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U\l\ ER'ilTY

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Professor of Classics &

Cornell University

3 1924 096 693 217


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* TO


(being the nth Platonic Epigram in the Greelc Anthology)

The Graces sought a heavenly shrine, which ne'er

Shall come to nought,
And in thy soul, Immortal Poet, found
The shrine they sought.
The Eeelesiazusae has come down to us unaccompanied by any
didascalia or other evidence o its date, beyond what may be gathered
from the play itself and the comments of the Greek Scholiasts thereon.
But the information derivable from these sources makes it abundantly
clear that the play was exhibited in the spring- of the year b. c. 393,
in the third year of the 96th Olympiad, when Eubulides was archon.
In the opening scenes of the comedy, the women, disguised as men,
are practising the part which they are shortly to play in the Assembly,
(KKXr]a-[a, of the Athenian people. And Praxagora, their leader, delivers
a speech of considerable length, in the serious part of which she is

doubtless expounding the poet's own views respecting the political

condition of Athens. She arraigns the policy of the people for its
total want of continuity ; she avers that they are perpetually chopping
and changing ; enamoured of one course to-day, and of the opposite
course to-morrow ; and in illustration of her statement, she says :

TO (Ti)^^a\iiiov av rov^', or caKonovfiedaj

(I firj yfVoiT, ajroXetv e(pa<TKOV Tfjv 7t6\iv.

0T drj fi* eyevsT, ijxBovTO' roiv de priropuiv

6 TOVT avan^la-as vdvs arrodpas <^x^'^^'

"Then again this Alliance, when we were deliberating about it, they
vowed that not to conclude it would be the ruin of the State : but when
once it was concluded, they were disgusted with it ; and the orator who
persuaded them into it had straightway to cut and run.'''' Lines
On this passage the Scholiasts remark, Tiepi tov a-viJ,jji.a-^LKov, <i>i\6)(^opos
l(TTopel oTi. TTpb hvo kruiv eyivero crv/xjuaxta AaKibaijjLOviwv (cat Boioot&v.
" As to the Alliance, Philoehorus relates that, two years before, an
Alliance had been concluded between the Lacedaemonians and the
Boeotians." But as the speaker is referring' to an alliance entered into

not by the Lacedaemonians, but by the Athenians, Petit has, with

general consent, substituted 'AdrjvaLoov for AaKebaiixovCuv in the Scholium.
And that this is really what the Scholiasts meant is made still plainer
by the circumstance that the orator who fell into discredit for pushing
the treaty through is by them (on line 196) declared, however wrongly,
to have been the illustrious officer Conon, the inveterate enemy of the
We get therefore so far that, according to the statement in the
Scholium, the Eeclesiazusae was acted two years after an alliance had
been contracted between the Athenians and the Boeotians, an alliance
which was considered of momentous, and even of vital, importance to
Athens : and that with this alliance the name of Conon was, or might
have been, in some way connected. And we have next to consider
whether we find in history, within the period admissible for the production
of this play, any treaty of alliance between the Athenians and the
Boeotians which will answer the foregoing conditions.
Now the disastrous termination of the Peloponnesian War not only
annihilated the Athenian empire, it reduced Athens herself to the position
of a mere satellite and dependency of the Spartan leadership. The
Athenians were bound to follow wherever Sparta might lead ; her

' Xen. Hell. ii. 2. 20.

The scytale-dispatcli in whicli the Ephors originally announced the decision

of Sparta as to the fate of her fallen rival is preserved by Plutarch.
Td8e TCI rfkrj Tcbv AaKfSai/xoi/i'tai' iyvai' Kafi^aXovTis tov Hetpaid Kal Ta fiaKpa ctkcXtj,
KaX (K^avres eV Traa-av Tav irokluiv, rav avTav yav exovres, ravrd Ka dpavres rav elpdvav
i'XOiTf, al xpijSoiTf, Kal Ilepl rdv vaav tS) TrXij^eof, OKo'iov ri Ka
tovs (j)vydSas dveVTCS.
Ti;i SoKfTj, ravra TroitfTf
Plutarch's Lysander, chap. 14.

" Gin ye ding doon Peiraeus an' the Lang Shanks " (ra fiaKpd a-KeXrj, the
Walls) " an' gang oot o' a' the touns, an' bide in yer ain countree, ye can hae
Peace, an' ye wuU forbye ye maun tak' hame yer exiles. Anent the nummer o'

the ships, wat sail be determined there, that do ye.''


enemies were to be their enemies, and ter friends their friends ; their
navy was limited to twelve triremes; and the demolition of the Long
Walls left them open at once to a blockade by the formidable armies of
the Peloponnesian Confederacy.
In this state of humiliation Athens remained for about nine years,
from B. c. 404 to b. c. 395.
Yet at the very moment of her fall an undercurrent was working
which was ultimately to lift her, not indeed to her former supremacy,

but to a position of dignity and complete independence.

At the time when Athens lay helpless at the feet of her conquerors,
a great congress was held at Sparta for the purpose of deciding upon
her fate. Many states, and more especially Thebes and Corinth, were
urgent that no terms of any kind should be granted her ; insisting that
the city should be razed, and all the citizens sold into slavery ; and that
sheep should pasture over the ground which once was Athens. The
Lacedaemonians stood resolutely between Athens and this terrible

vengeance, declaring that they would not reduce to slavery an Hellenic

city, a city too which had done such splendid service for Hellas in the
hour of her gravest peril. And, overraling the eager hostility of the

most powerful members of the Confederacy, they granted the terms of

peace which have already been mentioned ^.

Xen. Hell. ii. 2. 19, 20 Isocrates, de Pace 94, Plataious 34

; Plutarch,

Lysander, chap. 15.

Plutarch tells us that Lysander and the allied generals in the camp before
Athens, in the midst of their deliberations as to her fate, adjourned for a while to
a banquet. There, amidst the wine and music, a Phocian sang the opening lines
of the first Choral song in the Electra of Euripides, Daughter of Agamemnon,
I came, Electra, to thy humble cottage. Thereupon all the company were moved
with compassion, thinking that the fate of that famous princess bore some
resemblance to the fate which they themselves were even then meditating for the
famous city. Thenceforward milder counsels prevailed.
It is to be hoped that there is some foundation for the anecdote about the
Electra, and that the melodies of Euripides were to some extent instrumental
in mitigating the misfortunes of Athens herself, just as, the same authority
informs us, they had been instrumental, some years before, in ameliorating the
lot of the Athenian prisoners at Syracuse. But the setting in which the anecdote
No moment in all Hellenic -history after the great Persian invasion

was so noble as this, when Sparta saw her great antagonist prostrate at

her feet, forgot the bitter rivalry of the last seven and twenty years,
remembered only their comradeship in the death-struggle against the

Mede, remembered the gallantry and self-devotion of Athens in those

heroic days, and proved herself a worthy representative of the men of
Thermopylae and Plataea. Not a life was taken; no Athenian was
injured in purse or person ; no trophies, not even the Spartan shields
captured at Sphacteria, were reclaimed, but Athens was left with all her
wealth of architecture and sculpture, with all her art-treasures, and
temples, and choruses ; still an " eye " of Hellas, still the noblest and
the loveliest of all Hellenic cities.

The spirit of the dead Callicratidas must, have been strong in the
Spartan councils on that day, when the Peloponnesian War was closed
with this great act of forbearance and magnanimity. And yet, though
it displayed Sparta for the moment as the true Pan-Hellenic leader,
though it invested her with a claim to our admiration even surpassing
what is due to her military glories, it undoubtedly sowed the bitter seed
which culminated in her own downfall.
Thebes and Corinth, the main props of the Confederacy which acknow-
ledged the leadership of Sparta, were naturally aggrieved to find their
fondest wishes overruled, and their hostility to Athens rebuked, by the
generous moderation of the Spartan decision. And very shortly after-
wards the Thebans ^ certainly, and according to Justin the Corinthians

lias reached us is plainly apocryphal. Tbe fate of Athens was not left to the
decision of Lysander and the allied generals in the camp before her walls. It had
already been determined by the authorities at Sparta.
^ Xen. Hell. iii. 5. 5 Plutarch, Lysander, chap. 27 Justin, v. 10.
; Justin's ;

words are " Interea Thebani Corinthiique legates ad Lacedaemonios mittunt, qui
ex manubiis portionem praedae communis belli periculique peterent. Quibus
negatis, non quidem aperte bellum adversus Lacedaemonios decernunt, sed
taoitis animis tantam iram concipiunt, ut subesse bellum intelligi posset."
Plutarch, on the other hand, is clear that the Thebans alone made the claim and
received the rebuff, Qrjffaloi nuvoi, tS>v aWav avfifidxav fja-vxa^ovTcov. And this is
more in accordance with the statement in Xenophon. It seems probable that

alsOj received a further rebuff from Sparta : their claim to share in the
wealth which Lysander had brought from Asia for the more effectual
prosecution of the war being absolutely repudiated by the Spartan
government. Thenceforward they began to draw away from her side.

And when Sparta again summoned her allies to

in the following year
invade Attica, and put down the popular party under Thrasybulus, it
was noticed that the only states ^ which did not obey the summons were
Thebes and Corinth. Nor did these two states ever again act in unison
with that great group of Hellenic peoples which recognized Sparta as
their chief and leader.

Some two years later the Lacedaemonians went to M'ar with Elis, and
summoned the Confederacy to assist them. Again there were two
exceptions to the unanimity with which the allies, including the
Athenians, obeyed the call ; and again those two exceptions ^ were
Thebes and Corinth.
It was, seemingly, in the year b. c. 396 that Agesilaus was planning
his great expedition to Asia Minor. His mind was full of mighty
projects and lofty hopes : even dreaming of those gigantic successes
the achievement of which was reserved for a later period, and for
a Macedonian king. He was a second Agamemnon, conducting the
hosts of all Greece to conquer a mightier Troy : a Pan-Hellenic leader,
retorting upon Persia the invasion of Hellas by Xerxes. He named
a rendezvous to which all the troops were to repair, and sent messengers

to all the Hellenic cities, both within and without Peloponnesus, fixing
the particular quota which each was expected to send ^- The Boeotians
appear to have returned a blunt refusal. The Corinthians alleged (and
Pausanias actually gives credit to their allegations) that they were most
desirous of coming, but were deterred by an evil omen, the recent

Justin, or rather Trogus Pompeius whom he follows, was misled by the fact that
at this time the Thebans and Corinthians were generally acting together.
Xen. Hell. ii. 4. 30. ^ Ibid. iii. 2. 25.
' Ibid. iii. 4. 3 ; Id. Agesilaus, chap. 1 ; Plutarch, Agesilaus, chap. 6 ; Pausanias,
Laconica, ix. 1.

destruction o their Temple of Olympian Zeus. Anyhow neither
Thebans nor Corinthians came. On this occasion, too, the Athenians
excused themselves, on the plea that they had not yet sufficiently
recovered from the effects of the Peloponnesian War.
So far the symptoms of alienation were merely of a negative
character. Thebes and Corinth had not moved with the rest of the
Confederacy at the summons, and under the leadership of Sparta, but
neither had they proceeded to any overt acts of hostility. But before
Agesilaus had started for Asia, the Boeotians had offered to him, and
through him to Sparta, a direct and deliberate insult. The King of
Sparta, in emulation of his great predecessor the King of Mycenae,
was desirous of inaugurating his expedition by a preliminary sacrifice

at Aulis, in honour of the Goddess Artemis ^. He left the fleet assembled

at the southern promontory of Euboea, and came with a single trireme
to Aulis to perform the sacrifice. The victims were slain, their thigh-
bones and fat were on the altar, the fire was kindled, when suddenly
a squadron of Boeotian cavalry, hastily dispatched by the Boeotarchs,
appeared upon the scene and put a forcible stop to the proceedings
even driving Agesilaus himself from the temple, and casting from the
altar and throwing about in all directions the half-consumed sacrificial
meats. It was said that the rites were not being performed in the
proper and customary manner; but we are not here concerned with
the right or wrong of the affair. In any case the conduct of the
Boeotians was a grievous affront, and a deliberate provocation, to the
Commander-in-Chief of the foremost Hellenic state. The sacrifice

' Xen. Hell. iii. 4. 3, 4 ;

Plutarch, Agesilaus, chap. 6 ; Pausanias, Laconica, ix. 2.
The principal victim was a deer, Karaareij/as eXaCpov fxtXevo-fV dwdp^acrdai. TOP
iavTov fidvTiv. Plutarch, ubi supra.
The deer was in many ways specially associated with Artemis ; but on the
present occasion its sacrifice was peculiarly appropriate, because (as the later
legends told the tale) it was a deer, substituted by the Goddess for Iphigenia,
Agamemnon really sacrificed at Aulis.

&W' e^eKXaf/ev, tXaipov dvTiSovaa /xov

'Apre/Jis 'Axaiofs. Iph. in Taur. 28, 29.

which was to redound to the glory of Agesilaus was turned into a bitter
humiliation and he re-embarked on his trireme in great anger, calling

the Gods to witness the insulting conduct of the Boeotians.

The incident was not forgotten ; and when at the commencement of
the year b. c. 395 the Phoeians, assailed by the Boeotians, applied for
help to Sparta, the latter ^ at once seized the opportunity of declaring
war against Thebes, and summoned the Peloponnesian Confederacy to
invade Boeotia. Only one member of the Confederacy refused to comply,
and of course that member was Corinth ^. The army from Peloponnesus,
led by Pausanias the King, was to invade Boeotia from the south :

whilst another army, under Lysander, the greatest general and most
influential personage in Hellas, was to enter it on the north-west from
Phocis. The two armies were to meet at Haliartus.
Alarmed at these formidable preparations the Boeotians sent an
embassy to Athens, to propose an alliance, and the formation of an
Anti-Spartan League. The speech of their envoy, as preserved, or
invented, for us by Xenophon, points out in strong and exaggerated
language the benefits which might accrue to Athens herself from the
proposed alliance. "Ye will become,''^ says the orator, "far greater
than ye ever were ; ye will be leaders of all : of ourselves, of the
Peloponnesians, of your former subjects, yea of the great king himself."
The question for the Athenian Assembly to decide was one of vital

and absorbing interest. Should they, or should they not, concur with
Thebes in establishing an Anti-Spartan League, to which Corinth at
all events was quite certain at once to accede? If they did, they
would, for the first time since their fall, be moving out of the shadow
of the Spartan supremacy, and would become once more a free and
independent Bepublic. But they would be uniting themselves to their
deadliest enemies, against the very Power which, nine years before, had
shielded them from the relentless vengeance of those very enemies.
They would be performing an act of great political ingratitude, and

1 Xen. Hell. iii. 5. 5. ^ Ibid. iii. 5. 17.


at the same time Thebes and Corinth
of great political hazard. If

were again to attack them, they had forfeited all claim to be again
protected by Sparta ; whilst if Thebes and Corinth were to make peace
with Sparta, they would be wholly unable, in the present state of their
fortifications, to make any show of resistance to the Peloponnesian armies.
It must have been a time for great searchings of heart amongst the
wisest Athenians ; and Thrasybulus, then the most eminent leader of
the people, seems to have been seriously perplexed and uncertain which
course it would be more prudent to adopt. For this was doubtless the
occasion on which he first promised the Lacedaemonians to speak in
their favour, and then, changing his mind, excused himself on the
ground of sudden^ indisposition. He does not seem however to have
taken an active part against them. I do not know on what authority
he is represented by Bishop Thirlwall and Mr. Grote as moving the
resolution tothe Theban proposal^ or by Mr. Mitford as
" countenancing the measure." He seems to have done nothing beyond
communicating the resolution, when passed, to the Theban envoys, and
that too in somewhat ungracious terms, showing that he was fully alive
to the perilous character of the step.
However very many, tto.ij.ttoWoi., spoke in favour of the alliance, and
itwas ultimately accepted by the Assembly without a dissentient vote.
The Athenian troops at once started for Haliartus, and though the
engagement in which Lysander was defeated and slain took place before
their arrival, yet their subsequent presence had a determining influence
upon the campaign, and compelled the ignominious evacuation of Boeotia,
without a battle, by the army of Pausanias.
This great and striking event, the " march to Haliartus " as it was

See line 356 of this play, and the note there. It must be remembered that

this is not a piece of gossip, retailed

by Plutarch or some other anecdote-collector
it was a statement made before the whole Athenian people within two years after

the event.
Pausanias (Laconica, ix. 5) says that the Athenians had sent an embassy to
Sparta, urging her to accept arbitration instead of going to war. But this does
not seem to be confirmed by any other authority.

commonly called, made a deep and lasting impression upon the Athenian
mind. " For ye, O men of Athens," says Demosthenes, some sixty-five

years afterwards, " when the Lacedaemonians were masters of sea and
land, and controlled all countries round about Attica with their har-
mosts and their garrisons Euboea, Tanagra, the whole of Boeotia,
Megara, Aegina, Cleonae, the other islands whilst ye, for your part,

had no ships, and your city no walls, ye marched out to Haliartus, and
not many days afterwards to ' Corinth : though the Athenians of that
time had much ill to remember against the Corinthians and the Thebans
for their conduct in the Deceleian war; but they remembered it not.

Far from it ^." And the name of Haliartus became so familiarly associated
with the glories of Athens that more than two centuries later when the
Romans, in their war against Perseus, conquered and destroyed the town,
the Athenians preferred a request that the site might be given to them-

selves. One would infer from Polybius ^, who speaks of their request
with some indignation, that the petition was refused ; but Strabo ^ tells

us that the Romans did in fact give them the site, and that in his time
it was still in their possession.

Here then we find an alliance which precisely answers to the descrip-

tion given in the speech of Praxagora. That this was the one chance
for Athens, that its refusal would ruin the city, is just what some, at
least, of the " many orators " who advocated the alliance might reason-
ably be expected to urge. But Praxagora goes on to say that, when
the Athenians had got the Alliance, they became disgiisted with it. Can
this be truly said of the Anti-Spartan League within two years of its

inception, that is to say in the spring of b. c. 393 ? About this there

is no doubt whatever.

' De Corona, 118.

Mantitheus, in the sixteenth oration of Lysias, says that when the Athenians
made the treaty with the Boeotians and marched to Haliartus (ore rfju crvixnaxi-av
enoirjo-aa-de irpbt Toiis Boiarovs, Kal els 'AXiapTOv (8ei ^oi^delv) it was thought that the

hoplites were undertaking a service of great da.nger, hut that the cavalry would
run but little risk.
' XXX. 18. ' ix. 30.
At first, indeed, everything seemed to promise well. The League was
by the Corinthians and the Argives, and shortly afterwards
joined at once
by the Euboeans, the Acarnanians, the Leucadians, and other states \
The Spartan garrisons and alliances beyond Boeotia were swept away,
and the Phocians completely defeated. And when in the following spring
and summer (b. o. 394) a large ^ army, composed of contingents from all
the members of the League, was gathered together at Corinth, the
confidence of the leaders was unbounded. Timolaus of Corinth proposed
an immediate march on Sparta : for rivers, said he, are smallest at their

source, before they become swoln by the influx of their tributaries, and
wasps are most easily destroyed in their nests. Doubtless too there
was another war off-hand before
reason, the hope of concluding the

Agesilaus could return from Asia Minor. The proposal of Timolaus was
adopted, and the army, leaving its great camp near Corinth, marched
southward as far as the famous valley of Nemea. But they had under-
rated the military spirit and the military resources of their opponent.
Instead of attacking Sparta at home, they were forced to retrace their
steps to repel an attack by Sparta on their own headquarters. A Pelo-
ponnesian army, nearly as large as their own, had marched through Sicyon,
and was ravaging with sword and fire (refJLvovTes Koi Kaovres Tr]v xdpav)
the territory of Corinth. The battle between these two mighty Hellenic
armies, fj ixeyaXr} /ixox'? irpos AaKihaifxavCovs, fj fv KopiV^u, as ^Demosthenes
describes it, resulted in the total rout of. the army of the League, and the

^ Diodorus, siv. 82.

^ " The fighting men of all descriptions," says Mr. Mitford, " must have amounted
to 50,000." This seems a fair computation. The hoplites alone, Senophon tells
us, numbered 24,000 viz. 7,000 Argives, 6,000 Athenians, 5,000 Boeotians, 3,000

Corinthians, and 3,000 Euboeans, iv. 2. 17.

* Adv. Leptinem 59. It seems probable that between eighty and a hundred
thousand men vfere engaged in the conflict: a fighting force which, had it
combined, might have overthrown all the armies of Persia. Such was doubtless
the reflection of Agesilaus when he heard of the great battle, and not, as
Xenophon (Ages. vii. 5) reports him to have said, that those slain in the conflict
would have been adequate to the task, which would have been an absurd
exaggeration. Later writers merely copy Xenophon.

main body of the ^ Athenian troops, assailed at once in front and on

their left flank by the Lacedaemonians^ suffered more severely than any
other contingent. The defeated army fled for safety to the walls of
Corinth^ but the Lacedaemonians were following hard after them ; the
gates were shut in their faces^ and the fugitives were compelled to take
refuge in the neighbouring^ camp from which they had issued, only
a few days earlier, in the confident expectation of a victorious march
upon Sparta.
The battle of Corinth was fought in the summer of b. c. 394; and its

result made it evident that, even in the absence of the army of Agesilaus,
Sparta was more than a match for the Anti-Spartan League. And
before that summer had passed away, Agesilaus returning from Asia, and
having traversed Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly, entered Boeotia from
the north, and inflicted another defeat on the army of the League in the

' Xen. Hell. iv. 2. 21. "We lost good men at Corintli," says Plato
(Menexenus 17), who is supposed to have taken part in tlie battle Aelian, H. V. ;

vii. 14, Aristoxenus cited by Diog. Laert. (Plato, segm. 8.) The statement is probable

enough but the witnesses are not above suspicion since Aelian says that he was
; ;

also present at the battle of Tanagra, and Aristoxenus that he was present at the
battles of Tanagra and Delium. Now these three battles, Tanagra, Delium, and
Corinth, are all incidentally mentioned in the Dialogues of Plato but of course ;

he could not have been present at Tanagra or Delium.

h TO apxaiov crTparoTrfSov, Xen. Hell. iv. 2. 23. Not " the position which they
had left in the morning, on the Nemea," as Bp. Thirlwall supposes a position ;

which could not have been styled to apxalov a-rpuTOTreSou, and between which and
the fugitives the whole Peloponnesian army was interposed. The original " or
" ancient " camp, was the great camp outside the walls of Corinth, which had

been occupied for many months, first by the Athenians, Boeotians, Corinthians,
and Argives alone then, also by the contingents from the other states as they

severally arrived and finally, by the entire army whilst the Council of War

was in session, and during the period which intervened before the march south-
ward began. It was no doubt sufficiently strong to prevent any attack by the
Demosthenes (adv. Leptinem 59, 60) says that although one Corinthian faction
opened, and
was for closing the gates, the Philo-Athenians insisted on their being
that after the
received the fugitives into the town. It would seem therefore
defeated troops had taken refuge in the neighbouring
camp, some of them,
probably the sick and wounded, were admitted into Corinth.

battle of Coronea. Here again ^ an Athenian contingent formed part of
the defeated army; but we have no mention made of its losses, and

probably they were slight compared with those sustained in the battle of
Thus within a few weeks ^ the entire aspect of affairs had, as regarded
Athens, undergone a serious change for the worse. She had lost many
citizens without any beneficial results ; the whole force of the League
had been defeated both in the north and in the south ; the bright hopes

with which the year 394 had commenced, had altogether died away
b. C.

divided counsels were already making themselves felt at Corinth, and it

was but natural that the Athenians should become disgusted, fix^ovro, at
the failure of all those brilliant expectations, through which they had
been induced, less than two years before, to take so active a part in the
formation of the Anti-Spartan League.
It was at this juncture, at the commencement of the year B. c. 393,
that Praxagora comes forward, in. the play before us, to condemn the
vacillating policy of the men, and to propose that the government of
Athens shall be henceforth entrusted to the women, as the more stable

and conservative sex. But before we discuss her proposals, there are two
other points to be mentioned.

We have already seen that, according to the Scholiast, the orator who
persuaded the Athenians to contract the alliance with Thebes, and was,
in consequence, obliged to leave the country, was none other than Conon ;

.6vava Kiyei, is his comment on line 196. This, of com-se, is a mere

' Lysias, pro Mantitlieo.

^ We can fix these dates with a precision generally unattainable owing to the
fact that an eclipse of the sun took place shortly after the battle of Corinth and
immediately before the battle of Coronea. Agesilaus was at this time hastening
from the Hellespont to Boeotia. The news of the victoiy at Corinth met him at
Amphipolis (Xen. Hell. iv. 3. 1), when he had passed through Thrace and a part
of Macedonia. The eclipse, which is calculated to have occurred on August 14,
B.C. 394, took place after he had passed through the rest of Macedonia and
Thessaly, and had entered Boeotia indeed, just as the skirmishing began which

was the prelude to the battle of Coronea.


delusion. Conon had never set foot in Athens since the disaster at

Aegospotami ; Aristophanes would not have described that gallant officer

simply as one t&v pr\T6pu>v ; nor did he ever fall into discredit with the
Athenian people. Why then, it may be asked, was his name so intimately

connected, in the mind of the Scholiast, with the Anti-Spartan League ?

It was because, whatever benefit accrued to Athens from the League, she
derived through the intervention of Conon. Already, before the com-
mencement of B. c. 393, whilst the horizon was so dark and threatening
at home, it was known that he had won a great victory over the Lacedae-
monian fleet at Cnidus, a victory which was speedily followed by the
downfall of the Lacedaemonian power in the islands and beyond the
sea. This victory, however, was not won for Athens; it was achieved
by the Persian fleet, consisting of Greek and Phoenician triremes, under
the joint command Conon and Pharnabazus ; and the isles of Greece

and cities of Asia Minor delivered from the Spartan harmosts and
garrisons were not handed over to Athens, but were left as free and
independent states. But before another year had rolled away, before the
spring of B. c. 392 had arrived, a brilliant and marvellous change, one
might almost say a resurrection, had taken place in the affairs of Athens.

Conon had returned, bringing the Persian fleet, and an ample supply of
Persian gold to secure her safety j the other members of the League had
readily assisted, Thebes alone sending 500 skilled workmen ; the Long
"Walls had risen again, the fortifications of Peiraeus were restored, and
Athens was entirely delivered from the doubts and the dangers which
had so long beset her. At the commencement of B. c. 393 Athens was
in a state of disquiet and perplexity, still halting between two courses.

There was no doubt or wavering at the commencement of b. c. 392. Her

safety was assured. She had been finally launched on a new career of

The foregoing considerations might of themselves be sufficient to show

that Petit and Mr. Fynes Clinton, in giving b. c. 392 as the date of the
Ecclesiazusae, have fixed it a year too late. The deservedly high reputa-
b a
tion of Mr. Fynes Clinton in chronological questions has obtained universal

acceptance for that date, although the speech of Praxagora, from begin-
ning to end, cries out against it, and demands the previous year. And
clear as the internal evidence is in favour of B. c. 393, the external
evidence is almost equally clear. The subjoined table of the years of the

96th Olympiad may assist us in an examination of the grounds on which

those two distinguished chronologers have come to a wrong conclusion :

Olympiad 96. Athenian Arch on. Years B.C.

1 Phormio 396, 395.
2 Diophantus .... 395, 394.
3 Eubulides .... 394,393.
4 Demostratus . . . 393,392.

The question is whether the Ecclesiazusae was exhibited in the archonship

of Eubulides, or in that of Demostratus. And this to a great extent

depends upon another question, viz. whether t6 (TVjxy.axi-i^ov, which is said

to have been concluded two years before its exhibition, was concluded in

the archonship of Phormio, or in that of Diophantus.

Now Petit (to consider his theory first) fixes on the wrong avfjifiax^ia.

He treats the avix^iax^a, to which Praxagora refers, as being not the

original Anti-Spartan League, but the subsequent accession to the League
of Corinth and Argolis. And true it is that Diodorus, who has spoken of
the original Anti-Spartan League and the march to Haliartus in the
81st chapter of his XlVth Book, does, when he returns to the subject
in the following chapter, speak of an alliance being made, during the
archonship of Diophantus, between the Athenians, Boeotians, Corinthians,
and Argives. But it is impossible that these accessions to the League can
have been the alliance of which Praxagora speaks. They were contem-
plated from the first ; to them no opposition was possible ; no orator was
required to push them through ; no one could have argued that the
rejection of these new members would ruin the state, for the idea of
rejecting them could not have occurred to anybody; nor were the
Athenians afterwards vexed ("ixdovro) at having admitted them. In no
one point does Petit's aviJ-iiaxia answer to Praxagora's o-D/x/xa^^udr. This


mistake as to the alliance is the sole foundation for Petit's date of the
play,and the foundation being removed the superstructure falls.
Mr. Fynes Clinton of course avoids the error into which Petit, aud
afterhim Paulmier, fell. He recognizes that by the alliance Praxagora
must mean the original Anti-Spartan League and the march to Haliartus,
but he places these events a year too late, viz. in the archonship of
Diophantus. His sole authority is an observation of Plutarch ^ that an
oracle was thought to refer to the two battles of Delium and Haliartus,
the latter iiaTepov erei TfjiaKoa-rSi y(voixivr]v than the former. But
Plutarch^s authority on a matter of chronology is of very slight value
and Mr. Fynes Clinton seems to have overlooked the express statement
of Diodorus^ that the formation of the Anti-Spartan League and the
march to Haliartus took place durhig the archonship of Phormio. Diodorus
arranges his facts in the form of annals, prefixing (in this part of his
history) to the events of each successive year the names of the Athenian
archon and the Roman consuls for that particular year. And his positive
statement as to the date of an event very greatly outweighs an incidental
remark of Plutarch. And here it is in entire accord with the conviction
which must be borne in upon the mind of every thoughtful reader, from
a careful perusal of the arguments and allegations of Praxagora.
It seems therefore on every ground absolutely certain, that the play
was exhibited in February or March, B.C. 393, after the reverses
sustained by the Anti-Spartan League, and before the arrival of Conon,
and the rebuilding of the Long Walls of Athens.

Reverting now to Praxagora and her scheme for the future govern-
ment of Athens, we find that the main argument put forward in support
of her proposed yvvaiKOKparCa is based on the more conservative character
of the female sex. Men, she says, are always in quest of novelty and
change. Women abide by their principles, and the women of the present
day use the same customs and follow the same practices that their
predecessors have used and followed throughout all generations. Athens,

^ Plutarch, Lysander, chap. 29. ^ Diodorus, xiv. 54, 81, 82.

imperilled by the restlessness of meiij will be saved by the steadfast and
sober adherence of women to ancient methods and venerable traditions.
Yet no sooner does Praxagora by these arguments and for these purposes
obtain the reins of power, than she spontaneously develops a scheme so
startling and so novel, as to throw altogether into the shade the wildest
extravagances of the men. It is a scheme of naked socialism, involving
the community of goods, the abolition of marriage, and (what is one-
sidedly called) the community of women.
How can we account for this singular phenomenon ? It has no

parallel in any other comedy of Aristophanes. The Chorus indeed will

frequently go over to the side which it began by opposing, and some-

times one of the principal characters will yield to argument, or the
stress of circumstances : but there is always enough in the play itself

to determine and explain the change. Here, however, the heroine, who
has been earnestly seeking power for one purpose, immediately employs
it for the opposite purpose : her special mission being to put a stop to all

political novelties, she at once introduces a political novelty so vast and

revolutionary, that she doubts if the men can be brought to accept it.

And there is not a syllable in the play to justify or account for her
sudden change. It is therefore necessary to look for the determining
cause in something outside the play itself.

And it seems impossible to doubt that the cause is to be found in the

appearance, whilst Aristophanes was engaged on the Ecclesiazusae, of
the Republic of Plato, or at all events of tliat part of the work which
now constitutes Books II to V (inclusive) ^ of the Republic. After the

' The Republic of Plato purports to be the narration, by Socrates, of a conversation

which had taken place on the preceding day. The Timaeus purports to be a
conversation which took place on the day after the narration. And at its
commencement Socrates, in response to an appeal by Timaeus, i^ apxrj^ bia
jipaX(a>v nakiv iiravfkQ^ alra, briefly recapitulates what he had said the day before,
or in other words gives a short summary of the contents of the Republic. When
he has done, he asks Timaeus whether anything has been omitted which should
have been mentioned, and Timaeus replies in the negative. Yet Socrates has
merely recapitulated the contents of Books II to "V whence many have concluded

death o Socrates, an event which occurred in JunCj b. c. 399, Plato,

vye are told ^, retired to Megara, then travelled to some other well-

known philosophic centres, Cyrene, Italy, and Egypt, and was con-
templating a visit to the Magians, but finally, bia tovs tyjs 'Aaias
TToXefiovs, gave up the idea, and returned to Athens. If by tovs rfji

'Ao-tos TToKfiMovs we are to understand, as seems unquestionable, the

expeditions of Dercyllidas and Agesilaus (which would naturally render
it unsafe for an Hellenic citizen to journey into the interior of the
Persian empire), Plato must have returned to Athens a year or two
before the date of the present play. And this would be in accordance
with the tradition that he took part in the battle of Corinth, b. c. 394,
though, as we have already seen, the tradition itself rests on no very
certain foundation. But, however this may be, it is clear that his

Republic, either in its present, or in an incomplete, shape came into

the hands of the Athenian people before the termination of that year.
Praxagora, therefore, having obtained supreme power at Athens, with,
apparently, authority to remodel its institutions at her will, suddenly

finds, all ready to her hand, as a delightful subject for caricature, the
elaborate communistic schemes developed with such detail in this new
philosophical treatise. Aristophanes was not the man to let such an
opportunity escape him. "What mattered Praxagora's consistency com-
pared with this brilliant opening for philosophic chaff? And so the

greatest novelty of all, a system of undiluted communism, is at once

introduced, by the opponent of all novelty, into the practical everyday

life of the people of Athens. Plato had foreseen that these theories

were likely to attract the ridicule of the wits, to. t&v \apUvTcov o-kco/x-

fxara, and though he could not have anticipated the form which that
ridicule would take, yet the epigram prefixed to this Introduction shows

that the Republic, as originally composed, consisted of those four books only, and
was expanded by Plato to its present size at a subsequent period. The question
does not concern our present inquiry since the theories caricatured by Aris-

tophanes would anyhow have formed part of the original work.

