (Price 1968; Seko etal.
1982; Ziolkowska etal. 1976),
(Price
1968). , -
, .
(Benenati, Brosilow 1962), .
3.1, , ,
. , -
= f(V/d)
, .
. (Roblee etal. 1958), . (1982)
, D/d -
= f(V/d) .
D/d .
, ,
, ,
.
-
( . 1979; Lyczkowski 1982; 1983; Pillai
1977; . 1976, 1977; 1976; , 1976, 1976;
. 1981).
(. .
3.1, ). -
( . 1977).
,
,
85

, (
1963; , 1976) ,
.


3 (. . 3.2): ( 1980; Furnas 1929; Puschnow 1973;
. 1971; Bucklin etal. 1977; . 1981; Seze etal. 1977;
Thadani, Peebles 1966), ( . 1976; 1944;
. 1982) (Gupte 1971; . 1978; Hessel,
Schmidt 1967; Sonntag 1960).
(Hessel, Schmidt 1967) By,
-
, . -
(Gupte 1971). , -
.
(Gupte 1971) -
67 .
~11%
. . (1978) -
.
, .
.
(Sonntag 1960) ,
,
-

-

. 3.2. . -

86 3

.
-
(Sonntag 1960).
, -
,
(1944). . (1976),
. (1982).

. (Thadani, Peebles 1966). -
.
( ...
1971). . (1971)
. , (Thadani,
Peebles 1966; ... 1971), (Puschnow 1973).
, ,
. (Bucklin etal. 1977).
, -
, ,
, .
(Puschnow 1973; .
1971;Thadani, Peebles 1966; ... 1971) -
( ... 1978).
3.2.
. (1980),
, (1985).
(1980) , , ,
H > 1d.
, ( 1980; . 1976; -
1944; Furnas 1929; Gupte 1971; . 1982; . 1978;
Bucklin etal. 1977; Hessel, Schmidt 1967; Sonntag 1960; . 1981; Seze
etal. 1977; Thadani, Peebles 1966),

.
-
,
(1979), -
. , , ,
,
d, , ,
. -
87

.
W -
.

-

(Marivoet etal. 1974; Lyczkowski 1982;
Martin 1978; . 1982).


. ,
-
, .

3.2.


-

.

.
-

. -
, .
, -

. - -
.
, .
-
-
.
1 500 ./.
,
. -
.
88 3

1
2 10 . 3.3. :
4
1 ; 2 ; 3
5 8 ; 4 ; 5
6 9 ; 6 ; 7 -
; 8 ; 9 ;
10


. 3.3. . 1 -
120 , 10, -
2. , ,
40. -
3 4 , -
, 4 1.
500. 5
, 10, 6.
, 7,
8 9. , ,
-HI 10100,9 ,
= 40 , : 100, 4,
5 . 5 12
.
-451.
-
,
, .
,

.
89


350

:
300
= (H Hi)/H,
i , - 250

i-
, . 200

i -
150

-
() (. 100

.3.4).
50

-
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
, - Hi ,

. 3.4.
, - () Hi

. 2%.


. -
-

.

3.3.

,
. . 3.5
, . 3.6 -
.
, . 3.5,

-
,
.
90 3

360

350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
0 0,5 1,0
r/R

. 3.6.
. 3.5. - 9,5 ;
. = 3d. -
9,5. = 3d

-
-
(. 5.2).

3.4.
() , -
, ,
. -
.
.
, -
.
, ,
D d
(, 1978).
-

:
= 1 ( /). (3.1)
91

(, 1978; Leva 1957; -


. 1949; . 1976; . 1978; Carman 1937,1938;
, 1974)
D/d
. ,
50% (. . 3.7).

)  )  1,0
8
3 3
0,425 4
1 6 9

0,375 0,5
2 7
1 2 5
0,325 0,2
0,25 0,75 1,25 1,75 lg(D/d) 0 5 10 D/d

. 3.7. D/d :
) : 1 , 1974; 2 Carman 1937, 1938; Leva
1957; 3 . 1949; ) : 1 (,
1978); 2 (, 1978); 3 (,
1978); 4 (, 1978); 5 -
d.= 11,4 ( . 1976); 6 d.= 14,85 ( .
1976); 7 , d = 12; 17; 25 ( . 1978); 8
5050; 3535; 2525; 1515 ( . 1978); 9 d.= 7, 12 (
. 1978).

(2005) D/d < 2,4 -


:
= A(D/d)men(D/d), (3.2)
= 12,6; m= 6,1; n= 3,6,
.
( 1987) -
(, 1978; Leva 1957; . 1949;
. 1976; . 1978; Carman 1937, 1938; , 1974)
, -
D/d > 2 > 20d -

(3.3)

, n , (. 3.1).
92 3

3.1. , n
*

n
1,0 0,375 2
0,9198 0,3414 2
1,5 0,35 1
0,349 0,5293 1
* .

D/d > 2 -
, (3.3), . 3.8.
(3.3)
: 5,26%, 12,9%,
10,47%, 14,23%. . 3.9 -


4

0,5
3
2
0,4 . 3.8.
D/d -
1 : 1 ; 2 ; 3 -
0,3 ; 4
1 5 10 15 20 D/d

) 0,6
) 


0,5 0,7

0,6
0,4

0,5
0,3
1 5 10 15 20 D/d 1 5 10 15 20 25 D/d

0,6 0,6
)  ) 
0,5 0,5

0,4 0,4

0,3 0,3
1 10 20 30 40 50 D/d 1 5 10 15 20 D/d

. 3.9. D/d :
) ; ) ; ) , )
93

()
(, 1978; Leva 1957; . 1949;
. 1976; . 1978; Carman 1937, 1938; ,
1974; 2005).
(3.3) -
-
, ,
.
-
-
.
, ( 2006) -
-
,
,
.
4

4.1.



(D/d)
, -
, . 4.1. -
D/d -
. , D/d 16
: (0,31,0) r/R, (0,41,0) r/R, (0,61,0) r/R.
.
(Price 1968), ,
D/d = 1248,
W/W0

2,1
2,0
1,9
1,8
1,7
1,6
1,5
1,4 1
8 9
1,3
1,2 2
1,1
6
1,0
0,9
0,8 5
0,7 7 . 4.1. W/W0 = f(r/R)
0,6 4
0,5 3

0,4 10 (Morales etal. 1951; Price 1968; Cairns, Prausnitz
0,3 1959; Ziolkowska etal. 1983; Dorweiler, Fahien
0,2
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1959; Bundy 1966; Schwartz, Smith 1953; Leroy,
r/R Froment 1977)
95


(. 2 . 4.1).
D/d
1 Ziolkowska etal. 1983 11,5
2 Price 1968 24
3 Dorweiler, Fahien 1959 16
4 Collins 1968 16
5 Cairns, Prausnitz 1959 16
6 1980 16,5
7 Bundy 1966 20

8 Schwartz, Smith 1953 16
9 Morales etal. 1951 16
10 Leroy, Froment 1977 10
( . 1980; Cairns, Prausnitz 1959; . 1979)
. (
. 1980), ,
(Cairns, Prausnitz 1959) ,
. , -
100% W0=
4,6/. W ( . 1980)
. ( . 1980),
,
, , -
.
( . 1980) (Cairns, Prausnitz 1959) -
d= 0,25; 0,4; 1,0 1,5 , = 15
D= 40 , ( . 1978). -
W .
W (0,51)d .
, ,
D/d 40 160 -

.
, (Drahos etal. 1982), -

D= 94 d= 4,1; 7,15; 8,7 9,79 = 1500 , ,
D/d 9,6 22,9
. , -
96 4

, ,
d= 8,7 .
(d= 4,11; 5,57 8,7 )
D= 94 (Moscicka etal. 1976),
, (Drahos etal. 1982). -
(Drahos etal. 1982)
(Moscicka etal. 1976) ,
D/d 10,8 22,9
Wi max/Wi min 3,5 2,2. (1971)
D/d > 15 -
.
-
,
(). -
. (Schwartz, Smith 1953) ,
, = (0,61,5)d.
(Morales etal. 1951) = (2,54,0)d,
(Schwartz, Smith 1953), (0,81,6)d. -
(Schwartz, Smith 1953) D/d 15,6 31,9
. (Schwartz, Smith 1953) -
(Calderbank, Pogorski 1957).
(Drahos etal. 1982) , -
() 0,25d
D/d 9,6 22,9.
(Kubota etal. 1966; Marivoet etal. 1974; Schertz, Bischoff 1969)
-
D/d= 6; 9,4; 13,4 ,
, 0,6 1,0d.
(Stroh etal. 1979), D/d = 20 (D = 0,762m),
0,95d. , (Stroh etal. 1979) -
. ,
(Schuter, Vortmeyer 1981), D/d ,
(Stroh etal. 1979), = 2d.
(Leroy, Froment 1977) = (0,41,2)d D/d 9.
(. 4.1) , -
Wmax/W0 , Wmax
W. ,
W .
(1950)
, -
97

4.1.
W0, / W, / Wmax/W0 Wmax/W
Morales etal. 3,18 0,207 0,091 1,37 3,10
1951 0,533 0,579 1,26 1,16
6,35 0,123 0,091 1,36 1,83
0,533 0,518 1,49 1,53
9,53 0,123 0,046 1,61 4,33
0,533 0,488 1,31 1,44
Calderbank, 3,18 0,347 0,274 1,18 1,50
Pogorski 1957 1,042 0,869 1,05 1,26
6,35 0,439 0,259 1,08 1,82
0,988 0,853 1,13 1,30
6,35 0,363 0,244 1,30 1,93
0,981 0,853 1,13 1,30
12,7 0,399 0,274 1,26 1,83
1,042 0,853 1,15 1,40
Drahos etal. 8,7 0,8 0,72 1,81 2,01
1982
11,5 0,8 0,6 1,65 2,2


. 3070%
, . ,
, -
18%. -
, (1950)
(Morales etal. 1951; Cairns, Prausnitz
1959; Schwartz, Smith 1953; Kubota etal. 1966; Marivoet etal. 1974; Stroh etal.
1979) .

D/d. (1980)
, (1985), D/d > 100.
. 4.2. -

,
.
-
(Morales etal. 1951; Schwartz, Smith
1953; Leroy, Froment 1977; Newell, Standish 1973; Drahos etal. 1982;
98 4

1,4

W/W0
1,3
1,2
1,1 2
1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0 3,3 10 16 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
y/d

. 4.2.
, (1985) (1980) -
: 1 D/d= 133,3 ; 2 D/d= 280

1980), -
. - ,
, (Drahos etal. 1982), ,
.
(Drahos etal. 1982), ,
-
, W0= 0,8 /.
,
, .
-
(Price 1968; . 1979, 1981, 1982; . 1981; Seko etal.
1982; ... 1977; 1981; Ziolkowska etal. 1976; , -
1985; . 1985; , 1946). (Price 1968)
, (= 0,382)
W/W0= f(V/d) (= 0,402)
. (Ziolkowska etal. 1976), -
( ... 1977),
.

D/d > 100, -
. ,

(Price 1968; . 1979; Ziolkowska etal. 1976).

(1951) ,
. -
-
99

(, 1966, 1967; Moscicka etal. 1976;


. 1976; 1980; 1951; . 1979; , 1968;
Lyczkowski 1982; 1983; . 1982). -
( . 1965).
(, 1966, 1967) , W0 > 12/ -
, W0 < 1/ -
. (Price 1968), Red= 14704350,
, . . (Moscicka
etal. 1976) , W0 0,4 0,8/ -
, . -
( 1980; . 1976) -
W0. (
. 1976),
-

( 1983;
1972).
. (1976)
(Moscicka etal. 1976; , 1967; 1982).
-
, . ,
, (1966, 1967), ,
= (l3)d,
- .
,
W0 -
. -
. ,
(Lyczkowski 1982; , 1981; 1979; .
1976),
, -
, .


-
. ,
-

, ,
( . 1981; . 1983; Ziolkowska
100 4

etal. 1980), .
., -
, 4.2,
D/d.

4.2.



D/d
(23)d (1941)
9D Morales etal. (1951)
1,5D Schwartz, Smith (1953)
2D (1956)
(2530)d , (1967)
(9,627)d 2,46,666 , (1964)
(2535,7)d 3650 . (1981)
(49)d 1,6 , (1975)
(23)d . (1980)
(34)d 1,11,3 , (1981)
7d 1,11,7 (1979)
. (1976)

(710)d (1980)
4D Newell, Standich (1973)
(0,7l,2)D 1123 Ziolkowska etal. (1980)
(7,510,7)d 4.714 , , (1980)

. -
Re, d, D/d. D/d W0 .
.

,
. (Schertz, Bischoff
1969) ,
-
.
101

, . ,
. ,
(Schertz, Bischoff 1969),
(Ziolkowska, Mieskowski 1982). ,
(Vortmeyer, Schuster 1983), , -
- . ,
(Vortmeyer, Schuster 1983) W0= 0,1/ d= 3
293 473 Wmax/W0 15%.
239 1273 Wmax/W0
24%.

(Schuter,
Vortmeyer 1981; Leroy, Froment 1977; Lyczkowski 1982; . 1980;
1984; . 1976; Finlayson 1972; . 1980;
Choudhary etal. 1976). (Le Van, Vermeulen 1984)
.
(Brauer 1985) -
,
.
(Schertz, Bischoff 1969)
, , -
(, 1980; Seko etal. 1982; Finlayson 1972;
. 1980; , 1946).
( ... 1981; 1981;
. 1980) ,
, ,
3 5%. ,
(, 1977).
(1985) , -
, -
, , -
1 25%.
( 1985).
-
(Vortmeyer, Schuster 1983;
1976; 1986) - -
. ( .
1986).

.
102 4

(, 1968; , 1978). -

- (Carman 1937),

, (Ergun,
Orning 1949). (, 1968), -
2035%.
, ,
, S3,
. ( .
1977)
.
,
, -
( . 1969).
, -
( . 1979), .
,
,
.
-
, -
.

, .
= f(D/d)
50% ( . 1976; . 1978; , 1978; Carman
1937, 1938; Leva 1957; , 1974).
1,8 < D/d < 3 ( 1978;
Carman 1937).

4.2.


-
. W
:
(. . 4.3).
.
103

-



-





( )

. 4.3.


(, 1968; . 1979).
-
, ( 1951).
. -
( 1951; , 1968; . 1979) -
, .
( 1956, 1971; 1983).
-
(1979, 1979).
( . 1974) -
. .
( 1983; 1979, 1979;
. 1974) .

(1979), , , .


104 4

. (1965).
3 3 , -
-
d= 9.
. ,
.
- , -
(- 1968;
. 1983).
(1978), -
.

,
0,20,5. ,
( . 1980), , -
-
d= 12 .
( . 1982)
. , , -
, , -
(3 ) .

(d 18 ) (
. 1982).
-
(Morales etal. 1951; 1951; , 1968; . 1979;
Moscicka etal. 1976; Leroy, Froment 1977; Lyczkowski 1982; 1984)
. , -

(Morales etal. 1951; Schuter, Vortmeyer 1981; Price 1968; Cairns,
Prausnitz 1959; . 1978; Drahos etal. 1982; Moscicka etal. 1976;
Ziolkowska etal. 1983; 1980; Schwartz, Smith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977;
Calderbank, Pogorski 1957; Marivoet etal. 1974; Schertz, Bischoff 1969; Stroh
etal. 1979; , 1966, 1967; . 1976; . 1981;
. 1983; Ziolkowska etal. 1980; , 1964;
. 1979, 1982; , 1980; . 1981; . 1980,
1981; Ziolkowska, Mieskowski 1982; . 1976). ,
. (1981) -
.
105

(Arthur etal. 1950; Price 1968)


. ,

, , -
.

. (, -
1966, 1967).
(Ziolkowska etal. 1980, 1983a, 1983b; Ziolkowska,
Mieskowski 1982) ,

10% , -
.


l . , . (Kubota etal. 1966) -
80 , (
. 1979, 1981, 1982), , -
15. (Schertz, Bischoff 1969)
25 , (Drahos etal. 1982; Moscicka etal. 1976; Ziolkowska etal.
1980; Ziolkowska, Mieskowski 1982) 15 , (Morales etal. 1951;
Schwartz, Smith 1953; Calderbank, Pogorski 1957) 50,8 .
-
.
(Morales etal. 1951) ,
l, 1d (. . 4.4). -
(Leroy, Froment 1977), -
, (Schuter, Vortmeyer 1981),
(. ). -
W/W0 l (Ziolkowska
etal. 1976), , (. . 4.4).
, ,
l, -
, , , (Stroh etal. 1979; . 1982),
.

(Ziolkowski etal. 1976;
. . 606112 ... 1978; 1980). , (1980) -
, (1960), , -

106 4

W/W0
Wi , /c

W, /c
) 0,75 ) 80 4 ) 1 2
1
3 1,5
60
0,50 2
1 1,0
40 2

0,25 3 0,5
20

0 0
0 10 20 0 10 20 0 2 4 6 8 10
y, y, y/d

. 4.4.
(Morales etal. 1951; Schuter, Vortmeyer1981; Ziolkowska etal. 1976):
a) D= 51 ; d= 3,18 ; = 0,89 ; Q= 623 3/: 1 l= 3,18 ; 2 l= 152,4 ;
3 l= 50,8; ) 40140 ; d= 2 ; Red= 7,5: 1 l =
20 ; 2 l= 14 ; 3 l= 10 ; 4 l= 6 ; ) D= 94 ; d= 4,11 ; = 1,05;
W0= 0,8 /: 1 l= 15 ; 2 l =35

. , (1980) (
1040%)
( 1960).
, -
, ,
(Lyczkowski 1982). (Moscicka etal. 1976;
1980; Ziolkowska etal. 1976, 1980) ,
-
.
(1980) ,
, W
, ,
( 1960).
(1980) 2.2.
( 1981; 1973).


. -
. , ( .
1979, 1981, 1982) ,
15. (Morales etal. 1951;
Schwartz, Smith 1953; Schertz, Bischoff 1969) 5 -
, -
,
.
107


, -
. -
.
-
.

, ,

.
-
.
.

-
.

4.3.
-
-
. ,
.
.
: -
,
,
, -
, 20, 40, 60, 94, 98,
190, 670, 1800 , I800 ,
190 , 94 , -
190 ,
(. . 4.5).
1 2,
40 3. -
. -
. 3200 3/
0,25 .
1800 0,05 0,4 /.
108 4

p p
3 8 7

6 p
5 4
H2O

p 9 10
p
1
2 1 p
2 5
7
2 3
4 4
5

H2O 3
p
6

1 11

. 4.5. : 1 ; 2 ; 3 -
; 4 1,8 ; 5 -
1,8 ; 6 ; 7 ; 8 ;
9 0,67 ; 10 ; 11

4; 6; 9,5; 14 50 ;
2,5 ; 35 ;
35 ;
-2 3,3 ; -
-8 5,86,1 ;
, -1, -2, -S 10100,9 ; -
; 210 410
10102 .
2094
W0= 0,054,5/. ,
. 4.3.

1,8 3,5 -
, ,
. 380 .

.
0,67 .
-
, -
.
109

4.3.




D, d., , W0, /
1800 500 0,050,2
35
670 200 0,10,4
35
190 6,0 110 0,34; 0,5; 0,66
-2 3,3 210 0,08; 0,16; 0,26
94 2,5 400 0,46; 0,82; 1,07; 1,24
-2 3,3 500 0,18; 0,25; 0,29; 0,36
6,0 100; 200; 300 0,46; 1,2; 1,9; 2,4

400 0,41; 0,87; 1,12; 1,78; 2,3


9,5 9,5; 25; 50; 100; 2,2
200; 300; 400
400 2,3
14,0 14; 25; 50; 100; 2,3
200; 300; 400
400 0,61; 1,2; 1,44; 2,26; 2,7;
4,2
60 2,5 410 0,53; 0,89; 1,33

-2 3,3 500 0,18; 0,22; 0,29; 0,32

6,0 410 0,58; 0,95; 1,42; 2,04

1000 0,44; 0,75; 1,17; 1,74

14,0 410 0,53; 0,9; 1,37; 1,96;


2,48; 4,2
40 2,5 410 0,36; 0,67; 0,8
-2 3,3 500
6,0 410 0,36; 0,73; 0,9; 1,5; 1,98
9,5 410 1,88
14,0 410 0,67; 1,80; 2,99
20 2,5 520 0,19; 0,36; 0,5; 0,62;
0,81; 0,97; 1,14
-2 3,3 520 0,03; 0,05; 0,13
110 4

(. 4.6)
, 1. ,
3, .
2,
, -
, 0 11,
b 0 110.
, ,
.
-
.
. 4.7.
2 .
3, -

1 4 2 3
)


b

W
K

. 4.6. -
: )
b

W 
: 1
L , 2

, 3 , 4
) 1 A 1 A
R15 ; )
2
: 1 -
2 , 2

W
3

2

1
4


. 4.7. -
: 1 ;
2 ; 3
; 4 (F.= 48%);
W
= 4; = 10
111

. -
4.
12.
Z-. , -
. ,
=1 .
20 190
, , ,
.
14 -
, ,

94%. -
, .

4.4.


.
, , -
,
. ,
(Lyczkowski 1982; Martin 1978).
, , -
, -
.
,

( . 1978, 1985; 1980;
Schwatz, Smith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977; , 1967; .
1976, 1985; Lyczkowski 1982; . 1983, 1984; . 1979;
. 1979, 1984; Martin 1978; . 1976; . 1981;
... 1981; , 1984; . 1984; -
1984; 1968; 1981; , 1981;
1984; Ziolkowska etal. 1983b; . 1981; , 1985a).
, , , -
.
(Leroy, Froment 1977; . 1974; ,
1985) .
112 4

4.4.1.

,
, ,
, ( . 1979; 1980; Schwartz,
Emith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977; 1983; . 1983;
. 1979, 1984; , 1980; Martin 1978; .1974; -
, 1984; 1984; 1981; Ziolkowska etal. 1983b;
. 1981). , , -
, .
.

, ( 1980), ,
(l ~
10d)
. (1980)
(. 4.8).
. 4.9,
1 2 -
. , 1/2 (
, 1 > 2), Wmax/Wmin
. ,

.

W
6

5 7

4 4

3 3

8 . 4.8. (1980)
2
-
9 : 1 150600;
1
2 ; 3 3 -
; 4 -
; 5 ;
y
6 ; 7 ; 8 -
; 9
x z
113

Wi /W0
1,5
)
1,0

d1 = 15 0,5 d2 = 10
1 = 0,38 2 = 0,34
0

1,5
) d2 = 6
2 = 0,36
1,0
d1 = 10
1 = 0,39
0,5

2,0
)
1,5

. 4.9. -
1,0
(1980) -
d2 = 2
. - 2 = 0,32
- 0,5

d1 = 6
1 = 0,4
y/d= 0. 1/2 : 0
) 1,12; ) 1,08; ) 1,25 12 8 4 0 4 8 12 y/d

. 4.10 -
, a (1968),
. -
,
. (,
1968) , -
. -
, , .
, , . 4.10
,
(Roblee etal. 1958; Benenati, Brosilow
1962; Ridgway, Tarbuck 1967, 1968; Tringate 1973; Gupte 1971; .
1982; Sonntag 1960) .
(Decken etal. 1960)
d = 30 , D = 600 ,
114 4

0,9
W.

