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You are on page 1of 96

What is FEA ?

A complex problem is divided into a smaller and

simpler problems that can be solved by using the

existing knowledge of mechanics of materials and

mathematical tools

Why FEA ?

Modern mechanical design involves complicated shapes,

sometimes made of different materials that as a whole

cannot be solved by existing mathematical tools.

Engineers need the FEA to evaluate their designs

Basics of Finite Element Analysis

The process of dividing the model into small pieces is called meshing. The

behavior of each element is well-known under all possible support and load

scenarios. The finite element method uses elements with different shapes.

Elements share common points called nodes.

History of Finite Element Analysis

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was first developed in 1943 by R.

Courant, who utilized the Ritz method of numerical analysis and

minimization of variational calculus.

A paper published in 1956 by M. J. Turner, R. W. Clough, H. C.

Martin, and L. J. Topp established a broader definition of

numerical analysis. The paper centered on the "stiffness and

deflection of complex structures".

By the early 70's, FEA was limited to expensive mainframe

computers generally owned by the aeronautics, automotive,

defense, and nuclear industries. Since the rapid decline in the cost

of computers and the phenomenal increase in computing power,

FEA has been developed to an incredible precision.

Basics of Finite Element Analysis

FEA Applications

Perform deflection analysis.

Evaluate the stress or temperature

distribution in a mechanical component.

Check Buckling failure

Analyze the kinematics or dynamic response.

Perform vibration analysis.

The goal is to optimize for material

Basics of Finite Element Analysis

Consider a cantilever beam shown.

interest into a number of meshes (2D or 3D elements). Each mesh is

connected to associated nodes (black dots) and thus becomes a finite

element.

Basics of Finite Element Analysis

After approximating the object by finite elements,

each node is associated with the unknowns to be

solved.

For the cantilever beam the displacements in x and

y directions would be the unknowns (2D mesh).

This implies that every node has two degrees of

freedom and the solution process has to solve 2n

degrees of freedom, n is the number of nodes.

Partial derivatives Stress & Strain

relationship

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 7

Example a plate under load

Derive and solve the system of equations for a plate loaded as

shown. Plate thickness is 1 cm and the applied load Py is constant

Py

.

U1 thru U8,

Reaction displacements

forces in x and y

directions

Example a plate under load

Displacement within the triangular element (2D) with three

nodes can be assumed to be linear.

u = 1 + 2 x + 3 y

v = 1 + 2 x + 3 y

Example a plate under load

Displacement for each node,

Example a plate under load

Solve the equations simultaneously for and ,

Example a plate under load

Substitute x1= 0, y1= 0 (node 1), x2=10, y2= 0 (node 2) and x3= 0, y3=4

(node 3) to obtain displacements u and v for element 1

Evaluate the constants a, b, and c (3)

10 4 0 0

Element 1 (2)

(1)

Calculations:

2a = 40

a1 = 40, a2 = 0, a3 = 0

b1 = - 4, b2 = 4, b3 = 0

c1 = -10, c2 = 0, c3 = 10

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 12

Example

40 0 0

2a = 40

40

a1 = 40, a2 = 0, a3 = 0

b1 = - 4, b2 = 4, b3 = 0

c1 = -10, c2 = 0, c3 = 10 Change of notations

u1 = U1, u2 = U3, u3 = U5,

Calculations

v1 = U2, v2 = U4, v3 = U6

1 = (1)U1

2 = -(1/10)U1 + (1/10)U3

3 = -(1/4) U1+ (1/4) U5

1 = (1)U2

2 = -(1/10)U2 + (1/10) U4

3 = -(1/4) U2+ (1/4) U6

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 13

Example

Substitute and to obtain displacements u 1 = (1)U1

and v for element 1.