Diogenes Laei-tius. (Plato, segm. 6, 7.)
that lie bore the poet no malice for the humorous and impersonal

It seems strange that any one should ever have doubted or ignored
the very obvious fact that in the latter half of the Ecclesiazusae,
Aristophanes is laughing at the communistic theories of the Platonic
Tlepublic. Many similarities of thought and diction between the
Praxagorean and Platonic schemes will be found pointed out in the
Commentary : and it really is quite inconceivable ^ that two writers,
one a philosopher and one a comic i)oet, approaching the subject from
such different points of views, should, independently of each other, by
a mere fortuitous coincidence, have travelled over so exactly the same
ground in (allowing for the grave purpose of the one and the comic
purpose of the other) so exactly the same way. It will be sufficient
here to consider a single instance. In both systems, though for widely
different reasons, children will be unable to recognize their parents, and
parents their children. In both cases this fact is only brought out in
answer to a question. In both cases the question is propounded in the
same form, not WiU ihey recognize? but Hoiv loill lliey recognize? (iTm
hiayvdaovTai, Plato ; -n&s hwarbs errrai hiayiyvaxTKnv, Aristophanes) the
answer being, of course, that no recognition is possible; all youths
must consider themselves the children of all the old people. Out of
this novel state of things a variety of strange and startling results
might arise; but in both cases one, and one only, and that by no
means the most obvious, is selected, viz. the greater security of the
old people. For now, if a youth should assault {tvhtti, Plato, Aristo-
phanes) his elder, the bystanders would at once interfere ; since, for all
they can tell, they may themselves be the children (Plato adds " or the
brothers or the parents ") of the sufferer. Is the identity of this peculiar

' "Vix negari a quoquam poterit, Ecclesiazusarum quam scripsit comicus

fabukm contra ipsius Philosoplii [Platonis] doctrinam disciplinamque fuisse
compositam." Kanke, Commentatio de Aristophania vita, section ii.
See also
the observations of M. Emile Desehanel in his j^tudes sur
Aristophane, p. 203

train of thought, couched, as it is, in such similar phraseology, merely

the result of an accident? Credat Judaejis Apella. Non ego.

Still a caricature, by its very nature, cannot be a fair representation

of the thing caricatured : and no one would gather from Praxagora's

wild proposals any notion of the real tone and spirit of the great
philosopher's dream. Let us briefly touch upon some of the more
salient points of difference between the two schemes.
And in the first place, the Platonic communism did not extend to
the population at large, it was entirely confined to the (j)vXaKes, or
guardians of the state. These were a specially selected class of (say)

1,000 persons, of whom the elder and wiser were to be the governors,
and the remainder the military protectors of the New Republic. And
the question which Plato set himself to solve was how he could best
ensure that these guardians should faithfully fulfil the high duties
assigned them, and not themselves become a danger to the citizens
they were intended to protect. Plato knew no better way, and probably
there was no better way, of achieving this end, than to detach them as

far as possible not only from all human frailty and all human passion,
but even from all human sympathies and associations however innocent
in themselves. Every detail of their training and education is elaborated

by Plato with extraordinary care. From their earliest infancy they

were to be surrounded by no influences other than those of beauty and
goodness, and to be anxiously preserved "from all evil thoughts which
may assault and hurt the soul." And when they were grown up, and
enrolled among the actual guardians, they were to stand in the position
of the Christian knights of former times, who had taken upon them-
selves the vow of poverty. They were to renounce all private property,

and the ties of a separate family and home they were to live in

common, and have all things in common. And thus, it was hoped,
they would be free from all private interests and predilections, and be
qualified to carry out with a single mind the duties which they were
selected to perform.

This then is the first great distinction between the system of Praxa-
gora and the system of Plato. The former applied to all the citizens

for their own enjoyment; the latter only to a special class for the
purpose of enabling them to fulfil more efficiently their special duties

towards the state.

And secondly even as regards this special class of guardians, there was
nothing, until its members had passed their prime (which Plato limits
to the age of fifty-five for a man, and of forty for a woman), in any
way resembling that promiscuous intercourse between the sexes which
formed so prominent a feature in the system of Praxagora. On the
contrary, until that limit of age was reached ^, no intercourse whatever
was permitted excepting under the sanction of marriage, a marriage
solemnized amid sacrifiees and choral hymns, and invested with all
possible sanctity. It is true that the marriage was merely a temporary
one; the pairs were brought together for marriage by a professed
sortition, secretly overruled, if necessary, by the judgement of the
apx^ovTf?, and on the next solemn marriage-sortition, the husband and
wife would in all and married
probability find themselves assorted with,
to, different partners. But however unsatisfactory^ were the marriage

* fifra ravTa, 2) VXavKav, araKTas jiiv fiiywcrdai dXXijXoir tj aXKo otwvv TToielv 'oUn
odiov iv eiidatfj.6i>a>v noXet, oijt iaaovaiv ol app^ovres, Ov yap dUaiov, sfprj, ArjXov drj,

on ydpovs hwapiv o Tl paXiora, V. 8 {458 E). But

to pera tovto noijjtroptv Upovs els

this seema forgotten in the following chapter (461).

" The breaking up of the family relationship is, at all events to Christian minds,

" tlie great blot in the Republic. True it is that Plato throws out bis theory of
marriage as a mere theory, not as either possible or expedient to be realized.
True that in the circumstances of his days, in the bopeless irredeemable corruption
of family life in Athens, he could scarcely trace the form of that bigh instrument
in the band of God, by which man is to be first reared into life, both in bis body
and his mind. True also that he would not destroy the instincts and affections of
nature, but only multiply and transfer them, so that the wbole state should be one
family of fathers, children, and brothers
as Christianity has realized the wish

literally in all its parts, but by a spiritual marriage, and a spiritual regeneration.
And true that his end was noble to bind together the whole body in one, to
extinguish all selfish affections, perhaps also even to purify and cbasten (though
the hope were vain), assuredly not to give a licence to man's worst and lowest
passions. But granting all this and more, Plato forgot the family he set aside
the institution of nature, though only in idea, and has ever since paid tbe penalty

laws of the Platonic Republic, however strangely they ignored the

family, the true unit on which society is based, they were designed
not to gratify, but to eradicate, all evil concupiscence and lust; to
suppress all private desires and inclinations ; to subordinate the feelings
of the individual to the interests of the state. They were as far
removed, as the east is from the west, from the universal licence
accorded by the system of Praxagora. The guardians were to act, in
all things, not as they themselves desired, but as the state prescribed.
" If somebody were to object," asks Adeimantus, when Socrates has
unfolded his views on this topic, " that you are not giving your
guardians a very happy life, what would you say to that 1" "1 should
say," replies Socrates, "that it would not surprise me, if they were
to be the happiest people in the world : but that however this may be,

it is with a view not to the pre-eminent happiness of one particular class,

but to the common happiness of the entire state, that we are building

up our Republic."
And, thirdly, it must never be forgotten that the Republic of Plato
was avowedly an unattainable ^ ideal : a heavenly vision, to be cherished
indeed in the soul as a counsel of perfection, but quite impracticable
in the grosser atmosphere of the earth and amidst the sordid passions
of mankind.
"You are speaking," says Glaucon to Socrates, at the close of the
Ninth Book, "you are speaking of that Republic which we have just
been creating, a Republic which exists indeed in theory, but which has
no local habitation, I imagine, in any region of this earth." " But in
heaven perchance,^^ rejoins the Master, "a pattern is laid up for him
that will see, and seeing will enrol himself a citizen therein. But
whether it now exists, or shall hereafter exist, is a matter with which

of being scoffed at and contemned by men who knew little of his system but this
one blot men incapable of fathoming the mystery of his wisdom and purity to
whom but one thing seemed intelligible, a theory which bordered upon vice."
Sewell, Dialogues of Plato, chap. 32.
^ "Looting to ideal perfection, I think Plato is right," Grote, Plato, iii. 211.
Mr. Grote is speaking of the communistic theories discussed above.

we need not concern ourselves ; for be it real or be it not, by its maxims
and by none other will a wise man order his goings." "To that

I readily assent," says Glaucon.

Even in the philosophic pages of the Republic these topics cannot be

discussed without the introduction of much that is distasteful to a
delicate mind, and this drawback is greatly increased when the subject
is transferred to the comic stage. The old Attic Comedy was the direct
outcome of the phallic ^ songs, which were sung, as part of a religious
ceremony, at the festivals of Dionysus ; and an Athenian audience
would never permit it to forget its origin, or to use other than the
broadest and most plain-spoken language with regard to the relations
of the sexes, and other matters on which we are happily now more
reticent. Twice ^ at least, in the Clouds and in the Birds, Aristophanes
endeavoured to lift the comic art into an altogether difEerent atmosphere
but in each case, although to modern taste these are amongst the most
brilliant and successful of his efforts, the play was refused the prize.

The Athenians could not have objected to the Ecclesiazusae on that

score; and it seemed at first that there must be so many and such
considerable gaps in the translation, including the omission of an entire
scene, that it would have, like the translations of the Lysistrata and
the Thesmophoriazusae, to follow the Greek text, instead of appearing
on the opposite page. Consequently various liberties were taken in the-

translation; some lines were omitted, and others inserted; it was not
thought necessary to preserve with such accuracy as in other cases the
exact meaning of the original; and, above all, the long Aristophanic
lines, the special favourites of the poet, were unworthily represented

' Aristotle's Poetics, iv. 15.

We have seen too, in the Introduction and Commentary on the Wasps, that

the original scheme of that comedy seems to have been equally free from all
phallic associations, and that it was only after the defeat of the Clouds that
itsauthor introduced into it certain scenes of broad humour which do not coalesce
with the rest of the play, but without which, possibly, the Wasps also would have
failed in the theatrical competition.


by mere anapaestic dimeters. However the only other ^ translation

in English verse of vs^hich I am aware gives the play in its entirety
and ultimately^ after much hesitation, it seemed possible to follow that
example without giving any just cause of offence. And, indeed, the
coarsest passages of Aristophanes are mere comic buffoonery, enacted
in the open air, not by actors and actresses before a mixed audience of
men and women, but by men only before the male population of Athens,
no woman being present. They are broad and plain-spoken, but never
morbid and seductive, and could not be injurious to anybody, who did
not come to their study with a mind already corrupted and debased.

As regards the observation just made that, at all events in the time of
Aristophanes, no women were present at the performance of a comedy
it may be permissible to conclude this Introduction with a more minute
examination of that question than it has hitherto received. And this

seems the more desirable because a very able scholar, Mr. A. E. Haigh,
in his most instructive and agreeable work " On the Attic Theatre,''' has
recently expressed a contrary opinion.
That the solution of the question is to be found, if anywhere, in the
hints afforded by the comedies of Aristophanes appears to be universally

acknowledged. It is certain that the indecorum of the comic stage would

not have deterred Athenian women from attending its representations.

An Athenian maid or matron, walking through the streets of her own

city, could not choose but witness on every side, and indeed at every door,

' "The Ecclesiazusae or Female Parliament. Translated from Aristophanes, by

the Rev. Rowland Smith, M.A., of St. John's College, Oxford. Oxford, 1833."
Mr. Rowland Smith died in July 1895 (when a great part of this Introduction
had been already written) in the eighty-seventh year of his age, and an obituary
notice of him appeared in the Times newspaper on the 25th of that month.
After having held for some years the rectory of Ilston, Pembrokeshire, and that
of Nazing, Essex, he was preferred in 1871 by Lord Chancellor Hatherley to the
rectory of Swyncombe near Henley on Thames which he resigned shortly before
his death. He was a High Churchman and the author of several theological works.
And besides his translation of the Ecclesiazusae, it appears that he also published
a volume of "Translations from the Greek Romance Writers."
signs and symbols of (to Christian minds) " unspeakable pollution." The
pure and honourable maiden, who obtained the coveted distinction of
bearing the Holy Basket in the procession at the Dlonysia^, walked
through the admiring crowds accompanied by symbols and songs of,

what we should consider, the most appalling immodesty. Yet to them-

selves the question of decency or indecency would not even occur. It
was their traditional religion ; it was " the very orthodoxy of the myriads
who had lived and died " in the city. And we know that ladies of all
sorts and conditions attended the Roman Mimes ^, which had more than
all the grossness, without the counterbalancing radiancy and patriotic
elevation, of Athenian comedy. In discussing therefore the question
before us the cliarader of the entertainment is not a factor that requires
to be taken into consideration. Nor must we be influenced in the opposite
direction by the circumstance that in later times dramatic performances

were regularly attended by men and women together ; for the old Attic
comedy was part of a religious festival, and in religious observances
nothing was more common than the separation of the sexes. We must,
therefore, approach the question without any h priori prejudice on the
one side or on the other, and merely consider what Aristophanes tells us
with regard to the composition of his audience.
And twice, at least, he appears to enumerate the various classes of
which the audience was composed.
In Peace 50-53 an actor is desirous of putting the audience in posses-
sion of the state of affairs at the commencement of the action ; and he
says, / will tell it to the loys, and to the small men, and to the men, and to

the most exalted men, and to the most ovenceeningly exalted men. He
mentions males of every sort and condition, but he makes no allusion to
women. See also lines 765, 766 of the same play.
Just so in the play before us, 1141, 1144-1146, Praxagora's waiting-

* See the account of the Rural Dionysia in Acharnians 241-279. The quotations
in the text are from Cardinal Newman's "Callista." The
description of Sicca,
given in the tenth chapter of that tale, ia equally applicable to Athens
2 Ovid, Tristia, ii. 497.

maid invites to the banquet all such o the audience as are well disposed
to the play, rav dear&v ei tis evvovs rvyxavei. Her master will not hear
of any exceptions, and says, W/iy not htvite them all and omit nohody, naX
IXT] irapaXd^eis firibiva ? JFAy not freely ask old man, youth, and boy ?
All the audience are to be invited, but again there is no mention of
There are two other passages in the Ecclesiazusae which have some
bearing on the subject. In lines 435-441, Chremes is telling Blepyrus
that in the assembly a speaker (who was in reality Praxagora the wife
of Blepyrus) had been saying everything in dispraise of men, and every-
thing in praise of women. " She called you',' says he, " a rascal, a thief,
a common informer !" " What, me ?" asks Blepyrus. " You and the
crowd there" to n\r\Qo's, explains Chremes.
" But the woman]
tcoj-Si 'said
the speaker, ' was a wit fraught thing] &,c." That by roivbl to irKijOos we
are to understand the audience, is universally admitted, and is, indeed,
obvious. Yet they
are all treated as men, and all contrasted with women.
In the rehearsal at the beginning of the play, one of the speakers,
addressing the audience in the theatre as if they were the assembly in
the Agora, commences her speech by saying. It seems to me, women
sitting there. Praxagora at once interrupts her, What in the world makes

you call them women, when they are men ? Oh, says the other, it was all

along of Epigonns there (pointing to an effeminate citizen) ; glancing his

way, I really thought that I was speaking to women. _ Eccl. 165-168. There
would have been no point in this sally if she was actually speaking to
women as well as to men. Epigonus was doubtless the most womanlike
object in the theatre then, as Cleisthenes had been thirty years before, at
the time of the representation of the Clouds. There the Clouds are
described as changing their form and figure in accordance with the objects
they behold. Many instances are given. Yesterday they saw Cleonymus,
Tov pi\jraaT:iv, and assumed the appearance of timid deer ; to-day, they behold

Cleisthenes amongst the audience, and change themselves into women. Clouds
348-355. The Clouds would behold in the theatre nothing more
womanly than Cleisthenes.
That the audience are always described in the masculine gender, ol

BeaTal, ol dedixevoL, ol Kadrijxivoi, is of course quite unimportant. But when

Dicaeopolis commences his elaborate speech in the Acharnians with the
words avlpis (497), and Euelpides commences
ol Beajxivoi his explanation

in the Birds with the words Mvbpes ol irapovTes fv \oy(^ (30), is it con-
ceivable that they are either including women under the description of
avbpes, or else addressing a section only of the audience ?

There is hardly a play wherein we do not find numerous passages which

seem to take for granted that all the spectators are men, such as, for
example, Knights 228 r&u dear&v ocrrts cVrt berths, the catechism in

Clouds 1096-1104, the various appeals to the audience to take political

proceedings, which men alone can take, of which the Parabasis of the
Acharnians and the Epirrhema and Antepirrhema of the Frogs are
sufficient instances. Conversely, we find passages relating to women
which seem to take for granted that they are not present in the theatre.
Thus in the Antepirrhema to the first Parabasis of the Birds, the Birds
are setting forth the many advantages of wings. And they say, amongst
other things, " If a man is in love with a councillor's wife, and see the

councillor in the theatre, he can* fly off at once and pay court to the
wife.'' They do not say, " If the councillor is in the theatre, and /lis wife
is fio(; " the latter circumstance they take for granted.
But perhaps the clearest and most convincing evidence is afforded by
the Parabasis of the Thesmophoriazusae. The Chorus in that play
represent Athenian matrons, and in the Parabasis they are turning to the
audience, and pleading the cause of the women as against the men. And
throughout their address they contrast the women sometimes with men
in general and sometimes with the audience, quite indifferently, as though
the two classes the audience and the men were for this purpose
identical. "All men," they aver, "say that we are a plague" (and,
indeed, this is a commonplace of Hellenic poetry). " Well, then, if we
are a plague, why do ye," they say to the audience, " marry us, tC yajxuff

fifxas ; Why do ye forbid us to walk abroad, KairayopiveTe pijr f^eXddi',

&c. ? Why are ye so anxious to preserve a plague, to KaKov /SovXeo-ee


(jivXaTTeiv ; " And after several similar observations, they propose a test.
" PFe say that
we are much better than you, vix&v iajxev Trokv ^ikrCovs, and
thiswe will show by taking the name of an individual man and the
name of an individual woman, and comparing them with each other/^
They accordingly make several witty comparisons, and conclude by saying
ovTios Tjjuets TToXv (3e\rtoDs t&v avbp&v ei^o'/jiefl' eivai. It was v[x(ov ttoXv
^(\tiovs at the beginning, it is r&v avbp&v iiokv fitXTiovs at the end.
But, indeed, almost every line of the Parabasis postulates that the
audience are all of the male sex.
In every comedy of Aristophanes (with the exception of the Plutus)
there are constant appeals to the audience ; and frequently, as in Wasps
74-84, particular individuals are singled out for personal satire. Yet
nowhere is there the slightest indication of the presence of a woman
amongst the spectators. Contrast with this the case of Shakespeare.
How rarely does /le address the audience ! How plain he makes it that
women, as well as men, were spectators of his plays

The passages cited might easily be doubled : and against them there
is not a syllable ^ to be set from the first line of the Acharnians to the

last line of the Plutus. And there seems, therefore, no doubt that no
women were present at the performance of any of these comedies.

Whether they were present at the representations of the later phases of

Athenian comedy, is quite another matter, and on this point I express no

opinion. But the two passages most commonly cited to prove their

presence seem to be altogether beside the mark.

Pollux (ix. 5. segm. 44), to illustrate the word KepKh, which, like the
Latin cuneus, meant one of the wedge-shaped sections into which the
auditorium was cut by gangways ascending from the bottom to the top,

^ Mr. Haigh indeed seems to think that some inference in favour of the presence

of women can be drawn from Peace 962-967, where it is said that though every
individual spectator has got some barley, the women (or perhaps, their wives) have
none. I have not cited this passage as an argument in favour of the absence of
the women, because the whole statement depends upon an idle jest ; but it

certainly aiFords no argument in favour of their presence.

quotes a couplet from the TwaiKOKpaTM of Alexis, a poet of the Middle
cvTavda iripl rfju eaxarrfv bii KcpKida
ifias Kadi^oicras Qewpuv as ^ivas.

Undoubtedly this looks as though the women were taking their seats in

the theatre, seemingly as envoys from some foreign state. But this is in

a yvvaiKOKpaTia, where everything is topsy-turvey, where the men and

women have changed places, and the women undertake the duties, and

enjoy the privileges, which under other forms of government would be

undertaken and enjoyed by the men. In line 460 of the Ecclesiazusae it
is announced that the wife, and not the husband, will henceforth attend
the dicastery and had the subject been pursued, it would doubtless have

been elicited that the wife, and not the husband, was thenceforth to
attend the theatre. No inference can be drawn from this passage as

to the attendance of women at the Athenian theatre.

The other passage comes from the Epistles of Aleiphron, a writer of
great wit and ingenuity, in many respects closely resembling Lucian.

He composed various fictitious letters, generally between fictitious people,

but sometimes he selected historical personages to be his assumed cor-
respondents. And one of his letters is feigned to be written by Menander
to his mistress Glycera, on his receiving a summons to attend the Court
of King Ptolemy in Egypt. And Aleiphron makes the great comedian
say that no diadem which Ptolemy can give him is to be compared with
the ivy- wreaths with which he has so often been crowned at the Dionysia'
"whilst Glycera was looking on, and sitting in the theatre,^^ op&So-rjy koX

Kadr)jxivi]i iv tu Oiarpi:^ TXvKepas. Now if this passage stood alone, we

might consider it "conclusive proof," not indeed, as Mr. Haigh says,
" that women were present at the New Comedy," but that Aleiphron who
flourished, probably, 500 or 6C0 years afterwards, was of that opinion.
But the passage does noi stand alone. Aleiphron also composed an
answer from Glycera to Menander's supposed letter. And he makes her
say, " What Menander without his Glycera, who gets ready his masks,

and arrays him in his actor's robes, and stands in the irapaaKrivia " (the

wings from which the actors entered the stage) " nervously pinching lier

fingers, until the theatre breaks out into ringing applause^ and then
trembling all over, by Artemis, she revives, and clasps him in her
embrace ? " Is it not plain that Alciphron pictured Glycera not amongst
the audience, but in the wings of the theatre; not only not amongst the
audience, but not even in their sight ?

These passages, therefore, seem to have no bearing on the question,

whether women did or did not sit as spectators in the Athenian theatre,
during the representation of what are known as the Middle and the New

Eastwood, Strawberry Hill,

October, 1901.
( xxxvi )

A/ ywaiKes avviOefTO iravra jM-qyavriaaaQai els to So^ai dfSpes
ilvai, KOL eKKXtjaidcracraL ^ neiaai napaSovvai cr(picTL tt^v ttoKlv, Srjfiri-

yoprjadcrrjs fiids e^ avrav. at Se firj-^aval tov So^ai avTas avSpas

ilvai ToiavTai, TrSycoyas nepiOeTovs iroLovvrai *, Kal dvSpeiav dva-

Xap-^dvouoL ^ (TToXfjv, rrpovoricraaai ^ Kal wpoaaKriaaaaL to cra/ia avTcou,
0)9 on p-dXicTTa dvSpLKov eivai So^at. fiia Se
k^ avTmv, TLpa^ayopa,
\vyvov e)(ov(Ta irpoepyeTaL KaTo, ray avvOrjKas, Kal <pr]alv, S> XapLTTpov


The first Argument found in tlie
is sequent editors to Dindorf and Bothe.
MSS. known as R. H. F. The second
P. The word is omitted by R. and by Bergk,

only in H. F. which place it first. Both Meineke, Blaydes, and Velsen. And the
are given by Aldus, Fraoini, Gelenius, four words nmymvas Trepiderovs noLoivTai
Portus, Kuster, and recent editors. The Koi are omitted in the editions before
others (except two or three who do not Brunck.
give the Greek arguments) have the ^ dva\afiffdvov(Ti R. H. vulgO. dvaXafi-
second only. ^avoi/rai F. P. Brunck, Bekker.
I'Mpes R. H. P. vulgo. avSpas F. TvpovofjiTatTai . , . TTpoacTKTjaacrai. These
* KK\T]cnd<Ta(Tm R. H. P. Brunck, re- participles are transposed in the MSS.
centiores. iKKKrjtria^ovaai editions before and editions before Brunck.
Brunck. iKKKr)tna(Tacrdai F. ' Si H. F. P. vulgo. dfj R. Invernizzi,
^ TToiovvTai H. F. P. Brunck, and sub- Dindorf.

( xxxvii )


'Ev Tory %Kipois TO, yvval tKpiuev ^ kv aroXais

dvepav wpoKaOi^eiv ^, y^vojiivr]^ eKKXrjfftas,

irepi6e/j,evai ^ irmycovas dWoTpiwv Tpiy&v.

iwoirjcrav ovt<os. i/aTepoSvTes ovv crToXais
at/Spes* ywaiKwu iKoiBiarav Kal Stj pta
Srjprjyopei nepl Tov Xa^ova-as tS>v oXmv
T^i/ kiriTponriv ^iXriov dp^eiy pvpico'
eKeXevae r els Koifof (pepeiy to, ^prjpara,
Koi XprjirQ' anauiv k^ icrov Tois oixriaLS,
Kal Tats yvvaiit peraTideaOai Toi)s v6povs ^

^ 'ixpLviv iv Bisetus (who was the first by Brunck and all subsequent editors,
editor to write the Argument as verse, The words /uupia fieKuov are to be taken
all previous editors having given it as together, as frequently elsewhere. Thus
prose), Portus, recentiores. eKpine (with- in Plato's Republic, vii. 5 (520 C) it ia
out iv) MSS. editions before Portus. said, iivpia peXnov o\/A<r5e t5c e'lcei, ye mil
' TrpoKaSlCeiv is Bergk's suggestion, see ten thousand times better than the
TTpoKadi^ovTa MSS. vulgo. people there.
' TTepiBijuvai Aldus, vulgo. wapaBi- The last three lines stand as they
/xcyat H. irapadep-eva P. are given in both the MSS., except that
* avhpis. I have added the aspirate. P. has (pipov for (j>epeiv, and tois ywai^l
aiiSpes MSS. vulgo. for rats yvvai^'i. In Aldus they were
fivpuj). fivpicov MSS. and all editions represented by the words exeXtvo-e t els

before Brunck ; but Le Pevre wrote ro kolvov (j>ep(iv ra xp^y^""'''-

''o' XP^"'^'"
" Lege Utrovis modo
p-vpim vel p.vpia>s. Toiir vofjLovs. And this was the reading,
legas, modo ne vulgatam
perinde est, till Bisetus, reducing the prose into
lectionem retineas." And p,vpi<f is read iambics, wrote

iiciXivai T CIS rb icoivov dacpepeiv oKa

rh ;^p^jLiaT* dySpas* ojs Ke/cpia&ai rots vdpLois.

This was followed by Portus and sub- H. which has ever since been universally
sequent editors, until Dobree (in Person's adopted.
Aristophanica) published the reading of





BAEIIYPOS, avfip npa^ayopas.

ANHP yvvaiKos B.


rPAYS r.

GEPAnAINA npa^aySpas.

H is the only MS. which gives the Dramatis personae. Its list is as follows :

ra Tov bpdfW.TOs Trpoffaiira. yvvrj Tts Upa^ajopa^ iiipa yvvri. x^P^^- ^v-qp tls. ercpos avijp
BKeirvpos. (Tcpos dvr)p dTr!i kKK\i]aias Xpe/irjs, dWos dvfip $eiSeuXds, K^pv(. Tpavi. (rifa.
via. Qepdnaiva.

nP. 'Xl Xafiirpov ofifia tov rpoyr^XaTov \v-)(yov

KaXXicrr iv iva-KoiroLcnv e^Tjprtjfiiyov,

Thestage represents an Athenian either of Agathon or of Dicaeogenes.

street,with three houses in the back- XIpn^ay6iJa, he says, \ixvov e)(ovtTa npoep-
ground, the houses of Blepyrus, Chremes, X^Tai. viTonT(vrai de 6 ia/i/Sor ^ ''<'"

anil the husband of the Second Woman. 'AydOaivos J] Tou AiKatoyevovs, Blci raff

The hour is 3 a m. and the stars are eraipas iyKa6i^op.iiiai (infra 23). o irpos

still visible in the sky. A young and ovdiu etTref, aWa povov on ras eraipas
delicate woman, clad in masculine attire, 6e? TTcos. /SouAerai 5e elneii' on tovs av^pas
is standing in the street, hanging up TTpoXa^ap^i' fls rqv iKKKrjfTinv. Bergler
a lighted lamp in same conspicuous refers to the addresses to the sun con-
place. The woman is Praxagora, the tained in the Ajax of Sophocles (845)
wife of Blepyrus, who has just left her and in the opening lines of the Phoenissae
husband asleep within, and has come of Euripides
out wearing his garments, with his 1. Tpox']kaTov\ Ata tov Kpa^ov Tpo)(ov.
sturdy walking-stick in her hand, and KaTaxprj(TnKais fie einev' ov yap ev rpo^^
his red Laconian shoes upon her feet. eXnvveTal, dXXa Tuna ylverai. Scholiast.
And the lamp is to serve as a signal to The Scholiast is however quite mis-
other Athenian women who have agreed taken for earthen vessels of this

to meet her here before the break of character were regularly fashioned by
day. No one is yet in sight and : the potter's wheel, an instrument well
while she expecting their arrival,
is described in Dr. Lardner's Museum of
she apostrophizes the lamp in mock- Science and Art (vol. ii. 114-117) from
heroic using such language as
style, which the remarks which follow are
in tragedy might be addressed to the derived. The upper part of the instru-
sun or moon or to some divine or heroic ment consists of a vertical shaft rising
personage. According to the Scholiast out of a small circular table, and having
the poet, in this opening speech, is at its top a circular horizontal disk. To
glancing at some passage in the tragedies this shaft a rotatory motion can be


Peaxagoea. O glowing visage of the earthen lamp,

On this conspicuous eminence well-hung,-

imparted from below. The potter's most symmetrical and beauti-

fingers the
clay, having been moistened with water ful forms with marvellous facility and
until ithas acquired the consistency celerity. The potter's wheel is con-
of dough, is placed on this horizontal stantly mentioned, as in the Scriptures,
disk, the shaft is made to revolve, and so in the classical writers of Greece and
as the disk spins round, the potter gives Rome. Homer compares the light
the desired shape to the plastic clay, evolutions of the dance with the quick
by the gentle pressure of his hands movement of the wheel in the hands
and fingers. The rude and soft mass of the potter.
of dough acquires under his dexterous

"And now, with feet allcunningly gliding, around whirled they

Full lightly, as when some potfe?' sitteth and maketh assay

Of the wheel to his hands weU Jittedj to know if it runneth true.''

Iliad xviii. 599 (Way's translation).

Such passages as the " Amphora coepit explain do'KoTrotcrw by (1) to'ls o-otfm'is,

Institui: currente rota cur urceus exit?" (2) TOIS ev (TKeTTTOfieVOlS, and (3) TOIf (f>v-

of Horace (Ars Poet. 21) and the " Testa 'Ka^iv. But Paulmier who was the first
alta paretur. . . . Argillam atque rotam to change the manuscript reading into
citius properate," of Juvenal (iv. 131) i^rjpTTjixevov, was also the first to explain

are of course well known. the true meaning of eicrKon-oio-iv. "Sig-

2. evo'KoiTOKnv] H evvota, KoKXio'Ta toIs num nempe erat," says he, "lucerna
fTOt^ois evpr}fiVov, rots v a-KenTOfiPOLs. oi accensa in loco edito suspensa ; ut ibi
8e TOis (pvXa^iv, on fifra \v)(vu>v (TKOTTov(nv. convenirent mulieres. Nam eiVfojroi

Scholiast. The MSS. read i^rjTrinivov, TOTToi sunt loci eminentes qui undequaque
but the Scholiast probably read c^i/tj;- prospiciuntur ; et utitur ea voce Aristo-

^ivov, and therefore endeavoured to teles, H. A. ix. 41 ; et ideo postea dicit

yovds re yap aas Kal TV)(^as SrjXcoaoixev

rpoy& yap kXaOeh Kepa/iiKij^ pvfirjs vwo

fivKTfjpa-i Xa/iTT/say r]\iov Tifias e'x*'^'

op/ia cpXoyos a-ij/ieTa to, ^vyKei/xeva.