0,8

0,7 . 4.10. -

0,6
, a (1968). -
0,5
D = 185 ,
0,4 d= 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
y/d

, , , -
.
, -
, .
.
, .

, , .
d,
-
. ( .
1980). . 4.11 W/W0 =
f(y/d). S/W0.
,
. -

2,2
W/W0

2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4 S
W0 A3 = 1,06
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 y/d

. 4.11. : = 100 , Q= 250 3/.


, -
( . 1984)
115

W/Wmax
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6 1
0,5 2
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 y/d

. 4.12.
: 1 ,
250 3/; 2
,

HC Wmax

( . 1984), -
, ,
(. . 4.12).

, -
.

: 1)
2) .

4.4.2.


. (
1984), . 4.13.
. -
. 4.14. d ,
, .
.
, ,
, .
(1985), . -
(1981).
116 4

Wi , /c

Wi , /c
) 1
)
0,5
I = 100
0
I = 20
0

Wi , /c
)
0,5
Wi , /c

)
I = 10
I = 30
0
2

Wi , /c
) I = 10
1
1

0
0
0,05 0,1
y, ) Wi , /c I = 3

0
0,05 0,1 y,

. 4.13.
(1984): , ) -; , , , )
.
. 224 ; 10050 ; = 50

) x
) 1
1

P2

P2, V1

. 4.14. : )
; ) : 1 ;
,
117

, , -
,
.
, (1960),
-
. x -
Wmax/W ( Wmax, W
) :
x= x b , (4.1)
: x , b0 ,
^ .
,
: Wmax/W 2.
( 1960) : x = 100, b0= 0,5 d.
( 1980)
d= d.
= 0,36 (Roblee etal. 1958; Benenati,
Brosilow 1962; Ridgway, Tarbuck 1968; Tringate 1973; Sonntag 1960),
d= 0,36 d.
: x= x b = 1000,50,36 d.
d= 6 , , : x = 1000,51,44= 72 .

.
, -
,
x ( 1960) (. . 4.14, ).
b0 .
-
l :
1) Wi= f(l)
;
2) ,
.
. 4.15 4.16.
l ,
. l -
, , -
, , ,

.
118 4

Wi , /c Wi , /c
, 23 , 23
2 = 6 ( ) 2
= 40 ( )
Q = 25 3/ 3
Q = 25 / Q = 20 3/
Q = 20 3/
1 Q = 10 3/ 1 Q = 10 3/

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 I, 0 10 20 30 40 I,

Wi , /c
4 D = 6
= 6 ( )

3 Wi , /c
Q = 50 3/ D = 6
= 40 ( )
2 2
Q = 50 3/
Q = 25 3/ Q = 25 3/
Q = 10 3/
1 1
Q = 10 3/

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
I, I,

. 4.15. l Wi
94 :
,

60
, %

1
2
50
3
. 4.16. -
40 l/dcp. -
: 1 98
14 40 3/;
30

20
2 (Leroy, Froment
1977) 50 3/ -
10 9,5 ; 3 .
(Ziolkowska etal. 1976) 20/
0 4,1
0 1 2 3 4 5
I/d.

-
Wi = f(l) l
4.4.

4.4.

d 23 6 9,5 14
l 25 25 50 70
119

l
Wi:

(4.2)


. , -
2,5%. (4.2) fi i-
.

Wi , /c
3,8

3,4

3,0

. 4.17. 2,6
2,2

1,8
94 6 : 1,4

= 100 ; l = 50 ; W0 = 2 /;
), ), ), ) Wi= 1,0
f(y/R); ) 0,6
W= f(y/R) 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
y/R

, l -
.
(.
. 4.17). ( 1951; Price 1968; Leroy, Froment 1977) -
, .
(
) m ,
m. , -
m= 4, 6, 8, 12 36, , m= 8.

4.4.3.


-
-
,
. -
120 4

DISA-55.
.

-
(. . 4.18). ,
, -
-
W, W0 -
.
8 .
:

(4.3)

.
:
y= (D Dx)/2.
D ,
, D = 94 n = 16, D = 670 n = 53.
,
(
1981; , 1981).
, -
.
, ,
5033 -23.
- . 4.18. -
-
.
, -

0,1 ( ) 0,5 ( -
).
.
55P0I -
5 . -
,
.
-
2 .
121

8 7 4 3 2 1

9 6 5

10 11
DISA
W

. 4.18. - : 1 -
55P11; 2 551
55MI0; 3 5525; 4, 6 -
55D31; 5 55D35; 7 -
-01; 8 5033; 9 -23;
10 52B0I; 11

DISA
( . 1980; New Anemometer ... 1972: 37
39). .
0,2%.
Wi
, 0,5%.
-
.
.
,
, , -
, (
. 1978, 1985; 1984; 1980; . 1976;
. 1984), -
. ,
+ .

( , 1968)
.
,
, -
,
( ... 1980).

Wi,
W
122 4

W/W0 y/d. -
d.
-
. . 4.19 -
, -
Wi .
,
W, . 4.20. , -
Wi , /c

y = 28
3,8

3,4

3,0

2,6

2,2

1,8
D = 94

1,4
0 60 120 180 240 300 360


. 4.19. Wi = 28
(const). 94 14 .
= 300 ; W0= 2,0 /
Wi , /c

2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
y,

. 4.20. 94
4 ; = I4,5 d.
.

123

Wi .
, -
( 1981).
:

(4.4)

, , ( . 1979),
,
, -
. -
.
4.5.

4.5.


..
1 1976

2 1983; . 1976; 1968

3 , 1981
4 Collins 1968

5 1968; . 1978

6 *) 1980; . 1976; . 1974

7 **) , 1967

*) ;
**) Pi ,/2;
P. ,/2.
124 4

, -, ,
. . 6, 7 . 4.5. , ,
Wi max/W0 , , ,
(, 1976; . 1976).
-
-
.

(4.5)

(4.6)

(4.7)

; N .

-
, , -
:

(4.8)

-
:

(4.9)

, 2 -
.
, -
,
(, 1980).

:

(4.10)

125

:
(4.11)

(128
424 ), Wi c
IBM-370/I48 (
. 1980) APL.

4.5.



, , -
,
94 , -
. -
. , .4.21,

-
= f(), -

 4
5
20
1
16
3
12

8
2

0
2 4 6 8 101 2 4 6 8 102


. 4.21. -
= f(): 13 ,
; 4
. . . ( 1969); 5
94
126 4

( 1969). . 4.21 -
:
V* ;

(4.12)

(4.13)

, , R ,
, , .

4.5.1.
-
d= 4; 6; 9,5 14
D= 94. . 4.6.
4 . 4.22.

4.6.

d, D/d W0, / H/d
4,0 23,5 1,0 1; 2,5; 4,5; 6,25; 9,5; 14,3; 24,2; 54,3; 104
6,0 15,7 0,4; 1,0; 2,0; 2,0 17; 33,4; 50; 67; 2,7; 6,2; 9,5; 12,8; 16,2; 19,5;
27,8; 52,8
9,5 9,9 2,0 1; 3; 5; 10; 21; 30; 42
14 6,5 2,0 3,5; 7; 14; 21; 28,6
14 6,5 0,4; 0,8; 1,0; 1,6; 2,0 1; 2; 3; 4,0


d,
. W
. , , ,
, . 4.22,
.
W
, -
(l @ 1d)
(. . 4.23). .
400 .
127

W/W0

W/W0
1,5 3 1,5
4 9

1,0 1,0
10
0,5 0,5

0 0

W/W0

W/W0
2,0 1,5 7
1

1,5 1,0

2
1,0 0,5 8

0,5 0

W/W0
0 5
0 10 20 30 40 1,5
y,
6
1,0
. 4.22.
4 94 : D/d= 23,5;
0,5
W0= 1 /; 1 H/d= 1; 2 H/d= 2,5; 3 H/d= 4; 4 H/d=
5; 5 H/d= 6,25; 6 H/d= 9,25; 7 H/d= 14,25; 8 H/d=
24,25; 9 H/d = 54,25; 10 H/d = 104,25. W0 0
0 10 20 30 40
, / y,

W0
W/W0

1,5
W/W0

1,5
1

3
3
TA
1 H2

1,0 2
TA
1,0 H1

2 1
3
TA

0,6 0,5
0 1 2 3 y/d 0 1 2 3 y/d
W0

. 4.23. ( I)
( 2) ( 3) 98
14. ( 2) 17; 1= 210 (17d),
2= 223 (18d);
128 4

4.5.2.

6
94 190 . 4.24,
Q. . 4.7

W0
94 (= 400 ).
W/W0

)
Q = 41 3/
1,4 Q = 82 3/
Q = 102 3/
1,2

1,0

0,8

0,6
57,5 70 82,5 95
R,
W/W0

) Q = 10 3/
Q = 20 3/
1,2 Q = 25 3/
Q = 40 3/
1,0

0,8 . 4.24. Q -
0,6
W/W0: ) 190
6 ; ) 94 6
25 30 35 40 45
R,

4.7. W0


W0, /
.. d= 14 d= 6
1 0,61 1,05
2 0,87 1,28
3 1,16 1,03 1,26
4 1,44 1,03
5 1,78 1,15
6 2,3 1,03 1,13
7 2,7 1,02
129

, W0 -
,

. ,
-
. , 94 (. . 4.25) W0 0,18/
0,36 / W
0,24 / 0,46 /. , -
, W0 0,25 /.
, -
,
,

.
-
.
. 4.26 4.27 Wi max Wi min
. -

0,5
W, /c

1
2
3
0,4 4

0,3

. 4.25. 0,2

W0
0,1
94 ,
-2; = 500 . 14 - 0
W0= 0,18; 0,25; 0,29; 0,36 / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 y/d
Wi max , /c

1
0,6 2
3
0,5
. 4.26. 4

W0 - 0,4

Wi max 0,3
94, 0,2
-2: 14 - 0,1
W0 = 0,18; 0,25; 0,29; 0
0,36 / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 y/d
130 4

. ,
W0 = 0,36 / 0,18 / (. . 4.28), , -
Wi max/Wi min
1,85, 22,5, 3,0 10,0.
, , -,
W0, -,

. 0,67 ,
, . 4.29.
W -
. e
-
Wi min , /c

0,4 1
2
0,3
3
0,2 4

0,1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 y/d

. 4.27. W0 -
94 , -
-2: 14 W0= 0,18; 0,25; 0,29; 0,36 /
Wi , /c

0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 y/d
Wi , /c

)
0,5
. 4.28. -
0,4
-
0,3 Wi -
0,2 94 ,
0,1 -2, = 0,5
W0:
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 y/d ) W0= 0,36 /; ) W0= 0,18/
131

2,0

W/W0
1
2

1,5

1,0

0,5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 75 80 y/d

. 4.29. 670 ,
( )
. 35 , = 200

, . , ,
(Y/d=
53,5) 0,67 (. . 4.29). -
0,094 ,
Wi(Y/d= 4,5) W0 (. . 4.28).
, -
, . 4.254.29,
( . 1981), ,
, .
, 0,67
, 4.8, ,
1,8 , 4.9.
-
, , -

. 4.8, 4.9
4.10 (. 4.5.3).

4.8. 0,67
() , (d= 0,00123 ), = 200
.. W0, / Re , % , % Wi max, / .2 .3
1 0,183 17,2 50,2 3,2 0,67 3,6 3,65
2 0,249 23,4 40,6 2,6 0,69 2,73 2,77
3 0,329 31,0 32,1 2,2 1,29 3,89 3,9
132 4

4.9. 1,8 ,
(d= 0,00123 ), = 400
.. W0, / Re , % , % Wi max, / .2 .3
1 0,14 1,4 177,6 23,6 0,48 33,2 33,3
2 0,012 1,1 164 21,5 0,39 32,6 32,7
3 0,022 2,1 141,7 13,2 0,37 16,6 16,6
4 0,038 3,6 105,6 7,8 0,36 9,5 9,5
5 0,082 7,7 78,2 4,8 0,47 5,7 5,7
6 0,106 10,0 36,4 3,3 0,975 9,2 9,2
7 0,138 13,0 33 2,7 0,7 5,1 5,1
8 0,164 15,4 27 1,8 0,52 3,2 3,2

, . 4.30, -
, . 4.31 4.32, ,
Re 3040 -
. Re
d:
(4.14)

(4.15)

, 3/3; S
, 2/3; , 2/; W0 -
, ,/.
. 4.31 4.32 : -
Wi W0;
.


(. 4.33), (.
. 4.34). ,
. 4.34,
(, 1966, 1967).
Re= 2030 -
.
.
133

W/W0
Re = 10
3,0
Re = 13
2,8 Re = 15,4
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 y/d

. 4.30. 1,8 , -
: , ; d
,

25
, %

1
20
2
1
, %

20 2

15

15

10

10

5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 20 30 40
Re
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 20 30 40
Re
. 4.32. = f(Re)

. 4.31. = f(Re) 1,8 (1) 0,67 (2), -
: 1
1,8 (1) 0,67 (2), - 1,8 ; 2 -
0,67
134 4
, %

D = 94
D = 60
D = 20
40

30
. 4.33. W0 -

, 6. D -
20 ,
0 1 2 3 4
W0, /c
, %

1 2 3 4 5
50

40

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
W0, /c

. 4.34. W0
D/d = 10. -
(, 1966, 1967):
1 d= 9,5 D= 94 ; 2 d= 6 D= 60 ;
3 23 D = 40 ; 4 -2 d =
3,3 D= 40 ; 5 (, 1966, 1967)

Re >= 3040, , = f(Re) = f(Re)


, -
.
(Vortmeyer, Schuster 1983).


-
Re < 40.

4.5.3. ,

W/W0= f(R) d= const W=
const D . 4.35. ,
W D/d= 3,3
135

Wmax . D/d > 10,


,
.
. 4.36 W/W0 = f(y/d), -
D.
D/d = 658.

W/W0
1,2
1,0
0,8 1
1,2
2
1,0
3
0,8 4
0,6 5
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
1,2

1,0
0,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
95 70 50 40 30 20 15 10 5 5 101520 30 40 50 70 95
R,

. 4.35. 6 W0=
1 /: 1 D= 190 ; 2 D= 94 ; 3 D= 60 ; 4 D= 40 ; 5 D= 20
W/W0

1
1,4 2
1,3 3
1,2 4
1,1 5
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 y/d

. 4.36. ,
-2 = 0,5 . W0= 0,2/ (const). 15 20,
40, 60, 94, 190
136 4

W/
W0= 1,21,4 Re 20.
.
. . 4.36 . 4.35
, ( -2) -
, -, .
(Lyczkowski 1982). , -
D,
,
( . 1979, 1984; 1984; . 1985; Seko etal.
1982), ,
-
. 670
, . 4.29.
. 4.37 4.38 D -
. Re 20 (.
.4.39), Wmax/Wmin -
D= 20 3, D= 190 3,2,
3 3. ,
D W0 0,2/ D/d= 658
.
4.10,
-2.
Wi max , /c

1
0,6 2
0,5 3
4
0,4
5
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 y/d

. 4.37.
: 15 20, 40, 60, 94 190 -2
Wi min , /c

1 2 3 4 5
0,2
0,1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 y/d

. 4.38. -
W0= 0,2/. , . 4.37
137

Wi , /c
)
0,3
0,2
0,1
0 y/d
0 1 2 3 4 5
Wi , /c

)
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 y/d

. 4.39. -
Wi -2 W0 = 0,2 /: )
D= 20 ; ) D= 190

4.10. -2
(d= 0,00122)

D, D/d W0, / , % Wi max, / Wi min, / Re


20 6,36 0,026 82,7 0,09 0,01 2,4
0,055 58,2 0,14 0,01 5,1
0,13 32,0 0,28 0,04 12,1
40 12,7 0,14 46,2 0,4 0,01 13,0
0,199 39,3 0,55 0,01 18,5
0,233 34,2 0,55 0,01 21,7
0,276 38,8 0,63 0,09 25,7
60 19 0,176 45,8 0,54 0,01 16,4
0,221 36,4 0,6 0,07 20,6
0,292 39,7 0,84 0,09 27,2
0,325 32,9 0,9 0,08 30,3
94 30 0,181 38,5 0,51 0,01 16,9
0,254 33,2 0,66 0,09 23,7
0,29 28,8 0,67 0,12 27,0
0,359 25,0 0,67 0,14 33,4
190 60 0,075 65,8 0,24 0,01 7,0
0,157 52,4 0,5 0,01 14,6
0,259 29,5 0,67 0,07 24,1
138 4



D . -
W/W0= f(y/d) 670 1800 , -
, . 4.40. -
,
.

, -
H= const /d= f(d) /d= f(D/d)
, (. . 4.41).
/d
,
d, . /d @ 2. -
W0= 0,52,0/
(1981) .

2,8
W/W0

1
2,6 2
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 y/d

. 4.40. D :
1 D= 1,8 ; = 0,4 ; W0= 0,1 /; 2 D= 0,67 ; = 0,2 ; W0= 0,18 /
/d

4 1 2 3 4
3
2 . 4.41. /d= f(D/d)
1 . D= 94 (const): 1 d= 14 ;
0
0 10 20 30 40 2 d = 9,5 ; 3 d = 6 ; D = var:
D/d 4 d= 6 (const)
139

-
.
-
D, -2
, , ,

W/W0= f(y/d) (. . 4.354.38 4.42).
, , -

. -
.
-
.

1,3 1,4
W/W0

W/W0

D = 20
1,2 W0 = 0,13 /c 1,3 D = 94
W0 = 0,18 /c
1,1 1,2
1,0 1,1
0,9 1,0
0,8 0,9
0,7 0,8
0,6 R, 0,7
0 5 10 0,6
0,5 R,
1,5 0 10 20 30 40
W/W0

1,4
1,3
1,2 1,6
W/W0

D = 40 D = 190
1,1 W0 = 0,14 /c 1,5
W0 = 0,157 /c
1,0 1,4
0,9 1,3
0,8 1,2
0,7 1,1
0,6 R, 1,0
0 10 20
0,9
0,8
1,5 0,7
W/W0

1,4 D = 60
W0 = 0,176 /c 0,6
1,3 0,5
1,2 0,4 R,
1,1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7 R,
0 10 20 30

. 4.42. , -2
140 4

(Leroy, Froment 1977), (, 1985) -



.
, W
d = 14 D = 94 ,
. -
. , -
. 4.43, -

,
.
(Ziolkowska etal. 1983a).
W/W0

1
1,3 2
3
1,1

0,9
. 4.43. -
0,7 -
( = 200 )
0,5 503/: 1 ; 2
; 3 -
0,3
0 4 9 14 19 32 38 47
y,

, -
. W
. -
(1981).

,
13% .
, . , -
D/d < 10.
, -

,
(,
1981). W -

.
141

4.6.

4.6.1.

-
, -

,
, -
( 1982; , 1981; .
1982; 1972; . 1980; . 1975;
. 1978). -
( ... 1980; . 1975).
-
-
.
-
( . 1980):

(4.16)

; Wi
.
14 98 ,
94 d= 0,00186 ; = 0,535 Red=
6800 . 4.44.
14 98 -
, W0= 0,52,0/ Tu 3050%,
85%. Tu Wi
.

(Mickley etal. 1965; Van der Merwe, Gauvin 1971),
ReD= 47807010 Tu 50%,
(1981).
( ) -
, , Tu= 4060%.

, ,
.
142 4

90

Tu, %

Tu, %
Wi , /c

Wi , /c
) 1 ) 1
3,0 80 3,0 80
2 2
70 70
60 60
2,0 50 2,0 50
40 40
30 30
1,0 1,0
20 20
10 10
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
y, y,

10 30 50 70 Tu, %
94
y,

)
80

60

40 . 4.44.
: ), )
20 1
; ) . 1 -
2 ; 2 -
0
0 0,4 0,8 1,2
Wi , /c

Tu -
2030% (. . 4.11).

4.11. Tu

..
Tumin, % Tumax, % Tu., %
1 14 30 85 40
2 20 80 50

Tu, , ,
. Tu
, , - .

4.6.2.

-
.
,
143

, , -
, , -
-
.

Z- .
-
.
,

(.. 909640... 1982). -
20 10. -
0,1 , ~ 1,0 .

250 (1= 60 m).
W0= 0. ,
.
,
,
. ,
, -
0,2 1,0 /.

. -
2 -
, ( . 1974).
, -
-
.
. -
-

.

.
-
, , ,
( 1983; . 1974). -


144 4

( . 1979).
W0 < 1 /. W0
. .
-
, .
, -
, -
.
4.12.
W0= 0,090,5/. -
-
1,5 5,
, .
410. =95 .

4.12.



, ,
1 1,5
2 1,5 10
3 4,0 22
4 5,0

6 , -
. 3
: , -
, .
. 4.45, . -
-
,
= 270.
. -

.j. -
.j = 270,
: D= 270 .j, .
145

,
90
) ) 1
80 2
 3
180 0 70
4
360 60 5
W
50 6
40
270
30
20
10
0
I II III IV V VI

. 4.45. : )
;
) -
= 1,5
W0 = 0,09 / W0 = 0,5 / IIV . W0 = 0,5 /:
1 ; 2 ; 3 .
W0= 0,09 /: 4, 5, 6

-
W0= 0,09/ W0= 0,5/
= 1,5 . 4.45, .
, = 270,
,
. -
. = 270
.
.
VI
, (D= 87 W0= 0,5/ D= 63 W0=
0,1 /). D = 20
W0= 0,1/ D= 11 W0= 0,5 /, -
II IV .
= 5 (.
. 4.46, ) . W0 =
0,5/ D 10 -
IV. , = 95 -
() .
-

, -
146 4

(.
. 4.46, ). e
,
(, 1968),
6d
( ).
,

,
) )
80 60
70 50
60 40
50 30
40 20
30 10
20 0
I II III IV V VI
10
1 2 3 4 5 6
0
I II III IV V VI
1 2 3 4 5 6

. 4.46. D : ) 4. W0 =
0,5/: 1 , 2 , 3 ;
W0= 0,4 /: , , 4, 5, 6; ) 2. W0= 0,2 /: 1
, 2 , 3 ; 3. W0=
0,1 /: , , 4, 5, 6

. 3.45, (.. .j)


. :

(4.17)

N (N= 6).
. 4.47, , .j ..
I, V VI
, 13, 20 20 .
. 4.47, , (.j i), -
i
.j 4 I
III . i 6
4.13.
. 4.47, , . 4.13 ,

147

(.. .j),
) 1
40 2
30 3
20
10
0
I II III IV V VI

1
(.j i),

)
2
40
3
30 4
5
20 6
10

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 y,

. 4.47. : ) -
(.. .j) 4
W0= 0,43 /: 1 ; 2 -
, 3 ; ) (.j i)
Y 4 . I: 1
, 2 , 3 ; III: 4 , 5
, 6

4.13. i
4


Y, I II III IV V VI
20 265 265 260 260 260 275
40 260 265 270 265 265 260
60 260 265 270 265 260 270
80 260 270 270 250 260 260
100 260 250 270 250 260 260
120 260 255 260 260 255 255
140 265 260 260 260 255 250
160 260 270 260 265 255 250
180 265 265 260 260 255 250
200 265 265 260 265 240 250
220 265 260 260 260 260 250
240 265 260 270 265 260 260
148 4

( i , 180270),
7.
(. . 4.47, ) -
, , ,
, ,
. ,
40 I (. . 4.47, ), (.. .j)
IIIV 10,
20 V VI . , , ,
, -
.
. 4.14 -
2 . (.j / .. 1), , -

. . 4.14, -

III . , IV, V
VI .j
= 270 (. . 4.45, ). -
,
.