2 = -(1/10)U1 + (1/10)U3

3 = -(1/4) U1+ (1/4) U5

u = 1 + 2 x + 3 y

v = 1 + 2 x + 3 y 1 = (1)U2

2 = -(1/10)U2 + (1/10) U4

3 = -(1/4) U2+ (1/4) U6

Calculation:

v1 = U2 + [-1/10(U2) + (1/10) U4] x + [-(1/4) U2+ (1/4) U6 ] y

Example

Rewriting the equations in the matrix form,

v1= U2 + [-1/10(U2) + (1/10) U4]x + [-(1/4) U2+ (1/4) U6 ] y

Example

element 2 can be expressed as,

Example

The next step is to determine the strains using 2D strain-

displacement relations,

Example

Differentiate the displacement equation to obtain the strain

u1 = U1 + [-1/10(U1) + (1/10) U3] x + [-(1/4) U1+ (1/4) U5 ] y

Example

Element 2

Normal & Shear components of stress (3D)

Normal stress is perpendicular to the cross section, (sigma).

Shear stress is parallel to the cross section, (tau). First subscript indicates

y y the axis that is

perpendicular to the face

3D xy

Element yx

Second subscript

yz xy indicates the positive

direction of the shear

stress

zy x

xz x

zx

Due to equilibrium condition;

z xy = yx

zx = xz

z zy = yz

State of Stress

Three dimensional stress matrix

Two dimensional,

Plane Stress

Stress & Strain Relationship

Uniaxial state of stress x , y = 0 , z = 0

x = (x / E ), y = - x , z = - x

Using the three dimensional (triaxial state of stress) stress strain

relations for homogeneous, isotropic material and plane-stress,

x = (x / E ) - (y) - (z) = (x / E ) - (y / E ) - (z / E )

y = (y / E ) - (x) - (z) = (y / E ) - (x / E ) - (z / E )

z = (z / E ) - (x) - (y) = (z / E ) - (x / E ) - (y / E )

Stresses in

terms of strains

Stress & Strain Relationship

There are many practical problems where the stress in the z-direction is zero,

this is referred to as the state of Plane Stress.

Shear stress

E

xy = xy G G=

2(1 + )

Matrix

form

FEA Results - Principal Stresses

shear stresses are maximum and they

are called principal stresses 1, 2,

and 3, where 1 > 2 > 3

(x y z - 2 xy xz yz - x yz2 - y xz2 - z xy2 ) = 0

Plane stress, two principal stresses, 3 = 0

3 - (x + y) 2 + (x y - xy) = 0

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 24

Failure Theories Maximum Shear Stress

Yield strength of a material is used to design components made of

ductile material

(max )component > ( )obtained from a tension test at the yield point Failure

= Sy Sy

= 2 To avoid failure

Sy

(max )component <

2

= Sy

Sy

max = 2n

n = Safety

factor

Design equation

=Sy

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 25

Failure Theories von Mises Stress

Distortion energy theory (von Mises-Hencky)

Hydrostatic state of stress (Sy)h

t

h

(Sy)h >> (Sy)t

Distortion contributes to

failure much more than h

change in volume.

h

t

(total strain energy) (strain energy due to hydrostatic stress) = strain energy

due to angular distortion > strain energy obtained from a tension test at the

yield point failure

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 26

von Mises Stress

3D case, to avoid failure

(1 2)2 + (1 3)2 + (2 3)2

< Sy

2

2D case, 3 = 0

2 2

= (1 12 + 2 ) < Sy

Sy

= Design equation

n

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

The classical finite element analysis code (h version)

The system equations for solid and structural

mechanics problems are derived using the principle of

virtual displacement and work (Bathe, 1982).

The method of weighted residuals (Galerkin Method)

weighted residuals are used as one method of finite

element formulation starting from the governing

differential equation.

Potential Energy and Equilibrium; The Rayleigh-Ritz

Method

Involves the construction of assumed displacement field.

Uses the total potential energy for an elastic body

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

(gravitational forces, inertia, or magnetic)

f S surface forces (pressure of one body on another, or hydrostatic

pressure)

f i Concentrated external forces

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

Lets denote the displacements of any point (x, y, z) of the object

from the unloaded configuration as UT

U T = [U(x, y, z) V(x, y, z) W(x, y,z)]

T = [x y z xy yz zx ]

and the corresponding stresses

T = [x y z xy yz zx ]

The goal is to calculate displacement, strains, and stresses from

the given external forces.