(Tol yap jiovoi Sr]Xovfiey, eiKOTCos, enel

KOLv TOLcri Sco/xaTiOicnv 'AcppoSiTrjs Tponcoy

Trstpaifj,evaLcn TrXrjaiov TrapaaTareT^,

XopSovjikvoiv 76 acofiaTcov emcrTdTrjv 10
6(p6aXpov ovSeh toj/ aou k^eipyei Sopoav.

povos Se prjpaiv els dnopp-qTovs pv)(^ovs

Xaprreis, d<peva)v ttju kiravGovaav Tpiya-

(TTods re Kapnov ^aK^iov re vdpaTOS

Aristophanes ex persona Praxagorae tlie birth of a god or goddess, and such

lucemam alloquentis opfia (pXoybs <Tr]fieia expressions as Aiovio-ov yova), 'A(ppo8tTr)s
TCI Nana frustra lucernam
^vyKeiixem. yovai,and the like, were frequently
accendisset ad signum dandum, nisi in adopted by dramatists as the names
loco eminente, unde facile videri posset, of their plays. And as to Tvxns Bergler
suspendisset." refers to the lineswhich Euripides
3. yorar] Tovai, as Kuster observes, places in the mouth of his nurse
was a term specially appropriate to (Medea 57),
wffS' tiJ.ep6s jjl' VTrrj\9e yrj re Kovpavat
Xe^at fj-o\ov(X7] Seupo SeairotvTjs Tuxas,

lines which, as he observes, Philemon, parodying, places in the mouth of his

cook in his SrpaneoTijf :

w? ifj.ep6s /J.' uiT^X^e y^ tc Kovpavw

Ke^at fxoKovTi TOV\fjov tuy kamvaaa.

4. Tpox'i'] Here the single word rpnxl]- the snout (so to call it) of the lamp,
Kmos is expanded into a whole line. through which the lighted wick pro-
fivjiris is rightly explained by the trudes and "performs the shining office
Scholiast to mean tt]s op/n^?, the impulse of the snn " splendidum solis tnunus as
imparted to the wheel by the art of the Seidler, on Eur. El. 993, translates the
potter. woi'ds Xnpnpas fjXiov Tipdf. A great
5. pvKTrjpai] Properly, the nostrils. variety of ancient Greek lamps, both
p-vKTiip, T^? pii/bs TO Tprjfia (vulgo Tpipv/ia). metallic and earthen, may be seen in
Hesychius. ixvKTripa' Ta eKarepaSev the British Museum. Wherethere is
TTJs pivbs Tpfi/xaTa. Photius. As applied but one pvKTrjp, the snout extends from
to a lamp, /xuxrijp is the round hole on the front of the lamp, which is held by
! ;

(For through thy fates and lineage will we go,
ThoUj who, by whirling wheel of potter moulded,
Dost with thy nozzle do the sun''s bright duty)
Awake the appointed signal of the flame
Thou only knowest it, and rightly thou,
For thou alone, within our chambers standing,
Watchest unblamed the mysteries of love.
Thine eye, inspector of our amorous sports,
Beholdeth all, and no one saith Begone !

Thou comest, singeing, purifying all

The dim recesses which none else may see
And when the garners, stored with corn and wine.

a handle at the back. Where there are Leander" with the invocation eiVe, dea,

two fivKTTipss, in some specimens the Kpv<^i(iiv 7rtp.dpTvpa \vxvov epwrcov. And
two snouts issue from the front, at an see Lucian's Cataplus, 27. The words
acute angle with each other ; in others, ' h.(ppohlrris Tpoizoi are equivalent to (rxh-
there a snout at each extremity of
is para cruuova-ias. In passages like these
the lamp, which is then held by a chain, the translation is not intended to give
fastened to a loop at the front and the the precise sense of the original.
back of the lamp. There might indeed 10. XopSovphcov] Ciirvatorum. 6 eVi-

be any number of iMVKTrjpes. In one tTTaTt]! is the name given to the president,
specimen in the British Museum there or arbiter, of athletic sports ; o! iv rols

are no less than seven, arranged in a yvpviKols dywcriv iTTLa-TdTiu, Sen. De Rep.
circle round the lamp, so as to form Lac. viii. 4.

a sort of chandelier. The round hole 12. dwoppriTovs pvxovsl To alSoiov Xf'yft

at the top of the lamp is not a ixvKrfip ;

TTjs yvvniKos, fim to prjbeva alro /SXeTretK

the orifice through which the oil is

it is Scholiast. Cf. Lys. 828.

poured into the lamp, and is usually 14. (TToas] Sroai, ra rapiila. TrnpaprjKj]

covered by a little hd. yap Tiv To'is TraXiHois. Photius. So Hesy-

7. a-ol yap /idfoi] The women allow chius, Suidas, and the Scholiast here.
the lamp to be present at their secret He means that the store-rooms were
assembly, because it has often been the long narrow chambers like the colon-
witness of and partner in, their secret naded buildings which went by the
doings in their bedchambers, Scoparloicriu, name of crroai. The use of the words
when their husbands are away, and yet liiiKxiov vdpaTOi at the end of the line

has never been known to divulge them. for " wine " is part of the tragic flavour

Musaeus commences his "Hero and of the speech.

vXripus vTToiypva-aicn crVfnrapacTTaTeTs-
Kal Tavra crvvSpMv ov XaXiis toTs vXrjat.ov.
avff S>v (Tvveiffii Kal rk vvv jSovXevnara,
oa-a XKipots iSo^e rats e/iais (piXais.

<iXX' oiiSefLia ndpeo-TLv Sls qKeiv eXP^"'

KULTOL npos 6p6pov y kaTiv 17 8 eKKXrjcria 20

avTLKa [idX! ea-raf KaraXa^e'ii/ S' rj/jids eSpa?,

&y ^vpo/xaxos nor etrrev, et fienvrjaO' en,

Sfc TOLS tTaipas KayKaOi^o/iiuas Xa6Ti'.
rl SfJT av eir] ; noTepov oiiK eppa/ifieuovs

e^ovcn Toiis irmymvas, ovs eiprjT eyeiv ; 25

fj QaijJLoiTLa TavSpeia KXeyfrdcrais XaOelt/
riv yaXenov aiiTaii ; dXX opat tovSI Xv^ifov

irpocTiovTa. (pepe vvv eTrava)(a3pr](rco wdXiv,

p-fj Kai Tis a>v dvfjp 6 wpoarmv Tvyxavr/,

16. vTfoiyi/va-aia-i.] Athenian husbands at midsummer, in the month Sciro-

were accustomed to keep their household phorion, in honour of Athene Sciras.
stores under lock and key, with their The place of its celebration seems to
seal, for greater security, afl&xed to the have been a spot on the Sacred Way
door. Athenian wives were accustomed, just outside the gates of Athens, where
so soon as their husbands' backs were was the tomb of Scirus, the Dodonaean
turned, to tamper with the seal, pick seer and near it a Temple of Athene

the lock, and pilfer from the store-room Sciras. It was attended by the priestess
corn and wine and oil for their own of Athene, the priest of the Sun, and the
private purposes. Such at
the least is priest ofEreohtheus who came down
charge brought against them in the from the Acropolis bearing the sacred
Thesmophoriazusae, which teems with white parasol, o-KiaSeiov XfVKOv 6 Xeysmt
allusions to these petty feminine thefts : SK^pov. Scholiast. See Thesm. 834, 835,
see 418-428, .555, 556, 812, 813. In the and the Scholiast there Hdt. viii. 94 ; ;

first of these passages the word inol^ai Pausanias, i. 86 ; Photius and Suidas,
I0 open surreptitiously is employed, as S. VV. ITKipoV, (TKipoV, (TKipoS, <TKipO(j)opia,
here, to describe this secret tampering (rKlpO(f)Opl(DV,
with the door. 20. npos opdpov] That the Athenian
18. SKi'poir] The parasol festival a ; assemblies were ordinarily held at break
festival celebrated by the women alone. of day is plain from many authorities.

By stealth we open, thou dost stand beside us.
And though thou knowest all this, thou dost not peach.
Therefore our plans will we confide to thee,
What at the Scira we resolved to do.
Ah, but there's no one here who should be here.
Yet doth it draw towards daybreak ; and the Assembly
Full soon will meet ; and we frail womankind
Must take the seats Phyromachus assigned us
(You don't forget ?) and not attract attention.
What can the matter be ? Perchance their beards
Are not stitched on, as our decree commanded,
Perchance they found it difficult to steal

Their husband's garments. Stay ! I see a lamp

Moving this way. I will retire and watch.
Lest it should haply be some man approaching

And see Ach. 20 ; Thesm. 375 ; infra 85, the words el pspi/rjo-d' en, which other-
&c. wise would be strangely out of place in
22. ^vpo^axosl VpiiipeTai, ae KX^Sfia^os. Praxagora's soliloquj'. We may well
KoX (j)a<T\ KXfdfia;(oi/ rpayiKOv {moKpiTrjV. believe that something in the speaker's
OVTOS (l)aLveTai VTroKpivSfievos TTOre elprjKevat intonation or, it may be, his known dis-

edpas iv dpap-art, Koi efTKaytpdat. bia to kqk- solute character, suggested the change
ep-cfiaTou. Scholiast. We have already of Toiis eraipovs into ras irnipns. Possibly
seen (in the first note) that these are the K\enfiaxos was the name of the actor or
lines "which the Scholiasts connect with of the Coryphaeus. The Scholiast offers
some tragic play of Agathon or Dicaeo- a second explanation o 8e 2(pvp6naxos
genes. An d it seems probable that Pfay ro- '^rj(pi(Tpa (larfyrjcraTO u>(jT raff yvvoLKns KoX

machus (or Sphyromaohus or Cleoma- Tovs ai/dpas X^P'^ Kadl^e(rdnL, Ka\ ras iraipas
chus) was the hero of the play, whp had ;(mp(r raj/ i\(v6ipav. But as nobody ever

directed his eVnipouf (doubtlees the Chorus heard of such a decree, or can imagine
of the drama) to unobserved in am-
lie any festival or meeting to which it can
bush, whilst he himself was undertaking possibly apply, this second explanation
some perilous adventure. And here we may safely be disregai-ded. The Scholiast
have, I suspect, the very words of the evidently takes it to apply to the regular
Coryphaeus, reminding the -Chorus, of assemblies of the people, which of course
This explains
their leader's direction. is quite out of the question.

FT. A. &pa l3aSi(ei.i', coy 6 Krjpv^ dprims 30
Tj/icoj/ irpocnovTaiv Sevrepov KeKOKKVKSV.

IIP. eyo) Se y v/ias npocrSoKcea-' kypriyopeiv

rrjv vvKTa naaav. dXkh (pepe, ttjv yeiTOva

TTjvS' iKKaXecrcofiac, OpvyovZcra rfju Ovpav.
Sei yap tov dv8p avrijs Xa&uv. FT. B. ^Kovad toi 35
VTroSov/j.ivr] to Kvv/J.d aov tSiv SaKTvKaiv,
Slt ov KaraSapOova . 6 yap dvfjp, & <pi\TdTrj,

'XaXap.ivLOi yap kariv co ^weip! kya>,

30. apa jSaSiffti'] Confer infra 285. 81. KSKOKKVK^v] The word
is used napa

fxia tS>v epxofuviov yvvdiKav, saya the TTpoahoKlav. cockcrowing

This second
Scholiast, npos rqv llpa^ayopau rnvra is considered to take place about the

Xey^i, KTjpv^ 6 aXiKTiop. The woman seems close of the third watch of the night
to he talking to herself and not addres- that is, about 3 a.m., each nightwatch
sing Pi-axagora, who has withdrawn out occupying three hours; viz. (1)6 to 9 p.m.,
of sight before these two lines com- (2) 9 p.m. to 12, (3) 12 to 3 a.m., (4) 3 to
menced, and does not reappear until 6 a.m. It is strange that Juvenal (ix.

they are concluded. She is entering 107) should use the "the
quite alone, and the expression ij/iac crowing of the second cock" for "the
npoaiovrav an illustration of the well-
is second crowing of the cock " but our ;

known rule which Dawes laid down in own writers do the same. Thus in
his criticism on line 516 of this play, Romeo and Juliet, iv. 4, old Capulet, who
and which is more pointedly enunciated has been up all night hastening on the
by Porson at Hec. 509, " Si mulier de se wedding festivities, says "The second
loquens, pluralem adhibet numerum, cock has crowed, 'tis three o'clock." In
genus etiam adhibet masculinum si ; the last scene of Richard III, however,
masculinum adhibet genus, numerum Shakespeare puts it rightly
etiam adhibet pluralem." -

"The early village cock

Hath twice done salutation to the morn " :

and some time afterwards when the 34. dpvyovSxTo] 'Viaix<^s Kvaxra, Scho-
question is asked "How far into the liast, who also, two lines below, explains
morning is it, lords?" the answer is by Ti)v fipefimov Kvi.a-p.6v. Praxa-
" Upon the stroke of four." gora makes a gentle scratching (of.
Praxagora, though
38. Trjv vuKTn Traa-av] Thesm.481) at the Second Woman's door.
a woman, given to exaggeration. She
is See the note at the beginning of the
has, apparently, been waiting about five play.
minutes. 36. vTToSovpevrj] As I was tying, or
; ;

First Woman. It is the hour to start. As I was coming
I heard the herald give his second crow.
Peax. I have been waiting, watching for you all

The whole night long ; and now FU summon forth

My neighbour here, scratching her door so gently
As not to rouse her husband. Second Woman. Yea I heard
(For I was up and putting on my shoes)
The stealthy creeping of thy finger-nail.
My husband, dear a Salaminian he
binding, on my in-oSij/iaTa. successful. Such cases as those of Lysi-
38. 2aXa/itVioy] It is proloable that Myrrhina, and Lampito
strata, Calonice,
there was a sort of ferry between in the Lysistrata of Dionysus, Xanth-

Salamis and the mainland of Attica ias, and the two hostesses in the Progs

and that the Salaminians were inces- of Dionysus, Aeschylus, Euripides,

santly rowing, iXavvuvres, boats (which and Pluto in the same comedy ; and
were called KeXr^m) across the straits, many others, cannot be explained away.
to carry passengers to and fro. See Still I do not think that we have a
Lysistrata 60, Progs 204. And cf. Xen. choregic actor here, or that any person
Hell. V. 1. And as the words i\av-
23. appears upon the stage in this scene,
peiv and were both used also in
Ke'Xijs- except Praxagora and the two women
re amatoria, the name "Salaminian" already there. The women who during
became in vulgar language the equiva- the next sixteen lines keep dropping in,

lent of avvovtriaa-TiKos. We have now either singly or in small groups, are in

on the stage Praxagora and two other my opinion all members of the Chorus
women, who are doubtless represented making their way to the orchestra.
by the three professional or state actors, They are probably twelve in all-, form-
that is to say, by the three actors pro- ing a semichorus, and representing that
vided by the state at the public expense. section of Praxagora's followers which
But lines 54-56 are unquestionably dwelt within the city walls. The other
delivered by a fourth speaker, and if section, the women from the country,
she were a fourth woman on the stage, enter in a body, infra 300, singing their
she would have been represented by a entrance song. Then the two semi-
choregic actor, that is, an additional choruses coalesce and become the full
actor supplied by the choregus at his Ciiorus of the play. And the speaker
own expense. Choregic actors are by of lines 54-56, and a few other lines in
no means uncommon in these comedies, the conversation, is in my opinion the
and the attempts made to eliminate coryphaeus, who enters with the first

them have always been ludicrously un- semichorus.


TTjy vv^O' oXrjv ijXavvi fi kv Tois (TTpmnaa-if,

aXTT dpTl TOVTL QoljiaTLOv avTov Xa^iiv, 40

rT. A. Ka\ firjv 6pS> Kol YLXuvaperrjv Koi XaxTTpaTtiv
trapovaav tjSt] rrjvSe koi <^iXaiviTr]v.

HMIXOPION. ovKovv kirei^ea-6' ; coy VXvkt} KaToifjioaev

Tfjv vcrTaTTjv rjKovaav o'lvov rpils x^as
fipaf dnoTia-eiv Ka.pe^ii/6ccu yoiviKa. 45
FT. A. T-qv XfiiKvdlcovos S' oi^x Spas MeXl(TTi)(r]i'
cnrevSovcrav ev rah kp^dcriv ; Kai fioi SoKei

Karbi ayoXr]v irapa TavSpos e^eXOetv povrj.

FT. B. Tfjv Tov KanrjXov S' ov-^ 6pa9 Tevcria-rpaTr]!/,

'i-)(ov(Tav kv rfj Sf^ia ttjv XapnaSa 50
nP. Kol Tr]v <iiXoSwprjTOV re Koi X-aiprirdSov
6pm npoa-iovaas, yarkpas woXXas Trdvv
yvi/aiKas, o ri Trip ear o^fXos kv rfj noXei.

41. KXeivnperriv] Now enter, on their customers in the attitude here depicted,
way to the orchestra, seven other women, ^ov(ra TTjv Xa/i7raSa V rfj Se^ta. Torches
all distinguished by their own names or would be frequently blazing in the
by the names of their husbands. As KnTrj/Xeiof till late at night. See Lysias
they are passing in, the actors, standing de caede Eratosthenis, 24.
on the stage, make their comments 43. oijKovv ind^ea-B' ;] These are the
about them, exactly as Peisthetaerus words of the coryphaeus, hurrying on
and the Hoopoe, in the Birds, discuss her companions, just as in the parodos
the members of the Chorus, hurrying in of the Wasps, the coryphaeus urges on
to the orchestra there. These seven his slow-paced Chorus. There the Chorus
women were probably well known to the was composed of men, and the stimulus
audience, and doubtless there were is found in the "pot of money" which

reasons for their selection with which Laches is supposed to possess. Here
we are now unacquainted : but we may the Chorus is composed of women, and
conjecture that Smicythion resembled the poet plays on the bibulous propen-
the "auld man" whom Burns's "young sities which he always attributes to

lassie " married, "who's doyl't an' who's Athenian ladies by telling them that
dozin', whose bluid it is frozen," so that " the hindmost " shall forfeit more than
Melistiche found no difficulty in escap- two gallons of wine.
ing from him unobserved. And Geusi- 45. ;(0iViKa] monstrous ! but one
strata was probably often seen by her quart of ohickpease to all this intoler-


Has all night long been tossing in his bed

Wherefore I could not steal his garb till now.
\et \j\[ o now they are coming ! Here^s Cleinarete,
Here's Sostrata, and here's Philaenite.
Semichoeus. Come, hurry up : for Glyce vowed a vow
That whosoever comes the last shall pay
One quart of chickpease and nine quarts of wine,
pt 'Yf, And look ! Melistiche, Smieythion's wife,
Wearing her husband's shoes. She, only she,
Has come away, methinks, at ease, unflurried.
2na y^^ And look ! Geusistrata, the tapster's wife.
In her right hand the torch. Peax. And now the wives
Of Philodoretus and Chaeretades,
And many another, hurrying on I see.
All that is best and worthiest in the town.

able deal of wine Chickpease and wine

! explanation of nam ToXammpas six lines

were as familiarly associated by the below.

Athenians, as walnuts and wine by our- 52. x"'''^P''^] Here a group of five are
selves: iTTOTTiVoj'Ter -yap, says the Scholiast, seen hurrying towards the orchestra,
eKanrou (jypvKTovs ipi^ivdovs. Some pas- so making twelve in all the number of ;

sages illustrating this practice are cited a semichorus.

in the note to Peace 1131. Glyce, who 53. o n irep eVr' o<j)e\os] Whatever is
does not seem to be one of the arrivals, worth anything. The phrase is a very

was probably known as a lady of very common one. Kuster refers to Lucian's
convivial habits. Herodotus (8) (Tvve\ijkv6nTe, S ti nep
48. Kara a-xo\^v] At her leisure. Aris- o<fis\os i^ iiuia-Trjs iroXfas : Arrian's
tophanes invariably uses the word <Txo\fi Alexander, ii. 7 Ylepirai/ re S n nep orfie-

in this sense. The scholium avrl rod, Xos koI MijSwi' : Theocr. Idyll, xiii. 18
p6\is' would be more appi-opriate as an

ot 5* auTo) dpicTT^es (TvveirovTo

iraaav iic noKiaiv TrpoKcKyn4yvty ojv 6{f>e\6s ri.

And Synesius de Regn. p. 31, ed. Petav. Lucian's Timon Praxagora ap-

And Dobree adds Xenophon's Hellenics, pends the words because all
iv rfj TroXei

V. 3. 6 and vi. 2. 23 Hdt. viii. 68, and

; the women in this semichorus are
the passages cited by Hemsterhuis on dwellers eV rrj TroXei, as contrasted with
HMIX. Kal TTuvv raXanraipcos 'iy<i>y , <S ^ikraTr],

kKSpdcra irapeSvv. 6 yap dprjp ttju vv^^' o\r]y 55

e^TjTTe, TpLyiScov icnrepas e/j.irXrjpeyoi.

UP. Kad-qaOe toivvv, coy av dfepcopai rdSe

v/j.ds, k-rreiSr] (rvXXiXeypivas opSt,

Sera %KLpoLS eSo^ev el SeSpaKare.

rT. A. 'iycoye. npSiTov p-iv y 'ix<o ras paaxdXas 60

Xo^pijS SaavTipas, KaOdirep rjv ^vyKeipivov
enuB' OTTod' avr]p eh dyopdv ol^oito fiov,

dXef<^ap,evri to aoop oXov St rjpepas

e^XiavopTjv ecTTacra irpos rov fjXiov.

FT. B. Kaycoye- to ivpou Si y eK r^y oUias 65

eppLyfra TrpcoTOV, tva Saavv6eir)v bXrj

Kal prjSey etrjV (tl yvvaiKi irpocr^eprjS.

nP. e'x^'''^ ^^ "^^^^ TTwymvas, ovs e'iprjT e)(eiv

ndcrai.aii' vpiv, onore crvXXeyoipeOa ;

FT. A. VT] TTju 'YjKdrriv, KaXov y eycoye tovtovL 70

FT. B. Kaymy 'KiTLKpaTOVi ovK oXiym KoXXiova.

the women of tlie second semicliorus, Athenian women were accustomed to

who will presently be found approach- pluck out, or singe or shave off, every
ing eV tS>v aypav. hair which was thought to detract from
54. Kal nam k. t. X.] The coryphaeus, the beauty and delicacy of their persons,
having marshalled her little troop in Hence the allusion to to ^vpuv five lines
the orchestra, now, like the second below.
woman, narrates her night's experiences The object of all
64. n-pos t6v ijAiof]
to Praxagora, who is universally recog- this was to give her a sunburnt and
nized as the leader of the movement. athletic, and therefore a masculine, ap-
57. Kiidrjo-Bf] She is addressing her pearance. acrre fifXaiva yeveadai as avqp,
comrades on the stage, who accordingly as the Scholiast says. In Lucian's
are found sitting through the ensuing Anacharsis, 25, Solon is explaining to
rehearsal scene, save only when they the Scythian visitor the advantages
arise to speak. See infra 144, 169, &c. which the Athenian youths derived from
60. ras fia(Txd')^a!]"E6p^av yap rpixas, performing their athletic exercises oiled
'Ivn orav xd-poTovaa-t, SoKaa-iv livSpes ehni. and naked in the sun. And, amongst
Scholiast. It must be remembered that other things, he says that it makes them

Semich. O honejj I'd tremendous work to come.

My husband gorged his fill of sprats at supper,
And he's been cough, coughj coughing all night long.
Peax. Well, sit ye down, that I may ask you this,

Now that ye're all assembled : have ye done

What at the Scira 'twas resolved to do ?
Yf^ J iiavCj for one. See, underneath my arms
The hair is growing thicker than a copse.
As 'twas agreed and when my husband started

Off to the market-place, I'd oil my body

And stand all day decocting in the sun.
gnd Yf. I too have done it : flinging, first of all,

The razor out of doors, that so my skin

Might grow quite hairy, and unlike a woman.
Peax. But have ye got the beards, which, 'twas determined,
We all should bring, assembling here to-day.
Ist -yy J ijave, by Hecate ! Look ! a lovely one.
2'* W. And I, much lovelier than Epicrates's.

terrible to their foes, ov noXvirapRlav SaKfo-^dpor (from aaKos, craKeos) Aias of

\evKJ]v, rj aa-apKiav jjnTa o>xp6Tj]Tos em- the mighty shield. See Baccliylides, xiii.

beKvvjiivovs, oTa yvviaKcov crafiaTn vtto 71 ; Soph. Ajax 19. The Scholiast cites
CTKia fiffiapacrfteva. And again ovToi 8e a line from Plato Comicus ava inrrjvrjs,

iip-lv vwipvSpoi es to iieXavrepov vtto tov ^'EirUpaTes (raKeatpope, to "which Bergler

ijXi'ou Ksxpaa-pevoi Knl ctppeiianoX, K. r. X. adds from the thirteenth of the Socratic
71. 'En-iKpdrouj] ThisEpicrates was the epistles, Kal tS>v to. kowo. npaa-a-ovTcov

notoriousand venal demagoguewho took 'EniKpaTen rov 2aKecr(j)6pov, Meineke


part with Thrasybulus in the overthrow (Hist. Grit. 183) from Plutarch's life of
of the Thirty and the restoration of the Pelopidas, chap. 30 ^ErnKparovs nore tov
Athenian democracy. In person, the 'SnKe<T<p6pov, prjT apvovjihov hmpa Se^na-Sai
Scholiast tells us, he was distinguished Trapa Paa-iXias, and so on. 'EmKpaTrjs'
by a beard of such dimensions that he ovrds ia-Tiv 6 tZv 'Adrjvaiav Srjpayaiyos, 6

was dubbed by the Attic wits 'EwiKpaTrjs 2aKcr(p6pos eViKaXoiJjaej'Oj, ov pvrjpovEvfi

6 SaKa-4>opos (from o-ukos, o-a/cou, cf. infra koI A-qpoadcvris, iv rm vrfpi T^r Hapanpecr-

502) Epicrates of the mighty heard, in (Semr. Harpocration. The word 2arecr-

allusion, as Bergler observes, to Aias d <p6pos gave some trouble to copyists,

nP. vfieis Se Ti (pare ; FT. A. (pacri- Karavivovcn yovv.
nP. Koi y dXX' vfxif 6pa> irenpay[ieva.
/iTjv Tci

AaKcoviKOLS yap e;(Te /cat ^aKTrjpias

Kal 6ai/J.dTia ravSpeia, KaOdirep e'lTTOfiei'. 75
FT. A. eycoye rot to crKVTaXov e^rjueyKa/i'qi'
TO Tov Aap.iov TOVTi KaOevSouTos Xddpa.
nP. TOVT 'icTT tKilyO, " TOOV (TKVTdXcOV S)V TTepSiTal.

FT. A. vfj TOP Ata TOV crcoTfjp kniTriSuos y av rjv

TTjv TOV YlavoTTTOv Si^6epav evrjfifiivos 80

(imp Tis dXXos ^ovKoXeTi/ tov Srjfiiov.

and in Plutaroh it was changed to fellow ambassadors were brought to

iKsvo^opos, and in Harpocration, as in trial at Athens, and Lysias, who seems
the parallel passage in Suidas, into at one time to have been his friend
"Ecjiopns, Maussacus (on Harpo-
until (see the commencement of the Phaedrus),
cration) restored the genuine reading. wrote against him a hostile speech, of
And as in appearance Epicrates was which only the peroration, iniXoyns, has
distinguished by a beard of a size un- reached us. It was apparently on this
usual amongst his contemporaries, so occasion that, as Plutarch, ubi supra,
in character he was distinguished by informsus, he boldly acknowledged that
a career of venality and peculation he had been enriched by Persian gifts,
unusual even amongst Athenian dema- and recommended the Athenians instead
gogues. When the Persians, alarmed of electing eleven archons, to elect
at the progress of Agesilaus in Asia, eveiy year eleven pauper ambassadors,
sent an envoy to stir up hostility against to be enriched at the Persian Court.
Sparta at home, he was one of the few At this sally the Assembly laughed
Athenians (so few that Xenophon consumedly, and Epicrates seems to
ignored them altogether) who con- have been let off. Athenaeus, vi. 58,
descended to accept the Persian gold. cites the same anecdote fromHegesander.
Pausanias, Laconica, ix. 4. Afterwards In connexion with this embassy too the
he was sent with Phormisius (infra 97) poet Plato wrote a play which he called
and others on an embassy to the Persian the Ambassadors, Upia^us, (possibly
Court, and again accepted enormous the play from which the line cited by
bribes to carry out the designs of the the Scholiast is taken), in which he
great king. On this charge, coupled said
with charges of peculation, he and his
KaTiXa^ov 'EiriHpaTt}s re koi ^opfitffios

irapoL TOV PaaiXiajs TrKetdTa ScxjpoSoKrjfiaTay

v^vPatpa xfvaa oi TnvaKiaKovs ipyvpovs.


Peax. And what say ye ? 1=' W. They nod assent : they've got them.
PuAx. The other matters, I perceive, are done.
Laconian shoes ye've got, and walking-sticks,
And the men's overclokes, as we desired you.
Ist y^ o I've a splendid club I stole away
(See, here it is) from Lamias as he slept.
Peax. O yes, I know :
" the clubs he sweltered with."
1^' W. By Zeus the Saviour, he's the very man
To don the skins the All-eyed herdsman wore.
And, no man better, tend the public hangman.
On some subsequent occasions, if we the old nursery-tale ; and the preceding
can trust Demosthenes, Epicrates and expression tovt ecrr fKelm not to refer
his fellow ambassadors were condemned to the o-KuTokov in particular, but to be
to death on a similar charge of corrup- the familiar form of recognition, tovt
tion. De Falsa Legations, 315-320. (Ki'ivo (Birds 354,rrogsl341 and passim),

72. She is addressing the women,

I'/ufif] leading up to the quotation.
other than the two who have just 80. TOV YiaVOTTTOv] ToV TTjV '1q) (^vKaTTOV-
asserted their compliance with her ros, (iLVLTTTai de a)ff ovros aiiTuv deafio-
wishes. As to the AdxajKiKaf, the. men's (j:>v\aKOs. dva(f)pL fie tovtoi/ eVl tov Trapd
" red Laconian shoes," see the note on Soc^oxXfi fV 'iviixf "Apyov. Scholiast.
Wasps 1158 and infra 345. 6 HavoTTTr]! was the name commonly
77. Aa;uioii] Lamias, the speaker's hus- given to the hundred-eyed Argus. See
band, was, the Scholiast says, the the next note. The expression Si(j)6(pav
6E<r/io^ijAa|, or the keeper of the public ivTjfipivos occurs in Clouds 72.
prison. He was therefore bound to be 81. einep K. T, X.] 'i2s ovbeis aWos, " tov
extremely watchful, and his wife is &j]p.iov (vulgo bripov) ^ovKoXelv" he, as
naturally jubilant at having got away, TfjV *I(1) 6 "Apyos iv *Ii'a;^6) So^o/cXeouf.
unobserved by his vigilant eyes. His Scholiast. The meaning of the lines is
name affords a handle for the unseemly somewhat obscure, but not, I think
jest which follows, and which is based doubtful. The speaker is magnifying
on an incident in the old legends about her own dexterity in escaping unob-
the ogress Lamia, vwep ?, says the served, by enlarging upon the extra-
Scholiast, 6 KpdTijr \iyu in ra opavu^o) ordinary vigilance of her husband. " He
dpdfjLaTif OTt arKVToKrjv '4\ov(ja cirepSeTO, would be man," she says, " to
just the
Cf. Wasps 1177 and the note there. play the part of Argus, and tend "
I take the last four words of line 78 to she was going to add " lo," but substi-
be a quotation either from the Lamia tutes TTapu TrpoaSoKiav " the public execu-
of Crates or from some other version of tioner," who was doubtless placed under
UP. aXX' aye^' ottcos Kal rdirl tovtols Spdcrofiev,
ecos iT ecTTif darpa Kara tov ovpavov
rjKKXricTia S' , els rjv napea-KevdaiieOa

rjfj.eis ^aSl^eiv, e| eo) yevriaeTai. 85

TT. A. }/fi TOV Al', (ucrre 8a ae KaraXa^eiv eSpas

vTTo tS) Xidon, t5)V Trpvrdveaiv KaravTiKpu.
rT. B. TavTi ye toi vfj top At" e^epofirjv, iva
nXrjpovjievqs ^aivoifJ.L Tijs eKKXrjcrias.

UP. TrXripoviiif-qs, TdXaiva ; TT. B. vrj ttjv "ApTefitv, 90

iycoye. tl yap av y^eipov aKpowfirfv ana
^aivovaa ;
yvp-pa 8 kaTi jxol to. naiSia.

IIP. l8ov yi ae ^aivovaav, rji/ tov ad>iMaTOS

ovSkv TTapacpfjirat toTs KaOrj/iei/ois eSei.

ovKovv KaXd y av Trddoijiiv, et irXripr]^ tv^ol 95

8fjfj.os aiv, Karreid' inrep^aivovcrd riy

dva^aXXofiivr] Sei^eie tov ^opfiicnov.

the supervision of tlie keeper of tlie popularly regarded as a cowherd, ^ouleo'-

prison. Argus, since lo while under Xof, and Bergler aptly refers to Aesch.
his charge bore the form of a cow, was Suppl. 297-300

Kths. Ti S^ra irphs ravT a\oxos IffXvpcL Ai(5s ;

Chorus. tA;/ navB' opSivTa ipiXaK l-niaTijafv $ot.