4.14. 2, W0= 0,2 /




I II III IV V VI
.j 262 260 246 276 277 278
.j/.. 0,98 0,97 0,92 1,03 1,03 1,04
|.j/.. 1| 0,02 0,03 0,08 0,03 0,03 0,04

-

(, 1976) -
.
, (,
1976),
.


( . 1979).
149


( . 1981):
= f(Re).

( -
= 270 ):

(4.18)

N= 6 ; m= 27 -
.
. 4.48, -
, ,
(Re = 90100) -
(, 1978;
1966). = f(Re) :

= 4,93Re0,078 Re= 10100, (4.19)


= 6109Re4,7 Re= 100120. (4.20)
Re . (4.14) (4.15).
. 4.48, Re > 100 -
-
. ,
-,
(
) ,
(-
1968; 1960; 1981; 1962, 1974).
, %

5 1
2
4
3
3 4
. 4.48. = f(Re) -
2

-
: 14 (. 1
10 20 30 40 50 100 200
. 4.12) Re
150 4




(. . 909640 ... 1982).

, -
(, 1968).

, -
. , -
, ,
(. . 3.45, ).
( )
, -
, .

4.7.

, -
,
,
( . 2005; -
. 2001). ,
.
-
, . -
, .
. -

Sulzer Chemtech ().


,
(Baltrnas etal. 2004; Vaiknait 2004).

, , 35, 25 12,5 (Vaiknait 2004; -
, 2006). -
. -
151

-

,
(Vaiknait 2004).
, -, -
.
-
( . 2005), ,
-
. , -
-
(, -
) (. (1987)
, . (Krasovickij etal. 2006)).
-
. -

-
.
,
() .

-
() (.
(1981)).
,

-
.

- , -
.
, : -
. ,
, , , ,
, -
- .
-
-
.
152 4

d
2
-

1 . (1981)
2,5%.
,
()
97,5%.

. 4.49. -
,
-
: 1 ,
; 2 , -
. -
.
-
, -
. 4.49 (, 1992).
, -
-
- .
, (Padeste etal. 1989) -

.

().
(Padeste etal. 1989)
: 1, 2, 3
5 , . ,
(Levenspiel, Turner 1970),

. -
(Padeste etal. 1989) (Cairns, Prausnitz 1959)
. ,


,
-
- ( 1987;
, 2008).
(Cairns, Prausnitz 1959). -
153

(Padeste etal. 1989),


.
,
.
. (1991)
. -
,
, .

.

, :

.
-

DISA 55M (, 2008).

. 4.50.
, -
Lipeks - Gevlet-Pakkard. -
Gttingen
Baldvin Messtehnik.
. , ,

, -

.

8 1
2 3

. 4.50. - 7 5 4

-: 1 - 6
; 2 ; 3 ; 4-
; 5 ; 9

6 -; 7 10
; 8 12
-; 9 -
; 10 13
; 11 -
; 12 , 13 - 14
; 14 Air
154 4


-
10, 30 60 .
50 , -
20 , 0,4
1,8. -

u ReD
d= 0,4; 0,9.
: ReD = 6800; 15600;
27700. ReD , D.

(4.21)

u :
(4.22)

: , /.
(, 2008) -
-
V u -

4.51 4.52.
-
. ,
u 310

1,4 Tu
V
1,2 0,4
1,0 1 0,3
0,8
0,2
0,6
2 0,1
0,4
0 0
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 x/D

. 4.51. (V) -
(u) -
, ReD= 24 400,
( (, 2008): h=
10; h= 30 ; h= 60
155

V 0,35 Tu
6,0
0,3
1
4,0
2 0,25

2,0
0,2

0 0,15
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8
x/D

. 4.52. (V)
ReD
( (, 2008): ReD= 6800; ReD= 15 600

, u , ,
(1987), 3050%.
u 4,6 16%
(. 4.53).
V= f(X/D), . 4.53, -
V
6800 15600
, ,
. V Tu X/D < 0,25 (
) - .

18
Tu, %

16
14
3 2
12
10
. 4.53. 8
1
Tu ReD - 6
4
: 1 d = 0,4 ; 2
2 d= 0,9 ; 3 d= 1,8 5104 105 5105 106 ReD


-
-
,

.
156 4

4.8.

D/d -
D/d
. -
( 1979).

(4.23)

: W0= Wi/n; n . -
IBM-370/148.
W0 0,5/ -
. 4.54. , = f(D/d)
D/d =
820 W= 0,51,0/ ( 1987):

= 30,2(D/d)1+ 26. (4.24)


-
( 1956), a (-
, 1981).
= f(W0) , -
D/d. -
. 4.55 = f(D/d)
W0 = 0,2 /, , ,
.
= f(D/d) ,
D/d -

60
, %

1 5 9
50
2 6 10
40 3 7 11
30 4 8

20
1 2 4 6 8 10 20 40 60 D/d

. 4.54. D/d -
W0 0,5/ : D= 94 : 1 d= 6 ;
2 d= 9,5 ; 3 d= 14 ; 4 d= 50 ; D= 60 : 5 d= 6 ; 6 d=
14 ; 7 d= 50 ; D= 40 : 8 d= 2,5 ; 9 d= 6 ; 10 d= 9,5
; D= 20 : d= 6
157

100

, %
90 1 5
80 2 6
70 3 7
60 4 8
50
40
30
20
10
0
101 2 4 6 8 102 2 4 6 8 103 D/d

. 4.55. , % D/d W0 0,2/


D/d 10 . -2 d = 3,3 ;
1 D =20 ; 2 D= 20 ; 3 D= 60 ; 4 D =94 ; 5 D= 190.
( 35 ): 6 D= 670 ; 7 D= 1800 (-
= f(W0). (1980) W0= 1/
55 ; 8 D= 1400

, D/d 10,
.
D/d 100 -
, -,
, -
.
-
.
S ,
:

(4.25)

: Wi , i- -
; n
; S

.
, -
D/d=
6,523,5 ,
,
( > .).
. 4.56 4.57.
158 4

1,0 1,0

/Wo
/Wo

.
Smax
.
Smax

0,5 0,5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 D/d 0 5 10 15 20 25 D/d

. 4.56. . 4.57.
D/d D/d -
( < .). - ( > .).

-
( 1987), -
5- .
. 4.56 4.57 ,
D/d . ,
S
D/d.

4.9.

-

, -
. ,
-
. -

, , -
, , -
.
159

4.9.1.

.
-

, .

, ,
(. 4.58).
, 1015. -
, ,
(1:1:1), 100.
115 -
, 202020.
, . ,
-
1015.
150.
) ) )

. 4.58. : a) ,
, ) , , )

,

(50 , h= 30 ),
Testo 400 ( 2070C,
0,2 C, 010 /, 0,02 /),
( 0150C,
2C), ( 0320 , -
0,00005 ), . (99,9%- ), (99,9%-
160 4

), (99,9%- ), Nutrient Agaras (


), , (10003), (300 ),
(400 ), SRI 8610 942 ( -
2005C), (. 4.59).
, , ,
0,85 , 0,65 0,15 .
30C, pH= 7 -
. -

.
.
, -
. , -
, .
,
. 8 -
.
, 75%- . -
-
, .
(0,387 3)
7 .
, , -
. -
.
105C

11

10

9 . 4.59. : 1 -
8
12 , 2
, 3
, 4 , 5
, 6 -
7 13 -
4 5 6 14
, 7 , 8 , 9
3 , 10 , 11 -
, 12
2 15 , 13
1 16 , 14 ,
15 , 16
161

, . -
. 12
, .
(0,2 /c2).
3 -
1052C. , -
.
, -
,
33 .

, -
. 1 K2HPO4; 0,5
KCl; 0,5 MgSO47H2O; 0,1 FeSO47H2O; 0,90 NaNO3; 1000 . -
.

(pH= 7,0) (Baltrnas, Vaiknait 2003). -
, . -
pH-.

, -
30C.
-
. ,
.

30C.

.

.
. ,
, 20 /3. -
15 . ,
,
20 /3 -
. .


. , -
162 4

.
103 /3.
(0,1 /)
. ,

. , -
,
3 .

0,2 /, . . -

0,3; 0,4 0,5 /.
, , -
Testo 400 .
.

-
205 /3.

. -
305 /3.

, .
.
.

, -
. -
,
(Vakrina 2007; ilinskas 2003).

-
(. 4.60). -
.
, , -
, ,
(. 4.60). -
, , , -
.
163

I 12 13 II 13
12

11 11
14 14
10 10

9 15 9 15
7 8 16 8 16
6 6
17 5 19
5
18 21
2 3 4 3 4
1 20 1 20
22 22
23 2 23
27
7
20
26 25 24 28 26 19 24

III IV
12 13 12 13

11 11
14 14
10 10

9 15 9 15
8 16 8 16
6 6
19 5 19
5
21
3 4 3 4
1 20 1 20
22 22
2 23 2 23
7 7
29
28 26 24 29 28 26 19 24

. 4.60. : I ; II
;
III , ;
IV

-
, .
-
2, 1.

3, -
.
4. -
164 4

5 , -
. 10
12
6. 26 -
23 16
6. 20
22. 7,
. -

15 8 21, 25. 17
9, 11. -
13.
14 .
19,
2. I- -
27. I-, II- III- -
29, 28.
IV- 30,
ZeoVit. 24.
. -
1015
, , -
1015 . -
, 202020 , -
, , .

, 150. -
,
1, 0,15 , 0,85 , 0,65
0,15 (. 4.61).

) )

. 4.61. : a) , )
165

-
30C, pH= 7
. -
,
. -
.
-
, . , -
, .

, 8 .
,
75%- .
-

33.
. -
30515 /3. -
(0,3 /) . -
. , -
, , ,
0,5/.
, 0,7 /.

-
. , -
, Testo 400 .

-
515 /3.
. -
712/3.
-
.
.
. -
-
.
.
3 .
166 4

4.9.2.


-
-
. . 4.62 ,
. , ,
-
.
, .
, 0,53 /,
. -
, -
, .
103 /3 58 /3.


.
(. 4.62).
-
, . -

(ZeoVit 2006). -

45%, 96%.
(87%)
, . (95%) -

100
, %

90 E = 2,73x 2 + 31,4x + 5,61


80 R 2 = 0,97
70
60
50 E = 2,16x 2 + 28,7x + 3,75
40 R 2 = 0,98
30 E = 1,61x 2 + 28,4x + 2,64
20 R 2 = 0,99
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .

. 4.62.
0,1 /
167

. -
, -
. ,
35 /100 . , , -
,
. , -
,
.
, , .
58
/3 46/3.
, 85%,
, -
.

-
. , 0,1/
, .
,
. . .
-
,
. -
.

. 103 /3
96%. -
305 /3 80%
(. 4.63).
, -
( 500/3),
. -
.

104 /3 5 -
95%, . . 104 /3
10 /3. 310 /3 -
78%, 68 /3
(. 4.64).
.
168 4

100

, %
E = 3,09x 2 + 33,0x + 5,61
90
R 2 = 0,96
80
2
70 E = 2,34x2 + 27,6x + 1,82
R = 0,99
60
50
40 E = 1,23x 2 + 21,3x + 2,46
30 R 2 = 0,99
20
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
103 /3 205 /3 305 /3 , .

. 4.63.

100
, %

90
80 E = 2,02x 2 + 25,7x + 1,46
70 R 2 = 0,99
60
50 E = 3,64x 2 + 36,7x + 1,57
40 R 2 = 0,99
30
20 E = 1,18x 2 + 21,4x + 1,36
10 R 2 = 0,99
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
105 /3 204 /3 310 /3 , .

. 4.64.


, -
, .

105 /3 63 /3. , -
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
-
(. 4.65).
104 /3 87%.
307/3 75%.
169

-
,
.
,
, . , -
, ,
. ,
,
, .
, . 4.66, ,
-
. ,
. -
.

100
, %

90 E = 3,59x 2 + 34,6x + 1,89


80 R 2 = 0,99
70
60
50
40 E = 1,07x 2 + 20,8x 0,29
30 R 2 = 0,99
20 E = 1,75x 2 + 24,2x + 0,93
10 R 2 = 0,99
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
104 /3 203 /3 307 /3 , .

. 4.65.

100
, %

90

80 E = 7,26 Ln(t) + 68,8


R 2 = 0,95
70 E = 7,69 Ln(t) + 65,4
R 2 = 0,97
60 E = 8,52 Ln(t) + 80,4
R 2 = 0,96
50
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
,

. 4.66. -
, 1045 /3
170 4

,
0,1/.
7 ,
96%, 95%, 79%. (67%) -
,
, 1,4 . ,
-
.
,
, , .
98%- -
(. 4.67).

.

. -
45%,
98%.
-
-
.
(90%) -
, ,
(97%) .
, . -
( 20%) .

100
, %

97 97 98 98 97
96 96 96
97
95 95 95 94 94
93
94
91
91 90

88

85
I II III IV
,

, , ,

. 4.67. -

171

, -
.
,
18 /3. -
, -
, ,
, . -
95% 98%. -
(95%),
,
.

. -

0,3/.
, . .
.

, . -

.

. 305 /3
98%.
712/3 89% (. 4.68).
,
-
. , ,
305 /3, 98%.
712 /3

100
, %

97 98 97
96 96
97
95 95 95
94
93 93
94

91 89

. 4.68. - 88
-
- 85
I II III IV
305 /3 515 /3 712 /3
172 4

94%. (89%)
, , , -
.
, -
,
, .
, -

( 98%). -
,
.
-
(500 /3),

0,1 /.
7 .
, 30%
.
. 4.69 ,
-
. ,
. -
. -

0,3/.
2,5 ,
305 /3 6,10 /3.
, -
, 0,7 /.
0,3/

100
, %

97 98 97
97 95
95
94
93 93
94

91
89

88
86
87
86
. 4.69. -

85
I II III IV -
0,3 /c 0,5 /c 0,7 /c
173

, .
, , -
. -
,
(. 4.70).

100

, %
97 98 96 97
95 95
93 93
90 91
90 88
87

80
. 4.70. -

70
I II III IV

-
307 /3 5 -
96%, . . 307 /3
12,28 /3. 712 /3
89%, -
78,3 /3. ,

. , -
-
, . ,
.
, -
.
-
, . -
310/3 0,3/ -
( 4) 95%.
-
,
. -
. 4.71 , -
,
, , .
174 4

100

, %
90 E = 2,43x2 + 30,7x + 3,71
R2 = 0,98
80
70 E = 3x2 + 34,0x + 1,570
60 R2 = 0,99
50 E = 2,34x2 + 31,4x + 0,393
40 R2 = 0,99
30
20 E = 1,696x2 + 28,0x 0,607
10 R2 = 0,99
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .
1 2 3 4

. 4.71. -
, 3055 /3

, -
.

. -
( 40%).

,
, 4 . -
, 30%
. (98%)
.
,
. -
.

4.10.

, ,
. -
, -
, , .
. -
-
. ,
,
175

.

, , .
: ,
, , (Taylor etal. 1999).

4.10.1.

-
Dp A. H..
(Deshusses, Johnson 2000):
Dp= A.H., Pa, (4.26)
A. , 3/2; H. , .
A. D. -
:
A. = 8,821011D.A., 3/2, (4.27)
D. .
, -
, -
(Baltrnas etal. 2004; Vaiknait
2008):
(4.28)

K ; m
, N/2; S , 2; e -
.
-
(Mohammad etal. 2007). -
-
, (Malhautier
etal. 2005).

(. 4.72). -
, -
.
-
, -
176 4

.
,
, 1015. -
50:50%, 100.
20 ,
303020.
50:50%, 150. ,
2030 .
0,85 , 0,65
0,15 (. 4.72).
,
.
, -
,
. -
(Baltrnas, Zagorskis 2007).
-
. -

11
) 12
)

10

9
850

8
7
13
650

4 5 6
14
H2O
3
2 15
1
16

. 4.72. (): 1 , 2 , 3 -
, 4 , 5 -
, 6 , 7 , 8 ,
9 , 10 , 11 , 12 -
, 13 , 14 ,
15 , 16 ; ()
177


.
-
, , (. 4.72,).

(Zagorskis 2009). 25 -
, 0,55 2.
, ,
,
.
Testo 400
, -
,
DSM-1.
( 4.73).
, -
, -
.

) )

. 4.73. : ;

.
, .
0,150,100,003 . -
0,150,100,10 . -
, .
-
, -
.
178 4

4.10.2.

-
, -
(. 4.74).
0,1 /
314 . 0,5/ -
710 .
( 500/3),
.
, -
, -
.
0,1/ 950 .
-

(. 4.75).
.
150 314 ,
0,1 / 142 .

.
. ,
-
, -

,

1800

1500

1200

900

600

300

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .
0,1 /c 0,2 /c 0,3 /c 0,4 /c 0,5 /c

. 4.74. ,
,
179

. 0,5 /
.
710 , -
334 , 302 .
-
, -
100 0,1/ (. 4.76). -
,
, 10 . -
2 10 365 105 .

,
.

800
,

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5
, /

. 4.75. ,
,

450

,

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2 4 6 8 10 12
,

. 4.76.

180 4

-
-
(. 4.77). . 4.77 ,

.
. -

, -
.
, . 4.78, , -
-
500 /3.
-
. 300 -
1000 1150 .
: ,
, .
1200
,

1150
1100
1050
1000
950
900
850
0 14 28 56 84 133 161 189 217 253 271 300 328
,

. 4.77. -

600
, /3

500
400
300
200
100
0
0 14 28 56 84 133 161 189 217 253 271 300 328
,

. 4.78.

181

, . 4.79, ,
(328 ) -
9097%. -
.

.
, -
, , .
. 4.79 , -
. ,
- ,
-
.
(30C).
, -
. .


(.4.80).
. , -
90
, 50 . -
. 135 -
60 .
-
.
, -
, , .

100
, %

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 14 28 56 84 133 161 189 217 253 271 300 328
,

. 4.79.

182 4

70

,
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

105

125

135
101

131
25

43

73

83
21

32

110
29

39

51
57

67

77

87

97
18
3

36

46
10

60

70

80

90
14

64
7

94
0

. 4.80. -

180
, /3

160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
21

51

101

131
3

43

73

83
32
0

7
10

25
29

39

70
36

46

57
60

67

77
80

87
90

97

105
110
125

135
18
14

64

94
,

. 4.81.
-

90
, %

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
21

51

101

131
3

43

73

83
32
0

7
10

25
29

39

67
70
36

46

57
60

77
80

87
90

97

105
110
125

135
18
14

64

94

. 4.82.

. 4.81 , 29 -
.
80
80%. -
210 /3.
183

. 4.82 ,
-
. -
( 57 ) -
. -
.

-
.
-
6080%. ,
87%, 83 . -
.
5

5.1.

-
-
, , ,
-
. ,
, , -
. -
,
:
;
;
- ;
.

.


. -
, , . (
. 1980; . 1977) -
-
, .
,
-
.
, -
.
, e= f(D/d) - -
, . 5.1, , , ,
185

0,5

, 3/3
0,45
. 5.1. e= f(D/d) -

: ;
0,4
5 10 15 20 25 30
D/d


.
-
, ,
. ,
, -
(), .

5.2.

5.2.1.

-
.
(Lyczkowski 1982; Martin 1978; Ziolkowska 1979, 1980) -

. , (Martin 1978) ,
,
(. . 5.2). (Martin 1978), , -
(Price 1968; Leroy, Froment 1977; Marivoet etal. 1974),
0,5d ,
.
(Moscicka etal. 1976) , -

R , d, -
0,5d. (Ziolkowska 1979, 1980)
,
, .
186 5
W/W0

1,0
3 . 5.2. -
:
0,5 1 ; 2
1 (Martin 1978); 3 -
(Leroy, Froment 1977; Marivoet
0 etal. 1974; Price 1968; Moscicka etal. 1976)
0 0,5 1,0 y/d

, , -
, -
.
-
, . -
(Vortmeyer, Schuster 1983) ,
-
, . -
.
(Martin 1978; . 1982)
-
. ,
-
.

( 1985; , 1986).

.
(Ziolkowska etal. 1983)
.
-
.
(, 1976) -
, .
,

. , -
, . (-
, 1976) , .
187


, ,

, .
-
, , , -
- (,
1968; . 1979).
-
.
, -
, -
.
(, 1946) ,
H -
, , .= 1d.
, , Wmax/W
d/D, (Ziolkowska etal. 1983; Collins 1968;
Bundy 1966; 1980).
( . 1979) -
, .
-
-
.
( 1956) -
. -
3 , W.
, ,
, (Price 1968; 1980) .
(Fahien, Stankovic 1979) (Schwarz, Smith
1953) ,
. W
(Schwarz, Smith 1953) 52,3%, a Wmax -
. , (Fahien, Stankovic 1979)
-
D/d . ,
(Schwarz, Smith 1953) - -
, -
. ,
d/D .
188 5

(Drahos etal. 1982),


D/d 8,2 22,9,
-
W Wmax.
, -
D/d
5 75, D/d 3
. ,
Wmax.

d.
, -
, -
, -
.

. ,
, , ( 2 )
, -
(Moscicka etal. 1976a).

5.2.2.
( .
1980), -
, -

.
,
.
1, -
2.
(
. 2007) ,
W1 W2
1 2 ,
1 2:

(5.1)

189


( . 1979):

(5.2)

(5.2) :

DP= f(W, e). (5.3)


, , -
:
ei= f(R) DPi= f(R) Wi = f(R). (5.4)
: R , i , i
, Wi .

, ,
: .
-
, . 5.3.

W. W W.

P. P P.

. .


H
H2O

R

H

H2O

W0

. 5.3.

190 5

5.2.3. .