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

Equilibrium condition and principle of virtual displacements

Work done by Work done by Work done by

body forces surface forces external forces

The left side represents the internal virtual work done, and the

right side represents the external work done by the actual

forces as they go through the virtual displacement.

The above equation is used to generate finite element

equations. And by approximating the object as an assemblage

of discrete finite elements, these elements are interconnected

at nodal points

Ken Youssefi

Ui denotes the displacement due to point forces

Mechanical Engineering Dept 31

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

coordinate system for an element are assumed to be a function of the

displacement at the nodes.

Ken Youssefi

H (m) is the displacement interpolation matrix

Mechanical Engineering Dept 32

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

strain-displacement matrix

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

Elasticity matrix

Matrix

form

elements initial stresses. The elasticity matrix relates strains

to stress.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 34

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

The formula for the principle of virtual displacements can be

rewritten as the sum of integration over the volume and areas

for each finite element,

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

The equilibrium equation can be expressed using matrix

notations for m elements.

where

B(m) Represents the rows of the strain displacement matrix

C(m) Elasticity matrix of element m

H(m) Displacement interpolation matrix

U Vector of the three global displacement

components at all nodes

F Vector of the external concentrated forces

applied to the nodes

Formulation of the Finite Element Method

K is the stiffness matrix.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 38

Continuing the example B(m) - Represents the rows of the strain

displacement matrix

y

x dx

4

dA = y dx y=4- x

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 1039

Example

Example

Calculating the stiffness matrix for element 2.

Example

The stiffness of the structure as a whole is obtained by combing

the two matrices, K = K1 +K2

Example

KU = R The load vector R, equals Rc because only

concentrated loads act on the nodes.

R=

where Py is the known external force and F1x, F1y, F3x, and F3y

are the unknown reaction forces at the supports.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 43

Example

The following matrix equation can be solved for nodal point

displacements

KU = R

Example

The solution can be obtained by applying the boundary conditions

No deflection

at the supports

Example

The equation can be divided into two parts,

The first equation can be solved for the unknown nodal displacements,

U3, U4, U7, and U8. And substituting these values into the second

equation to obtain unknown reaction forces, F1x, F1y, F3x, and F3y

and stresses can be calculated.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 46

Finite Element Analysis

FEA is a mathematical representation of a physical system

and the solution of that mathematical representation

Pre-Processing

Solving Matrix (solver)

Post-Processing

FEA Pre-Processing

Mesh

Mesh is your way of communicating geometry to

the solver, the accuracy of the solution is primarily

dependent on the quality of the mesh.

The better the mesh looks, the more accurate the

solution is.

A good-looking mesh should have well-shaped

elements (proportional), and the transition between

densities should be smooth and gradual without

skinny, distorted elements.

FEA Pre-Processing - meshing

The mesh transition from .05 to .5 element size without control of transition (a)

creates irregular mesh around the hole which will yield disappointing results.

FEA Pre-Processing

The mesh elements supported by most finite-element codes:

FEA Pre-Processing Elements

Beam Elements

Beam elements typically fall into two categories; able to

transmit moments or not able to transmit moments.

single element. This member can transmit axial loads only and

can be defined simply by a material and cross sectional area.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 51

FEA Pre-Processing Elements

The most general line element is a beam.

FEA Pre-Processing Elements

Plate and Shell Modeling

Plate and shell are used interchangeably and refer to surface-

like elements used to represent thin-walled structures.

similar density based on triangles. Triangles are acceptable in

regions of gradual transitions.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 53

FEA Pre-Processing Elements

Solid Element Modeling

accepted means to fill a volume, used as auto-

10-node Quadratic

mesh element by many FEA codes.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 54

CAD Modeling for FEA

CAD and FEA activities should be coordinated at the early stages

of the design process to minimize the duplication of effort.

There are four situations

eventual FEA.

CAD models prepared without consideration of

FEA needs.

CAD models unsuitable for use in analysis due to

the amount of rework required.

Analytical geometry developed by or for analyst

for sole purpose of FEA.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 55

CAD Modeling for FEA

Solid chunky parts (thick-walled, low aspect ratio)

parts mesh cleanly directly off CAD models.