King. ttolov iravoTnrjV oIo^ovkSKov Xsyus ;

Choeus. 'Apyov, t^v 'Epfiys iratSa frjs KareKTave.

I think therefore that ^ovKoKelv here stage by some black or star-spangled

means simply to tend, and not, as moat sky-scene, which when the day was
editors take it, to beguile or deceive : nor supposed to break would be wound off
can I acquiesce in Bothe's alteration of round one of the TTipiaKToi, or scene-
Tov Sfifxiov into TO hrjpLiov the people ; for rollers, so unwinding from the other
Lamias was a gaoler, not a demagogue, roller the day-scene which was to take
and the notion of beguiling the people is its place.

quite foreign to the scope of the passage. 87. utto tw XlQa] 'Yiro tm ^TjfiaTt.
83. (ia-rpa] The early scenes in this Scholiast. See Peace 680 and the note
play, as in the Wasps, are supposed to there. The prytanes who presided over
take place before daybreak. Night was and controlled the proceedings of the
probably represented on the Athenian Assembly sat close beside the jSij^na (the


Prax. But now to finish what remains to do

While yet the stars are lingering in the sky
Per this Assemblyj as you know, whereto
We all are bound, commences with the dawn.
jst "^_ ^jj^ gQ jj- ^Qgg .
^^^ we're to seat ourselves
Facing the prytanes, just below the speakers.
gnd -yy-_
ggg what I've brought, dear heart : I mean to do
A little spinning while the Assembly fills.

PuAX. Fills ? miserable woman !

2""* W. Yes, why not ?

O I can spin and listen just as well.

Besides, my little chicks have got no clothes.
Prax. Fancy you spinning ! when you must not have
The tiniest morsel of your person seen.
"Twere a fine scrape, if when the Assembly's full,

Some woman clambering o'er the seats, and throwing

Her cloke awry, should show that she's a woman.

stone pulpit from whicli the. orators with wire instead of hair, until all knots
Bpoke) facing the assembled people. and matted tangles are rubbed out, and
The -women were to occupy the front the wool is formed into long rolls of
rows, just below the Pr/fui, and so would a similar texture throughout, and so
be face to face with the presiding rendered fit for the spindle. See Lysi-
prytanes. In after times, these presi- strata 535, 586, and 5/9.
dents were found too few in number to 97, ^oppl(TiOv\ Kat ovrof hatrvs rjj/, (He
keep order, and a whole tribe (to biKarov had previously said of Epicrates, ovtos
fiepos Trjs TToXems) was told off to sit as eiff datTVTrjTa Kcopcobelrai.) alvirr^TaL be to
presidents beside the j3^/ia ; voijov idijKme yvvaiKe'lov alhoXov. Scholiast. The state-
Kuvov, dnoKXrjpoiv (f>v\rjv eVi to firifia, rjris ment in Hesychius (s.v. ' hpiaTobr^pos)
npoeSpevaei. Aeschines against Timar- that comic writers called to. ywaiKc'ta
chus, 33. albola,amongst other names, ^oppialovs
88. Tavrl e^epo/xijj/] Tvvrj epx^Tai^fpepovaa is doubtless grounded on the passage

KoX ^alvova-a epia. Scholiast. Although before us. Much that was said about
in the translation I have used the more Epicrates in the note on 71 supra might
familiar word " spinning," yet ^aivovaa be repeated about Phormisius here.
of coui'se signifies the preliminary opera- Like Epicrates, he was a rough big-
tion of carding the wool, that is, working bearded man {ixiyav iX'"" Tmymva' koOUi,
it between instruments like brushes, but Tov Tvaiyaiva. Scholiast on Frogs 965,
^v 8' eyKaOt^do/jiea-da nporfpai, Xria-ojjLtv

^vaTiiKdjiivai OaijiaTLa- tw irmywvd re

OTay Ka6w/J.ev, of TrepiSrjaoniaO ,
Ket, 100
Tis ouK Siv rjfias dvSpas fj-yrjaaid' 6p5>v ;

Ayvppios yovv tov Tlpoi/ofiov irwycDv f.ya>v

XeXrjOe- Kairot rrpoTepov rji/ ovtos yvvfj-

vvvl S', 6pa9, Trpdrrei to. jiiyicrT kv rfj it6\(i,

TOVTOV ye roi, vr] ttju kinovcrav rj/iepav, 105

966). Like Epicrates, he took part in yevoiTO, ypd(f}i tov \6yov Toj/de 6 Avatas,
the restoration of the democracy : and De Lysia J.udicium, chap. 22.
we have already seen that he was joined 102. ^Ayvppiosl *0 ^ AyvppLos crrpnTrjyos
with Epicrates as well in the embassy 6i]\vHpia)8i]s, ap^as iv Afcr/Sw, Kai tw
to the Persian Court, as in the subse- pttrdbif 6e Taif noLrjTciv o-vviTepif^ Km irpoiTos

quent impeachment for receiving bribes iKK\r]<ria<TTiK6v diSaiKev, 6 fie TlpopOfios

therein. In the Frogs (965, where see GvXtjTrjs peyav 'dxcov ncayoivn, 'Ayvpptos be
the note) he is selected by Euripides as evpvTTpaKTO!. Scholiast. The expression
a sample of the rough hirsute personages TrpoTcpov Tjv yvvr] refers of course to
which the teaching of Aeschylus was unnatural crimes in which Agyrrhius
calculated to turn out ; in contrast to as a youth was supposed to have par-
Hffpafievris 6 K0fi\j/6i, whom he claims as ticipated. According to Andocides,
the product of his own teaching. After whose bitter enemy he was, Agyrrhius
the fall of the Thirty, Phormisius intro- for farmed the harbour
several years
duced a measure for restricting the dues at a price (thirty talents a year)
franchise to the owners of land, a pro- very greatly beneath their actual value,
posal against which was written the buying off competitors by paying them
fragment known as the thirty-fourth a sum down, and promising a share in
oration of Lysias, " Against doing away the booty. Andocides, perceiving his
with the ancient constitution of Athens." knavery, outbid him by offering thirty-
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who preserves six talents, and even so made a moderate
the fragment, prefaces it with the follow- profit (Andoc. De Mysteriis, 133, 134 .

ing statement : ^opixia-tos tu tZv kutcX- It was probably in connexion with these
BovTOiV fura tov 8i)/iou yvitfi-qv eltrrjyrjtraTO transactions, that he was accused of
tohs fih <^!vyovTas Karievai, Tqv Se woXiTeLav embezzlement and thrown into prison
fi'] natriVf aXKa rots ttjv yijv )(ovfTi napa- (Dem. in Timocr. 153): but at the
Sovvai, /3oLiXo/ie'j/<oi/ ravra Kai AaKeSaifioi'lcot'. present moment these ill deeds were
eficWon 6f , roil v/'iyC^iVfiarof toutou Kvpadiv- forgotten, and he had become a prime
T09, 7rfi/TaKi(rxi'Xioi (r;(cS6i ^Adrji/almv dne- favourite of the people, by the ordinary
XaBrjtreadai rav Kotvav. "iva firj hi) toCto demagogic trick of increasing the public

No, if we sit in front and gather round us

Our husbands' garments, none will find us out.

Why, when weVe got our flowing beards on there.

Who that beholds us will suppose we're women ?
Was not Agyrrhius erst a woman ? Yet
Now that he wears the beard of Pronomus,
He passes for a man, a statesman toa
O by yon dawning day, 'tis just for that.

doles. The fall of Athens from her date of this play, Agyrrhius carried
imperial position must have made it a further decree fixing it, like the
more difficult for the poorer classes to SiicaaTiKov, at three obols. Aristotle,
earn their living by attending the dicas- and see infra
Polity of Athens, chap. 41 ;

teries, and Agyrrhius hit on the idea of 183-188.and 301-310. Hence he became
paying them for their attendance at the a leading personage in the state (npaTTei
Assemblies also. At first he got tie TTj TToXei, cf. Birds 800), and
Tu fiiyuTT iv
payment (to eKK\tj(na<TTiK6v, as it was on the death of Thrasybulus succeeded
called) fixed at one obol: but this him as the orpaTijyos on the coast of Asia
proved inefi'ective (infra 302) and it ; (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. 31). The comedian
was raised by Heracleides to two obols. Plato represented the Athenian Demus
Thereupon, a year or two before the as saying

M/SoC, Aa;3oS t^s x^'P^^ '"' Tax'CTd iwv,

fikWoj (TTpaT7)y6v x^'POTOJ'f"' 'Ayvppwv.

Plutarch, PraeceptaGerendaeReipub- and not the illustrious Theban who

licae, V. See Plutarch's remarks on this taught Alcibiades the flute. This little
election. The memory of the man who incident of the women's fictitious beards
introduced the rpiai^okov eKK\ri<nacrTiKov seems to introduce us to all the re-
was long popular in Athens, and De- markable beards at Athens, those of
mosthenes (ubi supra), whilst recording Epicrates, Phormisius, Agyrrhius, Prono-
his peculations, yet describes him as mus.
avSpa iUpjjiTT-oi' Koi SrjfiOTiKov Ka'i irfpi to 105. TOOTOU yi Toi] To ipjS, tovtov
TrX^^off TO vpirepov ttoXXce (n70vbd<TavT<i, yi TOL VKaf roa-ouTOi/ ToXfirjjia ToX/xcojufC,

The comic poets, on the other hand, frj Trjv imova'av rjfiipaif, rjv Tras napoKa^eii^

had a special grudge against him from Scholiast. Agyrrhius, she means, has
the fact that he reduced the gratuity become a power in the state, by ceasing
which they had been accustomed to to be a woman, and assuming the beard
receive from the state. See Frogs 367. and appearance of a man and we will :

Pronomus was probably an Athenian, try a similar experiment in the hope of

C 3

T6\jj.r]/j.a ToXfiwiiiv TOcrovTov ovveKa,

TJy na>s irapaXa^iiv rfjs TroAecoy to, TrpdyjiaTa

Svvco/ieO', axTT aya&bv tl irpd^ai ttjv ttoXiv

vvv fikv yap ovre Biofieu ovt kXavvojiev.

FT. A. Kal it5)S yvvaiK&v BrjXvcppcov ^vvovtria no

SrjfiriyoprjCTii ; IIP. woXi) pkv ovv dpicTTO, ttov.

Xeyovcri yap Kal twv veavicrKcav oaoL

irXelaTa crnoSovvTai, SeiPOTarovs eluat Xiyeiv

fj/iip S vndp)(ei TOVTO Kara Tv^ijy rivd.
FT. A. ovK oiSa- Sfivov d' ea-Ttv tj prj 'pnreipia. 115
nP. ovKovy (TTiTrjSei ^vvfXeyrjpey kvOdSe,
oTTCos TrpojieXtTrjcraiHiv aKei Set Xkyeiv.
OVK av '(f)6dvois TO yiveiov $,v TTipiSov/ieyr]

dXXai B ocrai XaXuv /isfieXer'^KacTi ttov ;

FT. A. Tis S', & /teX', rjfia>v oi XaXeiv kiricrTaTai ; 120

nP. i6l Sfi (TV TrepiSov Kal ra'^ecos dyfjp yevov'
eyo) Se Oeitra toijs crre^dpovs vepiSrja-op.ai

a similar result. The words vq rrjv 2. 29. The Scholiast rightly explains
eii-iova-av rjjxepav are certainly a strange the present passage to mean oUtc avp.ois
adjuration but we must remember
; ovre Kajrais (nee velis nee remi-s) TtKeofiev,
that they are used by a woman, and and cites the proverb which, as Bergler
we should beware of altering the roi vrj observes, is found in Aristaenetus, i. 14
of the MSS. into roii/vv with Bothe or ad fin. and elsewhere, au apyvpLov fi,

Toi Sij with Blaydea, lest we should there- irdvTa del r ekaiverai, everything goes OH
by be sacrificing one of the "pretty swimminglt/.
oaths " of an Athenian lady. 110. Brjki^paiv |iii/ov(Tia] A female-
109. deofxev] Oe'iii is to scud with sails minded company of women. The language
hefore the wind, eXaiveip to propel the boat is obviously that of tragedy, whether

with oars. Dobree refers to the narrative quoted or composed by Aristophanes.

which Xenophon gives of the hasty The Scholiast remarks in rpayabias toZto,
voyage of Iphicrates around the coasts and Le Fevre adds Euripidem sapit, "it
of Peloponnesus: el [xh aiipa <j)epoi, smacks of Euripides."
deoi/Tes afia avcnaiovro' el Se eXaiveiv Se'oi, 112. -raiv yeawVKo)!'] This charge is
Kara fiepos Tois vavras dv7ravcv. Hell. vi. frequently brought against Athenian
; ; ,


We women dare this daring deed to do,

If we can seize upon the helm of state

And trim the ship to weather through the storm

For neither sails nor oars avail it now.
1'' W. How can the female soul of womankind
Address the Assembly ? Prax. Admirably well.

Youths that are most effeminate, they say.

Are always strongest in the speaking line

And we've got that by nature. 1^' W. Maybe so.

StiU inexperience is a serious matter.

Prax. And is not that the very reason why
We've met together to rehearse the scene ?
Now do make haste and fasten on your beards.
And all you others who have practised talking.
1^* W. Practised, indeed ! can't every woman talk ?

Peax. Come, fasten on your beard, and be a man.

I'll lay these chaplets down, and do the same.

orators. Knights 877-880, Clouds 1093. of a person -who has been listening to
It may have been merely a hasty an argument "which cannot be answered
generalization from one or two con- but does not convince." / cannot coii-
spicuous (see the note on
instances tradi<^ your argument, hut still, cf. Frogs

102 supra) and yet it is conceivable

: 30. beivbv means a serious matter, cf.
that the total loss of shame which must Wasps 834 ; Aesch. Prom. 39; Eur. Hec.
accompany such turpitude might make 884, Andr. 985, Iph. in Aul. 917.
men moi-e reckless, and therefore more 119. oo-ai] The women in general aid-

ready, speakers. By a converse argu- not to assume their beards until 273
ment which Praxagora employs,
to that infra. Only the intending speakers are
the sophist whom
Lucian holds up to to put them on now. Hence Praxagora,
our abhorrence in his Rhetorum Prae- when putting hers on, four lines below,
ceptor (23) contends that as women are iscareful to explain that she does so in
than men, therefore the most
\aKi(TTfpoi. view of speaking herself.
effeminate orators will also be the most 122. Tovs aTe^avovi\ Praxagora ap-

effective. pears to have been holding several

115. ovK olda] This is the expression chaplets for the use of the speakers.
; ;

KavTT] jxeO' vjiSov, iju Ti fioi So^t] Keyeiv.

FT. B.- 8evp, S> yXvKVTccTr] lipa^ayepa, (XKiyjrai, rdXau,

d>s Kai KarayeXacTTov to Trpdy/ia (paiverai. 125

nP. TTcos KaTuyeXaa-Tov ; FT. B. &<nrfp e'l tis a-r]Triais

ndoycoya irepiS-qcj-iLiv ecrTadevfiivais.

nP. 6 TTepiaTiapyos, irepKpipuv j^prj Tr]v yaXfju.

ndpiT ey to irpScrdev. 'ApicfipaSes, navcrai XaXSiv.

KaOi^e naptSv. tis dyopeveiv ^ovXirai 130

FT. A. y<B. nP. irep'dov Srj tov aTecpavov TvyayaO^.

These she puts down whilst tying on this line of purification. Cf. Acharnians
her beard. 44. Pollux (viii. segm. 104) has a short
126. (Tryrrlais] 'ATTpoo-Xoyos fj HKa(Tln, article Xlfpl IIepiaTidpx<i>v, and observes
says the Scholiast. It probably refers 'Exadaipov pfOtpiSi'oiy lUKpots ovTOi Tf;v

to some fanciful similarity between the iKKKfjcrtav, Ka\ to Bcarpov' Kaddp(nov de

complexion ofthewomen,lightly bronzed TovTo xotpl^tov eKnXeIro, As the peristi-
by the sun, and the colour of the white arch purified the theatre as well as the
cuttlefish lightly browned by the fire. place of assembly, he was probably even
"kevKaX yap ai (njTriai, says One Scholiast nowsittingamongsttheaudience,andwas
fO-Tadevfiivais 6f, e| eViTToX^s ojTTTjdeiaa'S' personally addressed by Praxagora. These
(TTadevetv yap to pq Xiav OTrr^o-at, adds lustrations were also called Trepla-Tta.
another. But this is a frivolous woman ;
Photius s.v. Trepia-TLapxo?. See Aeschines
and Praxagora has no time to waste on against Timarchus, 23, and the Scholiasts
such idle fancies as these. She is the there ; Schomann de Comitiis Athenien-
one woman of the party who is thoroughly sium, i. 8 (Paley'stranslation). Praxagora
sensible, and thoroughly in earnest ; and substitutes yaXrjv ioT xoipi8iov,not wishing
taking no notice of her companion's in an assembly of ladies to use so
nonsense, she hurries in pantomime ambiguous a word as the latter.
through the preliminaiy ceremonies, 129. napiT is TO npoa-dfv] It would
after which the rehearsal imme- seem, from Acharnians 48, 44, that this
diately begins. was the recognized formula wherewith
128. 6 wepicTTiapxos] The peristiarch the K^pu| invited the people to come
was an official who superintended the within the line of lustration. Of Ari-
which an
purification of the place in phrades the Scholiast says as dvapepiy-
Athenian Assembly was to be held by fievov avrals' Xotbopeirat 5e irpos yvvaiKas
(tarrying sacrificed sucking-pigs iiround ala-xpos i>v KidapcoSos. Apparently, there-
its limit. who took part in the
All fore,the Scholiast would identify the
Assembly were required to come within person here addressed with that Ari-
; !

THE ecclesiazusaj: 23

Maybe I'll make a little speech myself.

2* W. O, here, sweet love, Praxagora : look, child !

O what a merry joke this seems to me

Prax. Joke ! where's the joke ? 2^ W. 'Tis just as i we tied

A shaggy beard to toasting cuttlefish.

Prax. Now, Purifier, carry round the cat.

Come in ! Ariphrades, don't chatter so.

Come in, sit down. Who will address the meeting ?

1=' W. I. Peax. Wear this chaplet then, and luck be with j'ou.

phi-ades of whose bestiality we have 879. In each of these instances,,as here,

heaid more than enough in the Knights, the intending speaker simply answera
the Wasps, and the Peace. And so also 'E-yii. Originally, men over fifty years of
the Scholiast on Lucian's Pseudologista, age were first invited to speak : entpana
3. But that was thirty yea>rs ago those : 6 nrjpv^ '*
Tis dyopViv ^ovXerni Tav xmep
scandals must have long since passed nevTTjKOVTa err] yeyovoT^av " eVetSni/ 5e ou:

into oblivion. There is nothing un- niivTes ilTraxTi, tot TjSr) kfXei'ci \ey(Lv tS>v

common in the name of Ariphrades aWatv ABrjimco" tov PovXApevoi: Aeschi

and the offence here attributed to Ari- nes against Timai-chus, 23. But as Scho-
phrades is merely " talking," an offence mann (De Comitiis, i. 10) remarks, with
perhaps not altogether alien to a something like a feeling of personal
woman's character, tLs ynp ywaiKav ov resentment,." this custom had long been
XaXeiv iiriaTaTni ; And in my judgement obsolete and young men scarcely out

Praxagora, in the character of Kr^pv^. is of their teens, with a very diminutive

merely calling upon one of the women stock of knowledge, but a very consider-
to stop chattering and to come and take able one of impudence, were generally
her seat within the line of purification. the first to take possession of the bema,
She naturally uses a man's name (as if and not unfrequently the last to give it

she were in the real Assembly, cf. infra up to their betters."

293, 294), though of course the adjective 131. TOV (TTecpavov] 2Tf(pavovvTai yap oi

api<j>pabt)s isboth masculine and feminin e. SrjixriyopovvTes. Scholiast. That Athen-

And napiav in the next line is used in ian orators wore a wi-eath while deliver-
precisely the same sense as mpi-e in ing their speeches is of course well
known ; and the custom is noticed by
Here we
130. TiS ayopfveiv ^oiXerai ;]
Aristophanes not only in the scene
have the well-known formula with which before us, but also in the Bii-ds and the

the Kijpv^ declares the debate to be Thesmophoriazusae. Wreaths were also

opened. See Acharnians 45, Thesm. worn by revellers ; oi ev roir a-vpTvoa-iois
: ; ; :


FT. A. ISov. UP. Xeyois dv. FY. A. eha irph iridv \4yco ;

nP. ISoij iruw. TT. A. Ti yap, S, fiiX' , ea-Te^avmcrdnrjv ;

IIP. dirid' iKiToSa>u- TOiavT dv -njids elpyda-co

KaKii. FT. A. TL S' ; oil TTiyovcri Kav TrjKKkrjcria 135

nP. iSov ye a-oi ttlvovcti. FT. A. vrj rfju "ApTe/iiv,

Kal Tavrd y ev^copov. rd yovv ^ovXevpara

avTcov OCT dv irpd^mcnv kvOvpovpevoi^
Samp fieOvovTcov eau TrapaireTrXrjyfieya.

Kal vfj Aia (nrivSovcri y

fj tivos xdpiv 140
Toaavrd y ev)(0PT', el'Trep oTifOS pfi napfjv

Kal XoiBopovvTai y axnrep kpTTiircoKOTes,

Kal Tov TrapoivovvT eK<pipovcr ol To^orai.

IIP a-ii jJikv PdSi(e Kal KaOrja-'- ov8eu yap el.

FT. A. v^ TOV At', ^ poi pfj yeveidv KpeTrTov ^v 145

(CTTl>avovvTo, says the Scholiast on 133 it], or that she was about to commence
infra. See infra 691 and the note there. a revel (as her friend interprets it).

The assumption of a wreath, therefore, A very similar misapprehension occurs,

might mean either that the wearer was when Peisthetaerus, about to commence
about to speak (as Praxagora intended his oration to the Birds, calls out

Boy, bring me a wreath for my hair

And a wash for my hands. Eu. Why, what mean these commands? Is a dinner in near contemplation.
Pel No dinner, I ween : 'tis a speech that I mean, a stalwart and lusty oration. Birds 463-5.
By a somewhat analogous inference, Fragm. Com. Graeo.) that the dead must
from the custom of placing a wreath on be going to a banquet in the unseen
the head after death, it is argued in world
the Tagenistae (Fragm. 1 in Meineke's
oh^ aV Tto9' OVTWS iGTi<pavOilliVOi ViKpOL
irpovKetfli9\ ov5' Slv KaTaKeXPtpt^voi fxvpois,
el fi^ Karal3dvTas ivBeais mveiv thu.

Why should they lay our corpses out, ai-ranged

With wreaths, and perfumed with the sweetest scents,
Unless we're straightway going to drink below ?

182. Tvpivnulv] The first speaker im- to drink, she betrays both her own sex,
mediately breaks down. By proposing and her ignorance of parliamentary


1st -yv^_ There. Pkax. Speak away. W. What speak before I drink ?

PliAX. Just listen. Diunk ! 1=' W. Then what's this chaplet for?
Prax. O get away. Is this what you'd have done
Amongst the men ? W. What, don't men drink at
1^' meetings ?

Prax. Drink, fool ? 1=' W. By Artemis, I know they do.

And strong drink too. Look at the Acts they pass.
Do you mean to tell me that they'd pass such nonsense
If they weren't drunk ? Besides, they pour libations.
Or what's the meaning of those tedious prayers
Unless they'd got some wine, I'd like to know.
Besides, they quarrel just like drunken men,
And when one drinks too much, and get's too noisy.
In come the Archer-boys, and run him out.

PuAX. Begone and sit you down, for you're no good.

\^' W. Good lack, I wish I'd never worn a beard ;

proceedings, and she is accordingly dis- sake of obtaining the wine. " Quod ex
missed by Praxagora with scant courtesy. religionis praescripto fiebat a viris, ubi
137. ev^atpov] Ov fiovov ^apov, aXka K.a\ in concionem ventum erat," says Le
ev^OipoVj aKparov. Scholiast. Fevre, "id amore vini fieri interpretatur
138. (vdviJLovfiivois] To such as ponder muliercula sitiens.''

these things in their minds. The Acts 143. ol To|drai] The Scythian archers
they pass are, if you consider them who formed the city police at Athens are
carefully, like the mad acts of drunkards. frequently mentioned in these comedies.
On 7rapa7re7rXt)y/xeVa the Scholiast observes And as to their haling disorderly per-
p-aviKa. dia^dXKei Tois 'Adrjvatovs o)r del sons out of the Assembly or the Council,
KaKa ^QuXevofievovs. see Ach. 54 ; Knights 665 ; Plato, Pro-
Solemn prayers were
140. a-TTevdovaLJ tagoras, chap. X ; and cf. infra 258.

usually accompanied by libations o-?reV : 145. yVLav] Mrj ^)(Ivtovtov TOVTVOiyava.

Sorrer (vxa>p-e<rda, Peace 431-485 ; fVi d<pnvnv67}(TOfiai, ^r}pavBr}TopLat. Scholiast

Tats frnovhats kol toIs euxatffj Wasps 868. cf. Frogs 1089. "Av I didn't shave,
The woman therefore infers from the I wud be torminted wid an outrajis
prayers with which the Assemblies were thurrst ; for there's nothin' so dhryin' to

opened, that there must have been wine the throat as a big billy-goat beard
present for the purpose of the ac- waggin' undher the chin," says Private
companying libations and insinuates; Mulvaney in one of Rudyard Kipling's
that the prayers were offered for the tales.
26 EKKA H :$ I A z o r 2 A r

5A|f6i yap, ws eotK , dcftavavOrjaoiiai.

nP. 'iaff ijTis irepa ^ovXerai Xeyeiv ; FT. B. eyco.

nP. i6i S^ crTi(f)avov- Kal yap to xprjji epyd^erai.

dye vvv onms avSpLcrrl Kal KaXws epw,

8iepia-a/j.ivTi to a'^^jjfia rfj ^aKTrjpia.. 150
FT. B. e^ouXofirju pe.v eTepof dv tcop rjSdScov

Xeyiiv TO, ^kXTicrO , Iv eKa6rj/Mr]y ^trv^os-

vw S' ovK kdcTCt), KaTa ye ttju e/ifjv jxiav,

kv Toicri KaTrrjXeioicri XaKKovs efnroielu

vSaTOS. ifJ-ol pkv ov SoKfi fid TO) 6ed>. loj

UP. fid TO) 6ed> ; ToXaiva, trov tov vovv e^^et? ;

V T. a. Ti eaTtv , ov yap orj ttulv y fiTtjo-a ere.

nP. fid At", dXX dprjp a>v Tco Oeo) KaTWfioaas,

KaiTOL Ta y dXX' elwovcra Se^tSraTa.

FT. B. CO vri TOV AttoXXco. HP. nave tclvvv, cay eyo) 160
kKKXr](Tid(yovcx ovk dv rrpo^airiv tov noSa
TOV eTepov, el fifj tuSt aKpi^adrjcreTai.

148. epydCerai] Ufget, Le Fevre. Tlie liast ; a very frequent ellipsis, though
matter is pressing ; literally, is working. \j^ri(f)op is more appropriate.
here, perhaps,
151. ^ov\aixr]v av] The seoond speaker The speaker, unaccustomed to public
makes a brilliant start, well suited to an speaking, commences by saying, Vll not
orator addressing the Assembly for the permit; then, recollecting that it is for
first time. And she goes on swimmingly the Assembly, and not for herself alone,
until the recognized female oath fia ria to decide the matter, she adds apologeti-
Beib Demeter and Persephone) in-
(by cally. So far at least as my single vote
advertently escapes her and reveals her [or opinion] goes. To connect, as is

sex. By Twv rjddSaiv she means the speakers commonly done, with ovk eda-a and

accustomed to address you, the usual (fnToielv, I'll not permit one single leoman
speakers, rav i6os (}(6vTa>ii Xfyav. Scho- to make, is contrary both to the sense of
liast. Bergler refers to the openings of the passage and to the Greek idiom.
the First Philippic of Demosthenes and The transgressors she is attacking would
the Archidamus of Isocrates. "iv eKadrj- not be exclusively, or even chiefly,
fxriv rjcruxos in which case I should have sat women nay in the viewof Aristophanes,

quiet. See the note on 426 infra. who is constantly, and indeed in this
153. Tijv if^rjv^ Aciirei yvcofirjv. Scho- very passage, assailing the wine-bibbing

I'm parched to death with thirst, I really am.

Prax. Would any other like to speak ? 2"'^ W. Yes, I.

Prax. Put on this chaplet and be quick. Time presses.

Now lean your weight upon your walking-stick,

And speak your words out manfully and well.
2^ W. I could have wished some more experienced man
Had risen to speak, while I sat still and listened.

But now I say I'll not permit, for one.

That in their taverns men should make them tanks
Of water. 'Tis not proper, by the Twain.
Prax. How ! by the Twain ? Girl, have you lost your wits ?

2nd y^ Why, what''s amiss ? I never asked for drink.

Prax. You are a man, and yet invoked the Twain.
All else you said was excellently right,
gnd -^ o yes, by Apollo ! Prax. Mind then, I won't move
Another step in this Assembly business,

Unless you are strict and accurate in this.

propensities of women, they would be ov eV Xokkois KoniaTots elx''- K seems

chiefly, if not exclusively, men. And that in some taverns a pernicious custom
Porson justly doubts if oIk eda-a ixiav had grown up, of filling these tanks
could be correctly used for oiSefiiav with water instead of wine and against :

eucra. this the wine-loving woman indignantly

154. XaKKovs] AaKKoi were tanks or protests.

rectangular pits dug in the ground, and 155. /la to 6ea] On this, the favourite
lined with some water-tight cement, oath of Athenian women, see Wasps
Kovia,which rendered them safe recep- 1396 and the note there. These unlucky
tacles for wine or oil. XaxKot" oiKoSfjfiara words no sooner slip from the speaker's
Xptcra, o'ivov [ij] iXaiov V7ro8oxfta. Tho- lips than Praxagora angrily interrupts

tins. 'ABrjvaioi Koi tZv aXKav 'EXKtjvcov her and, it would seem from 163 infra,
Ttxes opiyiJuiTa imb yriv iroLoiivTes, eipv^wpiy snatches the chaplet from her head.
Ka\ (TTpoyyvKa (cai nrpayava, Koi kovio>vtS 160. i> vq top 'AttoXXib] Oh by Apollo, SO

avra, olvov viroSexovTai Ka'i 'ikaiov ds avra, I did, as Dr. Blaydes translates it.

(cai Xokkom KaXoCerij'.

ToCra Photius, Acknowledging her error, she is now
Snidas. Blaydes refers to Xenophon's careful to employ an oath such as a

Anabasis, iv. 2. 22 kqI yap olvos zoXis ^v, man would be likely to use.

FT. B. (pipe Tou are^avou- eym yap av Xe^co wdXiv.
oljjLaL yap i]Sr] fiefieXeTTjKivac KaXws-
ifiol yap, S> yvfaiKes at KaOrjfievai, 165
nP. ywaiKas, Si SvaTrjve, tovs dpSpas Xeyas;
FT. B. Si 'Y.Triyov6v y eKeivov enL^Xe^jracra yap
fKeicre wpbs yvfaiKas a>6fir]U Xiyeiv.

IIP. direppe Kal av Kal kccOtjit kvTevO^vt,

avTT} yap vfj.S>v y eveKo. /loi Xi^etv SokS>, 1 TO

TOvSl Xa^ovaa- toTs BeoTs jikv ivyofiai
Tvyiiv KaropQaxraaa to. ^e^ovXevfieva.
kfiol S' icrof /xef rija-Se Trjs )(mpai [lira

oa-ovnep v/iiv' dx^do/iai Se Kal (pipoa

TO. TTJs TToXecos dnavTa ^apiws irpdyjiaTa. 175

opS) yap avTfjv wpoa-TaTaicn y^pmpLivrjv

dil TTOvTjpols' Kav Tis fjfiipav piav

)(pTjarbs ykvrjTai, Sena uovqpoi yiyv^Tai.
eiriTpe^lrav krepco- TrXeioy en Spdaei KaKa.
^aXewby fj.eu ovp dvSpas SvcrapicTTOVS vovOtTiiv, 180
ot TOVS (piXeTf jxkv jSovXofikvovs SeSoLKan,
TOVS S' ovK kOkXovTas dvTL^oXu6 SKaaTOTe.
kKKXrjaiaiaLV rjy or ovk kyj)a>iii6a

165. tS yvvalK.(i\ She is addressing the a well- considered speech apparently;

audience in the theatre as if they were not precisely the same, though of course
the people assembled in the Pnyx. There on the same lines, as that which she is
would be no women in either place presently supposed to have addressed to
but her eye, she explains, chanced to the Assembly. See infra 429-454.
fall upon Epigonus, a man so effeminate 176. wpooraTaio-i Troci/poZs] The leading
that she mistook him for a woman. demagogue, who for the time being
ovTos KaixmSciTai as iiaXaKos, says the swayed the decisions of the popular
Scholiast. The word (Kutre in 168 means Assemblies was called, if not officially
in his direction. entitled, 6 npoa-rdr-qs tov Srjfiov. See
171. T07'8i] Toe (Tx/^ai'oi'. Scholiast. Aristotle's Polity of Athens, chap. 28.
After adjusting the chaplet on her own There had been Troi/ijpoiTrpooraTm enough
head, Praxagora proceeds to deliver and to spare during the Peloponnesian

2na y[[
Qjyg jjjg ^]^g ehaplet, and I'll try again.
I've thought of something very good to say.
In my opinion, O assembled women,
Prax. O monstrous ! women, idiot, when they're men ?
gnd 'sj\f 'Twas all Epigonus : he caught my eye
And so, methought 'twas women I harangued.
Prax. You, too, retire and sit you down again,
For I myself will wear the ehaplet now
Your cause to further : and I pray the gods
That I may haply prosper our design.
I have, my friends, an equal stake with you
In this our country, and I grieve to note

The sad condition of the state's affairs.