, -
. ,
-
-
(Lyczkowski 1982; Puschnow 1973;
Achenbach 1982). , , -
. -, e (Roblee etal. 1958;
Benenati, Brosilow 1962; Puschnow 1973; Sonntag 1960) W (Morales etal. 1951;
1951; , 1968; . 1979; 1979; 1980;
Schwarz, Smith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977; Ziolkowska etal. 1980) -
, D, H, d
. ,
e W . -, -
-
(Lyczkowski 1982; . 1974).
-
-
. -

(Morales etal. 1951; 1951; , 1968;
. 1979; Price 1968; Cairrns, Prausnitz 1959; . 1978;
Drahos etal. 1982; Moscicka etal. 1976; Ziolkowska etal. 1983; 1980;
Schwartz, Smith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977; , 1950; 1983;
1972; Roblee etal. 1958; Benenati, Brosilow 1962; Ridgway, Tarbuck 1968;
Puschnow 1973; Govindaro, Froment 1986).
e W
.
. 3.5.
-
. 5.4. -
.

-
.
, -
-
191

) W/W0
) )

W/W0

W/W0
1,8
1,4 1,4
1,7
1,3 1,3
1,6
1,2 1,2
1,5
1,1 1,1
1,4
1,0 1,0
1,3 0,9
1,2 0,9
0,8
1,1 0,8
0,7
1,0 0,7
0,6 
0,9 0,5
  0,6
0,3 0,3
0,2 0,2 0,5
0,1 0,1
0 0 0,4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 y/d 0 1 2 3 y/d 0 1 2 y/d

. 5.4. ()
94 , W0= 2 /: ) d= 6 ,
/d= 2; ) d= 9,5 , /d= 3; ) d=
14,5 , /d= 2

, W/W0
e, -
(, 1976).
W e
.

, ,
(). -
. , (Staneck, Szekely 1972, 1973) -
,
( . 1979),
, e= 1. -
( . 1984).
(Leroy, Froment 1977) ,
.

. , -
, . , , -
, , , ,
,
.
(Martin 1978) , -
() Y= 1d , -
192 5


e = f(Y), (Benenati, Brosilow 1962).
.
(. . 5.4) , -

.
-
W e 14 94 H/d =
2, W = f(e)
. , -
RWe= 0,65. -
e W. W e
,
. , Y < 0,3d:
W0, e 1. , -
W= f(e).
,
W = f(e) ,
W/W0e = f(Y/d) (. . 5.5, ).

.
, . -
-
-
, , (,
1976).
. 5.5, , -
, -
Y/d 2. , , ,
W/W0e. /d 2.
,
/d > 20.
. 5.5, ,
(Benenati, Brosilow 1962) -
, .
-
.
Y/d > 2.
, -

. Y/d= 2.
193

W/(W0)

W/(W0)
) 14 ) 7
13 6
12 5
11 4
10 3
9 2
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 y/d
7
6
5 2
4
3 3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
y/d

. 5.5. W/W0e = f(Y/d): ) 94 :


1 d= 6 ; = 2d; 2 d= 9,5 ; = 3d; 3 d= 14,5 ; = 3d; )
(Benenati, Brosilow 1962)
94 6 H/d > 20

. -
e./e=
f(./d).
. e = f(Y/d).
. 0,3 4,5d,
e = f(Y/d).
, :

(5.5)

, z ,
. -
e
(, 1968):
(5.6)

. 5.6. ,
e. e D/d 5,6 21,8
(11,5)d.
,
.= (23)d.
194 5

2,0
./

1,9
1,8
1,7
. 5.6. e./e = f(./d)
1,6
: 1
1,5 ; 2
1,4 (Benenati, Brosilow 1962)
1,3 D/d = 5,620,3; 3
1,2 (Sonntag 1960); 4 -
1,1 (Thadani, Peebles 1966); 5 -
1,0 (Roblee etal. 1958)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 ./d

-
.
. .
, , ,
.

, (Y= 0,33d)
, , .
-
, . 3.5, ,
-
-.

. -
(Kondelik, Boyarinov 1969; Ziolkowski, Tobis 1983; -
1981; . 1980; 1985).

(Puschnow 1973; . 1982; . 1974).
. -
, , -

. , , ,
.
,
, Y > 2d -
.
3- ,
:
195

0 < Y/d 0,3


, -

(
. 1984);
0,3 < Y/d 2 ,
;
Y/d > 2 -
.
-
,
, -
. -
, (, ,
.) , -
.
.
,

, , , , -
.
, -
3-
. (. . 5.7):
1- 2d;
2- 4d.
.
. 5.7.
-
.
, -
-

. -
.
Y/d = z. ,
, , :
(5.7)

196 5


W0

.  .

f. 1 f. f.

W. W W.

W0


( ) ( )

.  

Re. Re Re

W. W0 W

. 5.7. 2-

, z =
2, :

(5.8)

: f = 1 f.. f. = f(D/d)
. 5.8.
f.= f(D/d), -
z= 2 -
D/d 100 1000 .

D/d, -
,
.
197

100 100
f. 9 9
8 8
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 101
2

101
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

102

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 102 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 103
D/d

. 5.8. f.
D/d z= 2

5.2.4.

(. 5.9)

, -
. (1977) -
:
(5.9)

(5.10)

198 5

W0, C.

W., C. W, C W., C.

.  .

f. 1 f. f.
. 5.9.
W0, C0

(5.11)

:
(5.12)


, , -
:

DP.= DP = DP. (5.13)


(5.14)

(5.15)


2- :

(5.16)

199

(5.17)

(5.18)

(5.19)

f. < 1, (3.21) ,

(5.20)

:

(5.21)

(5.22)

(5.23)


(5.15) (5.23)
:

(5.24)

(5.25)
200 5

(5.26)

(5.27)

(5.28)

(5.29)


(5.26):

(5.30)

(3.26) :
Re0 0:

(5.31)

Re0 :

(5.32)

(5.33)

W/W0 -
:
(5.34)

201

(5.30) (5.34), -, ,
( . 1982), -
( . 1977),
, , D
, (1986).

5.2.5.


e.

(5.35)

(, 1968; . 1949):

(5.36)

(5.35) e = f(D/d) -
, . n . ,
e ,
, = e.
(5.35) (5.36) e.,

(5.37)


m= 2. -
. (Cairns,
Prausnitz 1959; , 1981; , 1963; -
. 1982; 1944; Saunders, Ford 1940; Roblee etal. 1958;
1963; . 1949; . 1978; Sonntag 1960;
Thadani, Peebles 1966; 1978; , 1980; Leva
1950; Carman 1937; aa 1966; . 1976; . 1972; -
. 1979; . 1968; Quinton, Storrov 1956; 1981;
1981; , 1974; . 1983;
. 1977; . 1984; Ziolkowska etal. 1984; 1982; -
. 1984; . 1982; Specchia, Baldi 1977; ,
202 5

1947; Pruschek 1963; Yagi etal. 1964; Glaser, Thodes 1958; Sen Gupta, Thodos
1962; Satterfield, Resnick 1954; Meek 1961; Lidersen 1950; Galloway etal. 1957;
Furnas 1930; Eluhin, Starosvitskii 1964; Barker 1965; Baumeister, Bennett 1958;
De Acetis, Thodos 1960; Gamson etal. 1943; Bradshaw, Meyers 1963;
1960; , 1984; Lf, Hawley 1948; Solntsen etal. 1963; Glaser
1955; Ziolkowski, Pomaranski 1981; Coppage, London 1956; Lim, Mathur 1976;
, 1970) -
: = 1,5; e=
0,35; n= 1; = 0,92; e= 0,34; n= 2; = 0,35;
e= 0,53; n= 1; = 1,0; e= 0,375; n= 2. e -

D/d > 7, D/d > 10, D/d > 40.
n= 1 (5.37)
:
(5.38)

n = 2 (5.37)
:
(5.39)

(5.37)(5.39) -
, -
, .
(5.35) -
D/d -
, , D/d > 3.
e
- -
.
(5.24), (5.26)(5.30), (5.34), (5.37)(5.39) -
-
.

5.2.6.
-
.
( . 1986):
203

(5.40)

=
2d -
, (Martin 1978)
(Benenati, Brosilow 1962). e= 0,39; emin= 0,23
(Benenati, Brosilow 1962; Sonntag 1960; Achenbach 1982).
e. (5.39)
(5.40) , , 6%, -
.

:

(5.41)

f. (5.8) (5.41)
:

(5.42)


e (5.42), (5.40) (5.37), , -
D/d= 10 , 5%.
-
. W/W0= f(z) z 0 2

W./W0.
, -
:

(5.43)

204 5

(5.44)

z= 2 :

(5.45)

(5.46)


S0= S+ S.. (5.47)
S0,

(5.48)

:

(5.49)

:
(5.50)

, :

(5.51)

, , :

(5.52)


(5.52) (5.49):
205

(5.53)


W./W0= f(z) z 0 2
(. 5.5),
:
(5.54)

.


-
:

(5.55)

(5.56)


z = 2 -
:

(5.57)


206 5

(5.58)

-

(5.24) (5.57)
, 15%.
, -
-
.

5.3.




.
(),
, ,
, -
. ,
.
,
W
W1 W2
.

.
1 2 -
1 2 2025%.
-

-
W .
. 5.10.
. 5.10.
: , -
1 1; ,
2 2 ( 1 2), .. 1 2.
207

, w -
,
() d
. :

(5.59)

;

, d=
4e/S.; , 2/4; S.= (1 e)
, 2/3; = 6/d ( ),
, 2/.
(5.59) :

(5.60)

:
Dp1= Dp2 =Dp, (5.61)
1, 2 .
(5.60)
(5.61):

(5.62)

, (5.62)

(5.63)


208 5

Re 0 (5.63),

(5.64)

1 = 0,5 2
2 0,4 ( 2 = 0,4
, . . -
), (5.64)
. . 5.11,

, . . 5.11
-

( 1980).
w1/w2

2,0

1,5
. 5.11.
w1/w2 e1/e2

1,0 1,1 1,2 1/2

w1/w2 (
1980) .
w1/w2, (5.64),
11%.
, (5.63) (5.64)
-

.
. 5.11,
. , e1/e2 5%
w1/w2 25%.

, -
.
209

5.4.


, , -
(
), ( ).
( < 2030d) -
, -
. (/d >>100)
,
.
. , -
. -

.
, -

< . , -
,

. .
()
, , -
(, 1968; . 1979),
< ..


.
,
, , -
. -
,
( 1975) ( Redk=
1104 1107), ./d= 3050, d .
. -

.. , -
,
210 5

,
.
dk/d D/d > 10, -
(D ).
, ,
, ,

(5.65)

= 0,34 D/d > 10
(, 1978).
(n1)
(n2), :
(5.66)

d= 0,718d :
H./d= 22 36. (5.67)
, -
, -
Re = 40100,
Re > 10001200 ( 1975).
H./d (5.67).

( . 1986), , -
H./d =
2236. -
.
-
C.
D= 94 , ,
, .
,
. -

. 5.1.
, .
S / W0
. 5.2. . 5.12 y= f(H/d)
211

5.1. , D= 94

D/d H/d
d, W0, /
4,0 23,5 1,0 1; 2,5; 4,5; 6,25; 9,5; 14,3; 24,2; 54,3; 104
6,0 15,7 0,4; 1,0; 2,0; 17; 33,4; 50; 67
2,0 2,7; 6,2; 9,5; 12,8; 16,2; 19,5; 27,8; 52,8
9,5 9,9 2,0 1; 3; 5; 10; 21; 30; 42
14,5 6,5 2,0 3,5; 7; 14; 21; 28,6
0,4; 0,8; 1,0; 1,6; 2,0 1; 2; 3; 4

5.2. -

d= 4 d= 6 d= 9,54 d= 14,5
H/d H/d H/d H/d

1,0 0,6108 2,67 0,5422 1,0 0,4548 1,0 0,5884


2,5 0,4444 6,17 0,4634 2,63 0,5568 1,8 0,4838
4,0 0,3598 9,5 0,6388 5,26 0,4957 3,6 0,5270
5,0 0,3902 12,83 0,5681 10,53 0,3248 7,14 0,4562
6,25 0,3948 16,17 0,5565 21,05 0,3636 14,29 0,4789
9,25 0,2946 19,5 0,5533 31,58 0,3688 14,29 0,4926
14,25 0,3369 27,83 0,4909 42,1 0,3679 1,29 0,4324
24,25 0,2531 52,83 0,5061 20,69 0,2618
54,25 0,3756 20,69 0,3754
104,25 0,3944 28,57 0,4089

W0 = const. ,
/d -
D/d.
/d (. . 5.13) D/d, -
D/d 20, ./d = 9. -
D/d = 6,523,5 . 5.13
:
H./d= 70(D/d)0,64. (5.68)
212 5

, %

, %
) 50
) 50
40 40

30 30

20 20
0 20 40 60 80 100 H/d 0 20 40 60
H/d

60 60
, %

, %
) )
50 50

40 40

30 30

20 20
0 20 40 60 80 100 H/d 0 20 40 60
H/d
. 5.12. .
, W0= constant. a) d= 4 ; D/d= 23,5; ) d= 6 ; D/d= 15,7; ) d= 9,5 ;
D/d= 9,9; ) d= 14,5 ; D/d= 6,6

./d= 920 -
D/d -
(. (6.57)),
(,
1964)
D= 94 , d= 14,2.
. (1983) e/e. =
f(H/d) (. 5.14) , D/d= 6,6 -
H/d = 20. ./d (. . 5.13) -
. ,

. e ,
. 5.2 . 5.15.
., Wi , -
-
(. . 5.16).
. 5.12 , H/d > 9 D/d>
9,9 y= f(H/d) -
.
W0 .,
,
. W0
, . -
.
213

/.
1,4
H./d

20
1,3
15 1,2

10 1,1

5 0
5 10 15 20 25 0 4 8 12 16 20
D/d H/d

. 5.13. . 5.14. /. = a(H/d) (,


d= 14,2 , D/d= 6,6):
W0= ; . -
1 /: . - -
-
; D
; d

 0,5
d = 4
0,45 d = 6
0,4
0,35
0,3
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 H/d

. 5.15.
/d 94
P,

500

400 1

100 2

0 10 20 30
H/d

. 5.16. DP= f(H/d) . 1


2 , . (1985)
94 : 1 d= 6 ; W0= 2,7 /; 2 d= 4 ; W0= 1 /. 3
(1958) , d= 15,6 ; W0= 1,6 /
214 5

-
-
.

, :
1) , -
;
2) W0 .;
3) -
.
-
, , -
.
-

-72. , -
, -
, -
, -

.

5.5.


-
()
-
.

,
. -
.


(. 5.17, 5.18), ,
-
. -
215

U, /c
2,0

1,6

1,2

0,8

0,4

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 y,

. 5.17. U
( D= 94 , d= 4 ,
d H/d= 14,2, Vs= 1 /)

U, /c
3,6

3,4

3,0
. 5.18. 2,6
36
2,2
= 28 = constant (D = 94 , d =
14,5 , = 300 , Vs= 2 /) 1,8
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
 ,

, , -

( ). , (Drahos etal. 1982),
D/d=
8,222,9,
= 1500 -
( ) -
( ):
(5.69)

(5.70)

(Morales etal. 1951) , -



D/d= 575,
3 . ,
U max . -
(Drahos etal. 1982)
216 5

d.
(1980) ( 1960) -
, .
(Fahien, Smith 1955) (Schwartz,
Smith 1953) , -
.
(Schwartz, Smith 1953) 50%,
. , (Fahien,
Smith 1955) -
D/d . , -
(Schwartz, Smith
1953) -
(), . -
,
d/D, .
( 1956, 1971)
.

. , D= 400 -
100, 200 300.
, , ,
.
( . 1982), -
, ,
d, ( . 1979)
, -

Vs .
() (.).
,
.= 1,5 D/d
, d.
D/d 610 (-
. 1979) ,
..
-
.
(Drahos etal. 1982; -
1980; 1960; Fahien, Smith 1955; Schwartz, Smith 1953; -
1956, 1971; . 1982) , ,
217

-
, .

. -
-
, ,
.
-

,
. -

. -

, ,
, , -
, -

. (-
, , ) -
,
. ,
( . 1984), .
, ,
,
,

.

. -

-
D/d.
,
, -
,
, -
.

100 , .
218 5

, 94
6,0; 9,5 14,5. -
, ,
. , -
. ,
d ~100 d.
4.3.
-
,
.
,
. (. 4.3)
, -
. ,

,
(Leroy, Froment 1977).
-
,
.
. 5.19. , -
.
S/Vs
. S
( 1970):

(5.71)

U , i-
; n .
. 5.19 , ,
, . -
S/Vs.
,
U y = const
. -
1280. ,
D/d,
, ,
219

2,0

U*/Vs

U*/Vs

U*/Vs
) ) )
1,5
1,5
1,0 1,5
1,0
0,5 1,0
0,5
0 0,5
0
2,5 0
U/Vs

1,5

U/Vs

S/Vs
U/Vs
2,0 1,5
1,0
1,5 1,0
0,5 0,4
1,0 0,5 0,6
0,8 0 0
0,5 0,2
0,4 0 0
0 0 1,5
1,5
1,0
2,0 1,0
0,5 0,6
1,5 0,5 0,6
0,2
0 0 0,2
1,0 0 0
0,8
0,5 1,5
0,4 1,5
0 0 1,0
1,0

0,5 0,6
1,5 0,5 0,4
0,2
0 0 0 0
1,0
0,8
0,5 0,4 1,5
1,0
0,8
0 0 1,0
0,8 0,5 0,4
0,5 0,4
2,5 0 0
0 0
2,0 2,0

1,5 1,5 1,5

1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0


0,8
0,5 0,6 0,5 0,5 0,6
0,4
0,2 0,2
0 0 0 0 0 0
y, y, y,

. 5.19. D= 94 d= 6; 9,5 14,5


( ), -
S/Vs ( -
(5.75) S/Vs= f(y/d, H/d) -
) (. 5.3)
220 5


,
.
, , y/d -
D/d Vs Vs 0,5 /.

5.3. S/Vs= f(y/d, H/d) -


H/d ( ) ( S/Vs)

) D= 94 ; d= 6 , D/d= 15,7
2,67
6,17 +
9,50
12,83 s
16,17 >
19,50 <
27,80

<
52,80 r
>
) D= 94 ; d= 9,5 , D/d= 9,89
1,00
2,63 +
5,26
10,53 s
21,10 >
31,60 <
42,10
<

) D= 94 ; d= 14,5 , D/d= 6,5


1,00
1,79 +
3,57
7,10 s
14,30 >
20,70 <
28,60
<
221

-

D/d 7 20. . 5.20
,
:

(5.72)


A= 3,74102; B= 8,15101, C= 1,2101, N= 3,06101, = 1,16101 F=
1,14102 . y/d 5
D/d (5.72) :

(5.73)
-
, -
, -
.

.
, D/d =
720 , (2,53) -
d, -
0,3d .
65% .
,
-
, (
. 1979; Roblee etal. 1958; Benenati, Brosilow 1962; Ridgway, Tarbuck 1967,
1968; Pillai 1977; Puschnow 1973; , 1970).
U */Umax

1,0

0,8

0,6

0 1 2 3 4 y/d

. 5.20.
D/d= 7 20: D= 94 , d= 14,5 , d=
95 , d= 6 ; D= 60 , d= 6 (= 1000 )
222 5

(5.73) -
U max (d/D=
const). ,
U max / Vs d/D (. . 5.21). -
, :

(5.74)

= 0,00419; b= 0,391; = 2,067.
. 5.21, -
,
7,5%.
, (5.72) (5.74) -
-
D/d 7 20. -

2,0
U max/Vs

1,8

1,6

1,4

1,2

1,0
0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2
D/d

. 5.21. U max / Vs = f ( d / D ) :
D = 94 d = 4; 6; 9,5 14,5 ( , -
D/d); : D =
98, d= 7,4 , Vs= 0,8/ (Calderbank, Pogorski 1957). D= 400 , d= 5.6
( . 1981). D= 400 , d= 5,6 , Vs= l /, H= 200 ; D= 1400,
55 ( . 1981). D= 94 , d= 8,7; 5,57 4.11 , Vs = 0,8 /, H=
1050 (Ziolkowska etal. 1976): D= 94 , d= 8.7 4.11 , Vs= 0.8 /, H=
1050 (Ziolkowska 1980); D= 94 , d= 8.7; 7.15; 4,11 9.79 , Vs= 0.8 /,
H= 1500 (Drahos etal. 1982). D= 50,8 , d= 9,53 , H= 532 (Schwartz,
Smith 1953); D= 200 , dcp.= 0,4 (), Vs= 0.3 /, H= 300 (-
, 1981); D= 290 , d= 6 , Vs = l /, H= 400 (
1981); D = 99 , 9,59,5 , Vs = 1.1 /, H = 1000 (Leroy, Froment 1977);
D= 200, d= 6 , Vs= 1,4 /, H= 500 ( . 1976); D= 120 ,
d = 3, Vs =1.4/ ( . 1976); D= 200 , d= 5 , H= 600 (-
1980); D= 400 , d= 5 , Vs = 0,95 /c, = 600 ( 1980); D=
52, d= 8.7 , Vs = 3,6/ ( . 1978); D= 1400 , 55 ,
Vs= 1.1 /, H= 750 ( 1980)
223

, . .
-
( . 1984)
.
, S, -
,
(5.72) (5.74) -
D/d.
, -
S
y/d ,

(5.75)


D/d 7 20 H/d1.
S
D/d , S
H/d,
( 1987).
( 1968), -
-
, -
99,73%
( 1970):
(5.76)

a= ; = S/Vs; 3 ( 1970).
-
. 5.22.
- ( (5.72)
(5.76)) -
-
(. . 5.22). -
H/d D/d ( ) U * / Vs -
, 12%,
.
U / Vs
,
.
224 5

U/Vs
2,0

1,6

1,2

0,8

0,4
0 1 2 3 4 y/d

. 5.22. D = 94 , d = 9,5 , /d = 42,l


Vs = 2 /: ;
, -
:
: -
:

, (5.76) 3= 1,06

, -
(D, d, ) ( ) -

, ,

( 1987), .

5.6.

, -
. -
, -
(Vaitieknas 2007).
(. modus , , ) -
, : ,
- , , ;
, ; , -
; -
(Using bioreactors ... 2003; Vaitieknas 2007).
225

-
, ,
, , -
.
,
.

(Baltrnas etal. 2001):
;
.
PHOENICS ,
, , .
, , -
. , ,
, .,
(Baltrnas etal. 2004).
-
-
.
: , ,
, -
.
FORTAN.
PHOENICS , -
-
, ,
, .
Biofilter. -
, ,
. -
.
, x, y, z,
(Baltrnas, Paliulis 2002).
:

;
, -
;
, , -
;
226 5

,
(, ) (Baltrnas,
Paliulis 2002).
Biofilter -
, , -
.
, -
, , -
, , , ,
(Baltrnas, Paliulis 2002).