Clean geometry

geometrical features must not prevent the mesh from

being created. The model should not include buried

features.

Parent-child relationships

parametric modeling allows defining features off other

CAD features.

CAD Modeling for FEA

Short edges and Sliver surfaces

Short edges and sliver surfaces usually accompany each other and on

large faces can cause highly distorted elements or a failed mesh.

CAD Modeling for FEA Sliver Surfaces

The rounded rib on the

Flat surface

inside of the piston has a

thickness of .30 and a

radius of .145, as a result

a flat surface of .01 by 2.5

is created. A mesh size of

.05 is required to avoid

distorted elements. This

results in a 290,000

nodes. If the radius is

increased to .15, a mesh

size of .12 is sufficient

which results in 33,500

nodes.

CAD Modeling for FEA

misaligned features.

undersized fillet

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 59

Guidelines for Geometry Planning

possible.

Try to use permanent datums as references where

possible to minimize dependencies.

Avoid using fillet or draft edges as references for

other features (parent-child relationship)

Never bury a feature in your model. Delete or

redefine unwanted or incorrect features.

Guidelines for Part Simplification

In general, features listed below could be considered for

suppression. But, consider the impact before suppression.

Outside corner breaks or rounds.

Small inside fillets far from areas of interest.

Screw threads or spline features unless they are

specifically being studied.

Small holes outside the load path.

Decorative or identification features.

Large sections of geometry that are essentially

decoupled from the behavior of interested section.

Guidelines for Part Simplification

Fillet added

to the rib

Holes removed

Fillet

removed

Ribs needed

for casting

removed

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 62

CAD Modeling for FEA

Model Conversion

Try to use the same CAD system for all

components in design.

When the above is not possible, translate

geometry through kernel based tools such as

ACIS or Parasolids. Using standards based

(IGES, DXF, or VDA) translations may lead to

problem.

Visually inspect the quality of imported

geometry.

Avoid modification of the imported geometry in

a second CAD system.

Use the original geometry for analysis. If not

possible, use a translation directly from the

original model.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 63

Example of a solid model corrupted by

IGES transfer

FEA Pre-Processing

Material Properties

The only material properties that are generally required by

an isotropic, linear static FEA are: Youngs modulus

(E), Poissons ratio (v), shear modulus (G), and yield

strength (or ultimate strength). Strength is needed if the

program provides safety factor or performance result.

G = E / 2(1+v)

Provide only two of the three properties.

Thermal expansion and simulation analysis require

coefficient of thermal expansion, conductivity and

specific heat values.

FEA Pre-Processing

Nonlinear Material Properties

A multi-linear model requires the input of stress-strain

data pairs to essentially communicate the stress-strain

curve from testing to the FE model

such as rubber and other synthetic elastomers require

distortional and volumetric constants or a more complete set

of tensile, compressive, and shear force versus stretch curve.

creep properties. Plastic parts are extremely sensitive to this

phenomenon

FEA Pre-Processing

Comments

If you are selecting the property set from the codes library,

be aware of the assumptions made with this selection.

Average values are used (variation could be up to 15%).

Localized changes due to heat or other processing effects are

not accounted for.

Any impurities present in the parent material are neglected.

application under analysis.

FEA Pre-Processing

Boundary Conditions (Loads and Constraints)

In FEA, the name of the game is boundary condition,

that is calculating the load and figuring out constraints

that each component experiences in its working

environment.

discussion of the boundary conditions.

Boundary Conditions

Loads

Loads are used to represent inputs to the system.

They can be in the forms of forces, moments (torque),

pressures, temperature, or accelerations.

Constraints

Constraints are used as reactions to the applied

loads. Constraints can resist translational or

rotational deformation induced by applied loads.

Boundary Conditions

Linear Static Analysis

Boundary conditions are assumed constant from

application to final deformation of system and all loads

are applied gradually to their full magnitude.

Dynamic Analysis

The boundary conditions (Loads) vary with time.

Non-linear Analysis

The orientation and distribution of the boundary

conditions vary as displacement of the structure is

calculated.