I see the state employing evermore
Unworthy ministers ; if one do well
A single day, he'll act amiss for ten.
You trust another : he'll be ten times worse.
Hard, hard wayward men,
it is to counsel

Always mistrusting those who love you best.

And paying court to those who love you not.
There was a time, my friends, we never came

War : Cleon, Hyperbolus, Cleophon. For, in my judgement, Praxagora ia here

In Peace 684 the appellation vovripbs contrasting Agyrrhius as a ivovrfpov npoa--

Trpoa-TaTrjs is expressly applied to Hyper- t(iVi;i/ (-whence the epithet wovrjpov, 185
bolus : would almost seem from
and it infra) with Thrasybulus the former

Plutus 920 that the combination of having only his own aggrandisement
these two words had become, in a at heart the latter a genuine patriot,

manner, proverbial. Cleophon appears earnestly promoting the real welfare

to have acquired his supremacy by insti- of the people. Yet Agyrrhius was fast
tuting the dole of the dempiKov, and now, becoming the popular favourite, whilst
we may well believe, Agyrrhius was the influence of Thrasybulus was steadily
attaining a similar position by his declining.
institution of the dole of the fV/cXijcri- 183. iKKKr^alaimv k.t, X,] Dieit tempus
aa-TtKov. See the note on 102 supra, ante Periclem, says Bothe, absurdly.
ovSev TO wapdirav dWa tov y Ayvppiou
TTOvrjpof rjyovixe(r6a' vvv Sk ^(^poofiii'fov 185
6 fiev Xa^wv dpyvpiou VTripirrjv(.<Tiv,

6 8 ov Xa^obv eiuai Qavdrov (pr](r d^iovs

Tovs pi(TBo<l>opa.v ^rjTovi'Tas kv TrjKKXrjaia.
rr. A. vrj TTjv 'A(ppoSiTr]i', v ye ravrayi Xiyeis.
np. TaXaiv , AippoSiTtjv Sfioaas. yapUvrd y av 190
eSpacras, ei tovt eiiras kv TrjKKXijcria.

rr. A. a\X' ovK &v iiTTOv. np. [iriS' k6t{ov vvv Xiy^iv.
TO crviifia)(^tKbv av tovO , ot etrKorrov/ieda,

Praxagora is contrasting tlie state of more account than the working of the
things before, with the state of things poet's mind.
after, the introduction by Agyrrhius 188. TOVS fii(T6o^ope7v] Toils fuirBovs
of the Tpiai^o\nv i<K\rj(Tia(TTlK6v. She ' jBovXojjievpvs Xo/Setj/. Ka\ yap irapa rav
notices two points of contrast: (1) orjfiayMycav Xafi^dvovai, Knt 6 fifj Xa^tov
Before that period the citizens had pia-ft deXwv Xo^eiv.^Scholiast. Accord-
become quite unaccustomed to attend ing to the Scholiast, therefore, it is
the Assembly, whereas now they flock a case of sour grapes. They who cannot
to it. This is the burden of the second get the TpimfioXov hide their disappoint-
semichorus, infra 300-310; and cf. ment by railing at the immorality of
Plutus 329. (2) Before that period those who are more successful. I think
everybody recognized that Agyrrliius that this is certainly the meaning of
was a rogue whereas now it is difficult
: the passage, the course which the oi
to praise him enough. The words ovk Xa^aiv takes being introduced as it were
fXpa>jj.^9a simply mean that the habit of napa TrpoaSoKiav though no doubt there

attending the Assembly had fallen into were many honest citizens who refused
general disuse. the pay
(tKKXijTiaoTat oikoo-itoi), and
186. Here again Bothe
iin-epfTTiJi'co-fj'] sincerelylamented the prevailing cor-
absurdly says, nimium laudare solet con- ruption. And cf. Isocrates de Pace,
dones, whereas the meaning is lauded 155, 156.
Agyrrhius to ike skies, extravagantly 190. 'A(j>poBiTrjv apoa-as] Like the oath
praised Agyrrhius. But indeed none by the twain goddesses, the oath by
of the commentators seem to have the Aphrodite was peculiarly a woman's
slightest inkling of what Praxagora is oath. It is employed six times in the
talking about in this portion of her present play, six times in the Lysistrata,
speech, all of them esteeming apparently and once in the Plutus, and invariably
the minutiae of the poet's language of by a woman. The sole exception in

To these Assemblies ; then we knew full well

Agyrrhius was a rogue : we come here now.

And he who gets the cash applauds the man,
And he who gets it not, protests that they
Who come for payment ought to die the death.
1 ^* W. By Aphrodite now, but that's well said !

Prax. Heavens ! Aphrodite ! 'Twere a pleasant jest.

If in the Assembly you should praise me so !

jst yi[
j^\y^ |3^t J won't. Pkax. Then don't acquire the habit.
This League again, when first we talked it over.

these comedies is Thesm. 254, and it a proposal that since the men have
is an exeeption -whicli proves the rule ;
proved so incompetent to manage the
for there it is used by Mnesilochus, who state, its affairs should now be placed
is being dressed up in woman's clothes, in the hands of the women ; whilst
to pass off as a woman, and who there- the fourth and last is a prolonged
fore naturally employs the oath proper eulogy of the women, showing their
to a woman. The words fitjb' idi^ov, two really very remarkable qualifications
lines below, mean Don't get into the habit for guiding and preserving the state.

of praising me in that manner. It is not 193. TO (TVfinaxiKov^ Tlepl tov av^ixaxiKov

unusual with the poet, when one of his ^iX6)(Ofioi lo-Topel oTi npo dvo tS>v cyiviTO

characters is making an argumentative (TV^paxtn AtiKcBaipovlaiv Kni Boicorwf.

speech, to punctuate each branch of Scholiast. Petit's suggestion that Aaxe-

the argument by some such interruption haijxovlav in the scholium ought to be

as the present. See the note on Wasps 'Adt]valav has met with universal accept-
559. Here Praxagora's argument is ance. For Praxagora is beyond all
divided by interruptions into four sec- doubt referring to the momentous
tions. The object of the first section Anti-Spartan League of B. c. 895, which
was to show how men mismanage the was inaugurated by the battle of
internal affairs of the state by giving Haliartus and the death of Lysander,
their confidence to corrupt and profli- which at once raised Athens from the
gate self-seekers like Agyrrhius, in position of amere dependency of Sparta
preference to true and tried friends into that of a free and leading Hellenic
of the people like Thrasybulus. The state and which in its result altered

second section relates to their mis- the whole current of Hellenic history.
management of external affairs by Originally struck between Thebes and
reason of their impatience and incon- Athens it was quickly joined by Argos,
stancy. The third section consists of Corinth, and other important states,
32 ekkahsiazot:Sai
i firj yej/oiT , diroKiiv e^acTKOv Trjv woXiv
ore Sfj 5' eyiver, ^)(6ovto, t5>v Si prjTopwv 195
6 TOVT avaTTUcra^ evdvs dnoSpas (o-^iTO.

vav^ Se? KadeXKecv tm Trevrjri jikv SoKfT,

T019 nXovaiois Se Kal yecopyois ov SoKei.

KopivOioLS r])(^6ea-6e, KOLKdvoi yi <tol-

vvv 1(tI ^prjarol, Kal aii vvv y^prjCTTos yevov. 200

'Apyeios dpa6r]S, dXX' 'lepcovvfios ao(j)6s-

and became so powerful that the military a second Themistocles, to rebuild the
leaders proposed at once to march upon Long Walls of Athens and the forti-
Sparta and " destroy the wasps in their fications of Peiraeus. But far from
nest." But in the following summer being the orator who induced them to
the great battle of Corinth, fj ncyaXr] enter into the League, he was not even
fid)(r) npos AaKedat^oviovSf rj iv KopivOco in Athens at the time. From the
(Demosthenes in Lept. 59) resulted in disaster at Aegospotami until his
a Lacedaemonian victory and no ; triumphant return to Athens some
contingent suffered so severely as the months after the exhibition of this
Athenian, which was assailed both in play, he had been continuously in the
front and on the flank by the Spartan service of Evagoras of Cyprus or
troops. And shortly afterwards Agcsi- the Persian King. Nor did he ever fall
laus won another victory in the well- under the censure of the Athenians.
contested battle of Coronea. No wonder The allusion here is doubtless to the
that the Athenians were disgusted, most persuasive of the many speakers
rjxSovTo, at this discomfiture of the (Trd/iTToXXoi ^vvTfyopevov, Xen. Hell. iii.
League from which they had expected 5. 16) who advocated the formation
so much. The historical allusions of the League. cannot have been
contained in this second section of Thrasybulus, who seems
to have been
Praxagora's speech are considered more very cautious and undecided in the
fully in the Introduction. matter, and whose case is mentioned
196. 6 toGt' di/aTTeicraj] Viovtavn Xeyet, seven lines below.It was some orator
says the Scholiast ; a very natural unnamed by Xenophon.
mistake, since Conon was the author 197. caOf 8ft/i6e'XK5u'] Thiswasanother
of all the abiding benefits which the immediate result of the A nti- Spartan
Athenians derived from the Anti-Spartan League. Till then the Athenians, since
League. He broke the naval power of the surrender of their city to Lysander,
Sparta in the battle of Cnidus, swept had been permitted to maintain twelve
the Lacedaemonian garrisons from the triremes and no more, a number doubt-
isles of the Aegean, and returned home, less sufiicient for merely defensive


It seemed the only thing to save the state.

Yet when they'd got it, they disliked it. He
Who pushed it through was forced to cut and run.
Ships must be launched the poor men all approve.

The wealthy men and farmers disapprove.

You used to hate Corinthians, and they you
They are friendly now do you be friendly
: too.

Argeius was a fool now Jerome's wise.


purposes. But so soon as they had non placet.

recovered their independence, their 200. Koi (TV vvv K.r.X.] The Corinthians,
first object would be to increase their whose animosity to Athens had been the
fleet ; and accordingly, a year or two immediate occasion of the Peloponnesian
later, we find them in possession of War, and who throughout, and at the
very considerable naval armaments. At termination of, the war, had shown
Athens the duty of equipping a trireme themselves her most rancorous enemies,
was not, as a rule, performed at the were nevertheless amongst the earliest
public expense, hut was imposed upon to join, and the most eager in supporting,
some wealthy citizen, so that the in- the Anti-Spartan League. But in the
crease of the fleet was not always a second year of the League, the war was
matter for rejoicing with the richer transferred into the territory of Corinth,
classes, ipapovvro yap Tois Tpirjpap^iais, which was systematically desolated by
as the Scholiast says. As to the yfmpyo!, sword and fire. A large minority of her
whether rich or poor, their lands were citizens became desirous of returning to
always exposed to the incursions of an the Spartan alliance; we hear of the
enemy, and they were consequently al- gates of the city being closed against
ways averse to war. " Had Attica been the fugitives after the battle of Corinth ;

an island, and the Athenians masters of and it may possibly be inferred from
the sea," says Xenophon (De Rep. Ath. the present passage that there was a
ii. 14), "they would have escaped all recrudescence at Athens of the old
the evils of war : vvv Se oi yeiopyovvTfs anti- Corinthian feeling. Praxagora
Koi ol ttXovcwi 'Adrjvalav vrrcpxovTm {come therefore, not now mei-ely stating
under power of, are exposed to)
the facts, but giving her own opinion, ex-
Tois TToXepiovs naWov," The terms Soki horts them to meet the friendly dis-

and oi SoKi'i relate to the voting of position of Corinth with equal friendli-
the difi'erent classes in the Assembly, ness.
and, to a member of Oxford or Cam- 201, 'Apyfios K.T.X.] Kar flpai/eiav. 6

bridge, are well Le

represented in yap ^Apyclos <ro(^6sj 6 d lepojvufios apaBrji,

Fevre's Latin translation by placet and TO 6e 'Apyf IDS ovofM Kvpiov. Scholiast.

&pacTv^ov\ov aiiTos, ov)(t irapaKaXovjitvo^.

FT. A. coy ^vviTOS dvrjp. HP. vvv Ka\a>i errrli^eaas.

iijxfh yap ecrr, & Sfjfie, tovtoov a'lTioi. 205

TO. S-qjioaia yap niaOocpopovfTes y^prj/iaTa

Praxagora, giving instances of the muta- he addressed his queen as one "whom
bility and perversity of Athenian opinion, Salvation itself is not able to save, if

says, Ye thought Argeius a blockhead, and these purposes are continued." Motley's
yet ye think Uieronymus clever. Whether United Netherlands, i. 423. The mean-
their characters are reversed, as the ing of napaK.iiiTii.v is well illustrated by the
Scholiast thinks, or whether they were invocation in Peace 978 seq., where Peace
both rude and ignorant men, it is im- isadjured not merely just to show her
possible to say. Argeius as a proper face and withdraw it again {irapaKinTeiv),
name occurs in Xenophon's Hellenics but to reveal herself in her full and
and elsewhere.Hieronymus was a perfect beauty to the gaze of her devoted
common Athenian name, and it is very admirers, dn-d^iyvov oXi;>' (TavTrji/. Cf.
unlikely that Praxagora is referring, as Thesm. 797-9. A glimpse of Safety was
Paulmier supposes, to the officer whom afforded to the Athenians by the Anti-
Conon, on his departure for Babylon, Spartan League and the victory of
left in part command of the Persian Conon at Cnidus, but this, in the opinion
and navy in Cyprus. The Hierony-
allied of Praxagora, was more or less counter-
mus mentioned here was doubtless some balanced by the growing alienation
obscure politician in Athens. The line of the people from the counsels of
appears to be introduced, after the Thrasybulus, who had brought them
manner of Aristophanes, and like the (Toorripia in even darker days than
reference to Aesimus a few lines below, these.
to touch a lighter chord in the midst 203. epno-u/SouXos] Thrasyiulus him-
of Praxagora's serious arraignment of self, now called upon for advice, is
Athenian policy. banished from our counsels. It is clear
202. 2mTr;/5i'a] 7,o>Tijpia is personified that before the death of Thrasybulus
here as Salus in the Latin proverbial his influence and popularity at Athens
expression "Neo Salus nobis saluti jam had been for some time on the wane.
esse, si oupiat, potest," Plautus, Mostel- He did not distinguish himself, either
laria, ii. 1. 4 ; Captivi, iii. 3. 14 ; Cistel- as a general or as a soldier, at the
laria, iv. 2. 76. The expression is used battle of Corinth : and shortly after-
also by Terence and Cicero, and doubt- wards, and apparently about the date of
less was borrowed from them by the this comedy, Lysias, in the speech com-
Elizabethan statesman Davison, when posed for Mantitheus, indulges in a

Safety just showed her face : but Thrasybulus,

No more called in, is quite excluded now.
1^' W. Here's a shrewd man ! Pkax. Ah, now you praise me rightly.

Ye are to blame for this, Athenian people,

Ye draw your wages from the public purse.

gird at " our grand Steirian," on which were incensed by wrongs inflicted upon
he would not have ventured, had he not them by his troops. His colleague
felt confident that the sneer would be Ergocles, returning to stand his trial,
relished by his auditors. Meanwhile was found guilty and put to death. We
Agyrrhius was supplanting him as a stiU have the speech, or part of the
popular favourite and not long after
: speech, composed by Lysias against
the date of the play, Conon was at Ergocles and it is painful to read the

Athens, restoring the Long Walls and the language which the orator permitted
fortifications of Peiraeus, and devising himself to use about Thrasybulus, his
large schemes, which extended from own benefactor, and still more painful
Asia Minor to Sicily, for the rehabilita- to reflect that, in his such
tion of the Athenian empire. It is quite language was calculated to further his
possible that this adventurous policy, cause before the Athenian dicastery.
devised by an oflBcer in the Persian Thrasybulus, he says, did tcell to die as
service, aided by a Persian satrap, and he did : for it was not fitting that he
only feasible by means of Persian ships shotdd live : neither was it fitting that he
and Persian gold, was unpalatable to should die at your hands, whom he is
Thrasybulus, and at the same time quite thought to have henefted somewhat in
eclipsed, in theminds of the Athenians, other days. The Scholiast's statement
his more sober and moderate counsels. ovTOS av6ahr)s koX Saipo^oKOS) vnepoirTijs &iv

It was a repetition of the rivalry of Tov Sij/iov, T^jSouAero 6t' avTov Travrn irpar-
Themistocles and Aristides some eighty TeaBai, may well have been based upon
yeai's b'efore. A year or two later some other speech made on this occasion,
Thrasybulus left Athens, with a fleet of and the final clause doubtless refers to
forty triremes, and seems to have done his standing aloof from the far-reaching
much good work along the coast of Asia schemes of Conon. opl^erai, like im-fpo-
Minor from Byzantium to the river pi'ffrat, means is banished (yirspapioT av rf

Eurymedon. Whilst his fleet was moored aTvedtivev would have been banished or put

in that river, he received an order re- to death, Aesch. against Ctesiphon, 253),
calling him and his colleagues to Athens though here it signifies banishment, not
to meet a charge of embezzlement but : from the territory, but from the counsels,
before he could obey the order he was of the state.
slain by the citizens of Aspendus, who
: ; ;

iSca (TK07ri<r6' eKacrro^ o ti tis KepSavei-

TO 8e KOivov &anip Afcrtfios KvXCvSfrai.

^v ovv efiol 7Tei6r]a-6e, awOrjcrecrO' en.

rais yap yvvai^l ^rj/il ^pfjvai ttjv ttoXlv 210
fjfiai napaSovvai. Kal yap kv rais oiKiai?

ravTais kniTpoirois Kal Ta/xtaia-i x/aco/^e^a.

FT. A. iv y , ev ye ff] Ai', ev ye- Xeye, Xey , myaOe.

nP. CBS S' eicj-lv r)p.S>v Toiis Tpoirovs PeXrioves
eya> SiSd^co. Trpmra jxev yap rdpta 215
^diTTOvai 6ep[iw Kara rov dp^aiov vofiov
aTra^dnaaai, Kov)(l fieTaTreipcofievas
lSois &v avrds. t] S Adrjuaicov rroXtf,

ei TTOV Ti ^(prjiTTms eT)(^ev, ovk av ecrdo^eTO,

el fjLT] Ti Kaivov dXXo irepieipyd^eTO 220

208. TO Koiv6v\ The commomvealth, the is described by tbe Scholiast as x'^'^os,

state. So TO 'ABrivaiap koivov, Hdt. ix. and oyLaBr)?, and if be deserved

117 Tbuc. i. 89. t6 koivov TJjr TroXeo)?,

; the two latter epithets, he can hardly
Plato, Laws, xi. 928 D Crito, chap, xi ; be the distinguished citizen of that
and frequently in the orators. The ex- name of whom Lysias speaks {Against
pression is frequently found in still Agoratus, 86, 87).
existing inscriptions and coins, T-o Koifov 211. ec rats oixmis] Lysistrata, as
TaKaraiV) Boeokh, Corpus Insc. Graec. Bergler observes, employs precisely the
4039. KOIVOV Afo-^lav on a coin struck in same argument for precisely the same
the reign of Commodus. See the "Greek purpose in the play bearing her name,
cities and islands of Asia Minor " by Mr. 493-5 :

Vaux of the British Museum. Aesimus

Lys. We will ourselves be the treasurers now.

Maq. You, woman, you be the treasurers ? Lys. Certainly.
Ah, you esteem ua unable, perchance !

Are we not skilled in domestic economy ?

Do we not manage the household finance ?

It is plain from these passages that the Scholiast and all the commentators
the wife had charge of the household should take Praxagora to mean " they
money, and managed the domestic ex- rinse their wools in boiling water "
penses. the Scholiast explaining ftawTova-i. by
216. ^ciTTTouo-t] It is surprising that riKivova-i, and the recognized Latin

Yet each man seeks his private gain alone.

So the state reels^ like any Aesimus.
Still, if ye trust me, ye shall yet be saved.
Imove that now the womankind be asked
To rule the state. In our own homes^ ye know,
They are the managers and rule the house.
iBt TjY. O good, good, good ! speak on, speak on, dear man.
Prax. That they are better in their ways than we
1^11 soon convince you. First, they dye their wools
With boiling tinctures, in the ancient style.
You won^t find f/iem, I warrant, in a hurry
Trying new plans. And would it not have saved
The Athenian city had she let alone
Things that worked well, nor idly sought things new ?

translation having always been "lanas tive policy to be pursued by the women
lavant aqua calida." For epia fiarrra are will be falsified by the event.
dyed wools, wools dyed by boiling them 219. ft 7T0V Tt] I have accepted Dobree's
in the liquid which was to give them suggestion of e'l but
TTOu Ti for el tovto,

the required colouring ; and pdwreiv epta I cannot accept his interpretation of it,
here can mean nothing else than to dye viz. " If anything had happened to be

their wools. "The best seaweed," says in the best possible order, the Athenians
Theophrastus (Hist. Plant, iv. 6. 5), " is would think the country could never be
found on the rocks of Crete, m ^amovaw saved till that was altered." Praxagora
epta." And in the eighth section of the is arguing that the women are the
same chapter, xpw'-H-"" V ^P^' "* pacjirjv safest persons to guide the fortunes of
ip'uov Tois yvvai^lv. All will remember Athens, because when they have got a
Plato's famous comparison, in the fourth good custom, they do not forsake it to
book of the Republic, of education with seek after novelties and she gives the

the process of dyeing, which commences homely instance of their treatment tcox
OvKovv OKrOa, ijv 6' ^y^j ort ol ^a(pis, e'piav. And would not Athens, she asks,
enfidav ^ovXtjdSxri fiayjrai epia Sxtt eivai be safe, if when she has anything which
oKovpyhj K.T.X. works well she did not idly seek some
217. /ifrajTcipw/ieyas] M^Ta^aivovaas, jie- novel substitute ? And so, I think, the
ra^aXKofUvas cmo Trpdyparos eh I7payp.a. Scholiast understood the passage : el

Scholiast. We
shall see by-and-by how e(pv\aTTe tov ap^aiov vdfiov, el fiq eno\u-
completely all forecasts of the conserva- Ttpayjudvei Koi Kaivas efjjepe TToXireios.
Kadrinevat (ppvyovaiy wanep Kai irpo rod-

enl TTJs KecpaXrjs (pepovaiv &crwip Kai npb tov-

TO. Qecr/jioipopi' dyovcriv mcmep Kai Ttpo tov-

TveTTOvai Tovs nXaKOVvTai &(nrep Kai irpo tov-

Tovs dvSpas kiTLTpi^ovcTiv axTirep Kai irpo tov-

/loi^cvs ^^(ovaiv euSov wcrrrep Kai irpo tov- 225
aiiTais uapo-'^aivovcnv Scnrep Kai irpo tov-

oTvov <f)ikova dj(<opov omnnp Kai irpo tov-

^ivovjievai )(aipovaLv axrirep Kai irpo tov.

TavTaicnv ovv, mfSpes, irapaSovTes Trjv voXlv
jirj irepi\aXa)/iv, nrjSe irvf6ava>fieda 230
Ti iroT dpa Spdv /xeXXovcriv, dXX dirXZ Tpoira
ewfj.ef dp-^iLV, (TKei^dfiivoi TavTi p-ova,
my Toiii a-rpaTicoTai irpmrov ovaai prjTepes
aoi^uv in6v/J.r]crovaiv- e'lTa aiTia
Ti9 T^s TeKovcTTji fidXXoy iirnrifiyjreiev dv ; 235
)(prjpaTa iTopl^eiv fvitop&TaTov yvvfj,
dpj^ovad T OVK dv e^airaTrjOfirj iroTi.

221. (^pvyouo-i] AeiVet TO Tpi'xaf. Scho- carriage. Herodotus, indeed, as Bergler

liast. "I will take my oath," says Le observes, mentions as one of the points
Fevre, " that the Scholiast wrote Kpidas." inwhich the Egyptians differed from all
And this suggestion, so emphatically other peoples, that, amongst them, to
recommended, is universally accepted. tixdea oi jih SvSpes inl tSc Kec^akiav cfiope-
222. fVt TTJs Kj)a\fis] They carry their ouo-i, at 6e yvvalKes tVi tS>v &p.<av. Hdt.
burdens (such as a pitcher or a basket) ii. 35.
not, after the manner of men, on their 223. nXaKoivTas] The name itXaKovs is
shoulders or in their hands, but poised contracted from ?rX(iKofir,Athenaeus tells
upon their heads. So the Kavrj(j)6pos bore us, like rvpoOs from rvpotis and trrjcrafiovs

the holy basket in the festal pomp; so the from a-rjo-afioeis : elprirm Se kot eXXei^w
Irish peasant girls may be seen to-day, tov apTos. Athenaeus, xiv. 51. It was
carrying their pitchers from the well. applied to a variety of rich cakes, which
The custom has always been affected by were composed of different ingredients
women, partly no doubt because it is and known specifically by different
known to lend to the female figure a names. A list of these is given by
singular elasticity and uprightness of Athenaeus in the succeeding chapters,
: : ;: ;


They roast their barleyj sitting, as of old

They on their heads bear burdens, as of old :

They keep their Thesmophoria, as of old :

They bake their honied cheesecakes, as of old ;

They victimize their husbands, as of old :

They still secrete their lovers, as of old :

They buy themselves sly dainties, as of old

They love their wine unwatered, as of old :

They like a woman's pleasures, as of old :

Then let us, gentlemen, give up to them

The helm of state, and not concern ourselves,
Nor pry, nor question what they mean to do
But let them really govern, knowing this,
The statesman-mothers never will neglect
Their soldier-sons. And then a soldier's rations,

Who who bare him ?

will supply as well as she

For ways and means none can excel a woman.

And there's no fear at all that they'll be cheated

where also several treatises wep\ nXa- from ordinary cakes: and the superiority
KoivTiov are incidentally mentioned. of the Attic irXaKovs was attributed to
Theywerewheaten (or sometimes barley) the superiority of the Attic honey. Athe-
cakes, flavoured with various rich sub- naeua (iii. 59) cites some lines to this
stances such as wine and oil and cheese ;
effect fi-om Archestratus, the laureate of

but honey seems to have been the special epicures

ingredient which distinguished them

Also a rich honey-cake

From Athens be sure that you get us
If it come not from thence you must take
Some honey obtained from Hymettus
To give it the flavour which makes
The Attic the proudest of cakes.

The same inference may be drawn from you, said he, that bees make their honey-

the answer of Demonax to one who asked combs for fools only ? Lucian, Demonax,
him if he ate nXaKoivras. What, think 52. And of. Athenaeus, x, chap. 70.
; ;

avToi yap iicnv k^anaTdv elOicrfiii'ai.

TO, S' d\\' edcrco- ravra koLv intOrjade fioi,

fvSai/iovovyre? roy ^tov Sid^ere. 240

FT. A. (5 y , m yXvKvrdtT] Upa^ayopa, Kai Se^ims.
TToOep, a> rdXaiva, ravT 'ijiaBis ovreo KaXms
IIP. ec rals ^vyais jXiTo. ravSpos mKticr kv nvKvi-
ineiT aKovova- k^k/iaOov twv prjTopaiv.
FT. A. ovK EToy dp , S> /xeX', rjcrOa Seivfj Kal ao<pri- 245
Koi (T crTparrjyov at yvvaiKfs avToQev
alpovpeQ , fjv ravO anivoHi KaTepyda-rj.
drdp fjv K.i^aX6s croi. XoiSopfjrai Trpoa<j)dapels,

240. Std^sTe] With these words Praxa- crowding of the country people into
gora lays aside her wreath, the re- the city at the commencement of the
hearsal is concluded, and the women Peloponnesian War (Thuc. ii. 17) and :

relapse into their ordinary style of con- this explanation is now generally ac-
versation. cepted. But besides the extreme im-
243. v rats <j>vyais] The Scholiast probability that a young woman like
refers these words to the banishments Praxagora should represent herself as
and proscriptions inflicted by the Thirty fleeing into Athens with her husband
and Dobree, concurring in this view, nearly forty years before, and having at
refers to Plato's Apology, chap, v, where that remote period acquired the rhe-
the Platonic Socrates, commending the torical powers which she is now for the
loyalty of Chaerephon to the democracy, first time putting into practice, it must
says ^vve(j)vye rrjv (pvyfiv ravrrfv, Koi ficO' be remembered that the greater part of
i/imv KaTijXSe and where Riddell cites
; the audience had probably been born
Isocrates de Pace 149, ras (j>vyai rin eVi since that date, and that even amongst
TOiV TVpdfVQiv Kai enl rav rpiaKovra yevo- the elder spectators the memory of those
fifvas. But the Scholiast's notion that distant days must have grown faint and
fugitives from the Thirty would en- dim in comparison with the momentous
deavour to conceal themselves by flock- events which had recently occurred at
ing to the Pnyx, one of the most public Athens. And in my opinion the flight
and exposed places in Athens, is ob- to which Praxagora
is alluding is the
viously untenable and beyond all ques-
; Athenians from the islands
flight of the
tion Praxagora is speaking, not of a and seaports into the city before the
general flight from Athens, but of a conquering progress of Lysander. We
general flight into Athens. Paulmier know that after his great success at
therefore refers the passage to the Aegospotami, he passed round the coasts


When they're in power, for they're the cheats themselves.

Much I omit. But if you pass my motion,
You'll lead the happiest lives that e'er you dreamed of.
1^' W. O, good ! Praxagora. Well done, sweet wench.
However did you learn to speak so finely ?

Peax. I and my husband in the general flight

Lodged in the Pnyx, and there I heard the speakers.
Yl. Ah, you were clever to some purpose, dear.
And if you now succeed in your designs
We'll then and there proclaim you chief tainess.
But what if Cephalus, ill fare, insult you.

and islands, and compelled all the Athe- the present passage that this Cephalus
nians he found, whether garrisons or united the callings of a demagogue and
private individuals, to return to Athens a potter : and he is doubtless the orator
on pain of death ; (TvufjXavvfv awavras els of that name who is mentioned by Ando-
TO (ia-TV, is Plutarch's expression (Ly- cides, Deinarchus, and Demosthenes.
sander, 13) ; ddais, says Xenophon, ort, The Scholiast indeed says he is not
0(70) av irKecovs cuXXcywo'ti' es ro acrrv Kat dijuayatyos ovtos erepoSj ov)^ op Xe-yft Ar]fio~
Tov Iletpata, daTTOV tcov iTTiTrj^eiaiv cVSetni/ a-devrjs, aX\a Xoi'Sopos ; but I doubt if he
cr<rdai (Hellenics, These streams
ii. 2. 2). had any ground for his assertion except
of fugitives converging from all quarters that the orator is praised by Demo-
into Athens must have brought about a sthenes. Yet so is Agyrrhius, see the
situation very similar to that of B.C. 431. note on 102 supra ; and apparently
immigration at the close, and
It is to this the two are coupled together by Plato
not to that at the beginning, of the Pelo- Comicus; see Plutarch's Praecepta Ge-
ponnesian War that Praxagora's state- rendae Reipublicae, iv. wpoa-<p6ape'is is

ment refers. always used in a bad sense. Dr. Blaydes

246. a-TpaTTjyov] And accordingly after aptly refers to Aelian (V. H. xiv. 26), who
her success in the Assembly, she is en- says that a railing poet iXoiSopelro the
titled (TTparriyos infra 491, 600, 727, and philosopher Arcesilaus, npoa-<pdap(\s oira.
arparriyis, 835, 870. So we are told that evil companions
248. Ke'^aXof] Now comes a little npocr(ji6eipovTai T<a veavttTKa whom St. John
scurrilous dialogue of twenty lines, criti- had committed to the charge of the Bp.
cizingsome little-known speakers, and of Ephesus "in the sight of Christ and
making sundry jokes which the audience His Church." Eusebius, H. E. iii. 23.
may have relished, but which have no The first two retorts of Praxagora napa-
interest for ourselves. We learn from (fipove^v avTov and fjeXayp^oXSv are con-
irm avTfpiis npos avTov kv rriKKXrjcria ;

nP. (j)rja-a) irapa^poveTv avrdv. FT. A. aXka tovto ye 250

laracTi irdvTes. IIP. dWa Kal fie\ay\o\dv.
FT. A. Koi TOVT 'i<Ta<Tiv. HP. dWa Kal ra rpv^Xia
KaKoas Kepafieveif, t^u Se iroXiv iv Kal KaXws.
FT. A. Ti S' , fjv NeoKXeiSrjs 6 yXd/imf ere XoiSop^ ;

nP. Tovrm jxkv etwov es kwo9 TTvyrju opdv. 255

FT. A. ri 8' , fjv iinoKpovoxTiv ae ; FTP. TrpotrKiprja-Ofiai,

dr ovK dmipos ovcra ttoXXSiv KpovfidTtoy,

FT. A. eKuvo jxovov dcrKeiTTOv, rjv a ol to^otui

eXKCoaiv, 6 tl Spdcren ttot. HP. e^ayKcofim
d)Si- fiecrr] yap oiiSeTTore XT](p6rj(T0fiai. 260
HMIX. rjfieis Se y, fjv aipaxr , kdv KeXevcrofiev.
FT. A. ravrl jxev fj/J.Ti' evreOvfirjTai KaXms,
eKeivo S' ov necppovTiKa/iev, otco Tponco

sidered insuflBcient, since they merely TvcjAns, but keener to thieve than those
mention facts which all the citizens who can see.
Plutus 665.
know. Praxagora therefore tries a third, 255. is Kvvos n-vy^w opav] Tlapoijiia nai-
viz. that he is a better politician than dlKTj CTTl TWf O^BoKpAOiVTUlV' eS KVVOS 7rvyf]v

potter. This they don't know, and her opav nai rpiHv aXanrfKav. Scholiast. If
questioner therefore, accepting this dnov is the correct reading seems to

answer, passes on to another subject. me that either the entire line must be
254. N60(tXei;)r 6 yXd/itac] 'K</ifi)SclTO a proverbial saying (cf. 772 infra and
ojff tTVKo<^dvTr]Si Kcti ^evos, Kal kKsttttjs. 6 the note there), or else Praxagora must
yXdfKov' 6 %)(a>v tovs ocfiBaXfjLOvs fiecTTOVs be speaking as if the actual assembly,
SiKadaprrias. Scholiast. It seems to be and not merely the rehearsal, were just
expected that he will take a prominent concluded. The use of the aorist in a
part in the Assembly, and he was prob- present signification (see Hermann's
ably therefore at this time one of the Viger, p. 734 Elmsley on Medea 266

regular speakers, rmv rjBdSav, there. Ac- Bp. Monk on Hipp. 1403) has no applica-
cordingly we find him the very first to tion to the present passage, where, on
speak in the debate, infra 398. In the the ordinary interpretation, an aorist
Plutus we see him lying in the Temple would be used in a future signification,
of Asclepius, hoping to be cured of his to my mind an impossible usage. Dindorf
blindness : he is there described as takes fiiTov to be an imperative, a sugges-

How will you answer him in full Assembly ?