,
.
, -
, Phoenics 3.5.
, -
.
, , , -
(Ardjmand etal. 2005).
, ,
, -
.
: , , . -
, , , ,
, , ,
-
.
.
, -
,
, -
, , , , -
, .
, , -
, (Amanullah etal.
1999; Liu etal. 2006).
, -
, -
(Liu etal. 2004).
. ,
227

, -
.
,
.
KP, , -
(Wu 2003):
(5.77)

1
, h ; Ks Mooa, /; c -
, /; KP , /.
(5.77) -
(Wu 2003).

.
D.
, , :
(5.78)

M. , , /3 -
; M. , , /3 ;
dc/dt ; rv,c
, /3 ; x , , .
:
(5.79)

-
(Wu 2003). , -
, , -
Pseudomonas putida (Converti etal. 1997).
(Wu 2003).
. , -
-
. -
, .
(Chan, Peng 2008):
ln(c/c0)= t, (5.80)
c0 , /3; t
, .
228 5

-
, -
(Chan, Chang 2006):
c0 c= k0t, (5.81)
k0 .
, :

c= c0(1 t(ak0De/2mc0)1/2)2, (5.82)


a , c2; De -
, c2/; m , -
; , .

(t) (Chan, Chang 2006).
3.2 ir 3.5 PHOENICS, -
, : -
. -
,
(Taylor etal. 1999; Vaitieknas 2007).
PHOENICS
(Vaitieknas 2007).
, -
PHOENICS, (Baltrnas
etal. 2001; Zigmontien, Baltrnas 2004):

(5.83)

t ; ri i; i i; i -
i (, , ,
.); i; -

i; i.

, , -
, MAPLE 7
DATAFIT 6.1.10 -
.
-
-
b a,

( , .) (Vaitieknas 2007).
229


, , , -
- .
.
, -
, Fluint.
PHOENICS.
, -
, , (Chan,
Chang 2006).
-
, MATHCAD. -
-
.
, . -
: (), (
), ( )
(Wu 2003).
STATISTIKA -
. ,
.

, . (Converti etal. 1997).
. -
, -
. -
, ,
(Puschnow etal. 2008):

(5.84)

u -
, /; w0 , /; R -
, ; R0 , ,

(5.85)

de , .
230 5

-
:

(5.86)

y , ;
() , .
-
:

(5.87)

h , ; x y ,
u .
, ,
, . -
,
. w w0 -

:
w0= 0,5x, (5.88)

w0= (2/3)wx. (5.89)


:
de= 4F/P, (5.90)
F , 2; P , .
, -
:
Sp.= 4/de, (5.91)
, %.
, , ,
, . -
:

(5.92)

;
231

, /3; L , , ; de
, , .
-

:
= B/Re, (5.93)
Re ; B ,
( = 64, =
56,9, = 53).
:

(5.94)

, 2/.
,
, . Re=
389, u= 5 /, de= 5, u= 6,42105 2/, , = 0,146, 0,165
0,136 ,
.
, 4,5 , -
F = 20,25 2, P = 18,0 , de = 0,0045 , S. = 889 2/3 (Puschnow
etal. 2008).
105
Phoenics 3.5, 3
.
-
.
, , -
2
.
(55%) ( , -
150 )
1

. -
.
. 5.23. -
, : 1 -
- -
; 2
. -
; 3
. 5.23.
232 5


,
,
.
(0,3 /)
(30). , -
100%,
1,5 /3.
.
.
. -
(. 5.24).
.
, -
0,3/.
350 a. -
2370/3. -
15 a.

.
-
, 1105 a.
, .
1030 a,

) )
, ,
3,504E + 02 1,105E + 03
3,081E + 02 1,053E + 03
2,422E + 02 1,048E + 03
1,901E + 02 1,045E + 03
1,352E + 02 1,035E + 03
1,298E + 02 1,030E + 03
1,254E + 02 9,048E + 02
1,192E + 02 9,231E + 02
9,951E + 01 8,702E + 02
8,912E + 01 7,984E + 02
7,014E + 01 7,125E + 02
6,888E + 01 6,151E + 02
6,042E + 01 2,105E + 02
5,982E + 01 8,205E + 01
3,403E + 01 3,860E + 01
1,502E + 01 2,014E + 01

. 5.24. : a) -
, )
233

870 a.
, , ,
, 255 a. -

20 a.
-
.
(. 5.25).
, ,
455 a. -
-
, .
,

1500

1180 1226
1200
990 1105
1030
900
756 870
600
455 615

300
350

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
, .

. 5.25.

-
15% , .
-
, -
.
,
, ,
10%.
6

6.1.

6.1.1.


D -
. ,
D
D= 52.
.
.

. ( ) -
( . 1979; . 1981; ,
1978) = 1000.
, (,
1968; . 1979; , 1978; . 1977) -
, D/d > 10, D= 52 .
. -
,
.

. ( . 1980),
,
, .
D= f(W0).
. 6.1.
D = f(W0) D ,
, -
. e S - ,
235

6.1.

,
,


,


g., /3

S, 2/3

g, /3

3/3

d,

723 0,535 1148 0,00186
, 35

743 1550 0,52 1140 0,0018
35
( )
,
6,15,85 1808 2771 0,348 590 0,0023

-8,
1,55,13 499 814 0,386 1268 0,0012
-2,
, 410 870 1469 0,41 750 0,0022

, 210 882 1469 0,40 1040 0,0015

, 10102 588 1469 0,60 320 0,0073

1469 0,50
4,5

e S, -
.
e
0,011, g 0,007.
Eu=
f(Re). . 6.1.
(-
) , 4%, -
:
(6.1)

. (1977) -
.
236 6

Eum
2
3
4
4
5
1 6
2 7
8
9
100
8
6
3 4 6 8 102 2 4 6 8 103 2 4
Re

. 6.1. Eu= f(Re) , -


, (1963): 1 ; 28 ;
9 , (1963); 2 -2
1,55,13 ; 3 -8 6,15,85 ; 4 -
10102 ; 5 10100,9 ; 6 410 ; 7 -
210 ; 8 . 35 ; 9 510
(, 1963)

D -
.
( . 1977) ,
D Eum -
,
Eu = f(Re) -
. , D
, ,
. , (6.1)
D
, ,
(. . 6.1).

6.1.2.

. -
D/d . ,
D/d= 3 .= 20d, D/d >> 20 .= 10d.
, D/d
.
, . ,
D/d -
. -
237

. , >> .
.
-
, -
D. , - -
, , D.

.

D const ,
e S. -
e S. e
S D.
-
D.
D,
,
, , e S,
.
,
D H < . ,
(, 1968;
. 1979; , 1978).
-
.
-
, -
.
(D/d > 1,867)
(. 6.2).

-
. ,
ReD= 60014 300, -
ReD= 28 700.
. -
, -
. () .
, 94% (. 6.2).
. -
2,5%.
238 6

6.2.

D, d, D/d /d , 3/3 W0, /


91 50 1,88 9 0,55 0,5; 0,89; 1,7; 2,7; 3,9; 5,6
60 50 1,2 8 0,65 0,9; 1,5; 2,3; 3,15; 3,99
14 4,29 28,6 0,42 0,53; 0,9; 1,37; 1,96; 2,48; 4,2
40 14 2,86 29,3 0,47 0,67; 1,8; 3,0; 0,33; 0,46; 0,62;
9,5 4,2 43,2 0,43 0,75; 1,05; 1,3; 1,57
20 6 3,3 86,7 0,44 0,3; 0,46; 0,6; 0,75; 1,05; 1,3; 1,6;
1,84; 2,1; 2,6

13
14
12

2
1
3 4
DISA
5 7
. 6.2. : 1 -
; 2 ; 3
15 6 8 5540; 4 -
16 5510; 5 -
10 9 5525; 6
55D31; 7
55D26; 8 55D35; 9
11
7-16; 10 5033;
11 -23; 12 -
551; 13 -
; 14
; 15 ; 16

, D H < .
( . 1983; . 1985):
-
, e
S , . , ,
H < . e S . ,
-
e S .
,
.
239

(6.1) D, -
, H < ., : (D / D.
1). ( . 1983) , .
, ,
./. (6.1): 1+ f(H./H).

( 1958), -
. 6.3.
, . (1983) :
y= A+ Bx+ Cx2, (6.2)

; ; = 0,562; = 0,662; = 0,1.



(6.2)
(. . 6.3). H >> . (6.1) .
D -
H < H.
P P.

8
P.

6
5
4
3

101
8
6
5
4
3

2
1
2
3
102

4 5 6 8 100 2 3 4 5 6 8 101
H./H

. 6.3. : 1 d = 6 , W0 =
2,7 /; 2 d = 4 , W0 = 1 /; 3 d = 15,6 , W0 = 1,6 /,
( 1958)
240 6

6.2.


, ,
-2 . -
-

-8 .
,
,
(Re = 401200),

.
( 1987).
()
. -
, . -
, ( ) -
S
. ,
S
.
( 1987), , -
, ,
, (, 1984),
. -

, -
-2 -8 ,
.
-
, -
.
d, 1,83; 2,51; 4,15 5,15 ,
d= 2,55 5,05 , d= 2,50.
Re 5,7 4000. d -
D d/D= 0,1530,429.
(1966).
NuD=
f(Re). , . 6.4,
241

NuD
4

2 e
2
10
8 e
6
4

2
101
8
6
4
k
2 1
0 k 2
10
8 3
6 4
4 5
2 6
7
101
4 6 8 101 2 4 6 8 102 2 4 6 8 103 2 4 Re

. 6.4. NuD= f(Re)


:
d,
1 1,83
2 2,51
3 2,51
4 4,15
5 5,15
6 2,55
7 5,05

( 17%)
, ,
kk ll. ,

Re, (Re)k, -
.
(. . 6.4, -
kk) :
(Re)k= 1,175102(D/d)0,76, (6.3)
NuD= D/ , ; -
, /(2); ,
242 6

/(), D , ; Re= W0d/() ,


W0 ,
/; d= 4/S , ; ( -
) , 3/3; , 2/;
S3 , 2/3.
( 1966; , 1984) -


D= 52. , -
1 , 1,5%.
(. . 6.2). -
: -2 1,5
5,13 ; -8 -
6,1 5,85. -
10102
10101 ( ).
.
= 1003 25.

.6.5 , 1
, W0 .
,
. -

104
P, /

4 . 6.5. , -
1 ,
W0,
2
D =
1
52 ( 14) -
103 2
( 1960) D = 60
8
5
( 5): 1 -
6 2 1,55,13 ; 2
4
3
4 -8 6,15,58 ;
3
2
10103 ; 4 -
10101 ; 5 -

102
101 2 4 6 8 100 2 5 10 -
W0, /c (1960)
243

,
(6.3) ( 1944).
-
, S3 , -
, 6.3.
- ,
S3,
.
-8 -
d/D. -
. 6.6 .

6.3.


S3,
, , = 1 , 2/3 d,
, . . /
/3 /3 3/3
1,55,13 499 814 0,386 1268 0,0012
-2
6,15,85 1808 2771 0,348 590 0,0023
-8
10102 588 1469 0,600 320 0,0073

10101 1045 7850 0,862 462 0,0072

 0,6 2
3
4
0,5 5
6
7
0,4
1 8

0,3

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 D/d

. 6.6. d/D -
: 1 . (Leva 1950); 2 3
-8 -2; 48 -
(, 1963; Roblee etal. 1958; 1966; Sonntag 1960)
244 6

, -
(Leva 1950)
(, 1963; Roblee etal.
1958; 1966; Sonntag 1960), -
. -
: 0,011.

, -
S S3. -
, ,
-
( . 1977). , ,
- ,
S3<S. S3
,
( . 1977).
,
( . 1977), Eum = f(Re),
Eum= DP2/(HSW02) ;
, ; , 2/4.
:
Eum= A/Re+ B, (6.4)
= 100 = 0,9 , 4%.

. 6.7. (6.4)

6
Eum

2
3
4 4
5
1 6

100
8
3 4 6 8 102 2 4 6 8 103 2 Re

. 6.7. Eum Re: 1 ; 25


-2 1,55,13 , -8
6,15,85 , 10101 ; 6
(, 1963) -
510
245

(, 1984) (,
1984). , -
. , -
(6.4) (2,55)104
.

6.3.

-
, -
, , .
-
, ( 2007),

.
, -
:
(6.5)

= f(Re) -
; ,/3; W0 ,
, /; , ; S3 -
, 2/3;
3/3; Re .
, Eum=
DP2/(HS3W02), (6.5) :

(6.6)


-

D/d > 10 (D d -
, ) (. . 6.4).
(2007).

, .
246 6

6.4.
S, 2/3 -
d, -
D/d - ,

(4) %
28,6 10,65 0,54 110* 107 3,0
24,4 12,50 0,53 120* 124 +3,0
6,1 50,00 0,47 960* 1010 +5,0

() (2007)
23 12,80 0,36 1706** 1717 +5,0

()
34 9,15 0,39 991** 968 2,5
23 20,80 0,32 1826** 1882 +3,0

()
34 14,80 0,37 1045** 1089 +4,0

45 11,50 0,46 1110*** 955 7,0

()
56 9,40 0,47 980*** 949 8,0

()
* .
** ,
.
*** (, 1984).

. 6.8 Eum= f(Re),



(. . 6.4) (, 1984):

(6.7)

(6.7)
, -
Re,
1 ,
:
247

Eum
2

102
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

101
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

100
9
8
7
6
4 5 6 7 89100 2 3 4 5 6 789101 2 3 4 5 6 78 9 102 2 3 4 5 6 789 103 2 3 4 5 6 78 9104
Re

. 6.8. Eum Re no . -
(2007): D. = 305 , 28,6 ; 24,4;
6,1 ; -
116,5 ; ,
116. : D.= 32 , d= 23; ,
d = 34; D. = 52 , d 23 ;
d= 34 ; , 45 ; -
, 56. (1984): D= 25 , ,
23

(6.8)

.
(6.8) (Sc.),
d/Dp < 0,l Sc. . S,
- ( . 1979),
2535%.
(6.8) (Re<50),
.
(6.8) S -
6.4. S,
(6.8), , -
.
248 6

6.4.



, -
-
().
. 6.9.

. 6.9. ()

6.4.1.
, , -
:
(), 3/3;
Sy., 2/3;
d, .
-

.
-
- ,
. -
:

(6.9)

: . ,/3; (-
),/3.
-
-
, :

(6.10)

249

W0 -
, /; , 2/;
, 2/4; ,/2; -
, .
-
, (1984) -

,
. ,
.
(, 1984) -
:
Re << 40, (6.11)
d.

(6.12)


100. 40.

1 77.
. 6.10.

H2O Air
5

P 2 6 4
P
T

H2O

Air
1

. 6.10. : 1 ; 2 ; 3 -
; 4 100 ; 5 ; 6
250 6


100
1 .
2 5 ,
4 5, 3, -
3
6
1 .
4 6

,
Air

. 6.11. : -
1 ; 2 ; 0,3/ 1,2 /.
3 ; 4 ;
5 -
. 6.11.
; 6
-
4 3 -

2.

.
1 10 .

6.4.2.
. 6.12
, .
-
: 1,0 2,0 ; d = 1,5 ; 1 3
605,7/3; 0,89 3/3.
P/H, . ./

300

200

. 6.12. -
100
/
W0
: ;
-
0
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 W0 , /c
251

-
(. 6.13).

-2 d,
, -2 (. . 6.14).
-


.

20
P/H, . ./

15

10

0
4 6 105 2 ReD

. 6.13. DP/H = f(ReD)


d= 1,8

103
P/H, . ./

8
6

2
2
1
102
8
6

4
101 2 4 6 8 100
W0 , /c

. 6.14.
-2 -
( 1987): 1 , d = 1,5 ; 2 -2,
1,55,13 , d= 1,2
252 6

6.5. ,


-
.
0,1/ 2,0/.
CO2.
, -
.
, -
. -
, ,

(Baltrnas, Zagorskis 2009).
, , , ,
.
. 75%.
, -
,
.
,
200 a. -
. ,
, . -
, 50
.
(Jeong etal. 2008).
,
, -
, -
. .
-
-
.

-
. -
17140 a.
( 170 a)
.
253

. . 6.15 , -
.
45 3/
30 .
150 3/ 170 . -
,
. -
R2
. 0,99.

. -
0,7/ 1,8/.
.
, -
.
. 6.16.
200
,

180
160 R 2 = 0,98
140
R 2 = 0,98
120
100 R 2 = 0,99
80
R 2 = 0,99
60
R 2 = 0,98
40
R 2 = 0,99
20
0
1 2 3 4 5
, .
45 3/ 60 3/ 75 3/ 90 3/ 120 3/ 150 3/

. 6.15.

2,5
, /

1,5
R 2 = 0,83
R 2 = 0,99
1

0,5 R 2 = 0,99

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .
1,8 / 1,5 /
1,2 /

. 6.16.
254 6

. 6.16 , 1,8/
1,4/. -
1,2 / 0,64 /.

R2 . 0,99.
, -
(Hodge, Devinny 1995,
1997). ( ) .
. 6.176.20 ,
. ,
(Hashisho etal. 2007).
70 1,8/ 1,71/. -
50 -
0,10 /.
. -
0,12 /. (
) , . .
,
. 1,8/
1,32/. . 6.176.20.

.
. -
. 6.21.
. 6.21 , -
. -
0,4/ 20 .
1,8/ 170a.

2,5

2
, /

1,5
1
0,5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .

1 2 3 4 5
, 70 50 50 25 25
. 6.17. ,
70
255

2,5

, /
1,5
1
0,5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .

1 2 3 4 5
, 50 50 25 25 70
. 6.18. ,
50

2,5

2
, /

1,5
1
0,5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .

1 2 3 4 5
, 25 25 50 70 50
. 6.19. ,
25

2,5

2
, /

1,5
1
0,5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
, .

1 2 3 4 5
, 50 25 25 70 50
. 6.20. ,
50


. -

R2, 0, 9758.

. . 6.22.
256 6

200

y = 96,25x 13
150
R 2 = 0,97
100
. 6.21. -
50
-
0
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0
, /

100

y = 1,1148x + 97,213
80
R 2 = 0,9974
60
40 . 6.22. -
20 -
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -
,

. 6.22 , -
1,5/
.
R2= 0,9974. . 0,15
25 70.
-
. 70
20 ( 0,15 ). -

,
.
, -
ZeoVit , ,
,
6 , 415 . 10
210.
-
.
ZeoVit 12
32 . (125 ) ,
16 .
, . 6.23, , -
6 10. -
16
.
257

-
. -
10 , -
.
(R2) -
.
(. 6.23),
-
, .

(. 6.24)
(305 ), 5 .
20 188 .
50 .
-
,
20 .
-
,
-
.
(. 6.25).

500

,

450 p = 166,2 Ln(d) + 408,6


400 R 2 = 0,97
350
300
250
200
. 6.23. - 150
100
- 50
, - 0
6 8 10 12 14 16
, ,

400

,

350 p = 103,2 Ln(d) + 310,7


300 R 2 = 0,98
250
200
150
. 6.24. - 100
- 50
, - 0
5 10 20 30 40 50
, ,
258 6

800

,
R 2 = 0,99
700
600
500 R 2 = 0,97

400
R 2 = 0,99
300
200
100
0
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5
, /
,
, ,
,

. 6.25. -

-
. 100 ,
,
1015 , 0,1 /
314 ,
, 287 .
, -
, .
(Cheng,
Reinhard 2006).


. , -
,
. ,
, ZeoVit, ,
. (375 2/) -
, . -
-
.
0,5 /, ,
710 . ,
, , 334 ,
, , 505.
259

, -
, -
.
, -

(.6.26). 0,1 /,

118 . 0,5 / -
710 . -
, , ,
ZeoVit , -
. -

0,1 / 741 ,
0,3 / -
1226 . ,
.
1500 (Liu
etal. 2006). ,
, -
1700 a/. (200 a/)

(Kennes, Thalasso 1998).
, ,
. -
, ( ) -
.

0,1 /c
,

1800 0,2 /c
R2 = 0,97 0,3 /c
1500 R 2 = 0,98 0,4 /c
1200 R 2 = 0,99 0,5 /c
R 2 = 0,99
900
R 2 = 0,99
600

300
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
, .

. 6.26. ,
,
260 6

90
, %
y = 3,4178 Ln(x) + 63,403 y = 35,714x 2 42,429x + 81,2
80 R 2 = 0,94 R 2 = 0,97
70

60
y = 4,8431 Ln(x) + 56,486
y = 21,429x 2 29,857x + 76,6
50 R 2 = 0,95
R 2 = 0,98
40

30 y = 14,286x 2 24,571x + 46,6


R 2 = 0,97 y = 7,1429x 2 25,286x + 21,6
20 R 2 = 0,98

10

0
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6
, /
ZeoVit ()
,
, , ,

. 6.27.

, . 6.27, , ,
0,1 /,
75%.
0,5/
70%.
, -
. , ,
, -
, .
, , -
, , -
0,1 / 73%.
0,5/ 6%. -
(Bridiuvien
etal. 1997).
.
1 , 18%. -
, 20%.
,
. 0,3/ -
40%. , ,
, , , -
. , -
261

, 63%.

(Porolono...2006; Yamamoto etal. 2005).
-
.
, . . (
) .
. -
45%.
,
, , -
(ZeoVit ... 2006). ,
, -
, , -
, .
0,4 / 0,5 / 1%. ,

, , -
, ,
(Cox etal. 2001).
, -
, .
, .

. ,
. 6.28, ,
0,2 / -
. -
. ,
10-
69%, 67%. -
(98%). -
,
75% ,
. 12 67%.
, -
.
,
, ,
.
262 6

90

, %
D = 0,580 t + 72,0 D = 0,470 t + 74,1
80 R 2 = 0,97 R 2 = 0,92
70
60
D = 1,018 t + 67,1
50 R 2 = 0,98 D = 0,5 t + 42,9
R 2 = 0,97
40
30 D = 0,690 t + 69,8
R 2 = 0,97 D = 16,24 e0,0247 t
20 R 2 = 0,94
10
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
,
ZeoVit ()
,
, , ,

. 6.28.

.
12 71% 64%.
, -
,
, ,
. ,
. -

4 5% 63%.
12 ,
56% . ,
55%, ,
.
,
. -
33%,
,
. , -
,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
263

, 4 45%
40%. 12 37%.
-
.
, -
. 12 -
18% 12%. ,
, . . . -
( 20%), ,
, .
.
, -
,
(. 6.29).
0,2 /,
3 ,
15C, . -
-
. 35C
( 70% 60%).
,
3 35C 69%. . 6.29 ,

, , .