Boundary Conditions

Degrees of Freedom

Spatial DOFs refer to the three translational and three rotational

modes of displacement that are possible for any part in 3D

space. A constraint scheme must remove all six DOFs for the

analysis to run.

Elemental DOFs refer to the ability of each element to transmit

or react to a load. The boundary condition cannot load or

constrain a DOF that is not supported by the element to which it

is applied.

Boundary Conditions

Constraints and their geometric equivalent in classic

beam calculation.

Fixed support

Pin support

Roller support

Boundary Conditions

A solid face should always have at least three points in

contact with the rest of the structure. A solid element

should never be constrained by less than three points and

only translational DOFs must be fixed.

Accuracy

on the overall accuracy of the model.

Over-constrained model an overly stiff model due

to poorly applied constraints.

Boundary Conditions -Example

Excessive Constraints

Model of the chair seat with patches representing the tops of

the legs.

Patch 1

Patch 2

Patch 3 Patch 4

Boundary Conditions -Example

It may appear to be acceptable to constrain each circular patch

in vertical translation while leaving the rotational DOFs

unconstraint. This causes the seat to behave as if the leg-to-

seat interfaces were completely fixed.

A more realistic constraint scheme would be to pin the

center point of each circular patch (translational), allowing

the patch to rotate. Each point should be fixed vertically,

and horizontal constraints should be selectively applied so

that in-plane spatial rotation and rigid body translation is

removed without causing excessive constraints.

Patch 1

Patch 2

Patch 3 Patch 4

Boundary Conditions -Example

Constraining the center point of patch 1 in all 3

translational DOFs.

Constraining x and y translations of the center point of

patch 2.

Constraining z and y translation of the center point of

patch 3.

Constraining just the y translation of the center point of

patch 4.

This scheme allows in-

Patch 1

plane translation induced

Patch 2

by bending of the seat Patch 3 Patch 4

without rigid body

translation or rotation.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 76

Legs are fixed to seat

Use On Flat Face restraint

Fixed legs

Summary of Pre-Processing

Build the geometry (CAD model for FEA)

Prepare the model for meshing

Create the finite-element mesh

Add boundary conditions; loads and

constraints

Select material or provide properties

Specify analysis type (static or dynamic,

linear or non-linear, thermal, etc.)

These activities are called finite element modeling.

Solving the Model - Solver

Once the mesh is complete, and the properties and

boundary conditions have been applied, it is time to solve

the model. In most cases, this will be the point where you

can take a deep breath, push a button and relax while the

computer does the work for a change.

In most cases submitting a run with multiple load cases will

be faster than running sequential, complete solutions for

each load case.

Final Model Check

Post-Processing, Displacement Magnitude

Unexpectedly high or low displacements (by order of magnitude)

could be caused by an improper definition of load and/or elemental

properties.

Post-Processing, Displacement Animation

Animation of the model displacements serves as the best means of

visualizing the response of the model to its boundary conditions.

Post-Processing, FEA of a connecting rod

Post-Processing, Stress Results

The magnitude of the stresses should not be entirely unexpected.

Post-Processing, thermal analysis

Deploy Mechanism Assembly Analysis

Displacement

Stress

Can crusher stress

analysis

Use finer mesh size

Right click the

Mesh icon and

choose Failure

Diagnostics

Add fillet to the slot

edges (.1 in.)

Apply 200 N Max stress (von Mises) = 43.9 MPa

(45 lb) Sy = 96.5 MPa (Al 2014)

Safety factor

n = 96.5/43.9 = 2.2 > 2.0

Max deflection 1.13 mm < 2 mm

Fix the back plate

Design requirements

Safety factor between

2.0-2.5 and deflection

less than 2 mm

View (animated) Post-Processing

Displacements

No Review Boundary

Does the shape of deformations make sense?

Yes Conditions

View Displacement

Fringe Plot

and Units

Yes

View Stress

Fringe Plot

Review Mesh Density

Is the quality and mag. of stresses acceptable? No

and Quality of Elements

Yes

View Results Specific

To the Analysis

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering Dept 95

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