Prax. I'll say he's frenzied. 1'* W. True enough ; but all

The world know that.

Prax. 1^11 say he's moody-mad.
1st yf Tjjgy know that too. Prax. That he^s more fit to tinker
The constitution than his pots and pans.
jBt -\^
j Neocleidesj blear-eyed oaf, insult you?
Prax. Teep at a puppy's iail, my lad, quoth I.

l=t -yy- ^ijat if they interrupt? Prax. Pll meet them there,
I'm quite accustomed to that sort of thing,
jst sff
o but suppose the archers hale you off.

What will you do ? Prax. Stick out my elbows, so.

They shan't seize me, the varlets, round my waist.
Semich. Aye, and we'll help we'll bid the men let go. :

1" W. Then that we've settled, wonderfully well.

But this we've not considered, how to mind

tion which, as Fritzsolie, who agrees with reverse, / will stick out my elbows, stand
him, truly observes (de Pelargis, p. 90), with my arms alcimho.
necessitates the transference of the line 261. tiv ai'pcoo-'] This line, which is

to the second woman. im- But it is usually given to one of the women on
possible to suppose that Praxagora the stage, I have transferred to the semi-
would have no remark whatever to chorus. If the archers lift her up bodily,
make with regard to Neocleides. a'ipacn, suhUmem rapiant, then, they say,
256. v-noKpovaai.v\ The speaker uses it will be OUR turn to act then we ;

the word in its common sense of "inter- will Do what? Fling ourselves into
rupting" an orator, cf. infra 588, 596; the fray ? Ply to your rescue ? Not
Ach. 38 Lucian, De Somnio, 17 but
; ; at all. We will bid them let you be.
Praxagora takes it in the sense it bears The last two words are used napa npoj-
infra 618, a sense continued in the xpou- doKtav. The emphatic rjfius at the com-
fidrav of the following line. Hence irpoir- mencement of the line gave promise of
KLvrjcrofiai, as in Lys. 227, 228. some stern and vigorous resolve, and no
259. e^ayKaviio] Neither the sense of one could have supposed that they were
the passage nor the composition of the going to act after the manner of a tragic
word will admit of the explanation given Chorus to utter helpless counsels and

by the Scholiast and Suidas, roiis dyKams unavailing admonitions and to leave
imo ToXs TrXevpms noirjira. It means the their leader to fight the battle by herself
Tas \ipas aipav iJ.ur]fiovevao/j,ev Tore.

eiOKTiiiuai yap kapiv aipetv Ta> crKkXr^. 265

nP. )(a\iTTov TO irpdyp' 6pa)S Se )(iipoTovriTiov
(^(opia-da-ais tov erepov ^pa-)(Jova.
dye vvv dvaarkWeaQ' dvca to. yiTrnvia-

inoSeicrOe S' dis rdxtcrTa r^y AaKatviKas,

axTTTip TOP dv8p e6ed<T6', St eh eKKXrjaiav 270
peXXoi ^aBi^eiv 77 Ovpa^ eKacTTOTe.

eireiT kneiSav TavTa ndfT e^^t) KaXm,

neptSeiaOe Toiis nooyaivas. fjviK dv Se ye
TovTovs uKpi^Zs rJTe nepirjppoapevai,
Koi OaipaTia TavBpeV dnep y eKXe^jraTe 275
eTTavaj3dXea-6e, KUTa TaTs ^aKTrjpiais
eTrepeiSopevai ^aSi^eT , aSovaai peXos
TTpea^vTLKov Ti, TOV TpoTTOv pipovpevai
TOV tS)V dypoiKdiv. FT. A. ev XiyeiS' ripels Se ye
npotccpev avTcav. Kal yap eTepas oiopai 280

264. TO? x^ipas alpeiv] The voting in we must discover which of them has got
the Assembly was by show of hands, it, for certainly one of the two has it ono-
and Kuster observes that the
X^i-poTovia, repos e;^ei tiJv (jiiaXriv, c)(i 8e TrdvTas 6
formula with which the Krjpv^ put the crtpor. If then we find it on the iirst,

question to the vote is preserved by the we shall not search the other tov hepov.
Scholiast on Aesch. Suppl. 629 'hparm for evidently he has not got it while if ;

Tas }(e~ipas, oTia ravra SoKei. With alpnv we do not find itOn the first, the other
Tu> a-KeXrj compare Lys. 229. The manner has certainly got it o crfpor iravras e^"-
of voting is clearly described three lines Here we are told that beyond all doubt
below, e^afuadaais tov crepov jBpaxiova, 6 (Tfpos (in the One sense) has it, and in

where erepoi/ of course means simply the same breath that whether 6 erfpor
"one," as in 162 supra, 498 infra, and (in the other sense) has it or not, depends
passim. The double signification of 6 upon the result of investigation. |<-
Tepos one of the two and the other is purda-ms is explained by the Scholiast
very neatly exemplified by a passage in axpi t&v aS/xmy yvpva(Tdam!.
Lucian'sHermotimus(37). If there were 268. ayf mv] Pvaxagora, turning to
but two men in the temple, says Hermo- the semichorus, gives them her final
timus, when the sacred cup was stolen, injunctions as to the manner in which

We lift our hands^ and not our feet, in voting.

We're more for lifting feet than lifting hands.
Prax. a knotty point. However we must each
Hold up one arm, bare from the shoulder, so.

Now then, my dears, tuck up your tunics neatly,

And slip your feet in those Laconian shoes.
Just as je've seen your husbands do, whene'er
They're going out, mayhap to attend the Assembly.
And next, so soon as everything is right
With shoes and tunics, fasten on your beards.
And when ye've got them neatly fitted on,
Then throw your husbands' mantles over all,

Those which ye stole ; and leaning on your sticks

Off to the meeting, piping as ye go

Some old man's song, and mimicking the ways
Of country fellows. 1"' W. Good but let ourselves !

Get on before them other women soon


they are to wear their husbands' clothes, "stout-hearted citizens singing one
and march off to attend the Assembly. song."
They are to gather up the long body- 280. Tvpotafiev airSi/] The semiohorus
robe, which being the husband's would are ready to start, and the first woman
probably be too long for the wife and ; says " Let us [that is, the three leaders]
over this to throw the himation or outer go on before them." Meineke strangely
mantle. They are to put on their hua- observes " Non apparet quo pertineat
bands' red Laconian shoes and tie their avraiv ;ad rusticas illas, dices, quas in
beards carefully round their chins, and sequentibus commemorat," and he pro-
then to start off, leaning on their sticks poses to amend the passage. I should
and singing in chorus some favourite not have supposed that any person of
old song. As we listen to her words, sound mind could have entertained so
we seem to catch a vivid glimpse of absurd an opinion as that which Meineke
the streets of old Athens in the early imputes to his readers had it not already
morning, with groups of citizens and been propounded by Lenting, who says
yeomen marching along them, some to " Eas mulieres dicit, quas mox dicit sese

the dicasteries (Wasps 219 and note credere ad forum venturas. Pronomen
there), and others to the Assembly, igitur airor, quod perraro fit, non ad
/c rw ayp&v is rfji' ttvkv fj^eiv avTLKpvs

yvvaiKai. IIP. dXXa (nrevcrad' , Ss e'tcod (KeT

Toti fifj Trapovaiv opdpiois ey rfju trvKva

VTra7roTpe)(^eii' 'lyovcn p.r]S\ iraTTaXov.
HMIX. &pa npo^aiveiv, &v8pes, ffiiiv eaTi- tovto yap \pr] 285
fiefivrjixeyas del Xtyfiv, o>? /xr] wot k^oXicrOrj,

rjp.as. 6 KifSwos yap ov)(l /UKpos, rjv dXmjxev

h'Svofj.evai Kara ctkotov ToXfnqpLa TrjXtKOVTOy.

ywpZjxiv eis kKKX-qcriav, rnvSpfs- rjTreiXrjcre yap

6 6ecrpo6kTr)s, os av 290

nomen quod praecessit eed ad sequens dramas. See Haigh's Attic Theatre, vi. 4.

referendum est." It is plain that both 289. x^P^H'^^ '^' '' ^*] Tovt' fort TO ^eXoy
Lenting and Meineke have altogether o ciTTev vdnv avralSf to aypoiKiKov.
failed to appreciate the proceedings Scholiast. The strophe, from x'^P^^H-^"
on the stage and in the orchestra. sung by the semichorus
to ovopa^eiv, is
281. tivTiK.pvs\ Straight to the Pnyx, whom Praxagora has just been instruct-
without coming to the rendezvous to ing, and who, as we have seen, represent
which the twelve city dames had re- the dwellers in the city. They are
sorted. They do, indeed, pass through following Praxagora and the two other
the theatre, but without stopping, enter- leaders to the Pnyx, and are chiefly
ing no doubt from the eastern side, anxious, as we might have anticipated,
as dn-o aypov, and leaving by the western to avoid all suspicion of being women
side, as to the town. See Haigh's Attic dressed up as men. Hence they call
Theatre, iv. 3. themselves by men's names, Charitimi-
285. Sipa -irpoBaivcLv] The first four des and the like, not alluding to any
lines,iambic tetrameter catalecties, are individuals of that name, any more than
spoken by the coryphaeus, as the semi- Praxagora was, when she called one of
chorus are about to move out of the her friends, Ariphrades, supra 129. The
orchestra. This is the only instance, in strophe consists of twenty-one lines,
these comedies, of what is called a the first being a compound iambo-
Mfrdo-T-acrts- segm. 108), that
(Pollux, iv. trochaic, very similar to that discussed
is to say, the temporary departure of in the note to Wasps 248, but with an
the Chorus in the middle of a play, additional syllable at the end. The
leaving the orchestra vacant till their other twenty lines are glyconic, fifteen
return. But it isfound in the Helen being acatalectic, and five (the fourth,
of Euripides, and some other tragic the ninth, the twelfth, the sixteenth,

Will come I know from all the countryside

Straight for the Pnyx. Pkax. Be quick, for ^tis the rule
That whoso comes not with the early dawn
Must slink abashed, with never a doit, away.
Semich. Time to be moving, gentlemen 'tis best we keep repeating !

This name of ours, lest we forget to use it at the Meeting.

For terrible the risk would be, if any man detected
The great and daring scheme which we in darkness have projected.
Song of the (town) Semichorus.
On to the Meeting, worthy sirs : for now the magistrate avers
That whoever shall fail to

and the twentieth) catalectic, or having strophe,where the sixth glyconic line
a syllable short. The acatalectic line ends with rpiw/SoXoy, and the seventh
consists of a long or short syllable, commences with a vowel, and another
followed by a choriamb and an iamb, in Peace 1351. It is possible however
^ - w.w II
The catalectic line that this licence is taken only at the
is the same, with the final syllable end of a paragraph, where there is a
omitted. The last syllable of the natural pause. For other examples of
catalectic line may be either long or the same metre, G-aisford (Hephaestion,
short, and so in my opinion, notwith- chap, xi, note) refers to Knights 1111-
Btanding the great authority of Dawes 50, Peace 1329 to the end, Birds 1731-
and Gaisford to the contrary, may, 41 and Frogs 450-8 and 456-9,
though very rarely, the last syllable 290. or aV] The omission of the ante-
of the acatalectic be. In other words, cedent to these words is of course very
though the last foot of the acatalectic common. Dawes refers to Peace 371
is almost invariably an iamb, yet a and Soph. Antig. 35, and I will add the
pyrrhic, w w, is not absolutely inadmis- commencement of the nineteenth Ode
sible. We have one instance in this very of Bacohylides,

ndpeffTi fxvpia KiKevffos

dfi^poffiwv jXiXiaiVj
hs hv TTapa TliepiSajy \d-
-XrjOi 5wpa Movaay.
Tea thousand diverse pathways
Of deathless lays belong,
To whom Pierian Muses
Have given the gift of song.

that is " to him to whom."


fifj npo) TTcivv rov Ki'i(povs
fjKT] KfKoyifievos,

arepyaiv aKopoSaXfirj,
^Xinaii' inroTpi/i/ia, /ifj

Saicreif to Tpiai^okov.
aXX , 0 li.apiTifiiSrj

Kal %niKv6e kol ApaKrjs,

fTTOv KUTeireiycov

aavTM Trpoae^oou, ottois

/j.r]Sev irapayopSiels 295

d)V S(T CT aTToSet^ar
OTTcos SI TO avp.Po\ov
XajSwrey 'irreiTa ttXtj-

atOL KaOiSoVfMiO , CBS

av ^eipoTovwfiiv
anavo onoa av oerj

Tas rjfj.eTepas ^tXay.

KaiTOi TL Xiyco ; (piXovs

yap )(pfjv /i ovo/id^eiv.

HMIX. B. opa 8 oTTCoy a)Orjcrop.ey TOvcrSe Tovi k^ daTfcos 300

ijKOVTas, o(roi npo tov
jxev, rjviK eSei Xa^eTv

292. aripyav crKopoSa\iir]yH86nsvos a-Ko- payment for attendance at tte eVitXijo-m

poSotf. Kal TovTo dypoiKiKov ifiifiaivii. necessitated the use of a ticket, which
Scholiast. And if the reading is correct was probably given to each ecclesiast
the meaning must be, as the Scholiast at the opening of the Assembly, and
thinks, satisfied with their garlic-pichle. on the production of which, after the
KeKoptfjiefos is explained by the Scholiast, Assembly was broken up, he would be
oJov crnouSd^uiv iravv Ka\ <r;^c86y Kovews paid the three-obol. But no particulars
neirXrjpafievos. And /3Xejra>i' virorpifipa of the subject are known,
means " with a vinegar aspect," inorpipfia 298. <pi\as] They have nearly con-
being a sort of vinegar salad. eluded their song, when they strike
296. a-ipPoKov] The introduction of their first wrong note (irapaxopSt^ovai),

Arrive while the dusk o the

Morning is gray,
All dusty and smacking o
Pickle and acid, that
Man shall assuredly

Forfeit his pay.

Now Charitimides,
Braces, and Smicythus,
Hasten along:
See that there fall from you
Never a word or a

Note that is wrong.

Get we our tickets, and
Sit we together, and
Choose the front rows.
Vote we whatever our
Sisters propose.
Our sisters My wits are gone gleaning
! !

Our " brothers," of course, was my meaning.

Song of the country Semichorus.

We'll thrust aside this bothering throng which from the city crowds along,
These men, who aforetime
When only an obol they

and the fatal feminine slips out. to TrrjXoipopovvTes. They had not been
800. Spa 8' oirms k.t.X.] Before the present at Praxagora's instructions, and
singers of the strophe, the yvvatKes i^ whether for that reason, or more pro-
a<TTa>s, have quite cleared out of the bably because Aristophanes was glad of
theatre, the erepai yvvaiKes ck tS>v aypmv the Opportunity for giving his own view
(supra 280-2) come swinging in, and of the institution of the TpiafioXov
apparently, at first, there is a little cKKkrjcnaa-TiKbv, there is not a word in

hustling between the two parties.The their song to indicate that they were
newcomers are also twelve in number, really womenin disguise. They come
and form the second semichorus, who in as honestand hearty yeomen, cast-
sing the antistrophe, from opa 8' ojrmy ing scorn on the town crew (the first
eXQovT ojSoXbv jjlovov,

KaOrjvTO XaXovvTiS
kv Tot's (TTe(f>avooiJLacnv

vvvl S' kvo-^Xova dyav.

dXX ov)(l, yivpmviSris
OT 'fjpx^v yivvdSa?,
ovSels av iToXfia
TO. Ti]i TToXems Sioi- 305
KfTv dpyvpLov (pipcoy

dXX fJKev eKaaros

ey dcTKiSio) (pfptov

TTLiLv a/xa T dpTOV av-

Kal Tpus dv iXdas.
vvvl Se Tpiw^oXov
^rjTOvai XaPtiv orav
irpaTTCocri tl kolvov &(t-

nep TT-qXocpopovvTiS. 310

semiohorus) who serve the state for obol was insufficient to bring them to
pay. the Pnyi
they preferred to lounge

302. ojSoXdi/] We have already seen and gossip amongst the wreaths, that
(on 102 supra) that the iKKXrjo-taa-Ti.Koi' is, in the wreath-market eV rois orei^aMB-
originally instituted by Agyrrhius was jxacrw. Dobree refers to the lines which
one obol only but after the loss of
; Athenaeus, xv. 82, quotes from the
their empire the Athenians grew so 'Ayafloi, a comedy attributed by some to

listless about public affairs that a single Pherecrates and by others to Strattis,
Kova&fiivoi hi irpo Xafiwpds ^^epas, ef
roti GTetpavajfuxCLV oi 6* iv T^i fxvfKp \a-
KuTe nept aiovfx^pioiv KoafioffavddKttjv t.

The last two substantives are the names of 8' enox^ova-' nyai/, from o^^os in the sense
plants. And cf.Thesm.448,Knights 1375 it bears infra 888, but not without an
and the note on Wasps 789. However allusion to the other sense of ox^os
all this apathy was changed by the Now they crowd in upon us too much.
introduction of the three-obol (KKXricnaa- Cf. Plutus 329.
TiKov. Noiv they are too troublesome pvv\ 303. MupmwSijr] Phormio and Myroni-

Got for their pay

Would sit in the wreath-market.
Chatting away.
Ah well, in the days of our
Noble Myronides
None would have stooped
Money to take for
Attending the Meetings, but
Hither they trooped,
Each with his own little

Goatskin of wine,
Each with three olives, two
Onions, one loaf, in his

Wallet, to dine.
But now they are set
The three- obol to get.
And whene'er the state business engages.
They clamour, like hodmen, for wages.

des, whose names are coupled in Lys. or rjpx^ei/, therefore, probably mean tvhen
801-4, seem to have been the favourite he was our commander, rather than
heroes of Aristophanes, in the times "when he was archon."
which followed the Persian Wars. 307. ap'""'"'''] -A- piece of stale bread,
Myronides it was who, about sixty-four two onions, and maybe three olives,
years before the date of this play (viz. The reader will remember the com-
about 457 b.c), led out an array of old mencement of the Acharnians, where
men and boys (too old and too young Dicaeopolis, prepared for a long session
for regular military service), and defeated of the Assembly, during which his in-
the Corinthians and their allies at tention is vTroKpoveiv, XoiSopelv rois
Megara : and who in the following year, prjTopas (cf. supra 248, 254, 256) if they
sixty-two days after the reverse at speak of anything but making peace,
Tanagra,vanquishedthe entire Boeotian brings with him an ample supply of
army at Oenophyta, and gained for a-KopoSa.

Athens a temporary ascendency over 310. TnyXo^opoCirey] Here, as in Birds

Boeotia, Locris and Doris. He was never 1142, the word is used of the lowest
the archon eponymus, and the words class of labourers who carry moiiar in
E 2

BA. Ti TO TTpdyna ; not noO' 17 yvvfj (ppovSt] 'art /loi

enei npos eco vvv y eaTiv, rj 8' ov (j>aiueTai,

iyw 8e KUTaKeL/xai iraXai ^(^e^rjTiaiv,

Tas e/x^dSas ^rjr&v Xa^eiv kv to ffKOTOi

Kal OoifxaTioy ore Sr] S' eKeivo y^rrjXacpmv 315

ovK eSvvd/iriy evpiiv, 6 S ^Srj rfjv 6vpav
eTTet^e Kpovcuv 6 KoTrpeaios, XaiifSdvco

tovtI to TT]i yvvaiKos ^/iiSinXoiSioy,

Kal Tas eKeifTj^ JJepa-iKas vcpeXKoiiat.
dXX' kv KaOapm ttov vov ns oLv y^iaas Tvyoi ; 320
rj navTayov toi vvktos kcrTiv kv koXZ ;

ov ydp fie vvv ^e^ovrd y ovSih oylreTM.

oifioi KUKoSaipcov, OTL ykpwv &v Tjy6p,rjv
yvvaty' ocras e'lfj! d^ios TrXrjyds XajSuv,
oil ydp Trod iiyies oiiSev k^eXrjXvdev 325
Spdaova. op.a>s 8' ovv kcTTiv dnonaTrjTeov.
A.N. r/y kdTLv ; ov 8rjTrov BXeTrvpos 6 yuTviSiv ;

their hods for the use of the bricklayers. husband's clothes: we now see her
With these words the women depart husband masquerading in hei's.

with quickened pulses to cany out their 817. 6 KoTrpfaior] BoiiXeTat ilirelv an
scheme and during their absence we
: on ^Trccyo/iijy dTrovraT^o-ai. Scholiast. As
are introduced to the husbands whom in Knights 899, he is playing on the
their leaders have left behind them. name of an actual Attic Deme, 01 Ko-
311. BAEIIYPOS] As the last notes of Trpeioi. Leake's Topography of Athens,
the singers die away in the distance, the ii. 189.
central door in the background opens 318. ^/^iSin-XoiSioi/] Gown. It is after-

and a singular figure makes its appear- wards called a and a

KpoKcoriStov (332)

ance ; a sturdy citizen, clad in a woman's x'''""' (374),and was a yellow body-
yellow robe, and wearing a woman's robe, reaching from the shoulder to the
slippers. He turns out to be Blepyrus, ground, and doubled down from the
the husband of Praxagora, reduced to shoulder to the waist. It was the inner
these extremities because his own gar- garment, which a woman was said iv-
ments have, as the spectators are aware, hiea-Oaiin contrast to the loose outer

been abstracted by his wife. We have mantle, called an tyKVKkov infra 536,
seen Praxagora masquerading in her which she was said nepi^aWfo-dm, to
; !


Blepyeus. What's up ? Where's my wife gone? Why bless the woman^

It's almost daybreak and she can't be found.
Here am I, taken with the gripes abed^
Groping about to find my overcloke
And shoes i' the dark ; but hang it, they're gone too :

I could not find them anywhere. Meanwhile

Easums kept knocking hard at my back-door
So on I put this kirtle of my wife's,

And shove my feet into her Persian slippers.

Where's a convenient place ? or shall I say

All are alike convenient in the dark ?

No man can see me here, I am sure of that.

Fool that I was, worse luck, to take a wife
In my old age. Ought to be thrashed, I ought
'Tis for no good, I warrant, that she's out

This time of night. However, I can't wait.

Citizen. Hey-day ! who's this ? Not neighbour Blepyrus ?

throw round her. The particulars of a in full sight of the whole audience,
woman's apparel are described in Thesm. 327. n'r eVrij/;] Another door opens,
249-262. The diminutives used in refer- and another husband comes out. The
enoe to Praxagora's robe are probably door is that which Praxagora "gently
designed to show how scanty it was scratched," supra 34, and the man is the
when worn by Blepyrus. husband of the second woman. He, like
319. Ilepa-iKds] See Clouds 151, Lys. Blepyrus, has been left in a destitute
229, Thesm. 734. nepo-ixai were the condition by the disappearance of his
special shoes of women, as AaKavt<a\ of ordinary garments but not having the

men. ywaiKmv
'idia vTroSruiara, UfpcriKai. same urgent reason for immediately
Pollux, vii. segm. 92. iwoSrifjidTmv elSos leaving his house, he has found time to
ywaiKeicov. Scholiast at Clouds 151. array himself in another tunic. He is

820. i> Kadapa] A place clear of people; therefore unprepared for the sight of
a retired place where I shall be out of Blepyrus,wrapped in Praxagora's yellow
the way of passers-by. The Scholiast robe, and is at first disposed to think

explains it by ev iprjixia. The words that Cinesias, notorious for having be-
oi6eiso\//-eTai two linesbelow are of course fouled a shrine of Hecate (Progs 366
intended for a joke, Blepyrus being and the note there), had performed

vfi rbv At' avTos Sfjr iKeivos. dire, fioi,


K.ivr](Tias CTOV KaTaTeriXrjKey noBev ; 330

BA. ovK, dWk TTJs yvvaiKos i^eXrjXvOa
TO KpoKMriSiou dix7rL(T\6fi,evos, owSveTai.
AN. TO 8' tfiaTiov (Tov TTOV
(TTiv, BA. OVK 'e)(<o (ppdcrai.

^riToav yap avT ov)(^ evpoy kv roty <TTpa>iiacnv.

AN. e'r ovSe T-qv yvvaiK (KeXeva-ds <roi (ppdcrai 335

BA. fia TOV At"- OV yap evSov ovaa Tvyydvn,

aXX' eKTeTpvTTTjKei' Xadovcrd p. kvSodey

8 Kal SiSoiKa firj tl Spa vecoTepov.
AN. vfj TOV TloaeiSa, TavTo, tolvvv dvTLKpvs
e/iol ireTTOvdai. Kal yap rj ^weip, kya> 340
(PpovSt] Vt', 'iyovaa OoLpdrtov ovycb <p6povv.
Kov TOVTO XvTrei p , dXXa Kal ray epjSdSas.

ovKovv Xa^eiv y avTo.'s kSvvdprjv ovSapov.

BA. pa TOV Aiovvcrov, ovS' eym yap ras (pas
KaKcaviKOLS, dXX' coy eTV^ov ^e^rjTLOiv, 345
ey TO) Kouopvm too ttoo ivoeis uprjv,

the same operation on the person of in strictness means " to bore one's way
Blepyrus. out through some hole or cranny." The
333. ifidTtov] The ifidnov was of course owith which the following line com-
to be thrown over, and not to form a mences is equivalent; as Kuster observes,
substitute for, The
the rjfudm-XolSwv. to Sl' 6, wherefore. With that line itself
man's and inariov corresponded
;(n-a)i/ Brunck compares Eur. Med. 37 SeSoiKa
to the woman's KpoKCoros and eyKU/cXoi^. 6' aurryi', firj TC liov^evr] viov.

Praxagora had abstracted both the 340. ^ ^iveifi e'ya] So the husband of
former articles, and left the latter in the second woman describes his wife,
their stead. Her KfioKioros was now and so in line 88 supra she had described
adorning her husband's person her ; him & ^wsifj.' e'-yto. The coincidence of
eyKVKKov had been thrown over his bed, phrase is noticed by Bergler.
infra 536. 342. kov tovto Xuttci] " Subauditur jud-

337. fKTO-fjuTTjjKfc] Aadpa f^rjXdev. vov, cujus frequens est ellipsis. Mox
Scholiast; and so in substance Hesy- 358, plena phrasis est, ovSe toUto fie
chius. Tpvnrjfia is a hole, and cKTpvnow Movov to \\j7touv icrriv, aXKa k.t.X."


Sure and it's he himself. Why tell me, man,

What's all that yellow ? Do you mean to say
You've had Cinesias at his tricks again ?

Blbp. No, no ; 1 wanted to come out, and took

This little yellow kirtle of my wife's.

CiT. But where's your cloke ? Blep. I've not the least idea.

I searched amongst the clothes, and 'twasn't there.

CiT. Did you not ask your wife to find the thing ?
Blep. I didn't. No. For why ? She wasn't there.

She's wormed herself away out of the house

Some revolution in the wind, I fear.

CiT. O by Poseidon, but your ease is just
The same as mine. Mi/ wife has stolen away,
And carried off my cloke. And that's not all,
Hang her, she's carried off my shoes as well
At least I could not find them anywhere.
BijEP. No more can I : I could not anywhere
Find my Laconians : so my case being urgent,

I shove her slippers on, and out I bolt

Brunck. With rns e/i/3dSas we must /cai, and the like. See the note on Wasps
repeat 'ixo^Ta from the preceding line. 1163. And the Wasps 1157
contrast in
345. KanavLKas] " Atqui supra 314 dice- is not between f/i^aSor and AaKcovixas,
bat Tcts i/jipaSas (rpaiv. Distinguuntur but between tus Karapdrovs ifiPaSas " the
autem hac duo clare in Vespis 1157 aye infernal shoes " which the old man was
vvv OTToSvov Tas Karapdrovs ('ix^dSas, rnirlil wearing, and rds AaKcovLKas i/xffdSai " the
S'dvva-asvTroBudirasAaKavtKds." Bergler. fashionable red shoes " with which his
But this is an error, such as we rarely son was endeavouring to invest him.
find in the notes of that excellent com- In this very play the words f/xj3aSfs and
mentator. For although the word ffx- AaKcovtKa'i are incessantly interchanged :

(SdSer, standing alone, generally signifies see lines 47, 74, 269, 314, 342, 345, 508,
common, ordinary shoes, si,ain{i-a.6SS, 850, and 542. Luoian (Pseudologista, 19)
&c.(fiTeXest;7r<i8>)/ja, Pollux, vii.segm 85), speaks of an ostentatious personage as
yet it is also a generic term, and is in wearing xP"'''^^ efi^ddas kuI fV^ijra rv-

truth the very substantive understood pawiKTjv.

with such feminines as AaKa>vi<a\, Tlepai-

, ;

'Iva fiTj 'y^ecrcu/J.' es ttjv aiavpav (pavfj yap rjv.

AN. Ti SfJT av f'l'rj

pSav kn dpicrrov yvvr]

KeKXrjKev avTr]v Tmv (piXcov ; BA. yvco/jLTiu y ep.riv.

ovKovv nourjpd y ecrTiy 6 ti Kap, elSivai. 350

AN. aXAa ai) pev ipovidu tlv aTronaTeis- kpol S
copa ^aSt^eiv kaTiy eh eKKKr^criav

fivnep Xd^oo Bolpdriov, oirep r}v poi povov.

BA. Kaywy , eTteiSdv dTroTraTrja-O)- vvv Si poi
d^pds Tis kyKXdcraa 'i)(ei to, aiTia. 355
AN. pwy fjv QpacTv^ovXos eirre tois AaKccviKoTs

347. o-KTvpav^ To fiaWtarov (npSma, bour had said " I am going to the As-
<pai'r} fie XajXTrpa, Ka6apa, Scholiast. sembly " instead of " It is full time for
349. yv(i>p.rjv y e/XTjv] Qlov Kara tt]v efMijv me to go."
yvajfjLrjv Koi o'Lr)iTi.v. Scholiast. Cf. Wasps 355. axpds] The Scholiasts say, ariva-
983 (and the note there), Peace 232. <riv TT/ yacTpl napc^ftf eire^et rfjv yafrrepa rj

And with 6'

tl Kcip.' el8evaifor aught I know axpds. Galen too notices its astringent
in the next line compare Clouds 1252, qualities, dxpdbes (rTv(pov(TL ixdWov rav
Thesm. 34. aXXcBc he says De Simplicibus

351. Ifioviav awo7raTis] Funeni cacas. Medicamentorum facultatibus, vi. 1. 52.

Tovra Be Xeyet, says the Scholiast, us The dxpds is the wild pear, the fruit of
avTOV fxaKpa aTroTrarovvTos Kat )(e^ovToi. the wild pear tree, which is called by
Some have supposed that l/ioviav is to Linnaeus, and generally since his time,
be taken adverbially, on the ground pirus communis, but was formerly called
that SmoTraTelv is an intransitive verb. also pii-us achras. The tree itself was by
But verbs of the class to which otto- the Greeks called indifferently ax^phos
TraTeiv in Greek and " to spit " in English (dxpas, 6 napjTos Tfjs dxepSov, Bekker's
belong are intransitive only when the Anecdota, i. 475 ; Leake's Topography
accusative which would follow is in- of Athens, ii. 185) or dxpds. The latter
volved in the verb itself; as anoji-aTelv form is invariably adopted by Theo-
[aTTOTTaro!/] and "to spit [spittle]." But phrastus, who in his History of Plants
when what you dnoTraTcls is not ajrovrai-or, isconstantly contrasting the dxpds with
or what you spit is not spittle, an accusa- the an-ioj or garden pear, just as he does
tive is properly added, as anoTt-aTdv ifio- the ipivebs with the o-uxij (the wild and
viai/or "to spit blood." Blepyrus explains the cultivated fig tree) and the kotivos
in his answer that his neighbour has mis- with the (\aia (the wild and the culti-
taken the cause of his protracted session. vated olive tree). Thus in i. 8 he notes
354. Kayatye] He speaks as if his neigh- that the wild tree has more branches

For fear I soil my blanket ; ^twas a clean one.