90 D = 0,4 t + 77,6
, %

D = 98,1 t 0,0984
80 R 2 = 0,94
R 2 = 0,98
70
60 D = 12,26 Ln(t) + 102,3
50 R 2 = 0,95
D = 15,05 Ln(t) + 107,4
40 R 2 = 0,95

30 D = 9,72 Ln(t) + 69,4


R 2 = 0,97 D = 23,2 e0,0219 t
20 R 2 = 0,99
10
0
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
, C
ZeoVit ()
,
, , ,

. 6.29.

264 6

30C -
56%. ,

, .
, -
, -
. -
30C 3
65%. ,
56%. , -

, -

(Cheng, Reinhard 2006).
, , ,
. -
5070%, 6070%,
5055%, 6570% (Kennes, Thalasso 1998).
7

.

,
,
,
.

7.1.

- -
, , ,
( 1982). -
-
,
( 1982).
-
, -
. - , -
, ,
,
. -
,
-
( . 2009).
-
. . 7.1 7.2 -
,
( . 2009).


266 7

. 7.1. -
) , -

-
: ) < 4,9; ) > 5,9;
) 4,9 < < 5,9

. 7.2. , -

. -
.

,
D ( 1983; . 1984).

. , (,
1976; 1972) , -

,
. -
, ,
, ,
267

.
-

.

() -
,
35 (e = 0,53). ,
Z- (. . 7.3).
W ,
.
()
.
-
(Gupte
1971; , 1978, 1984; 1981; 1967; -
1972; , 1976; . 1972; .
1983; . 1984; , 1976; 1968; -
, 1981). -
( 1980; 1983; 1972; . 1976, 1976;
1978; 1982; , 1976; 1972).
( . 1985) , , -

.

( 1983; 1985; ... 1980).
,
, , ,
-

( 1978).
.
, -

:

(7.1)

= 0 , x= L ; 0
.
268 7

( 1940) ,
-
. . -
, ,
, (7.1), :

(7.2)

dx :

= const (7.2),

(7.3)


, :

(7.4)

, -
L= B ,
.
-
,
. , , ( 1940) ,
. ,
( 1976), () -

.
( . 1975)
.
, -
.

. -
,
, .

269

, (
1985; . 1975; ... 1980).
-
()
( 1983;
1978).
-
. 0 11, = 95 ,
L= 600 , 300.
11 .

. , -
.
, .
. 7.3,
. Q = 50 3/. ,
, -
,
(. . 7.3, ).
, -
( . 1979).

) )
X/L
A
0,7
1 2
0,5

0,3
) 3
0,1
0 2 4 6 8 10 ,

)


. 7.3. : ),
) , ; )

: 1 , 2 , 3 ; )
= 4
270 7

-
,
:
, = 4, -
. . 7.3, .
( . 7.3, ).
, -
= 35, -
- ,
= 0.
. 7.3, , -
410 = 4. ,

.

. W, -
. -

.

, -

( . 1979).
-

-
.


6
. Wi ,
. Wi
. 7.4. -
,
, . -
, ,
Wi = 0,51,0 /c, 0,6/
1,4/. Wi
1, 3 5 .
Wi . 7.4. ,
271

Wi , /c
1 4
2 5 
1,6
3 6
1,4
1,2 7
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 y,

. 7.4. Wi
= 0 (. . 7.10), = 4, W = 0,79 /: 16 -
( ); -
W0; 7
Wi

Wi , -
,
.

, .
-
, -
, Wj W0 ce

. 410 .
Wj/W0 ,
1 4 Q
Wj/W0.
1 4
, -
15 53 = 4
20%.
( . 1980),

Z- ,
, -
, . . ( . 1980), -
, = 4
= 0 (. 2 3 . 7.5).
( 1981).
272 7

1,0

Wj /W0
0,8 2
0,6 3

0,4
1
0,2
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0
X/L

. 7.5. .
(1980); 1 ; 2 (
. 1980) = = 40 ; = 0 ;
22,5 ; 0,340,35; 3 =
42 , = 0 ; = 4 ;

y= f() W0
,
= 4,
W0.
,
.
D -
, : Eum 2 4
23 18%.
Eum= (DP2)/(HSW02). -
-
.
(Burghardt,
Kulawska 1978) ,
. = 12,
= 4.

,
4 /, -
,
( 1983).
, -

,
= 40, -
( . 1972).
273

(. 7.6) ,
.
Wi, -
-
. 10 . Wi -
.
( -
) 94
, -
, 20100
60300 , 250 .
( I).
,
( II),
,

5 4 3
Wi /W0

) 2,4
/2
) 2,0

1,6
1
) 1,2 4 4
1
0,8
3 2
0,4 2
3
)

0 100 200 300


H,

. 7.6. : )
; ) I (-
); ) II ( -
); ) III (-
): 1 , 2 ;
3 ; 4 -
; 5 ; )
I II : 1 I; W0= 2,5/;
2 , W0= 1,0 /; 3 II, W0= 2,5 /; 4 , W0= 1,0 /
274 7

( III). III
( ) 54, 42 36% (
1983),
3,5, 3,8. (
) 86 66 , 50
-
30 .
. 7.5. W0 = 1 2,5 /c
, . .
5,8103 14,5103.

I ,
( II), Wi/W0
. 7.6, . I, 2 3, 4
, -
.
.
III, ,
( 1 2 . 7.7). ,
II c Wi/W0 -
0,5 2,4 ( W0= 2,5/c),
y -
0,9 1,2.
, III ,
.

. ,
III W0= 1,24/ 0,39%.
( .
1972), , (
1973; . 1979).
, -
.
, 0,50,5 0,10,1
, -
(. 1 . 7.7).
III -

(. . 7.6, ),
III, -
.
275

Wi /W0
1,4
3 4 2 1

1,0

0,6
0 100 200 300
H,

. 7.7. III W0= 2,5 /: 1 -


, 0,50,5
0,2 , ( ) 0,10,1
0,06 ;
; 2 0,50,5 ; 3
, 1,
10101,5 ; 4 ,
2,


3 4 . 7.7.
,

( 0,50,5 ),
-
. ,
,
, . 7.8. .
7.8 , III -
. , -
. ,
2,5/D 40, I 34 . .

. -
, -
Wi , /c

3
3

2
2
. 7.8. , - 1
III, - 1
: 0 100 200
1 W0= 0,87 /; 2 1,15 /; 3 3,67 / H,
276 7

-
. , ,
, ,
( 1987).
10102,
210 410 , 35 -
4.

y= f() . 7.9. -
( > 0)
. -
,
410.

. (
. 1976), . -
(
) -
, , ,
( ) (. . 7.9).
, -
, .
30 . 410, = 100.
W0= 0,10,75/. , -
-
17%.

. 7.10.
, %

1 5
60
2 6 . 7.9.
3 7
-
4 8
50 () y= f()
250 3/
40 : 14 -
( = 0); 58 ( = 15 ).
30
1 210 ; 2
20 10102; 3 -
35 ; 4 ; 5 -
10 210 ; 6 410 ;
7 35 ; 8 -
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ,
277

Wi /W0

Wi /W0
) )
1,2 1,2

1,0 1,0

0,8 0,8

0,6 0,6

0,4 0,4
50 150 250 350 450 550 50 150 250 350 450 550
L, L,

. 7.10.
Q= 200 3/, = 4, = 15 , = 57 ;
) ; )

. 7.11.

, . = 4. Q
1, 3 5 (. . 7.11).
. 7.1.
, -
.
410 35 .
, -
. , ( 1987).

10
) )
1
9 9
3 2
9 9
5 4

7 6 8

9
. 7.11.
-
9 3--
: 18 -
; 9 ;
10
278 7

-
6 10.
(. . 7.11) Q= 750 3/
. 7.2. , .
, D.

7.1. 3- -

Q= 600 3/


, %
..
I II III

1 10 26,4 36,3 37,2



9 (. . 7.11)

2 24,0 36,8 39,2

3 31,8 32,6 35,6

7.2. 3- , -
35

D78*, W.
, .,
. , 1 2 3
.. % %
(. . 7.11) . /
1 28,4 I 1,07 3,92 1,42 1,91 17,7 18,1
II 0,95 4,46 1,82 2,25 19,5
III 1,02 4,06 1,65 2,19 17,1
2 27,6 I 1,26 5,07 1,81 2,26 26,4 24,03
II 1,01 3,82 1,51 2,04 21,7
III 1,07 4,26 1,43 1,87 20,0
3 28,0 I 1,06 4,96 1,94 2,43 19,6 19,1
II 1,16 4,0 1,47 1,97 19,7
III 1,22 3,06 1,38 1,93 18,1
*: . . 7.11.
279


:
(7.5)

(7.6)

(7.7)

-
(, 1980):

(7.8)

(7.9)

, 2
.
, -

-
.
( . 1975; -
... 1980).
.

7.2.

-

.

( 1983)
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
280 7


-
94 , -
6 = 300.
Re= 5501420. 10. -
60. -
. 7.12.
. 7.13.
-
7.3.
1, 2, 3,
,
(7.5)(7.9).
:

(7.10)

N .
W/W0

1,4
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6

0 1 2 3 4 y/d 5

. 7.12.
Re= 1420
W/W0

1,4 1
2
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,0 . 7.13.
0,9
94
6 -
0,8
Re= 550: 1 -
0,7 ; 2
0 23 R, 47

281

7.3. 94
= 0,3
W0, , , Wi max, Wi min,
Re 1 2 3
.. / % % / /

1 1,2 550 4,5 9,8 2,75 2,80

2 1,2 550 41,7 4,2 2,5 0,3 7,8 1,80 2,10
3 2,2 1030 41,5 4,3 4,8 0,7 6,9 1,84 2,15
4 3,1 1420 42,0 4,4 6,7 0,9 7,1 1,85 2,15

. 7.3, , -
, -

.
2d 4d. ~ 6%,
W/W0 7%.
.
( 16,8%) Re= 550.

(7.11)

(7.12)

: ; ; W0
.
-
-
, , -

( . 1978).
(. . 923582 ... 1982) .


( 1980; . . 841672 ... 1981).

.
282 7

D= 94 190. -
6. 94
= 410 , 190 110.
W , (23 ),
. W 3, 6 10. Re
I70 800.
Re= 350 . 7.14 7.15.
. 7.4 7.5.
190 ,
/d= 18,3, . . ,
. (. 5.4). W= 6 -
94
(. . 7.14). 190 -
W= 10 (.
. 7.15).
D/d .
W/W0

1,8
3
1,6

1
1,4

1,2

2
. 7.14.
1,0 94
: 1 -
0,8
W = 3 ; 2
0,6
4
W= 6 ; 3 -
W=
10 ; 4 6
0 0,5 r/R 1,0
W/W0

1,5 1
1,3

1,1 . 7.15. -
-
0,9
2 190 :
0,7 1 -
3
6; 2 -
0,5
10 ; 3
0,3 6
0 20 45 70 R, 95
283

-
. ,
. 7.4 7.5. -
(Szekely, Poveromo 1975),
( 1980).
,
, -
, .
, W D/d.
D/d W .
-
.

7.4. 94

Wi max,
W0, / Re , % , % 2 3
.. /
10
1 0,43 196 58,0 6,3 1,32 3,07 3,09
2 0,85 390 50,0 5,3 2,14 2,35 2,51
3 1,17 537 46,0 4,9 3,04 2,42 2,59
4 1,33 607 46,7 5,1 3,51 2,53 2,65
6
5 0,37 171 34,7 3,6 0,71 1,63 1,89
6 0,77 353 35,0 3,5 1,47 1,61 1,9
7 1,0 464 34,0 3,5 1,87 1,65 1,84
8 1,25 573 35,0 3,6 2,36 1,66 1,89
9 1,76 806 35,0 3,6 3,17 1,48 1,8
3
10 0,37 171 44,8 5,0 1,04 2,77 2,79
11 0,69 318 42,0 4,6 1,95 2,68 2,8
12 0,99 453 39,0 4,4 2,66 2,48 2,69
13 1,23 565 39,0 4,3 3,04 2,25 2,46
14 1,63 745 39,9 4,2 3,71 2,09 2,28
284 7

7.5. 190

Wi max,
W0, / Re , % , % 2 3
.. /
10
1 0,37 168 38,3 3,1 1,07 2,84 2,92
2 0,57 260 35,0 2,9 1,61 2,56 2,84
3 0,77 351 35,7 2,9 2,14 2,57 2,79
6
4 0,31 144 44,5 3,5 0,71 2,23 2,26
5 0,50 227 39,0 3,1 1,06 2,12 2,14
6 0,65 300 39,0 3,0 1,41 2,14 2,16


, -
,
.
(1981).
4 -
-
.
. 7.16. -
. 7.6. -
(. . 7.16) ,

( 1 2 . 7.16).
2,
1= 2d
2= 3d*. ,
,
~ 7% W/W0 ( 1, 2 3 . 7.16).
(
4 . 7.16) .

_______
* 1 2 . . 7.16.
285

W/W0

W/W0
1,4 1 1,4 3
2

H2
1,3

H2
1,3

H1
1,2 1 1,2

H1
W W
1,1 1,1
1,0 1,0
0,9 0,9
0,8 0,8
0,7 0,7
0 5 r/R 1
0,6
0 5 r/R 1

W/W0
1,4 d1 4
W/W0

1,4 2 1,3

H2
1,3 1,2 d2
2

H1
1
H2

1,2 1,1
W
H1

1,1 1 1,0
W
1,0 0,9
0,9 0,8
0,8 0,7
0,7 0,6
0,6 0,5
0 5 r/R 1 0 5 r/R 1

. 7.16. -
( ) (-
) Q= 40 3/ 94

7.6. -

1, 2, 1*) 2*) d1, d2,


1 390 300 21 31 6
2 390 300 21 31 6
3 30 300 6
4 30 300 21 6 2,5

. 7.17 (-
, 1981). , ,
(1981) -

.
286 7

1,4
W/W0

1,3
1,2 1
1,1
1,0 . 7.17.
0,9 -
2
0,8 (1981)
0,7 : 1 ( 1,
0,6 . . 7.6); 2
0,5 (1981) 200 , d =
0,4 0,4, = 150 ; W0= 0,3 /
0 0,5 r/R 1,0


,
:
1.
~ 6%

7%.
.
2.
-
.
-
,
.
3.
, ,
, -
.

7.3. 2


, -

(Brauer 1985), , .
-
. , -
287

, ,
, -
, -
.
.
. -
d,
.
610
. 120
.
-
, , , ,
.
7.1. ,

. -
.
31 43% , .


(Brauer 1985). -

. -
,
.
,
~ 60%. , , -

, , .
3- -
.


D.
. -
-
3- , . -
. 7.18, , .
288 7

Wj /W. 1,4

Wi , /c
) ) 2,2
1,2
1,8
1,0
1,4
0,8
0 30 90 150 210 270 330 390 450 510 570 1,0
L, 0,6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 N

30
, %

) 1

20

10
0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,9
W., /c

. 7.18. 3- 35 :
) 1 Q= 750 3/; ) -
1, Q= 750 /, N -
; ) = f(W. ): 1
,

, , -
, -
, 3- (.
. 7.18, ),
(. . 993985 ... 1983).

7.4. ,

( 1983; -
1981) , -

. (1983),
.
,
.
, ( 1983).
-
670. 670 -

40, 80 160 .
289

160450 0,072 2.
, -
( . 1974).
. 7.7.
, -

.
, , -
.

670 370 . 7.8 . 7.19.
,
. -
,
Re 24. , -
. 7.19 , y/d 40
.
.
670 D/d = 170
514 D/d= 257, -
( . 1984) Re= 173.

7.7. -
670 , = 200
35
D Wi max,
Re W0, / , % , % 2 3
.. . . /
1 40 45 0,477 20 5,6 42,8 6,6 12,6 12,7
2 80 31 0,328 23 3,4 42,4 1,54 4,7 4,7
3 160 34 0,363 26 3,1 39,5 2,32 6,36 3,38

7.8.
D= 670 , = 200 , 370 ,
35
W0, D Wi max,
Re , % , % 2 3
.. / . . /
1 24 0,254 16 2,5 39,1 0,78 3,1 3,1
2 33 0,357 25 2,4 35,4 1,35 3,78 3,78
3 51 0,539 40 2,0 29,5 1,4 2,4 2,6
290 7

W/W0
1
1,4
2
1,3
1,2
1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 y/d

. 7.19. 670 , -
35 200 W0= 0,25/ (Re
24): 1 ; 2 .

, 7.7 7.8,
, -
~ 7%, -

D/d > 200 .
7.7 7.8 ,
, : , , 2, 3 [. (7.5)(7.10)].

7.5.
, ,
-
.
, ( ...
1980), , -
, ,
. ( ...
1980), (
) ,
, -
,
,
.
-

291

.
-
, L
. L -
300 1800 . 300 .
410 , = 100.


.
, L -
W0= 0,31,5/

= 4.
, -


,
(. . 7.20)
AK72.

F1
I

A
F2

A
600

1
II
I
M 1:1
AA
7000
12

2
D 4000

II
M 1:1
300

600

. 7.20. : 1 ,
2 , 3
292 7

. 7.20

(Amanullah etal. 2000).

,
, .
,
A-72M

120 . 7,3 ,
.

7.6.
2 -
, U- -
. ,
(1,8 ),
,
. -

180, -
.
,
, -
34% , 60% -
.
.
0,2 . -
, -
.
1,8
0,8 0,9 , -
, .
, = 76%,
-
= 53% ( Q =
800 3/).
,
0,2 .
293

, -

,
. ,
0,2 1,8 ,

. , -
-
,
.

7.7.
, -
-

. , -

D , , ,
(Angerer 1999). -
.

. 7.21 . 7.9. -
Re = 100240.

) ) 1,3
W/W0
W, /c

0,3 1,2
0,2 1,1
0,1 1,0
0,9
55 65 75 85 95
R, 0,8

0,7 0,7
)
W, /c

0,6 0,6
55 65 75 85 95
R,
0,5
0,4
0,3
55 65 75 85 95
R,

. 7.21. :
) W0= 0,23 /; ) W0= 0,52 /; ) W0= 0,52 /
294 7

190, 108 , = 200 , d= 6 ( ).


. 7.21, -
.

,
.
D./d < D./d, e -
, .
,
.
(. . 7.9),
(7.5)(7.10).

7.9.

W 0, D, Wi max, Wi min,
Re , % , % 1 2 3
.. / . . / /
1 0,23 107 19 2,6 25,6 0,45 0,07 6,4 1,6 1,9
2 0,34 155 36 2,5 26,9 0,62 0,13 4,8 1,4 1,8
3 0,52 237 79 2,3 24,2 1,03 0,19 5,4 1,6 2,0

7.8.


W0,
, V.,
.
. -
( .
1981; 1962) ( 1983; . 1983),
.
-
.
W ,

, , , (
. 1980) . , -

295

. -
-
.

2 .
. 7.22, ,
W.
-
. -
2 (. . 7.22).

,
. , -
W., -
.
W < W.
< max. , W < W., -
max,
. - -

.
, -
W. ,
-
. -
,
Wi , /c

) A )
2

1 2 3 1

0
W 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
1 2 3 4 5 6 y,

. 7.22. : ) -
: 1
W < W., < max; 2 W= W., = max; 3 W > W., max;
) -
( II): 16
296 7


: I
II
.
-
, -
.
(. . 993985 ... 1983; .
1980; . 1982). 15d. -
.
Q= 450 3; 26 ; e= 0,435;
0,54 2; 0,53 /; -
,
0= 0,36 3/.


. 7.22, .

. -
,
. Vi[3], -
i- , :
Vi= Vi, (7.13)
V ; , -
. :

(7.14)

:

(7.15)

Q1, Q2,.,Qn , -
Vi, .

(7.16)

(7.17)

297

50

A, 3/3
40

30

20
1 2 3 4 5 6
10
. 7.23. -
- 0
A= f(W0) 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6 2,0 2,4 W0, /c

A = f(W0)
. (.
.7.23).
:

(7.18)

t .
-
:

(7.19)

0 (. (7.13)(7.19 ) W0.
,
39%
, -
I 6% -
II. ,
,
.
-
( 1983),
. -

h - , .
, -
,
298 7

(-
. 1986).
-

, -
3.7. , -
, .

. -
,
,

, -
. ,
-
.
,
-

.

7.9.

-
-
.

7.9.1.

(.= 0,02/3)
1 Ma -
298 ( . 1986).
, -
e (e= 0,4)
(W0= 0,16 /) ( ... 1983).
(...
1983), = 1103/3 -
t= 1800 ,
2,6 , D= 1,2 d= 3 .
299

3 1,2; 0,6
0,3, W0, t d. -
-
. . 7.10.
,
,
. ,
-
, . , ,

7.10. 1,2; 0,6 0,3


D/d

400 200 100
f. 0,02 0,04 0,08
e 0,4006 0,4012 0,4023
e 0,4000 0,4000 0,400
e. 0,4273 0,4281 0,4299
r. 449,6 449,1 448,2
r.. 429,5 428,9 427,6
r. 450,0 450,0 450,0
D/ 249,2 247,8 244,9
2,600 2,603 2,608
W./W0 1,1929 1,1945 1,1977
W/W0 0,996 0,992 0,983
b 3,400 3,396 3,389
b 3,40 3,34 3,34
b. 3,326 3,322 3,312
S0 1199,0 1198,0 1195,0
S 1200,0 1200,0 1200,0
S. 1145,0 1144,6 1140,0
.104 8,3 8,4 8,6
. 104 7,78 7,376 6,564
..103 7,0 7,13 7,40
.. 9,26 1,040 1,29
300 7


. , ,


. , -
D/d = 100 1,29103 /3,
1103 /3.
2,7 .
, ,
,
.

7.9.2.
(-
), , -
. -
. 7.11.

7.11.

, R, d, Qn, 3/ Q, 3/ ., .., ,
2,0 0,028 0,0050 10,0 2,5 950 450 16
9,45 0,036 0,0112 267,9 71,2 900 483 32


( 1985),
-
, ,
.
.
,
. ( 1985)

,
D/d= 614.
(-
1985; 1987):

(7.20)

301

: = 3,74102; = 8,15101; = 1,2101; = 3,06101; F= 1,16101;


G= 1,14102.
y= (R r)/d, (7.21)
: d , ; R , ; r
, .
X= z/[a+ b(z)+ c(z)2], (7.22)
: z= d/D; D , ; = 0,00419; = 0,391; = 2,067.

-
.
.
, , ,
D/d,
, -
. , -
, -
, .

