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CEV421 (Sep 2017 Jan 2018) 1

Tutorial 2

TUTORIAL 2

QUESTION 1
Based on the given statement, propose two (2) types of treatment units in order to achieve significant
pollutant removal in the wastewater. Justify your answer.

Steel plants have material handling unit, coke ovens, blast furnaces, other furnaces, casting, rolling,
pickling, heat treatment and finishing operations. Waster is used in different process in cooling and
washing systems. Wastes from coal washeries and blast furnace units are voluminous. A number of
chemicals such as lead, zinc, chromates, phosphates, chlorides, sulphides, acids, alkalies, iron, silica
and other may appear in the liquid effluent.
(Dec 2015)
QUESTION 2
a. Define the following terms:

i. Hazardous waste
ii. Industrial waste
iii. Clinical waste.
(June 2016)

b. Explain three (3) elements of waste management hierarchy in deciding the best method for
managing hazardous waste.
(June 2016)
QUESTION 3
Discarded electrical and electronic equipment known as e-waste can be potentially hazardous, if
improperly handled. For example, printed circuit board contains heavy metals such as nickel,
chromium, tin, lead and copper.

a. Define e-waste.

b. Demonstrate one (1) role that can be taken for each of the following generation and collection
processes:
i. E-waste generator from industry
ii. E-waste contractor and collector
iii. Consumer towards e-waste recycling.
(Dec 2016)
QUESTION 4
Scheduled waste has been regarded for a long time as intractable, or difficult to safely dispose of,
without special technologies and facilities. Some types of this waste can be detoxified or made less
dangerous by chemical or physical treatment methods. Table 1 shows categories of scheduled waste
(X and Y). Propose a suitable treatment method for each type of this waste and explain your reasoning.
CEV421 (Sep 2017 Jan 2018) 2
Tutorial 2

Table 1 Categories of scheduled waste

Category X Category Y
Syringe and needles Waste of lead acid batteries in
Soiled swabs or dressing whole or crushed form
Blood or other body fluids Nickel solution waste from
platting process

(Dec 2016)
QUESTION 5
Lead-acid batteries are the largest group of currently used batteries. They become hazardous waste
due to content of sulphuric acid and toxic lead and its compounds. Electrolyte from spent batteries with
concentration of sulphuric acid about 10 25% is contaminated with heavy metals (mostly Fe, Zn, Cd,
Sb, Pb).

From the description above, identify two (2) methods below possibly most preferable to treat this kind of
wastewater before final discharged.

Precipitation
Ion-exchange
Oxidation and Reduction
Coagulation and flocculation
Catalytic degradation

Hint: Support your answer with the brief mechanism of the process method.
(June 2017)
QUESTION 6
There is a growing demand to reduce the volume of organic material that makes up the bulk of waste
that is hauled into landfill sites, for the purpose of which many types of pretreatment is conducted.
Among the several forms of pretreatment employed is incineration. Incineration results in the
enrichment of heavy metals in the residual material (bottom ash and fly ash). In particular, fly ash
contains high concentrations of lead, cadminum and other heavy metals, many of which are soluble in
water. A number of studies involving leaching tests have been conducted regarding the leaching
characteristics of the heavy metals contained in bottom ash and fly ash as part of the effort to utilize
incineration residues as construction material. A number of studies have also been conducted
regarding the chemical treatment of heavy metals in order to render them insoluble.

From the description above, with some consideration, propose one (1) method to dispose the residual
material (bottom ash and fly ash) from the incinerator as the final disposal for this material and explain
your answer.
(June 2017)