CiT. What can it be ? can any of her gossips
Have asked her out to breakfast ? Blep. I expect so.

She's not a bad one : I don't think she is.

CiT. Why, man, you are paying out a cable : I

Must to the Assembly, when I've found my eloke.

My missing cloke : the only one Fve got.

Blisp. I too, when eased ; but now an acrid pear

Is blocking up the passage of my food.

CiT. As Thrasybulus told the Spartans, eh ?

than the cultivated tree, olov kotivos anavBas, hi S>v ai alpiaa-ial (thorn hedges)
iXalaSj Knt ipLveos (rvKrje, Koi a^pas a-rriov. yifoiirai. It is unlikely that Blepyrus is

And he brings forward the same six alluding to this use of the vrild-pear
trees in iv. 13 as illustrations of the tree : without any allusion of this kind,
greater longevity of the wild species. the word has the double recommenda-
In i. 4 he observes that the fruit of a tion of introducing the reference to
wild tree is superior in quantity, but Thrasybulus, and permitting the forma-
inferior in quality, to that of the culti- tion of the deme-name 'Axpahova-ios.
vated, and he instances the kotivos and 356. epaa-v^ovXos] The Scholiast tells
the dxpds. Again in ii. 2 he says that us that Thrasybulus had promised to
trees propagated by slips retain their speak against a proposed treaty with
quality, but those propagated by seeds Sparta, but being bribed by the Spar-
degenerate, as ek tSiv aTriav [ipCerai.] po)(- tans excused himself on the ground of
B-qpa 17 axpds. "The wild-pear tree, the a sudden indisposition brought on by
mother of all the orchard and garden eating wild pears ; nvros avTL\eyeiv fifWav

varieties, is thortiy,'" as is observed in to'ls AaKdiufjiovLa)v irpeu^itji Trepl CTTTOvficoi/

Miller and Martyn's Gardener's Dic- iXr]Kv66<TiVj eira hapodoKtjo-aS) axpddas Trpotj-
tionary, s.v.pyrus. And its thorny shoots TT0ffj(raT0 /Se^pcoKeVat, Koi fifj bvvacrOai

were by the ancient Greeks wattled into Xiyeiv. But it is plain from the language
fences and sometimes placed as a coping of Aristophanes that the Scholiast has
on walls, to prevent any clambering over got hold of the wrong end of the story ;

from within or without. Thus, in Odyssey and that Thrasybulus was excusing him-
xiv. 10 Eumaeus is described as having self to the Lacedaemonians for having-

built a stone wall and coped it with broken his promise to them. It seems
wild-pear branches, koi idpiyxaa-fv a^^p- probable that this incident occurred in
gm where the Scholiast explains axepSa
connexion with the Anti-Spartan League.
by rrj aypia drria, and adds exovari 8e avrai Thrasybulus may at first have agreed to

BA. vfj Tw Aiofvaoj/, kv^yiTai yovv fioi cr<f)6Spa.

drap ri Spdcro) ; kol yap ovSi tovto fie

fiovov TO XvTTovv kuTiv^ dXk oTav (pdyca,

OTTOi jBaSieiraL p.oi to Xoittov rj Konpo^. 360

vvv p.\v yap ovtos ^efiaXdvaiKe Tr]v Ovpav,
ocTTis TTOT 'icTT , di/dpcoTTOi A)(paSovcno?.
TLS civ ovv iarpov jxol jUTeXQoL Kal Tiva ;

Tis tS)v KaTaTTpwKTcav Seivos kcrTi Tr]v Te-^vqv ;

dp oiS AfivvcDv ; d\\ araiy dpvrjcreTaL. 365

AvTta-6iprjv Tis KaXeadrco rrdarj Teyvr).
OVTOS yap dv-qp ei/eKa ye cmvayiidTwv
oiSey Ti TrpooKTos ^ovXeTai ^e^rjTi&u.

to TTOTVL Y,L\ei6via, jxrj fie TTepiiSijs

SiappayevTa ftrjSe Pe^oXavcdixevov 370

ha /j.fj yivwfiai a-Kcopafiis KCOfioiSiKrj.

speak against the alliance with Thehes ;

no more special reference to Thrasy-
but afterwards, "whether bribed, or (which bulus here than it had thirteen lines
is more consonant with what we know above.
of his character) being on consideration 362. 'A.xpa8ov(rios] The name is of
doubtful whether the alliance might not course formed from the word axpas used
be for the best interests of his country, above ; but like KoTrpfaror, supra 317, it
he did not deliver his speech, and gave comes close to the name of a real Attic
to the disappointed Lacedaemonians the deme, the 'A_;(ep8oijcrio[. See Leake's
excuse which is mentioned in the text. Catalogue of the Demi, Topography of
The neighbour now goes out, and Ble- Athens, ii. 185. The deme is mentioned
pyruSjleft alone, resumes his interrupted in many inscriptions and by several
soliloquy. ancient writers. To the list given by
357. ej/e;;^rat] Oloi/ eirUftTai Kcil dXilSft.. Leake may now be added Aristotle's
Scholiast. Pritzsohe (Quaestiones Aris- Polity of Athens, chap. 38, where Pro-
toph. p. 236) thinks that in this place fessor Bywater's conjecture of 'Ax^p-
" Blepyrus per Dionysum jurat facetis- 8ov(Ttos for 'A^fpSous uios is no doubt
sime," since Thrasybulus in Pritzsche's correct. Here the Scholiast says 'Axpa-
opinion had a brother named Dionysus. dovcTLOs' napa rrjv dxpdda' efrrt de dijfjLos

But there would be no point in an allu- TTJs liTTTodooiVTlSos (pvXrjs 'A;^6pSou?.

sion of this kind and to me it seems
; 364. tS>v KnTOTrpaiKTaiti] So the best
obvious that the oath by Dionysus has MSS. and almost all the editions : but


Blep. By DionysuSj but it grips me tight,

And that's not all : whatever shall I do ?

For how the food I am going to eat hereafter

Will find a passage out, I can't imagine ;

So firm and close this Acridusian chap

Has fastened up its pathway to the door.

Who'll fetch a doctor, and what doctor, here ?

Which of the pathicks knows this business best ?

Amynon knows : but perhaps he won't admit it.

Fetch, fetch Antisthenes, by all means fetch him.

He's just the man (to judge f]-om his complaints)
To know the pangs from which I'm suffering now.
Great Eileithyia, let me not remain
Thus plugged and barricaded, nor become
A public nightstool for the comic stage.

the reading of one inferior MS. tS>v Kara lieved to be addicted.

npaiKTov has found favour with several 367. o-Tcj/ay/iaTcov] " Quia nimirum
very eminent scholars as referring to inter cacandum difiiculter egerat," says
doctors who had made a special study Bergler. And cf. 806-808 infra.
of the diseases affecting that particular a TioTvi EtXeWuia] He speaks as
portion of the human body. But even if he were a woman in travail (Lys. 742),

if any such reference was intended, and his prayer seems to have been im-
I cannot doubt that we ought to read mediately answered. eVei al wSivova-ai
KaTawpaiKTav, the two persons introduced emKuXoiivTai, Trjv El\fi6viav, Kal airos ovv

in the succeeding lines being notorious (TTevox<i>povficvo$ 71 LKaXeiTai avTTjv. Scho-

for the vice which that word implies liast. In Latin the phrase would be, as Le
just as in the translation the term Fevre remarks, " Juno Lucina, fer opem,
" pathick " might include an allusion obsecro." Terence, Andria, iii. 1. 15.

to allopathies, homoeopathies, hydro- 371. ffKcopaixis] ^Afiis piv, iv w ovpovtrt'

pathics, &c. The Scholiast describes tTKcapapis Se, iv a diroiraTovo'L, Scholiast.

Amynon as a prjTmp fjTaiprjKms, and Anti- A a-Koipapis was, as its name implies, an
sthenes as an larpos dijKvSpmSrjs, Kal ovtos, adapted for the reception of a-Kmp.

he adds, tS>v From the

KnTairpiiKTav. It had no doubt a plug, which, when

word api/rjucTai we may perhaps infer kept in, prevented, and, when removed,
that Amynon had repudiated all know- permitted, the passage of the crxSp. In
ledge of the vice to which he was be- this consisted its resemblance to Ble-
60 EKKA H S I A Z O T :S A I
XP. odros, Ti TTOteh ; ov ti ttov x^e^eis ; BA. eyco ;

ov SfJT 'in ye fia tov At' , aXX dviarajiai.

XP. TO rfjs yvi/aiKoi S ajiweyei ^(ltcoviov ;

BA. eV TiS (TKOTO) yap tovt 'irvyov evSop Xa^mv. 375

drap w66ev rjKeis ereof ; XP. e^ eKKXrjaias.

BA. i]Sri XeXvTai yap ; XP. i/fi Ai , opOpiov fikv ovv.

Kal SfJTa TToXijv rj fxiXros, <5 ZeO (piXrare,

yiXcov 'TTapecr^ev, fjv irpoaippaivov kukXco.

BA. TO Tpim^oXov SrJT 'iXajSfs ; XP. el yap axpeXov. 380
dXX' vaTepos vvv rjXdov, mcrT ai(T)(vvo/xai,
fia TOV Ai' oiiSev dXXo y rj tovSI <f)epcov.

BA. TO 8' airiov ti; XP. irXelaTOS dvQpainwv oyXoi,

oaos ovSeTrmTTOT ,
yX6 dOpoos ey Trji/ irvKva.

Kal SfJTa vdvTas crKVTOTo/xoti rjKd(ofiev 385

opZvTe? avTOVS. ov yap dXX VTrep<pvS>s

toy XevKonXrjOfis rjv ISeiv rjKKXricria-

&(TT ovK eXa^of ovt aiiTos ovr' dXXoi crvyvoi.

BA. ov8 dp &v kycb Xd^oifii vvv eXOtov ; XP. noOev ;

pyrus, the axpas, in his case, operating ruddle [rubrica Smopica), which was
as the plug. Cf. supra 360. smeared on a rope for the purpose
372. XPEMH2] The misfortune of mentioned in the text. The a-xoiviov
Blepyrus has detained him so long, that fiefiiXriofievov, and its employment, are

the Assembly is over before he is ready well known from Ach. 21, 22, where the
to start for it. And aow Chremes, his citizens are described as dodging up
other neighbour (see 127 supra), return- and down the agora to avoid it. These
ing from its proceedings, finds him still matters were under the control of the
in his wife's clothes and still in a dis- Xri^iapxoi or registrars, oi Xri^iapxoi, says
tressing condition. For the force, in Pollux, viii. segm. 104, tow ftfj ckkXtj-
the following line, of avlara^ai in this (Tid^ovTas i^riiilovv' Ka\ axoivloi/ /xiXro)-
connexion, see Frogs 480, 490. cravres, tia tS>v to^otSiv (rvvrjKavvov tovs in
378. 1} fiikros] Kara yap rfjv dyopav eVd- rr\s ayopds els Tqv eKKKT}(TLav.
^ovv eh cKK\i]tTiav Toiis 'Adqvaiovs /ie/jiXra)- 380. t6 Tptft>/3oXoi'] The iKK\rjcria(TTiK6vj
liiva (Txoivla. npocreppaivov 8e, Trpotrt- which, as we have
more than already
^akov. Scholiast. fiiXros is red earth, once been told, was the main induce-

Cheemes. Taking your ease, good neighbour? Blep. No, I^m not.
"Tis true I have been, but I-'ve finished now.
Che. O, and you-'ve got your lady^s kirtle on !

Blep. ^Twas dark indoors : I caught it up by chance.

But whence come you ? Che. I^m coming from the Assembly.
Blep. What, is it over ? Che. Aye, betimes to-day.
And O, dear Zeus, the fun it was to see
The way they spattered the vermilion round.
Blep. Got your three-obol ? Che. No, not I, worse luck.
I was too late : I^m carrying home, ashamed,
This empty wallet : nothing else at all.

Blep. Why how was that ? Che. There gathered such a crowd
About the Pnyx, you never saw the like ;

Such pale-faced fellows ;

just like shoemakers
We all declared ; and strange it was to see

How pallid-packed the whole Assembly looked.

So I aad lots of us could get no pay.
Blep. Shall I get any if I run ? Che. Not you !

ment for the citizens to attend the successful. They are likened to shoe-
Assembly. makers because the latter, from their
382. TovSi ^ipa]i\ He points to his indoor occupation, escaped the em-
empty BvXaKov. I have substituted these browning influence of Hellenic sun-
words for the t6v diXoKov of theMSS. shine ; ineidr] ol (TKVTOTOfioi, says the
and editions, which in my opinion was Scholiast, eV trKta KaB^^op^^voi epyd^ovrai,

originally a gloss on rovSi, and has crept TovTo efpT]. The Scholiast on Peace 1310
into the text, usurping the place of rovSl (to which Dr. Blaydea refers) cites a
(jjipav, and destroying the sense of the proverb ovdev XevKwv dvdpcov epyov el firf

passage. Bergler refers to Wasps 300- <TKVTOT0p.ilv,

315. 387. \-uKoiikr]dj]i\ Filled with white;

384. a6p6os] All keeping together, -in a play on the compounds invented by
one body. These of course are Praxa- tragedians. " Cur XevKnnXrjBqs videbatur
gora and her friends, whose efibrts to concio?" says Bergler, "nempe quia
acquire a sunburnt appearance (supra erat yvvaLKoiT\r)6rjs, ut loquitur Aesch. in

64) seems to have been remarkably un- Pers. 125 and Eurip. in Ale. 951."
62 ekkah:Siazot^ai
ovS' d fia Ata tot rjXOes, oTe to S^-urepov 390
aXeKTpvcou k^QeyyeT . BA. oipoi SeiXaioi.

'AvTiXoy^- dnotpco^ov fie tov Tpico^oXov

Tov (5)VTa pdXXov. Tapa yap Sioi^eTai.

UTap TL TO npdyp' rji/, on to<tovtov xpfjp 6)(Xov

ovToos kv Sipa ^vviXiyr] ; XP. tl S' dXXo y rj 395

eSo^e toTs rrpvTayea-i TTfpt acoTrjpias
yvcopas KaOeivai Trjs woXicos ; /car' evdecos

irpSiTos NeoKXet'Srjs 6 yXdpcov irapeipTrva-ey.

KaweiO' 6 Srjpos dva^oa noaov SoKeis,
oil Setpd ToXpdv tovtovI SrjprjyopiLV, 400
Koi TavTa mpl acoTrjpias npoKupivov,
05 aiiTos avTcp ^XetpapiS ovk edcoaaTO ;

6 S' dva^orja-as Kal wepL^Xe-^jras ecpT]-

Ti Sai p' e)(^pfjy 8pdv ; BA. crKopoS opov TpiyfravT owm

390. TO bevTpov\ After all it must be the interrogative Tr66ev ; used as a nega-
admitted that a man can exaggerate tive (How should you ?), see the note on
quite as well as a woman ; supra 33. 976 infra.
For we, who are in the secret, are well 392. 'AvriXox' . . . liSKXov] These (with
aware that the women, who seem to the substitution of re^rijxoros for rpiai-

have been the earliest arrivals at the ^oXou) are the words addressed (in the
Pnyx, did not leave the very spot at Myrmidons of Aeschylus) by the sorrow-
whioh the present dialogue is taking ing Achilles to the messenger who had
place until long after the cock had given brought him the tidings of his comrade's
its second crow. See supra 31. For death.

'AvTiKoXj anoifxai^ov /ic tov t6vt]k6tos

Tdv ^ttlvTa fidWov.
Weep, Antilochus,
Eather for me, the living, than for him,
The loved and lost Patroolus.

The Scholiast ends the quotation with mann think, or are added by Aristo-
fiaWov. Whether the three following phanes to complete the line, it is im-
words rnfia yap Stoi^j^frtu (dvrX tov otto- possible to determine with confidence.
XmXn, Scholiast) are really a continua- These lines of Aeschylus were probably
tion of it, as Brunck, Porson, and Her- in the mind of Euripides when, in

Not had you been there when the cock was giving
Its second crow. Blep. O weep, Antilochus,
Rather for me, the living, than for him,
The loved and lost three-obol. All is gone !

Whatever was it though that brought together

So vast a crowd so early? Che. 'Twas determined
To put this question to the assembled people,
" How best to save the state/'' So first and foremost
Came Neocleides, groping up to speak.
And all the people shouted out aloud,
W/iat scandal that this hlear-eyed oaf, who cannot
Save his own eyesight for himself, should dare
To come and teach us how to save the state.

But he cried out, and leered around, and said.

What's to he done ? Blbp. Found garlic up with verjuice,

Phoenissae 1654, lie makes Antigone, after the mutual slaughter of her two
brothers, exclaim

ujs a^ ffTi/a^co tSjv TiOvjjKorwv -nKiov,

396. TTep\ (Toyrriplas] '

How to save the seems to have been a sort of ulcer or
city.'' See the first sentence of the tumour (cf. Clouds 327) filling the eyes

Areopagiticus of Isocrates, and Aris- with an offensive rheum, whence it is

totle's Polity of Athens, chap. xxix. 2. sometimes described as rav otpdaXfjiav

398. NokXci8i;s] The first to ascend oKtidapa-ia. Scholiast at Lys. 301, Hesy-
the bema is Neocleides 6 y\dfi.a>v. We chius s.v., and see note on 254 supra,
have already heard of this worthy as a The three ingredients are garlic, fig-tree
speaker in the Assembly, supra 254. juice,and spurge. Cf. Plutus 718, 719.
Here he is introduced merely to be Garlic is recommended by Galen (De
dismissed with a jest. Kemediis parabilibus, i. 5) as one of the
404. (TKopnd'] Neocleides, I suppose, ingredients of a plaster, KaTairXaa-fj-a, for
meant '
What must I do to save the diseases of the eye, it being, as Miller
state ? '
Blepyrus would answer him and Martyn (Gardener's Dictionary) say,

as if he meant What must I do to cure

' very heating and penetrating, and useful
my disease ? ' and accordingly proposes in suppurating hard tumours. Of onbs
a remedy which was probably in actual the Scholiast says, -navv yap hpijiiraTos
use at that time for cases of Aij/ai;. 'kruirj 6 ottos. By the Greek medical writers
TiSvjiaWov kfi^aXovra tov AaKcovtKov 405
aavTov TrapaXeicpetv to. ^Xecpapa rfji iaTrepa^,

eycoy Slv (Ittov^ et irapwv kTvyyavov.

XP. /zero; tovtov Kvaicov 6 Sf^tdoraTOS
TrapfjX6e yvfivos, a>s eSoKei toTs nXnocnv
avTos ye nivrovcpaaKev Ijioltiov e^eCj 410
KUTTeiT eXe^g SrjfiOTiKMTaTovi Xoyovs'
opdre jJLev /le Seo/iei/Of aaiTrjpia?

TiTpacnaTrjpov Kavrov aXX' o//0)y ep<S

o)? TT)v TTokiv Kal Toiis iroXiras (rcotrere.

fjv yap Trapi'^caai toTs SeofieuoLS ol Kfacpijs 415

)(Xaivas, eireiSav npcoTov rjXtos Tpanfj,

OTTOS is used to signify the juice of any Martyn, "The juice of every species of
plant, but in classical authors it is spurge is so acrid that it corrodes and
specially employed of the juice of the ulcerates the body wherever it is ap-
fig tree. See the note on Wasps 353. plied : so that seldom used in-
it is

"Verjuice," by which I have translated ternally. Externally it is dropped on

it, is the juice of the crab apple, ffkeirav warts and corns to remove them, and in
oTvbv isused in Peace 1184 in the sense the hollow of a decayed tooth to remove
of "with a verjuice look." ridifiaWos, the pain by destroying the nerve." Suidas
euphorbia, our spurge, is described in describes TidvpaKXos as eiSos jSordvi/s 8pi-
precisely the same manner by Greek fivTaTTjs, Trapa AaKOKTiv evpicTKop^vr^s, And
doctors and English botanists. tlBv- the Scholiast here says rjv bia^6i)Tos 6

fiaWoi TTiiiTEs-, says Galen (De Simpli- AaKoivLKos TidvpaWos, These eye-plasters
cibus Medicamentorum facultatibus, were rubbed on the eyelids, Trfpi^pio/jfi'
viii, 19. 7) i7T iKpaTOvaau ^ev '4-)(ov(TL ttjv ra fi\e(papa, says Galen, De Rem. par.
dpifie7av Kal Oepfxrjv hvvnpiv* virapx^t- ^^ i. 5, and again in the treatise called
airols Koi TTiKpoTrjs. The pungency is larpos, if that be really his. But in the
greatest in the juice, ottos ; next in the Plutus, 714-725, the god of healing,
fruit and leaves, and lastly in the root. having made a plaster of o-KopoSa, ottos,
He recommends it for toothache, the vinegar, and other acrid ingredients,
juice being dropped into the hollow instead of applying it to the outside of
tooth,and says that it gets rid of warts the eyelids of Neooleides, claps it on
and tumours, and dries and cleanses the inside to make them smart the
ulcers but that if any of it drops on
more : so that the hapless patient runs
the skin, it raises a blister. In accord- offhowling with pain, and even blinder
ance with this we read in Miller and than before.

Throw in some spurge of the Lacoman sort,

And rub it on your eyelids every night.

That''s whatj had I been present, I'd have said.

Chr. Next came Evaeon, smart accomplished chap,

With nothing on, as most of us supposed.
But he himself insisted he was clothed.
He made a popular democratic speech.
Behold, says he, I am myself in want
Of cash to save me ; yet I know the way
To save the citizens, and save the state.

Let every clothier give to all that ask

Warm woollen rohes, when first the sun turns hack.

408. Einiwy] The second speaker is certain ; and four staters have been
Evaeon the pauper nevijs ovtos, says ; variously computed as worth from five
the Scholiast and it is obvious from
: to fifteen shillings. Here they represent
the whole tenor of his speech that he the price of a new suit of clothes, his

vfas a man in want of warm clothing, need of which was manifest to all the
and sometimes in want of a warm bed. Assembly from the deplorable state of
His clothes on this occasion are so his wardrobe. This is the salvation
scanty or so threadbare, that people which he requires, and he proceeds to
cannot perceive that he has any on. show how he hopes to obtain it. With
For I take yvjivos to be used in its strict the words 5e6pevov o-aTrjpias in the pre-
sense, as it plainly is in the passage ceding line, Bergler compares Eur.
which Dobree cites from Athenaeus, Heraoleidae 11, wheje the old and feeble
iv. 3 iniur^aXkovaiV avKrjTpLbfS Kui fiov- lolaus, the only protector of the family

trovpyoi K.al (Taji^vKiaTpiai Tivfs PoSiat, of the dead Heracles, says, ad>Ca> rdb',

ffjiot /lev yvfivaX bonovtrai (so Blaydes avTos deop.ei'os cwxT/p/as.

for boKoi), TrXiji/ t\ey6v Tivis avras ;(fii' 416. ^Xios TpajTfl] Els )((ijx.fpivrjv hrfkov-

oTi rpoirrjv. Scholiast. At the winter

413. TfTpaaraTTipov] He is in want of solstice (Dec, 21), when the sun, which
a half-guinea salvation referring prob- : in its apparent motion has been con-
ably not to a single coin, though golden tinuously since the summer solstice

TeTpaardTripa were coined at Cyrene (depivriv TpoTrrjv, June 21) retreating to-

(Pollux, ix. segm. 62) and apparently wards the south, now begins to turn
elsewhere : but to four silver staters, back, and advance continuously towards
which were current in several Hellenic the north.The winter solstice is the
states. Their value is extremely un- commencement of the sun's northward
TrXevpirii fj/iSii' ovSiv &,v Xd^oi note.
Scroll Se Kkivrj firj 'cm /irjSe a-Tpdofiara,

leuai KaOevSrjcrovTas dwofei'tfi/j.evovs

6? T&v a-Kv\oSeylfa>i>- rjv S' (XTroKXeiTj rfj 6vpa. 420

)(^ei/j.a>j/os ovTOS, rpeis (Tiavpas o^etXero).

BA. vfj Toy Aiovvaov, ^(^pTjcrTd y i S iKelvd ye

irpoai6r]Kev, ovSels dvTe-)(iip0T6vr](Tiv &v,

Toiis d\(piTaixoi^ovs Toh d-rropoi^ rpw ^otviKas

SiiTTvov wapeyeiv airaaiv, rj KXaeiv fiaKpd. 425
'iva TovT dwiXavcrav NavcriKvSovs rdyaOoy.
XP. pera tovto tolvvv evTrpfufjS veavias
XevKos TiS dyTrriSrj<r' , opoios NiKia,

S-qfirjyopriaaiv, Kdneyetprjcnv Xeyeiv

ojy -^p-f] Trapt^Sovvai rals yvvai^l ttjv ttoXlv. 430

movement, the summer solstice of its public duties which were known as
southward movement. XeiTovpyiaL, It was natural that a man
419. airoveviixfievovs] The commenta- who had acquiied such great riches in
tors have entirely missed the meaning such a trade should be accused, whether
of this word, translating it ap2}rime lotos. made his
justly or unjustly, of having
It means after they have dined, the term money by harsh and ungenerous deal-
as we have seen in the
aTvovL\fra<Tdai., ing : and that is the innuendo in the
Wasps, being specially applicable to line before us, In which case the poor
the after-dinner wash. See the note ivould have gained this benefit from
on Wasps 1216. Nausicydes. The combination of "va.

426. Navo-iKiiSoDs] We should know with a past tense of the indicative must
nothing certain about this Nausicydes, not be overlooked, as implying that,
but for the passage which Bentley (and except by means of this compulsory
afterwards, but quite independently, largess, they would never gain any
Bergler) has cited from Xenophon's benefit from Nausicydes ; see supra 152,
Memorabilia, ii. 7, where Socrates ob- Wasps 961. The construction is illus-
serves that Nausicydes had amassed trated by Bp. Monk on Eur. Hipp. 643
such a fortune from his dealings in with his usual clearness and accuracy.
grain, air' AXtpiTowodas, that he became The example usually given of it is Oed.
one of the wealthiest men in Athens, Tyr. 1386, where Oedipus says that had
and had frequently to undertake, at his it been possible, he would have destroyed
own expense, some of those onerous not merely his eyesight, but the fount of

No more will pleurisy attack us then.

Let such as own no bedclothes and no bed,

After they've dined, seek out the furriers, there

To sleep ; and lohoso shuts the door against them
In wintry weather, shall be fined three blankets.

Blep. Well said indeed ; and never a man would dare

To vote against him, had he added this :

That all who deal in grain shall freely give

Three quarts to every pauper, or be hanged.
That good, at least, they'd gain from Nausicydes.
Che. Then, after him, there bounded up to speak
A spruce and pale-faced youth, like Nicias.
And he declared we ought to place the state
Into the hands of (whom do you think ?) the women !

hearing, "iv ?v tv(J>K6s te koi kXvov litjSev, The Nicias to whom she is compared is

" inwhich case I should never again have probably, as Paulmier suggested, the
seen anything or heard anything." grandson of the famous Nicias who fell

427. eiwpEn-ijr veauias] Praxagora her- in Sicily. It ig true that in his speech

self is the third speaker, "a fair and " In the matter of the confiscation of

pleasant-looking youth," says Chremes, the goods of [Eucrates], the brother of

little dreaming that he is describing Nicias," Lysias speaks of the grandson
the wife of Blepyrus. She rises from in a manner which shows that he must
the strange and pallid crowd of whom have been a mere lad at the date

he has spoken before. Both the epithets of this play but the present passage

XevKos and fiTrpnrfis are applied to the does not, I think, imply that the Nicias
effeminate Agathon in Thesm. 191, 192. to whom it alludes had ever taken part
428. avfffijfijjo-f] Observe the different in the proceedings of the Assembly,
manner in which the three orators as- whilst it does certainly imply that his
cended the bema. Neocleides in his good looks and graceful manners were
dim purblind way irapeipTrva-e came crawl- generally familiar to the audience.
ing on. Evaeon simply TraprfKBe, the One can imagine the agreeable surprise

ordinary word for an orator coming itwould be to the lad to be thus singled
forward to speak. See Thueydides, i. out for a public compliment in the
67, 72, 79, 85, and passim. Praxagora, crowded theatre.
in the nervous excitement natural to 430. TrapaSoivai K. -, . X.] It will be re-

her position, dycjrijSijtrf, sprang up to it. membered that these are the very words
F 2,
en" edopv^rjcrav KaveKpayov coy ei? Xeyoi,

TO a-KVTOTOfiiKoy irXfjdos' oi S k twv dypa>u

dve^op^opv^av. BA. yovf yap it-)(ov vfj A/a.
XP. dXX Tjaay rjrrovi- 6 Se Karu^e TJj ^ofj,

ray /xev yvva'iKa^ ttoAA dyaOa Xeyoov, ere Se 435

TToXXa KaKa. BA. kol ti eiwe XP. ; irpwrov p.ev a ecprj

elvai Travovpyov. BA. Koi ere; XP. firj ttco tout eprj.
KaireiTa KXtrrTr^v. BA. efxe p-ovov XP. koi vt] A'la ;

Kal o'VKOtpdvTriv. BA. efj.e /lovov XP. koi yrj Aia ;

ToovSl TO TrXfjdos. BA. Tis 8e TovT dXXcos Xeyei ; 440

XP. yvvaiKa 8' elvai Tvpa.y\i ecprj vov^vaTiKov
Kal -^pripaTOTTOLov Kovre TaTTOpprjT e(pr]

eK Qecrpo(p6poiv eKaa-TOT avra? eK^epecv,

ere Se Kdpe ^ovXevovre tovto Spdv dei.

BA. Kal VT] Tov 'E-ppfji/ tovto y ovk e'^evaraTo. 445

XP. eneLTa crvp^aXXeiv irpos dXXrjXas ecprj

wHch. Praxagora had used, supra 210, in robust, with visagesembrowned by air
the rehearsal, rah yap yvvai.^i (^qfil xprjvai. and sunshine (of whom the country folk
rfjv TvoXiv 'HfMas Trapahovvai, were the typical specimens), and the
431. eBopiprja-av K.T.X.] Bergler refers women, whether supposed to come from
to Xenophon, Anabasis, v. 1. 3 ol arpa- the city or the country, whose indoor
TiSyrat avedopufBrjcrai' iff ev \eyot, life was, notwithstanding all their pre-
432. TO (TKVTOTopiKouTrXrjdos'] At yvuaiKes' parations, betrayed by their pale and
ts avdpas a-Kevaa-delaat. Scholiast. For it delicate complexions.
is clearly to these words that the scho- 434. Kareixf] Mastered, controlled,
lium belongs, though in all the books kept down the hostile manifestations
it is absurdly attributed to the vovv yap Trj ^ofi by the loud voice in which he
dxov of the following Hue, which of spoke. He raised his voice and kept
course refers to the men, and not to the the upper hand. Cf. Persae 432, Philoc-
disguised women. tetes 10, Alcestis 354. In using the
433. avi^opfiopv^av] Murmured loudly, pronoun ct in the following verse,
in token of dissentand disapprobation. Chremes is making Blepyrus the repre-
The 01 fK Twv aypwv here must not be sentative of the men in general, as infra
confounded with the Iripas f k rav aypav 455.
of 280 supra. The contrast here is be- 440. ravbi] He is pointing to the
tween the men in general, hardy and audience, who were always delighted

Then the whole mob o shoemakers began

To cheer like mad whilst all the couAtry
; folk
Hooted and hissed. Blep. They showed their sense, by Zeus.
Chu. But less their numbers ; so the lad went on,

Speaking all good of women, but of you

Everything bad. What? Chk. First of all he called yon
An arrant rogue. Blep. And you ? Chu. Let be, awhile.
Also a thief. Blep. Me only ? Chr. And by Zeus,
A sycophant. Blep. Me only ? Chu. And by Zeus,
All our friends here. Blep. "Well, who says nay to that?
Chu. And then the woman is, he said, a thing
Stuffed full of wit and moneymaking ways.
They don^'t betray their Thesmophorian secrets,
But you and I blab all state secrets out.
Blep. By Hermes, there at least he told no lie.