( 1985)
:
Vi= ni/(CiSi). (7.23)
:

(7.24)

(7.25)

: N= R/d.
-
-
. 7.24.
-
(7.20)(7.22), a
. -
-
. 7.12.
, , . 7.13.
302 7

100
) CH
x, % 4
90

80

70

60

50

40
1
30

20 2

10 . 7.24. -
0 0,5 1,0 1,5 H, 2,0 () ()
( ) -

) T, C
( 1) (-
800
2
2) . -
700
600
1 ;

500
-
400 (7.20)(7.22)
0 0,5 1,0 1,5 H, 2,0

7.12. -
(-
), (7.20) (7.22)


(7.20)(7.22).
,
, ., ,% ,% , ., ,% ,%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 483 483 100 100 483 483 100 100
0,2 480 488 98,6 98,6 479 487 98,3 98,7
0,08 472 499 95,2 94,0 471 497 94,4 94,4
0,1 471 501 94,2 92,4 470 500 93,4 92,8
0,4 481 534 84,7 76,6 483 531 83,8 77,6
0,6 500 552 77,5 68,6 503 549 76,3 69,5
1,0 535 578 62,8 55,9 538 577 61,5 56,6
2,1 597 627 38,9 36,0 600 626 38,2 36,3
3,1 649 669 27,7 25,9 651 668 27,4 26,0
303

7.12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
4,0 683 697 22,3 20,9 685 697 22,1 21,0
5,0 717 727 17,6 16,6 718 727 17,5 16,6
6,1 744 752 14,3 13,5 745 752 14,2 13,5
7,1 767 773 11,8 11,2 767 773 11,7 11,2
8,0 782 788 10,2 9,75 783 787 10,2 9,78
9,0 799 803 8,66 8,30 799 803 8,62 8,32
9,45 805 810 8,10 7,78 806 809 8,06 7,79

7.13. -
,
D/d, ( )


, (7.20)(7.22)
Ui Ui .. Ui Ui ..
0 1,00 1,00 1,06 1,18
0,02 0,976 1,05 0,943 1,12
0,10 0,912 1,18 0,885 1,25
1,39 0,788 1,47 0,771 1,52
0,60 0,731 1,63 0,718 1,68
0,81 0,687 1,74 0,676 1,79
1,23 0,627 1,91 0,619 1,96
1,65 0,586 2,02 0,579 2,07



, (7.20)(7.22)
Ui Ui .. Ui Ui ..
0 1,00 1,00 0,787 1,07
0,02 0,994 1,005 0,779 1,07
0,39 0,920 1,06 0,720 1,12
1,23 0,815 1,15 0,636 1,21
1,86 0,759 1,20 0,591 1,25
3,00 0,680 1,27 0,529 1,32
5,00 0,610 1,33 0,474 1,37
7,00 0,562 1,37 0,438 1,41
9,00 0,534 1,39 0,416 1,43
304 7

( ) -
,
(7.20)
(7.22) (. . 7.13).
-
(. . 7.12). . -,
( 1985),


. -, , D/d= 12,
D/d = 6 D/d, -

( . 1972).
= 2
(7.20)(7.22)
~ 11%, ~ 20%,
(~1% ~2% ).
: 11,5%,
0,5%
.
, . 7.13, ,
-
. -
, ( 1985),
, -
,
.
.
( 1985) -

. , -

~ 15%. -
, 1% 0,5 / .
, , -
, -
.
305

A. S. Pushnov, P. Baltrnas, A. M. Kagan, A. Zagorskis

ORO VALYMO RENGINI SU GRDTA


KROVA AERODINAMIKA

SANTRAUKA

Monografijoje nagrinjama aktuali tema grdta krova ukrautuose oro valy-


mo renginiuose vykstantys aerodinaminiai procesai. Monografij sudaro vadas ir
8 skyriai. Ji skirta mokslininkams, aplinkos apsaugos specialistams ir gamybinin-
kams. Kaip mokslini ini altin j galima naudoti doktorantros ir magistrantros
studijoms.
vade apraytos oro valymo rengini su grdta krova taikymo sritys, temos
aktualumas, grdt krov charakteristikos, aerodinamini proces tyrimams tai-
kyti metodai ir gauti pagrindiniai rezultatai. Oro valymo renginiai, ukrauti grdta
krova, plaiai naudojami chemijos, naftos perdirbimo, tekstils, bald pramonje,
energetikos, ems kio sektoriuose bei kitose pramons monse. Vienas svarbiau-
si oro valymo rengini krovai keliam reikalavim maas aerodinaminis jos
pasiprieinimas, kuris priklauso nuo krovos drgnio, frakcijos, formos, poringumo
ir kit fizini krovos savybi. Todl iuo metu aktyviai iekoma bd, kaip pagerin-
ti krovoje vykstanius sorbcinius ir aerodinaminius procesus, nemainant rengini
oro valymo efektyvumo. Vis grietjantys aplinkosaugos reikalavimai skatina tirti ir
diegti naujas oro valymo technologijas bei renginiuose esanias krovas (Ardjmand
et al. 2005; Arriaga et al. 2006; Baltrnas, Paliulis 2002; Baltrnas et al. 2001,
2004; Baltrnas, Vaiknait 2003; Biofilter ... 2006, 2005; Bridiuvien et al. 1997;
Cai et al. 2006; Canet et al. 2007; Chan 2006; Chan, Chang 2006; Chan, Peng
2008; Chang, Lu 2003; Chen et al. 2004; Cheng, Reinhard 2006). Netaisyklinga ir
neprognozuojama grdtos krovos struktra turi takos aerodinaminiam renginio
pasiprieinimui, nuo kurio priklauso teral filtracijos laikas ir renginio oro valymo
efektyvumas. Skyriuje akcentuojami taikyt metod ir tyrimo rezultat naujumas.
Gauti rezultatai leis nustatyti dujini sraut pasiskirstym grdtoje krovoje bei
parinkti tinkamas rengini konstrukcijas. Trumpai apraomi pagrindiniai aerodina-
min pasiprieinim lemiantys veiksniai. Daug dmesio skiriama grdtoje krovoje
vykstani aerodinamini proces modeliavimui.
Skyriuje detaliai aprayta tyrimo rezultat praktin vert ir monografijos strukt-
ra. Trumpai aptarta orui valyti naudojam grdt krov tipai, struktra bei fizins
charakteristikos, turinios takos rengini aerodinaminiam pasiprieinimui (-
1980; 1978). Pateiktos grdt krov tyrimo metodi-
kos ir laboratoriniai stendai. Taip pat aptarti aerodinaminiai procesai, pramoniniuose
306 Santrauka

oro valymo renginiuose. Paymtina tai, kad vykstantis grdtos krovos aerodina-
minis pasiprieinimas tirtas ne tik taikant adsorbcin, katalitin, bet ir biologin oro
valymo metodus.
Pirmame skyriuje Oro valymo renginiai aprayti oro valymai renginiai,
kuriuose naudojama grdta krova. Aptarti pramons monse naudojami adsor-
beriai su judaniu ir nejudaniu krovos sluoksniu, pateikti rengini veikimo prin-
cipai, ciklai bei schemos. Inagrintos vertikalios, horizontalios, iedins adsorbe-
ri konstrukcijos. Pagrindiniai i rengini privalumai yra: nesudtinga rengini
konstrukcija, didelis krovos ilgaamikumas, nes oro valymo proceso metu krova
nesusidvi.
Skyriuje daug dmesio skiriama katalitiniams bei kompleksiniams sorbciniams-
katalitiniams oro valymo renginiams. Aprayti iems renginiams ir j konstrukci-
joms keliami reikalavimai. Inagrintos i rengini konstrukcijos, veikimo princi-
pai, privalumai, trkumai ir pagrindins charakteristikos ( ... 2005;
1984; 1987; . 2008).
Visapusikai apraytas biologinio oro valymo metodo veikimo principas, oro va-
lymo biofiltr naudojimo privalumai ir taikymo galimybs. Pateikta biologinio oro
valymo rengini su grdta krova klasifikacija ir j veikimo principai. Inagrinti
membraniniai bioreaktoriai, biofiltrai, laeliniai biofiltrai, bioskruberiai. Apraytos
i rengini konstrukcijos, veikimo principai, pagrindins technins charakteristi-
kos, irykinti privalumai bei taikymo galimybs (Baltrnas, Zagorskis 2007; -
1987).
Antrame skyriuje Grdta krova. Tipai ir pagrindins fizins grdt krov
charakteristikos pateiktos bendrosios inios apie grdtas krovas. Daug dmesio
skiriama taisyklingos ir netaisyklingos j formos analizei. Akcentuojamos cilin-
drins ir apvalios formos krov savybs, j idstymo filtre ypatumai. Pateikta
ir aprayta grdtos krovos sluoksnio klasifikacija. Pateiktos krovos poringumo
nustatymo lygtys. Dujini teral adsorbcijai ypa danai naudojamos tokios kro-
vos, kaip silikagelis, aktyvintoji anglis, ceolitas, todl iame skyriuje pateiktos i
granuli charakteristikos ( . 2009; . 2005; 1984;
1987 ir kiti). Nustatyta, kad cilindrins formos, kuri skersmuo siekia
3,32 mm, aktyvintosios anglies paviriaus plotas siekia 1268 m2/m3, o silikagelio
1140m2/m3.
Taip pat skyriuje nagrinjami ne tik teral adsorbcijai naudojamos krovos, bet
ir grdtos mediagos, skirtos teral katalizei. Nagrinjami vairi tip pramoni-
niai katalizatoriai, skirti gamtinms dujoms sulaikyti. Daug dmesio skiriama j
konstrukcijoms ir upildymui reaktoriuose. Nagrinjami vairi dydi plokteliniai
katalizatoriai. Plokteliniai katalizatoriai gali bti taikomi i ildymo katil isiski-
rianioms dujoms valyti. Pagrindinis i katalizatori privalumas maas aerodi-
307

naminis pasiprieinimas, atsparumas erozijai, gali bti valomos kietosiomis dalel-


mis utertos dujos. Praktika rodo, kad granuliuoti katalizatoriai gali bti taikomi
dujoms valyti, kai kietj daleli koncentracija jose nevirija 2 mg/m3 (Darlington
etal. 2001; Gelhomenie et al. 2001, 2002; Deshusses, Cox 1999; Deshusses, John-
son 1999, 2000; Devinny et al. 1999; Dhamwichukorn et al. 2001; Elmrini etal.
2004; Engesser, Plaggemeier 2000; Estimated ... 2006).
Biofiltro krovos esm sudaryti didel paviri teral adsorbcijai ir absorbcijai.
krova taip pat naudojama kaip mikroorganizm populiacijos maisto altinis. Kai
kurioms krovoms trksta reikaling maisto mediag, jas btina laistyti bioge-
nini element (mineralini drusk) prisotintu vandeniu, siekiant utikrinti didel
mikroorganizm aktyvum. Daniausiai biologiniam oro valymui nuo organini ir
neorganini chemini teral naudojamos durps, dirvoemis, kompostas ar j mi-
iniai. Taip pat pasaulyje plaiai naudojamos medienos pjuvenos, ievs, vairios
smulkintos atliekos. Siekiant sumainti aerodinamin biofiltr pasiprieinim naudo-
jamos ir dirbtins kilms grdtos krovos, tokios kaip polivinilchlorido rutuliukai,
polimerins vaigduts, polipropileno cilindrai, rutuliukai su anglies, keramikos
upildu, granuliuotas stiklas, keraminiai kubeliai. Taip pat biologiniam oro valymui
gali bti naudojama natralios kilms neorganin krova gamtinis ceolitas. Ce-
olit privalumas taisyklinga jo struktra, didelis vidinis savitasis pavirius (apie
600800 m2/g), vienodo dydio poros, geras terminis stabilumas. Vienas svarbiausi
veiksni, lemiani krovos parinkim, yra jos aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas, kuris
tiesiogiai susijs su krovos poringumu ir drgniu. Padidinus krovos drgn ir su-
mainus frakcij, gaunamas didesnis aerodinaminis krovos pasiprieinimas. Taigi
galima teigti, kad filtro krovos parinkimas ir jos drkinimas yra lemiami veiksniai,
turintys takos filtro valymo efektyvumui ir suvartojamos energijos kiekiui. pras-
tinio biofiltro slgio nuostoliai gali siekti nuo 1 iki 10 hPa. Skyriuje inagrinti ir
pasilyti oro valymo biofiltr konstrukciniai ypatumai, sukurti siekiant sumainti
i rengini aerodinamin pasiprieinim (Reza et al. 2005; Ruokojarvi et al. 2001;
Schwarz et al. 2001; Sercu et al. 2005 ir kiti).
Treiame skyriuje Grdtos krovos sluoksnio struktra atlikta io tipo kro-
vos savybi literatrin apvalga, aprayti grdtos krovos sluoksnio poringumo
nustatymo metodai. Pastaruoju metu kuriamos ir tobulinamos grdtos krovos
struktros tyrimo metodikos, kurios gali bti taikomos perspektyvi, auktatempera-
tri atomini reaktori su dujini auinimu tyrimams (Morales et al. 1951; Schuter,
Vortmeyer 1981; 1951; , 1968; . 1979; Lyczkowski
1982; , 1980). I skyriuje pateikt krovos poringumo priklausomy-
bi nuo jos formos matyti, kad cilindrins formos granuli sluoksnio poringumas
yra maesnis u apvalios formos granuli sluoksn. Taip pat aptariami Zavelevo,
Roblio, Zontago atlikt tyrim rezultatai ir poringumo nustatymo metodai. Aptaria-
308 Santrauka

mi poringumo nustatymo metodai cilindrins ir rutulio formos grdtuose krovos


sluoksniuose. Pateikta rutuliuk formos granuli, kuri skersmuo siekia 9,5 mm,
rentgenograma, poringumo priklausomybs nuo krovos formos, granuli ir ren-
ginio skersmens dydio. Priklausomai nuo renginio ir granuli skersmens dydi
santykio (D/d) grdtos krovos poringumas gali kisti nuo 30 iki 80 %. Tyrimams
buvo pasirinktos rutuliuk, cilindr, netaisyklingos Raigo ied formos granuls.
Atlikt tyrim rezultat metu gautos i form granuli poringumo koeficient i-
raikos. Tyrim metu nustatyta, kad didjant renginio ir granuli skersmens dydi
santykiui (D/d) grdtos krovos poringumas maja. Kai D/d pakinta nuo 5 iki
20, cilindrins formos granuli poringumas sumaja nuo 41 iki 38 %. Labiausiai
poringumas sumaja tuomet, kai renginio ir granuli skersmens dydi santykis
padidja nuo 1 iki 5. Skyriuje pateiktos poringumo priklausomybi nuo renginio
ir granuli skersmens santykio (D/d) kreivs leidia nustatyti vidutin sluoksnio,
sudaryto i grdtos krovos, poringum.
Ketvirtame skyriuje Duj pasiskirstymo ypatumai renginiuose su grdtos
krovos sluoksniu aprayti vairiausi veiksniai, turintys takos duj pasiskirsty-
mui grdtos krovos sluoksnyje. Daug dmesio skiriama renginio ir granuls
skersmens santykio (D/d), nuo kurio priklauso duj pasiskirstymas sluoksnyje,
apraymui. Pateiktos oro srauto greiio priklausomybs nuo renginio konstruk-
cijos ir granuli dydi. Nagrinjamos vairaus dydio (0,258,7 mm) rutuliuko
formos granuls, esanios vairi gabarit renginiuose (kai rengini skersmuo
siekia 4094mm). Apraytos oro srauto pasiskirstymo priklausomybs nuo kro-
vos sluoksnio ir rengin leidiamo oro srauto greiio. Tyrimais nustatyta, kai
pradinis rengin tiekiamo oro srauto greitis siekia nuo 12 m/s, duj pasiskirs-
tymo netolygumas krovos sluoksnyje nekinta, kai oro srauto greitis yra maesnis
u 1 m/s duj pasiskirstymo netolygumas ima didti (Morales et al. 1951; Price
1968; Cairns, Prausnitz 1959; Ziolkowska et al. 1983; Dorweiler, Fahien 1959;
Bundy 1966; Schwarz, Smith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977). Apraytas neizotermi-
nio grdto sluoksnio poveikis duj srauto pasiskirstymui. Tyrimais nustatyta, kad
krovos neizotermikumas turi takos oro sraut pasiskirstymui. Nustatyta, kad,
padidinus per grdt krov, kurios granuli skersmuo siekia 3 mm, leidiam
duj temperatr nuo 293 iki 473 K, santykis tarp pradinio ir maksimalaus greii
(Wmaks/W0) sumajo 15 %. Skyriuje pateikti ir aprayti stendai, skirti krovose
vykstani aerodinamini proces tyrimams, ianalizuotos j konstrukcijos. Detaliai
inagrinti vienkaseio ir trij kasei renginiai (Moscicka et al. 1976; Ziolkowska
et al. 1983; Dorweiler, Fahien 1959 ir kiti). Pateiktas oro srauto pasiskirstymas, du-
joms pratekjus grdt krovos sluoksn, teorinis per krov leidiamos duj srovs
pasiskirstymo skaiiavimas. Apraytas pagrindini parametr poveikis duj srauto
pasiskirstymui cilindrins formos renginiuose, dinaminio greiio skaiiavimo me-
309

todas, aerodinamini proces priklausomybs nuo grdtos krovos aukio ir lei-


diamo duj srauto greiio, kai granuli skersmuo siekia 6 ir 14 mm. Inagrintas
geometrini renginio ir granuli parametr taka duj pasiskirstymui. Ivestos duj
srauto pasiskirstym charakterizuojanio dydio W/W0 priklausomybs nuo granuli
formos, ries ir dydio. Inagrintas duj srauto, renginiuose su grdtos krovos
sluoksniu, greiio vektorius. Skyriuje nagrinjamos ir didel poringum turinios
mediagos, tokios kaip putplasio, kordierito, keramikos granuls. Skyriuje pateikti
ir aprayti VGTU Aplinkos apsaugos katedroje sukurti, suprojektuoti ir pagaminti
penki skirting konstrukcij oro valymo biofiltrai. Tyrimai atlikti siekiant nustaty-
ti, koki tak biofiltro valymo efektyvumui turi pasilyti rengini konstrukciniai
sprendiniai. Siekiant padidinti krovos ilgaamikum ir filtro valymo efektyvum,
tyrimai atliekami naudojant ne tik skirting konstrukcij biofiltrus, bet ir skirtingos
kilms krovas, sudarytas i medienos skiedr, ievi, ceolito granuli ir porolono
kubeli miini.
Penktame skyriuje Aerodinamini proces modeliavimas renginiuose su
grdtos krovos sluoksniu apraytas modeliavimas, atliktas su laboratoriniais,
bandomaisiais, pusiau pramoniniais ir pramoniniais renginiais. Paymtina tai, kad
krovoje vykstantys aerodinaminiai procesai priklauso nuo granuli isidstymo,
monodispersikumo ir polidispersikumo ( ... 1980;
1978). Darbe pateiktas ir apraytas adsorbcini oro valymo rengini, kraut gr-
dta krova, matematinis modelis, krovos struktros koncepcija, fizikiniai mode-
liai, apraantys krovos sluoksnio poringum ir aerodinamin pasiprieinim (Price
1968; Cairns, Prausnitz 1959; . 1978 ir kiti). Inagrintas poveikis
krovos sluoksnio poringumo nevienalytikumo duj pasiskirstymui oro valymo
renginiuose. Siekiant padidinti renginio valymo efektyvum, pramons monse
danai naudojami didelio aukio krovos sluoksniai arba ploni sluoksniai. Valymo
renginiai su plonais sluoksniais (H< 2030d) ypa plaiai taikomi azoto gamybos
pramons monse, o didelio aukio sluoksnis siekia H/d>>100. Taip pat pateikti
ir aprayti biofiltruose vykstani aerodinamini ir biofiltracini proces tyrimo
matematiniai modeliai. krovos aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas yra vienas pagrindi-
ni veiksni, lemiani renginio naum ir valymo efektyvum. Biofiltre vykstan-
i aerodinamini proces modeliui sudaryti pasirinktas Phoenics 3.5 programinis
paketas. i programa leidia vertinti didiausi reikm krovos pasiprieinimui
turint poringumo koeficient. krovos poringumo koeficientas priklauso nuo teral
filtracijai naudojamos krovos geometrijos, formos, frakcijos, sluoksnio aukio ir
kit parametr. Modeliuojant mao naumo biofiltruose vykstanius teral bio-
destrukcijos procesus naudojamos vairiausios diferencialins lygtys, vertinanios
teral mass pernaos procesus, bioplvelje vykstanias reakcijas, teral adsorb-
cij, absorbcij, krovos savitojo paviriaus plot ir daugel kit veiksni. Todl
310 Santrauka

matematiniai modeliai, tokie kaip Monodo kinetikos, mass balanso pirmojo ir nu-
linio laipsnio kinetikos modeliai, sudaro visum mass pusiausvyros lygi, apra-
ani biofiltre vykstanius biofiltracijos procesus (Shim et al. 2006; Studer et al.
2008; Syron, Casey 2008 ir kiti). Skyriuje modeliavimo metu gauto biofiltro, krauto
skirtingos kilms grdta krova, aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas siek 1105 Pa. Po
penki krovos sluoksni aerodinaminis krovos pasiprieinimas yra maesnis u
eksperimento metu gautus rezultatus, taiau is skirtumas nra didelis ir siekia 10 %.
etame skyriuje Pramonini grdt krov aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas
nagrinjamas orui valyti naudojam adsorbent ir katalizatori aerodinaminis pa-
siprieinimas. Tyrim metu gauti slgio nuostoliai apvalios ir cilindrins formos
grdtoje krovoje. Pateiktos tiriam mediag, toki kaip silikagelis, neplatininis
katalizatorius, aktyvintoji anglis, charakteristikos. Nustatyti slgiai ne tik paiame
renginyje, bet krovos sluoksnio pradioje, viduryje ir pabaigoje. Nagrinjamas
duj tekjimo perjimas i laminarinio turbulentin (Re = 401200), aerodinaminis
pasiprieinimas cilindrins formos grdtoje krovoje, sudarytoje i aktyvintosios
anglies, kai oro srauto greitis yra 2,0 m/s, gali siekti apie 1200 Pa/m. Skyriuje
nagrinjama ne tik aktyvintoji anglis, bet keraminiai ir metaliniai Raigo iedai.
Gautos krovos aerodinaminio pasiprieinimo priklausomybs nuo krovos pavir-
iaus ploto, naudojant Eulerio kriterij. Nustatyta, kad silikagelio rutuliuk, kuri
skersmuo siekia 3 mm, paviriaus plotas siekia 968 m2/m3. Tokio paties skersmens,
poringesni, stiklini rutuliuk paviriaus plotas siekia 1717 m2/m3. Pateikti itin po-
ring mediag, toki kaip keramika, aerodinaminio pasiprieinimo tyrimo metodai
ir rezultatai (, 1964; . 1986). Kai linijinis oro srauto
greitis siekia 0,3 m/s, ios krovos aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas yra 20 mm v.st.
(vandens stulpo). Oro srauto greit padidinus iki 1,0 m/s, krovos pasiprieinimas
padidja iki 150 mm v. st. Taip pat gautos grdtos krovos aerodinaminio pasiprie-
inimo priklausomybs nuo Reinoldso skaiiaus. Didjant Reinoldso skaiiui krov
aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas taip pat didja.
Oro valymo biofiltruose didel tak aerodinaminiam grdtos krovos pasiprie-
inimui turi krovos drgnis, reikalingas mikroorganizm aktyvumui palaikyti, ir per
krov leidiamo oro srauto greitis. Tiek oro srauto greiiai, tiek renginio aerodina-
minis pasiprieinimas priklauso nuo biokrovos (egli ievi) portumo.
Egli ievs yra labai portos. Portumas siekia apie 75 %. Eksperimentiniais
tyrimais nustatyta, jog esant didesniam biokrovos portumui, aerodinaminis ren-
ginio pasiprieinimas maja, taip pat maja ir oro srauto greiiai biofiltre. Biofil-
tr krovos isiskiria gana nedideliu aerodinaminiu pasiprieinimu, daniausiai jis
siekia iki 200 Pa. Nuo aerodinaminio pasiprieinimo priklauso ir mikroorganizm
gyvybingumas. Esant dideliam slgiui jie gali ti, dl to labai sumaja rengi-
nio valymo efektyvumas. Taiau praktika rodo, kad mikroorganizmai gali atlai-
311

kyti iki 50 atmosfer slg. Toks aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas biologiniams oro


valymo renginiams negresia. Po penki krovos, sudarytos i medienos skiedr,
ievi, gamtinio ceolito granuli ir porolono kubeli, sluoksni, kuri auktis sie-
kia 75mm, biofiltro aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas, kai tiekiamo oro srauto greitis
0,1 m/s, siek 741 Pa. rengin tiekiamo oro srauto greit padidinus iki 0,3 m/s,
krovos aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas po penki krovos sluoksni siekia 1226Pa.
Mokslinink atlikti tyrimai parod, kad sintetins kilms krov aerodinaminis
pasiprieinimas priklauso nuo laiko. krovos, sudarytos i keramini ied, pasi-
prieinimas siek 1500 Pa. krovai naudojant kitas mediagas, tokias kaip durpi
ir ievi miinys, pasiekiamas 1700 Pa/m biofiltro aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas.
Maiausias 200Pa/m aerodinaminis pasiprieinimas gautas biologiniam valymui
naudojant medienos skiedras.
Septintame skyriuje Aerodinamikos ypatumai renginiuose su grdtu krovos
sluoksniu aptarti pramonje naudojami vairios konstrukcijos renginiai. Todl ia-
me skyriuje pateikiami rengini ypatumai, siekiant sumainti krovos aerodinami-
n pasiprieinim. Analizuojamos duj paskirstymo renginiuose su plonu grdtos
krovos sluoksniu technologijos. Pateiktos oro srauto tekjimo kryptys renginiuose
su duj srauto ilyginamja pertvara ir renginiuose su pailgintu oro tiekimo atvamz-
diu, kuris i pradi oro sraut nukreipia prieinga tekjimo kryptimi. iuo metu,
siekiant duj sraut paskirstyti tolygiai per vis grdtos krovos sluoksn, kuriamos
vairiausios technologijos. Siekiant tolygiai paskirstyti duj sraut per vis krovos
sluoksn, rengini kasets su grdta krova pakreipiamos nuo 0 iki 11 kampu.
Kasets auktis, ilgis ir plotis gali siekti atitinkamai 95600300 mm. Duj srauto
tekjimo kryptys krovoje nustatytos duj sraut maiius suodi daleles, kurios
nudao atitinkamas duj tekjimo vietas. io metodo tikslum kiekybiniu ir koky-
biniu atvilgiu rod vliau taikyti termoanemometrai. Remiantis tyrim metodais,
skyriuje pateiktos duj srauto tekjimo kryptys krovoje. Aptartas oro srauto grei-
io pasiskirstymas per vis kasets plot. Siekiant tolygiai paskirstyti oro sraut,
renginyje naudojamos difuzins sistemos, tiriami kginiai difuzoriai. Priklausomai
nuo difuzoriaus tipo ir ilgio, oro srauto greii santykis W/W0 (kai W0 = 2,5 m/s)
gali kisti nuo 0,7 iki 1,4. Kasetiniuose filtruose rekomenduojama naudoti grdtas
krovas, sudarytas i 35 mm skersmens silikagelio rutuliuk. Norint sumainti ae-
rodinamin krovos pasiprieinim, siekiama sukurti vienalyio cilindrins formos
grdtos krovos sluoksnio struktr. Skyriuje daug dmesio skiriama reaktori,
veikiani katalitiniu oro valymo nuo dujini teral principu, analizei.
312

A. S. Pushnov, P. Baltrnas, A. M. Kagan, A. Zagorskis

THE AERODYNAMICS OF AIR TREATMENT DEVICES


WITH A GRANULAR CHARGE

Summary

The monograph discusses the present-day topic of aerodynamic processes in air


treatment devices with a granular charge.The monograph is written for researchers,
environmentalists and managers. It is also a valuable reference for doctoral and
postgraduate studies.
Introduction describes the areas of applying air treatment devices with granular
charging, the relevance of the topic, the characteristics of granular charges, the
methods employed for research on aerodynamic processes and the main results
obtained. Air treatment devices with granular charging have received a wide ap-
plication in the industries of chemistry, oil refining, textile and furniture as well
as in the sectors of energy, agriculture and other industrial enterprises. One of the
major requirements for charging an air treatment device is its low aerodynamic re-
sistance which depends on the humidity, fraction, form, porosity and other physical
properties of charging. Therefore, presently, active research on the methods of how
to improve sorptive and aerodynamic processes without reducing the air treatment
efficiency of devices is done. Increasingly stringent environmental requirements
encourage the investigations and introduction of new air treatment technologies and
charges in devices (Ardjmand et al. 2005; Arriaga et al. 2006; Baltrnas, Paliulis
2002; Baltrnas et al. 2001, 2004; Baltrnas, Vaiknait 2003; Biofilter ... 2006,
2005; Bridiuvien et al. 1997; Cai et al. 2006; Canet et al. 2007; Chan 2006;
Chan, Chang 2006; Chan, Peng 2008; Chang, Lu 2003; Chen et al. 2004; Cheng,
Reinhard 2006). An irregular and unpredictable structure of granular charging has
an influence on the aerodynamic resistance of a device which conditions the time
of pollutant filtration and the air treatment efficiency of the device. The chapter
emphasises the novelty of the applied methods and research results. The obtained
results will allow identifying the distribution of gaseous flows in granular charging
and selecting appropriate structures of devices. It also presents a brief description
of the key factors determining aerodynamic resistance. Major attention is devoted
to modelling aerodynamic processes in granular charging.
The chapter describes in detail the practical value of research results and the
structure of the monograph. It also overviews the types and structure granular charg-
es used for air treatment as well as their physical characteristics having an influence
of the aerodynamic resistance of devices ( 1980;
1978). The chapter presents the methods and laboratory stands used for research
313

on granular charging. It also discusses the aerodynamic processes occurring in in-


dustrial air treatment devices. It should be noted that the aerodynamic resistance of
granular charging was investigated applying not only adsorptive and catalytic but
also biological air treatment methods.
Chapter 1 Air Treatment Devices describes air treatment devices that use granu-
lar charges. It also discusses adsorbers with a mobile or immobile charge layer used
by industrial enterprises and presents the operation principles, cycles and diagrams
of such devices. It also analyses vertical, horizontal and ring-shaped structures of
adsorbers. The main advantages of these devices are a simple structure and high
durability of charging as it does not wear out in the process of air treatment.
This chapter focuses on catalytic and complex sorbtive-catalytic air treatment
devices and describes requirements for these devices and their structures. The chap-
ter presents the analysis of the structures, operation principles, advantages and dis-
advantages as well as the main characteristics of these devices ( ... 2005;
1984; 1987; . 2008).
It also provides a detailed description of the operation principle of the biological
air treatment method along with the advantages and application possibilities of air
treatment bio-filters. In addition, the chapter submits the classification of biologi-
cal air treatment devices with granular charging and their operation principles and
analyses membrane bio-reactors, bio-filters, trickling bio-filters and bio-scrubbers.
The chapter describes the structures, operation principles and key technical charac-
teristics of these devices and shows their advantages and application possibilities
(Baltrnas, Zagorskis 2007; 1987).
Chapter 2 Granular Charging. The Types and Main Physical Characteristics
of Granular Charging presents general information about granular charges. Major
attention is devoted to the analysis of their regular and irregular forms. Emphasis
is laid on the properties of the charges of cylindrical and round forms and the
peculiarities of their arrangement in a filter are presented. The classification of a
granular charge layer is presented and described. The equations for determining
charge porosity are introduced. The chapter presents the characteristics of silica
gel, activated carbon and zeolite as their granules are very often used in charges
for the adsorption of gaseous pollutants ( . 2009; . 2005;
1984; 1987 et al.). It has been determined that the surface area of
cylinder-shaped activated carbon reaches 1 268 m2/m3 and that of cylinder-shaped
silica gel 1140 m2/m3.
In addition to charges used for pollutant adsorption, this chapter analyses granu-
lar materials intended for pollutant catalysis. The industrial catalysts of different
types designed for natural gas retention are analysed. Major attention is devoted
to their structures and filling in reactors. The plate catalysts of different sizes are
investigated as they can be applied for treating gas emissions from heating boilers.
314 Summary

The basic advantage of these catalysts is low aerodynamic resistance, resistance to


erosion and the possibility of cleaning gas polluted with suspended particles. As
practice shows, granulated catalysts can be employed for gas treatment when the
concentration of suspended particles inside does not exceed 2 mg/m3 (Darlington
etal. 2001; Gelhomenie et al. 2001, 2002; Deshusses, Cox 1999; Deshusses, John-
son 1999, 2000; Devinny et al. 1999; Dhamwichukorn et al. 2001; Elmrini et al.
2004; Engesser, Plaggemeier 2000; Estimated ... 2006).
The main function of charging a bio-filter is to create a large surface for pol-
lutant adsorption. Charging is also used as a source of nutrients for microorganism
population. In some charges, the required nutrients are not enough, and therefore,
in order to ensure high activity of microorganisms, they need to be watered with
water-saturated biogenic elements (mineral salts). Peat, soil, compost and mixtures
thereof are for the most part used to biologically clean the air from organic and
inorganic chemical pollutants. Wood sawdust, bark and various types of crushed
waste have also received wide application globally. Moreover, the charges of the
artificial origin such as polyvinyl chloride balls, star-shaped polymers, polypropyl-
ene cylinders, balls filled with carbon or ceramics, granulated glass, ceramic cubes
are used to reduce the aerodynamic resistance of bio-filters. An inorganic charge of
natural origin and natural zeolite can also be applied for biological air treatment.
The advantage of zeolites is their regular structure, a large internal specific surface
(around 600800 m2/g), pores of the same size and good thermal stability. One of
the major factors determining the selection of charging is its aerodynamic resist-
ance which is directly related to the porosity and humidity of charging. A higher
aerodynamic resistance of charging is obtained upon increasing charge humidity and
reducing fraction. It can be stated, therefore, that the major factors having an influ-
ence of filter treatment efficiency and the amount of used energy are the selection
of filter charge and its humidification. For a standard bio-filter, pressure losses may
reach from 1 to 10 hPa. This chapter analyses the structural peculiarities of air treat-
ment bio-filters and presents related proposals aimed at reducing the aerodynamic
resistance of these devices (Reza et al. 2005; Ruokojarvi et al. 2001; Schwarz etal.
2001; Sercu et al. 2005 et al.).
Chapter 3 The Structure of a Granulated Charge Layer overviews literature on
the properties of this type of charging and describes methods for determining the
porosity of a granulated charge layer. Recently, methods for research on the granu-
lated charge structure have been developed and improved which can be applied
for investigating prospective high-temperature nuclear reactors with gas cooling
(Morales et al. 1951; Schuter, Vortmeyer 1981; 1951; , 1968;
. 1979; Lyczkowski 1982; , 1980). This chapter presents
the dependences of the porosity of charging on its form which shows a lesser po-
rosity of a layer of cylinder-shaped granules than that of a layer of granules having
a round form. It also discusses the results of research carried out by Zavelev, Robl
315

and Sontag as well as methods for porosity identification discussed considering


the cylinder- and ball-shaped granular layers of charging. The chapter presents the
X-ray-gram of ball-shaped granules the diameter of which reaches 9.5 mm and
the dependences of their porosity on a charge form and on the diameters of the
granules and device. Subject to the ratio between the sizes of the dimensions of
the device and granules (D/d), the porosity of granular charging may fall from 30
to 80 %. Granules in the forms of balls, cylinders and irregular Raschig rings were
selected for investigation. Research produced the expressions of the coefficients of
the porosity of granules having these forms. As determined during investigations,
with a ratio between the dimensions of the device and granules (D/d) increasing
the porosity of a granular charge is decreasing. When D/d changes from 5 to 20
the porosity of cylinder-shaped granules decreases from 41 to 38 %. The sharpest
decrease in porosity is obtained when the ratio of the dimension sizes of the device
and granules increases from 1 to 5. The curves of the dependence of porosity on the
ratio of the dimensions of the device and granules (D/d) presented in this chapter
allow determining the medium porosity of a layer composed of granular charging.
Chapter 4 The Peculiarities of Gas Distribution in Devices with a Granular
Charge Layer describes various factors having an influence on gas distribution
within a granular charge layer. Careful attention is devoted to describing device and
granule dimension ratio (D/d) responsible for gas distribution within the layer. The
dependences of airflow rate on device structure and granule sizes are presented. The
chapter examines the ball-shaped granules of different sizes (0.258.7 mm) present
in the devices of different dimensions (device diameters reaching 40-94 mm). The
dependences of airflow distribution on the charge layer and airflow rate supplied
to the device are described. As determined during investigations where the initial
airflow rate supplied to the device is from 12 m/s, the disparity of gas distribution
in the charge layer does not change, whereas where airflow rate is below 1 m/s
the disparity of gas distribution starts growing (Morales et al. 1951; Price 1968;
Cairns, Prausnitz 1959; Ziolkowska et al. 1983; Dorweiler, Fahien 1959; Bundy
1966; Schwarz, Smith 1953; Leroy, Froment 1977). The impact of the non-isother-
mal layer on gas flow distribution is described. The conducted investigations have
revealed that a non-isothermal character of charging has an impact on the distribu-
tion of airflows. It has also been determined that upon increasing the temperature
of gas passed through the granular charge composed of 3 mm granules in diameter
from 293 to 473 K, the initial to maximum rate ratio (Wmax/W0) decreased by 15%.
This chapter presents and describes the stands intended for research on aerodynamic
processes occurring in charges and analyses their structures. One-cassette and three-
cassette devices were analysed in detail (Moscicka et al. 1976; Ziolkowska et al.
1983; Dorweiler, Fahien 1959 et al.). The chapter presents airflow distribution oc-
curring after gas has flown through the granular layer of charging and a theoretical
calculation of the distribution of gas flow passed through the charge. It describes the
316 Summary

impact of the main parameters on gas flow distribution in cylinder-shaped devices,


the method of dynamic velocity calculation, the dependences of aerodynamic pro-
cesses on the height of granular charging and the supplied gas flow rate when the
diameter of granules reaches 6 and 14 mm. The impact of the geometrical param-
eters of the device and granules on gas distribution was analysed. The dependences
of value W/W0 characterizing gas flow distribution on the form, type and size of
granules were obtained. The vector of the velocity of gas flow in devices with a
granulated charge layer was examined. This chapter also analyses the granules of
high-porosity materials such as foam, cordierite and ceramics. The chapter presents
and analyses five air treatment bio-filters of different structures created, designed
and produced at the Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas
Technical University. The performed research was aimed at determining the impact
the proposed structural solutions of devices have on the treatment efficiency of the
bio-filter. In order to extend charging durability and filter treatment efficiency, the
conducted research employed not only bio-filters of different structures but also the
charges of different origins composed of wood chips, bark, zeolite granules and
foam cube mixtures.
Chapter 5 Modelling Aerodynamic Processes in Devices with a Granulated
Charge Layer describes modelling performed applying laboratory, pilot, semi-in-
dustrial and industrial devices. It should be noted that the aerodynamic processes in
charging depend on the arrangement, monodispersity and polydispersity of granules
( ... 1980; 1978). The work presents and describes the
mathematical model of adsorptive air treatment devices charged with granulated
charge as well as the concept of charge structure. Physical models describe the po-
rosity and aerodynamic resistance of a charge layer (Price 1968; Cairns, Prausnitz
1959; . 1978 et al.). The impact of the non-uniform porosity of
the charge layer on gas distribution in treatment devices was investigated. In order
to enhance the treatment efficiency of a device, industrial enterprises often use very
high or thin layers of charging. Treatment devices having thin layers (H<2030 d)
are very widely applied by industrial enterprises producing nitrogen, meanwhile
very high layers are those having H/d>>100. The mathematical models of research
on aerodynamic and bio-filtration processes occurring in bio-filters are also pre-
sented and described. The aerodynamic resistance of charging is one of the key
factors determining device productivity and treatment efficiency. Software package
Phoenics 3.5 was selected for modelling aerodynamic processes in a bio-filter. This
software allows evaluating the coefficient of porosity which has the biggest influ-
ence on charge resistance. The charge coefficient of porosity depends on the geom-
etry, form, fraction, layer height and other parameters of charging used for pollutant
filtration. Modelling the processes of pollutant bio-destruction in low-capacity bio-
filters employs various differential equations which evaluate the processes of pollut-
317

ant mass transport, reactions in a bio-film, the adsorbtion of pollutants, adsorbtion,


the area of a specific surface of charging and a number of other factors. Therefore,
the mathematical models such as those of Monod kinetics and the kinetics of the
first and zero degree of mass balance form a whole of the mass equilibrium equa-
tions which describe the processes of bio-filtration in a bio-filter (Shim et al. 2006;
Studer et al. 2008; Syron, Casey 2008 et al.). The aerodynamic resistance of a bio-
filter charged with the granulated charge of different origins obtained during mod-
elling and presented in this chapter reached 1 105 Pa. The aerodynamic resistance
of charging after five layers of the charge is lower compared to the experimental
results; however, this difference is not big and accounts for 10 %.
Chapter 6 Aerodynamic Resistance of Industrial Granulated Charges inves-
tigates the aerodynamic resistance of adsorbents and catalysts used for air treat-
ment. The performed investigations showed pressure losses in round and cylindri-
cal granular charges. The characteristics of the materials analysed such as silica
gel, non-platinum catalyst and activated carbon are presented. Pressures not only
inside the device but also at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the
charge layer were identified. Gas flowing transition from laminar to turbulent (Re =
401200) was investigated, aerodynamic resistance in the cylinder-shaped granu-
lar charge composed of activated carbon at an airflow rate of 2.0 m/s can reach
around 1200 Pa/m. In addition to activated carbon, the chapter analyses ceramic
and metal Raschig rings. The dependences of the aerodynamic resistance of charg-
ing on the charge surface area were obtained using Eulers criterion. As it has been
determined, the surface area of silica gel balls with a diameter up to 3 mm reached
968m2/m3. In the meantime, the surface area of the glass balls of the same diameter
but higher porosity reached 1717 m2/m3. The research methods and results of the
aerodynamic resistance of highly porous materials such as ceramics are presented
(, 1964; . 1986). Where linear airflow rate reaches
0.3 m/s, the aerodynamic resistance of this charge is 20 mm w. c. (water column).
Upon increasing airflow rate up to 1.0m/s, charge resistance grows up to 150 mm
w.c. Also, the dependences of the aerodynamic resistance of granular charging on
the Reynolds number were obtained. Along with the increasing Reynolds number,
the aerodynamic resistance of charges also increases.
The aerodynamic resistance of granulated charge in air treatment bio-filters is
greatly dependent on charge humidity necessary to maintain microorganism activity
and airflow rate passed through the charge. Both airflow rate and device aerody-
namic resistance depend on the porosity of bio-charging (fir barks).
Fir barks are distinguished by high porosity. It reaches around 75 %. As experi-
mentally determined, under higher porosity of bio-charging, device aerodynamic
resistance decreases similarly to airflow rates in a bio-filter. The charges of bio-
filters have quite low aerodynamic resistance in the majority of cases reaching up
318 Summary

to 200Pa. The vitality of microorganisms also depends on aerodynamic resistance.


Where pressure is high, they may die which results in considerably decreased treat-
ment efficiency of the device. However, as practice shows, microorganisms are
capable of withstanding the pressure of up to 50 atmospheres. Biological air treat-
ment devices are not likely to be exposed to such aerodynamic pressure. After five
layers of the charge composed of wood chips, barks, natural zeolite granules and
foam cubes, 75 mm high bio-filter aerodynamic resistance at the supplied airflow
rate of 0.1 m/s reached 741 Pa. Upon increasing the rate of the airflow supplied to
the device up to 0.3 m/s after five layers charges aerodynamic resistance reaches
1 226 Pa. The carried out investigations show that the aerodynamic resistance of
synthetic-origin charges depends on time. The resistance of the charge composed
of ceramic rings reached 1500 Pa. Bio-filter aerodynamic resistance of 1700 Pa/m
was achieved upon using other materials such as a mixture of peat and bark. The
lowest aerodynamic resistance, 200 Pa/m, was obtained using wood chips for bio-
logical treatment.
Chapter 7 Aerodynamic Peculiarities in Devices with a Granulated Charge
Layer discusses devices of different structures used by industries, presents the pe-
culiarities of devices aimed at reducing the aerodynamic resistance of charging and
analyses technologies for gas distribution in devices with a thin layer of granulated
charge. It presents airflow directions in devices with an equalising partition of gas
flow and in devices with an extended air supply branch pipe which initially diverts
airflow in the flow-reverse direction. Currently, different technologies are being de-
veloped in order to achieve a uniform distribution of gas flow within the entire layer
of granulated charge. In order to achieve the uniform distribution of gas flow within
the entire layer of the charge, device cassettes with granulated charge are shifted
from 0 to 11 angle. Cassette height, length and width can reach 95600300 mm
respectively. The directions of gas flow in the charge were identified upon adding
soot particles to gas flow which coloured the respective places of gas flowing. The
preciseness of this method, in terms of quality and quantity, was proved by sub-
sequently applied thermoanemometers. The chapter presents the directions of gas
flows on the basis of the research methods. The distribution of airflow rate within
the entire width of a cassette was discussed. To achieve the uniform distribution of
airflow, diffusive systems were used in the device and cone-shaped diffusers were
investigated. Subject to the type and length of a diffuser, the ratio of airflow rates
W/W0 (when W0 = 2.5 m/s) may vary from 0.7 to 1.4. It is recommended to use
granulated charges composed of silica gel balls of 35 mm diameter in cassette fil-
ters. In order to reduce the aerodynamic resistance of charging, attempts are made to
develop the structure of a uniform layer of the cylinder-shaped charge. This chapter
also focuses on the analysis of reactors operating on the catalytic principle of clean-
ing the air from gaseous pollutants.
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