Chu. And women lend each other, said the lad,

with a general cliarge of this kind, 443. i< Oe<TiJ.o<j>6poiv] From the (festi-
which each individual would clearly see val of the) twain goddesses, Demeter
exactly applied to his neighbours, and and Persephone, in their character of
had not the slightest application to the bestowers of social rites and customs.
himself. Blepyrus too clinches the Unfortunately it is too true that these
charge by saying ris aXKws \iyei ; who secretswere never betrayed (cf. Thesm.
denies that ? For the Scholiast is in 472), and are consequently entirely un-
error in explaining aXXas by iinTaias, known.
(iWas is used here as in Frogs 1140, oix 446. iTViiffdXXeiv] MeraSiBovai, Kiyxpav,
SXkas \eya>, I say not otherwise. The Scholiast, to ;;^puo-ia are golden
term "sycophant " in the translation of ornaments, especially, as here, trinkets
the previous line is, of course, to be worn by women. iKumjiaTa, koI xp^'o^i"
taken in its ancient signification. Km liidna tov KotTfiou T^s jirjTpos. De-
441. vovPva-TiKov] A wit-fraught thing, mosthenes, First Speech against Apho-
to adopt a compound more than once bus (10). Ta T xpva-ia ttjs fxrjTpos icat

employed by Leonard Digges, the TaKTTOiiiaTa ra KaTaKi^6evTa. Id. (13).

younger, in his commendatory verses T71V TOVTOV eTaipav XP^<^^^ jroWa exovirav
on Shakespeare, voi TrenXripaifuvov, Scho- Kot tjuaTin KoKd.
Demosthenes against
liast, napa to vovs koL to ^va-ai, o (OTi Olympiodorus (55). And cf Ach. 258,
jrXijpaio-ai. Scholiast at Wasps 1294. Lysist. 1190.
; ;

i/xaTia, yjivcri' , dpyvpiov, iKTrcofiara,
fiovas fiovais ov /xapttjpcaif y kvavTiov
KOI TavT dnocpepeiv travTa kovk atrocrTeptiv
rjjxZv Se Toi/s noWovs e<paa-Ke tovto Spdv. 450
BA. vf] rbv TioaeiSai, fiaprvpcov r Ivavjiov.
XP. ov (TVKo^a.vrilv, ov SicoKeiv, ovSe Toy
Sfjfiov KaraXvety, dWa TToXXa KayaOd.
erepd re TrXiiara ray yvvaiKas euXoyei.
BA. Ti Stjt (So^ev ; XP. kTriTpemiv ere Trjv ttoXlv 455
TavTUis. eSoKei yhp tovto [lovov kv Trj iroXei

BA. Koi SeSoKTai

ovjTco y(ye.vfj<jBaL. XP. ; (p-q/x kyco.

BA. anavrd r avrais kcm irpoa-reTayfiei'a

& ToTcTiv dcTTols efj.eXey XP. ovtco ravT: e'x^'-

BA. ovS' eh SiKao-Trjpioy dp' elfjL, dXX' 77 yvyrj ; 460

XP. ovS' en av OpeyjreLS ovs e^eij, dX\' tj ywi].
BA. ovSe o-TeveLv tov opOpoy 'in Trpdyf/ apd fioi

XP. fia At", dXXa rai? yvvai^l tuvt rjSrj fieXei-

a-ii S' da-revaKn nepSonevos olkol jieveh.

BA. eKeivo Seivov roicny fjXiKnicn vZv, 465
pi] napaXa^ova-ai rrji TroXecos ras rjvias

eneiT dyayKd^oocn irpos ^iav XP. ti Spay ;

BA. Kiveiy eavTas. XP. fjy Se pfj Svycopeda

450. TOVTO Spav]T6 aTTocTTepeh. Scholi- instance had been lawfully taken,
used here in its strictly
ast. dn-oo-Tfpf ij/ is 453. ttoXXA xiyadd] We must probably
proper sense of withholding money or here, as Dr. Blaydes suggests, supply
valuables which you have borrowed or the infinitive Spaf from line 450.
which have been entrusted to your care. 455. ti S^t' eSo^^v ;] The formula with
See Clouds 1305, 1464, and the Trape- which the decrees of the Assembly
ziticus of Isocrates, passim. In Plutus anciently commenced was e6o|e rm Ai7/i(a.

373 it is distinguished from KXeTTTfi)' and Thuc. iv 118 ; cf. infra 1015. Insay-
ApndCdp, terms which imply an un- ing iiriTpii^iv 2E, Chremes is merely
lawful taking in the first instance, constituting Blepyrus the represen-
whereas here the wrong consisted in tative of the citizens generally, just as
the refusal to restore what in the first he did when (supra 435-439) he said

Their dresses, trinkets, money, drinking-eups,

Though quite alone, with never a witness there.
And all restore the loan, and none withhold it.

But men, he said, are always doing this.

Blep. Aye to be sure : though witnesses were there.

Che. They don't inform, or prosecute, or put

The people down : but everything that's right.
And much, besides, he praised the womankind.
Blep. What was determined ? Che. You're to put the state
Into their hands. This was the one reform
Not yet attempted. Blep. 'Twas decreed ? Che. It was.

Blep. So then the women now must undertake

All manly duties ? Che. So I understand.

Blep. Then I shan't be a dicast, but my wife ?

Che. Nor you support your household, but your wife.

Blep. Nor I get grumbling up in early morn.
Che. No : for the future that's your wife's affair.
You'll lie abed : no grumbling any more.
Blep. But hark ye, 'twould be rough on us old men
when the women hold the reins of state.

They should perforce compel us to Che. Do what?

Blep. Make love to them. Che. But if we're not prepared ?

nparov fih SE siprj etvai Travovpyov, KaKciTa speech of Chremes, and not to the next,
kXc'tttj/i/, KOI avKofjiavTrji', meaning that that this scholium belongs,
she so described the men in general. 466. Ttjs n-oXemr raj fji/ias] This was a
Now, therefore, he says, you the rogue, common metaphor in ancient, as in
you the robber, you the common in- modern, times. It occurs again in

former, must surrender the prerogatives Knights 1109, where Dobree refers to
which you have so unrighteously abused, Plato, Politicus, chap, ix (266 E), napa-
and hand over the city to the better SoOcm xds T^f iroXeas fjuias ; Alciphron,
and the nobler sex. iii. 61, ras fjuias cx" '""" ^|Jov, and
456. e'SoKft . . . yfyvrja-dai] 'Qs (jtiKoiv- Plutarch, Pericles, chap, xi, no 6ij/io) ras
rav avTcov ra nrj yevofieva Kaivoiroiuv. r]vlai avtis 6 TlfpixX^y.

Scholiast. For it is clearly to this

: ;

BA. dpia-Tov ov Sa><Tov(Ti. XP. (tv Se ye vtj Aia
Spa. Tav6', 'Iv apia-ras re Kal Kivfjs d/ia. 470
BA. TO Trpoi piav SeivoTarou. XP. dXX el Trj noXei
TOVTO ^vuoicrei, ravra ^prj iravT dvSpa Spdu.
\6yos re toi ti9 icm tS)V yepaiTepa>i',

oa dv dporjT ^ p.wpa ^ovXiv<rd>fii6a,

divavT hn to ^k\Tiov r\ylv ^v/i(j)epetu. 475
Kal ^v/i(bepoc y , <5 TTOTVia ITaXXa? Kal Oeoi.

dW' el/j,r (TV S' iiyiaive. BA. Kal av y , d> X.pfj.T]s.

XO. e/i^a, )(wpei.

dp' ea-Ti Ta)V dvSpoov Tis rjfiTp ocyTts knaKoXovOti

arpeipov, crKOTrei, 480
(ftvXaTTe aravT-qv dacpaXai's, iroXXol yap oi Travovpyoi,

jxrj TTov TL^ eK ToviriaOev mv to (ryfuxa KaracpvXd^r]-

dXX' d>s fJ-dXiCTTa tolv ttoSolv kirLKTVirSiv ^dSt^e.

ri/xiv S dv ala-^wrjv (pepoi

irdcraicn napd toIs dvSpdcnv to irpdypa tovt eXey^^ei/. 485

473. Xdyof K.r. X.] Perhaps I may be of sight Zeus could not restore it, but

allowed to repeat here a note of my he gave him the power of prophecy,

own, published many years ago, on Neither could Apollo revoke the gift o
another passage of Aristophanes prophecy which he had bestowed upon
"When the contention between Poseidon Cassandra, but he could nullify it by
and Athene for the patronage of Athens making all men disbelieve her. And so
was decided in favour of the latter, in the instance before us, Athene could
Poseidon in anger imprecated per- not change the curse of perpetual Sucr-
petual Sua-/3ouXia on the new city. Now jiovXia, but she could and did nullify its

the decrees of deities were, like those effect by causing it always to have a
of the Medes and Persians, supposed to successful issue." Xeycrm, says the
be irreversible, even by themselves Scholiast here, ore Iloa-ftSSj/ kuI 'Adijya
what one god had done, no other, nor ((piKoveUrja-av nepi t^s 'Attik^?, i/iK^o-m tiji/

even himself, could undo but he could ; 'Adqvav. koI (ftacriv fjTrr^divTa tov Ilocret-
virtually nullify the effect by a subse- 8a>va km XimrjOivTa Karapaadai rij iroKei,
quent decree. To use the language of Koi \eyeiv airov ori yivotro roiis 'A6t]vaiovs
the Roman law,the remedy was oirojfaiio, d kukSis fiovXeveaOm, aKovovoav be ttjv
not abrogatio. Hera deprived Teiresias 'A^ijiav Trpoa-Beivai on KaKas ^ovXei^adai
! ! ;


Blep. They^ll dock our breakfasts. Che. Therefore learn the way
How to make love, and eat your breakfast too.

Blep. Upon compulsion ! Faugh ! Che. If that is for

The public goodj we needs must all obey.

There is a legend of the olden time,
That all our foolish plans and vain conceits
Are overruled to work the public good.
So be it now, high Pallas and ye gods
But I must go. Farewell. Blep. And farewell, Chremes.

Choeus. Step strong ! March along !

But search and scan if any man be somewhere following in our rear.

Look out ! Wheel about

And O be sure that alFs secure ; for many are the rogues, I fear.
Lest some one, coming up behind us, in this ungodly guise should find us.

Be sxjee you make a clattering sound with both your feet against the ground.
For dismal shame and scandal great
Will everywhere upon us wait, if our disguise they penetrate.

Kol iiTiTvyxaveiv. And this is why o longer any separate existence ; they
Chremes, in his prayer three lines below, are now united into one Chorus,
whilst invoking generally all the gods, 482. to o-xJiM"] To avbpdov. Scholiast,
makes a special appeal to Pallas. And so in 503 infra. KnracfivXa^rj, take
477. vyimve] Lucian composed a an eye on, with evil intent
note of, keep
treatise, Pro lapsu inter salutandum, though whether for the purpose of de-
because he had given a friend the even- tection, theft, or otherwise, the speaker
ing salutation vyimve, instead of the does not say. The words in the preced-
morning x"'/'^- ^^^ it i^ clear that no ing line, ttoXXoi yap oi navavpyoi, are
such distinction existed in the time of doubtless another delicate compliment,
Aristophanes. And cf Frogs 165. With conveyed by glance or gesture, to the
these words Chremes and Blepyrus re- audience.
enter their respective houses, and after 483. i-niKTimmv] SE'dc^ok ttowv. Scho-
a short pause, the Chorus are heard, Hast. So as to imitate the walk of their
returning from the Assembly. i^cpx^TaL husbands ; see infra 545. Apparently
6 Xopos a-rro rrjs Scholiast,
iKKXrjo-Las. the masculine is used, to encourage
This is their iirnrdpohos. Pollux, iv. them in these masculine proceedings,
segm. 108. And the semichoruses have

TTyoos ravra crvcrTeWov creav-

Tfjv, iravTayT] crKonovfiiur)

TOLKflcre Kal to, TrjSe Kai
TixK Sf^ids, ftfi ^vficfiopa yevrjcreTai to npdyfia.
dW' kyKovmniv tov tottov yap kyyvs kajiev ^Sr/
odivmp els eKKXrjcTiav mpfiwfieO tjvik Jip-iv 490
rrjv 8' o'lKiav e^ead opdv oQevnep r) arpaTi^yos
ea-0' , fj TO Trpdy/j.' evpova o vvv eSo^e Toh noXiTats.
&(TT eiKos fjfids fJifj PpaSvveiv 'icrT eTravafieuovcras

TTciycoi/ai f^rjpTrjfiei/as,

fifj Kat Tis T]/j,d9 6-^eTai )(ri/j.Zy icrcos KaTeiirrj. 495

d\\ eta Sivp kirl crKids

kXQovaa Trpoy to Teiyiov,

Trapa^Xenovaa $aTepa>,
TrdXiv peTaa-Kfva^e a-avTrjf avdis fjirep TJcrOa,.

Kal fj.fl PpdSvv o)y TrjvSe Kal Sfj ttj]/ aTpaTrjyov rjfioou 500
^(mpovcrav e^ KKXr](Tias opcofiev. dXX fTreiyov

arracra Kal fitcru craKou Trpos Taiv yvd6oiv eyovaa-

)(a.iiTaL yap dXyovanv ndXai to a-)(jjijia tovt e-^ovcrai.

487. n-avrax^] Compare the very similar ^\ewovara. Scholiast. Looking askance
passages : Thesm. 665, navraxri Be p^yjrov with one eye ; looTcing out of the corner of
ofijia, Kw. TO TJjbe Ka.\ ra Sevpo navT ava- your eye, as our expression goes. The
(TicciTret KfiXSf ; Eur. Phoen. 265, hv ovveK women, whilst engaged in changing
Sfiiia TTavTaxq bimtTTtov, KOKetae Kal to their dresses, are yet to cast a sidelong
Sevpo, and Birds 423. glance out of one of their eyes, to see
490. apfidified] The place from which that no man approaches. The same
we started, fjvW els iKKXrio-lav fipev. In phrase occurs in Wasps 497.
many editions the construction is ob- 500. tiji' trxpnTi/ydj'] Praxagora is seen
soured by the insertion of a comma returning from the Assembly. She is

after Q>pp.aipe6'. stillwearing her husband's garments,

495. KaTemrj] Denounce us to the an- and enters the stage alone. We hear
thorities, inform against us; cf. Peace no more of the two women who had
377. been her companions there before. And
498. TTapa^'heTvoviTa Barepm] Mij drei'i- nobody else comes on the stage until
fouo-a, (prj(Tlv, dXX<i raj irepa o<^^aX/iM Blepyrus and Chremes emerge from

So wrap your garments round you tight.

And peep about with all your might,
Both here and there and on your right,
Or this our plot to save the state will in disaster terminate.

Move on, dear friends, move on apace, for now we're very near the place
From whence we when we went to join the men in Parliament.
And there's the mansion, full in view, where dwells our lady chieftain, who
The wise and noble scheme invented to which the state has just assented.
So NOW no longer must we stay, no longer while the time away.
False-bearded with this bristly hair.
Lest some one see us and declare our hidden secret everywhere.
So draw ye closer, at my call, n
Beneath the shadow of the wall.
And glancing sideways, one and all.

Adjust and change your dresses there, and bear the form which erst ye bare.
Foe see the noble lady fair, our chieftainess, approaching there.
She's coming home with eager speed from yon Assembly; take ye heed.
And loathe upon your chins to wear that monstrous equipage of hair ;

For 'neath its tickling mass, I know, they've all been smarting long ago.

their respective liouses, twenty lines the first instance, come on the stage
below. The Chorus fulfil the promise prepared with manly beards and manly
made supra 246. dresses see 482 supra. Nevertheless, as

503. aXyoia-Lv'] The MSS. and editions the original line is lost beyond hope of
read rJKov<Ttv, which is translated, and recovery, I have thought it best to
taken by all commentators to mean, adopt the ingenious suggestion made
praeserlim quum illae (the women who by Professor Arthur Palmer in the
enter with Praxagora) adveniant vestem Quarterly Review of October, 1884, who
solitam jam pridem indutae. But the and refers
alters yKovcnv into a\yova-iv,
Greek is not open to such an interpreta- the preceding "the tender
x"^'''"'- to
tion, even if it were not perfectly plain cheeks of the delicate ladies, which
that Praxagora enters alone. In my are tired of wearing the rough beards
judgement the entire line is a mere gloss so long." Praxagora now from the
which has pushed out, and stepped into stage addresses the Chorus in the
the place of, the original line ; its orchestra,
meaning being, that the women had, in
nP. ravTi [ikv Tjiuv, c5 yvvaiKe.'s, evrvySi^
TO, irpdy/iaT eK^e^rjKev d^ovXiva-afiev. 505
dXX coy rd^icTTa, irpiv riv dyOpconcov iSiiv,
piTTTUTe )(\aii'ai, e/x^as eKTroScbv itco,

)(d\a avvaTTToiis rjvias AaKcoutKas,

PaKTTjpias dipeade- Kal iievTOL crv /lev

ravrai KaTevrpeiri^'- eyco Se ^ovXo/xai 510

efcro) TrapepTTvaacra, nplv tov avSpa Jie

iSeif, KaraOka-Oai dolfLdriov avTov irdXiv

oQivwep eXa^oy raXXa d^r)veyKdfi7]u.

XO. Kiirai S ijSr] ndvO drnp eirras' crov S epyov rdXXa SiSdcrKeiv,

o TL croi SpwcraL ^vjicpopov fjfiiii So^ofiey 6pOa>s vwaKoveiu. 515

ovdffiia yap Seiyorepa crov ^vfifii^aa- oiSa yvvaiKi.

nP. mpi/ieiyare vvv, 'iva rrj? dp^rjs, ^f dpri Ke^^eipoTOfTj/xai,

^vfx^ovXoLcriv Trdcrais vp-iv y^prjacafjiai. Kal yap eKei fioi

kv Tw 6opv^a> Kal tois SeipoTs avSpeLOTarai yeyei/ijcrOe.

BA. avTTj, nodei' fjKei^, Upa^ayopa ; IIP. ri S' , m jikXe, 520

507. f'/i/Sas iKwohav] No doubt a play latchets witli whicli the " red Laco-
is intended between and ex iK-nohmv nians " were tied. And tbis accounts
woSSyv. Here, again, eiifias is employed for the use of tbe singular x"^a, wbich is
to denote tbe KaKwviKfj. See the note on otherwise difficult to explain.
345 supra. 509. Praxagora checks herself in

508. (TvvaiTTovs Tjvias] The Scholiast's tbe midstof ber directions to the
interpretation Tas a-vvanrova-as ml 8e- Chorus, and requests tbe coryphaeus
(Tjievoiicras ra vnoSfinara shows that be to undertake the arrangements in ber
rightly understood the meaning of ijviiir, stead.
but o-vvaTTTovs signifies "fastened," not 513. a^r]ve-/Kdfirjv] Praxagora retires
" fastening." I take tbe whole line to into her bouse (the bouse of Blepyrus)
be a quotation from Euripides or some to change ber dress, whilst the Cboms
other tragic poet, which in tbe original change theirs in the orchestra. She
was a direction to some charioteer to almost immediately returns, and hence-
let loose the Spartan reins, and give the forth all tbe women are clothed in their
horse its bead, but is here diverted into proper habiliments. And now tbe great
a pompous description of tbe shoe- work has been accomplished, and the
; :


Peax. So far, dear sisters, these our bold designs

Have all gone off successfully and well.
But now at once, or e^er some wight perceive us.

Off with your woollens ; cast your shoes ; unloose

The jointed clasp of thy Laconian reins
Discard your staves ;
Nay, but do you, my dear.
Get these in order : I myself will steal
Into the house, and ere my husband see me.
Put back his overcloke, unnoticed, where
I found it, and whatever else I took.

Chor. We have done your behest, and as touching the rest,

We will do whatsoever you tell us is best.

For truly I ween that a woman so keen,

Resourceful and subtle we never have seen.

Prax. Then all by my side, as the councillors tried

Of the office I hold, be content to abide
For there, in the fuss and the hullabaloo.
Ye proved yourselves women most manly and true.

Blep. Hallo, Praxagora, whence come you ? Prax. What's that

scene closes with an exchange of well- houses, and find her standing alone in
deserved compliments between Praxa- the street. The avrr} with which Ble-
gora and her followers. pyrus hails her, means (like the more
518. eVci] 'Ev TTj iKKkritrla. Scholiast. common oJtos addressed to a man), you
They had not been daunted by the there! heus tu! A bright and saucy
opposition of the men (supra 432) ; nor dialogue ensues between husband and
had they, in thatunaccustomed scene, wife, leading up to the great debate of

lost their presence of mind, and, as in the play. That the friend who occa-
the rehearsal (supra 132-191), betrayed sionally intervenes is the mild and
their sex by womanly language. On tolerant Chremes, I am quite convinced,
the epithet avSpeiorarai as applied to though he takes so little part in the

women, see the note on Wasps 1090. conversation, that the very presence of
520. avTrj] She has hardly finished a third person is ignored by some. It
her anapaests when Blepyrus and is, however, conclusively proved by lines

Chremes emerge from their respective 569, 570 infra, and by the use of the
crol Tov6' ; BA. o Ti [ioi tovt kcniv; wy ei>r]6iKa>9.

nP. ov TOL napa rov jjLOiyov ye (f>rjcrei9. BA. ovk icrcos

Ivos ye. nP. Koi fifji/ ^acraviarai tovtl ye (tol
e^ecTTi. BA. irm; HP. el rrj^ Ke(pa\fjs o^co fivpov.
BA. Ti 8' ; ov)(l ^LveiTai yvvr] Kavev /ivpov ; 625
nP. ov Sfj rd\aiv eyasye. BA. nS>s ovv opQpiov

m)(ov (TtcoTTTJ QoinaTLOv Xafiovad fiov ;

nP. yvvrj p.e tls vvKTwp iraipa Kal (piXrj

IxeTenep.'^aT wStvovcra. BA. Ka.T ovk ffv kjiol

cppdaacrav levai ; HP. rfj^ Xeyovi S' ov (ppovricrai, 530

ovTcos e')(ovarj^, cbi/ep; BA. ehrovcrdv ye jxoi.

aXA eaTLv evravOd ti KaKov. HP. pa tco 6ea>,

dXX Scnrep el^ov (ci-)(opriv eSeiTO Se

rjirep /leBfJKe p , e^ievai Trda-rj reyvrj.

BA. e'lT ov TO cravTris IfiaTLoy eXP^'^ ""

'^X^'" ' 535
dXX' ep aTToSvcracr , eTnPaXovaa TovyKVKXov,
(o^ov KaraXiTTOva dxrirepel TrpoKeipevov,

dual in line 710, as well as by

(7^0)1/ implication she is merely putting

various remarks whicli cannot with words into her husband's lips " You :

propriety be assigned to either of the will not say to me, as some husbands
disputants. As a rule he addresses might justly say to their wives, you are
himself to Blepyrus, and speaks of coming from your lover."
Praxagora in the third person. In the 526. oi hq ruKaiv e-ym-yc] TaXaiva is an
following line as ciijflixmf means what expression of self commiseration, that
a remarkably silly question ! 1 should be suspected of such a thing.
522. rrapa tov ^oi^oC] The definite 529. wSinova-a] Alciphron commences
article has given some trouble, as seem- one of his epistles (to which Bergler
ing to imply that Praxagora possessed refers) with words which seem like
a lover. But even if this were the true a reminiscence of the present line,
interpretation it need not cause any wSivova-a /if aprias fJKeiv as aiiTfjv fj tov
surprise, since in these opening lines yeirovos /jci-eVf/i\/'e yvvrj, i. 28. The word
Praxagora is playfully making sugges- /iefl^xe five lines below might be either
tions against herself, which, her hus- the aorist of and so equivalent

band is well aware, have no foundation to iieTeirefiyJAaro here ; or the imperfect

in fact. But in reality there is no such of lieSrjKa she who came for me. Doubt-


To you, my man ? Blep. What's that to me ? That's cool.

Pkax. Not from a lover; iliat you know. Blep. Perchance
From more than one. Puax. That you can test, directly.
Blep. Marry and how ? Puax. Smell if my hair is perfumed.
Blep. Does not a woman sin unless she's perfumed ?
Pkax. 7 don't, at all events. Blep. What made you steal

Away so early with my overcloke ?

PiiAX. I was called out ere daybreak, to a friend

In pangs of childbirth. Blep. Why not tell me first.

Before you went? Prax. Not haste to help her in

Such straits, my husband ? Blep. After telling me.

Something's wrong there. Puax. Nay, by the Twain, I went
Just as I was ; the wench who came besought me
To lose no time. Blep. Is that the reason why
You did not put your mantle on ? You threw it
Over my bed and took my overcloke,
And left me lying like a corpse laid out

lesshere it is the latter, and so Bergler Scholiast explains, a woman's outer

and the commentators generally take it. mantle or shawl, corresponding to the
530. Tr]s\^-)(QVi\ Qdivoia-rjs. ' Scholiast. man's ip.iinoi', just as her KpoKcorbs cor-
And that is clearly the meaning of the responded to his x'". See the note
word here, though Hesychius explains on 383 supra, and Thesm. 254, 261. >'
it by lypoa-cpaTioc TfToKvia, and Suidas
fj anobvcraa-a means merely having taken
by apriroKos.
ij The &vep of this dia- away my clothes. Apparently, the night
logue is the prototype of the familiar being cold, Blepyrus had cast his ifidriov
mi vir of Roman comedy. over the bed : his wife takes it off and
532. p.a Praxagora, with her
Tu> 6ei)\ leaves her eyKVKXov in its place.
womanly garments, has resumed the 537. oxTjrepel TrpoKeiixcvop] Like a COfpse
womanly oath which she so vigorously laid out for its burial. This laying out, or
tabooed before (155-158 supra). &(nrep streeking, Trpd^ecrir, usually took place on
(Ixov, just as I was, without delaying to the day preceding the day of the burial.
complete her toilet, or awaken her The body was placed on a bier or bed,
husband. clothed in white, crowned with wreaths,
536. ToiiyKVKkov] To yvvaiKeiov IfiaTtov, and with its feet towards the door.
Scholiast. The i'yKvK\ov was, as the Beside it were placed seveial of those

fioyov ov (TTecpai/wcraa-' ovS' kinOeicra \rjKv6ov.

nP. \frv)(^09 yap rjf, eyai Se XeTrrfj Kcicrdei/rjs-

meiO' Lv dXeaLuoLfiL, tovt rjjjLTna-yonrjv 540

ere 8 ey dXea KaraKei/j-evov Kai crTpdofiaaiv

KaTiXiTTOu, a>yep. BA. at Se Srj KaKwviKal

wyovTO fiera crov Kara tl ^rj ^aKrrjpia ;

UP. 'iva QoiiLOLTiov cra>aaini, fJ.e6vjreSr]tTd/j,r]y

fiifiov/xevrj ae Kal KTvnovcra Tolv TroSoty 545

Kal Tovs Xtdovs naiovcra rfj ^aKTtjpix.
BA. oIa-6 ovv uTroXcoXeKvIa irvpZv eKrea,
ou \pr}v en' e^ eKKXrjaLas eiXrj(pevai
nP. fj.7]
(ppoyTia-Tjs- dppev yap ereKe TraiStov.

BA. fjKKXrjCTLa ; IIP. fxa Ai , dXX' ecp' fjv eyd>)(^6/ir]y. 550

drdp yeyevt]rai ; BA. vol na At", ovk ^SeicrOd fie

(ppdaavrd X^^^ IIP. dpri y dvajjLipLvrjcrKOfiaL.

croi !

BA. oxj8 dpa rd So^avT olaOa IIP. /xd Ai' eya> [lev ov.

BA. Kadrjao tolvvv a-qnia^ /laa-co/xevr].

small vases or bottles of oil, XfjKvdot always on the look out at night-time
(of which numerous specimens may be to relieve a solitary wayfarer of his
seen in the British Museum), which overcloke. See the note on 668 infra,
were in such constant request during 547. nvpSjv eKria] An (Krevs was the

an Athenian's life in his house, at the sixth part of a medimnus. And as
bath, in the gymnasium, and even on Blepyrus means that the triobol which
the battlefield and which were finally
; he would have earned by attending
buried with him in his grave. These the Assembly, would have purchased
funeral Aij/cu^oi are again mentioned an cxrcis- of wheat, it follows that a
infra 996, 1032, 1101, 1111. And see medimnus of wheat would cost about
generally the treatise Lucian De
of 18 obols, or 3 drachmas. And Boeckh
Luctu, a satire on the popular funeral (Public Economy of Athens, i. 15),
ceremonies of the time. comparing the various data which bear
540. aXaiVot/xi] Qepfjiavo'tfir)!'. Scho- on the subject, comes to the conclusion
liast. Cf. iv dXea in the following line. that this would in fact have been the
544. iiedvnedrja-diJLriv} I changed my shoes price of a medimnus of wheat at the
for yours, Iva ire iiiiirjaafiivr) (xatrmiu to time of this play. Blepyrus has suffi-
i/iaTior. Scholiast. Save them, she cient presence of mind to conceal from
means, from the Xairodwioy, who were his wife that there were other stringent


Only I'd never a wreatli, or bottle of oil.

Prax. The night was cold, and I'm so slight and fragile,

I took your overcloke to keep me warm.

And you I left well snuggled up in warmth
And rugs, my husband. Blep. How came my staff to form
One of your party, and my red Laconians ?

Peax. I took your shoes to save your overcloke

Aping your walk, stumping with both my feet,
And striking down your staff against the stones.
Blep. You've lost eight quarts of wheat, I'd have you know,
Which the Assembly would have brought me in.

Pkax. Well, never mind ; she's got a bonny boy.

Blep. Who ? the Assembly has ? Peax. No, fool, the woman.
But has it met ? Blep. I told you yesterday
'Twas going to meet. Peax. O yes, I now remember.
Blep. Have you not heard then what's decreed ? Puax. No, dear.

Blep. Then sit you down and chew your cuttlefish.

reasons, unconnected -with the abstrac- request." Nat. Hist. 742. The Scholiast's
tion of his ffiuTiov, to account for his explanation, oiov ^vTpv(pcoa-a 5ta Tr)v

non-appearance at the Assembly. i^ovaiav, is followed by all the commen-

551. yeyeVjyrai] Has there teen an tators, who adopt Le Fevre's translation,
Assembly to-day ? itpotmoiovfiivrf, says " sede, et inposterum laute ac beate
the Scholiast, ipccra eTrlrij^es ft yeyovep vivito ; enim magnum imperium
T} iKKKr)aia, as ayvoov(Ta. We must paratum video." But this interpretation
assume it to have been not one of would require yap, not 8e, in the follow-
the ordinaiy Assemblies, but one con- ing line, and is, in my judgement,
voked for the special purpose of con- altogether erroneous. Praxagora has re-
sidering what steps should be taken presented herself as completely wrapped
for the safety of the state, supra 896. up in domestic affairs, and ignorant of
554. KaSrjtro k.t.\J] The cuttle seems all that has passed in the public
to have been a favourite article of diet Assembly. Blepyrus is glorying in his
with Athenian women: and although superior knowledge. Sit you down, he
now, I believe, altogether banished says, scornfully, and chew cuttlefish with
from English tables, it was not always your gossips. You do not know, as I do,

so. "The cuttle," says Lord Bacon, what great events have occurred today.
" is a delicate meat, and is much in Then he tells her.
vixiv Se (fiacTL TrapaSiSoadai ttju ttoXiv. 555
nP. TiSpdu; ixpaivfiv BA. ov fih Ai' dXX' dp)^eip.
; , IIP. Tifcoy;
BA. aTra^airavTCop Tmv Kara iroKiv irpayndncv.

nP. vTj TTjv 'A(PpoSiTr]i', /lUKapia y dp r] ttoXi?

earai to Xoiirov. BA. Kara, ti HP. TroXXau ; ovvsKa.
ov yap en T019 ToXfiaxrif avTrjv ata-^pa Spay 550
earai to Xotnoy, ovSafiov Sk fiapTvpeiv,
ov avKocpayTeiv. BA. firjSaficos Trpbs tSiv OiZv
TOVTi woiriarjs fJ.'rjS a(f)kXri fiov Toy ^ioy,
XP. S) Sai/xoyi.' dySpSiy, T-qv yvyaiK ea Xiyety.
nP. p-fj XanroSvTrja-ai, fifj (f>6oveiy rois wXrja-ioy, 665
firi yvfivov ilvai, fitj rreyrjTa p.r]Seya,

pr) XoiSopiLcrQai, pr] 'ye\vpa(6peyoy cpepeiy.

XP. yrj Toy UoaeLSm, peydXa y , el pfj yjrevaeTai.

nP. aXX' diT0(f)ayS> tovO , &(TTe cri ye poi p-apTvpeiy,

Kal TovToy avToy prjSev dyTeinety epoi. 570

561. fiajiTvpeiv] Not necessarily false her substitute the dependent negative
witness. She
speaking of those
is for the absolute negative oi. " Pergit

common informers, the bane of Athens, Praxagora," says Dr. Blaydes, "quasi
who got their living by spying out praeoesserit non ov yap cti eo-rai sed ^87
unintentional or immaterial infractions dTTayopv6fj(reTai."
of the law, and harassing the unfortunate 563. /nijS' dc^eX.j; fiov rnv ^iov\ " Vivit
offender by giving and procuring evi- scilicet malis istis artibus bonus vir
dence against him in the courts of Blepyrus." Bothe. Confer infra 657.
justice. They are described in Wasps The words seem to be borrowed from
1040, 1041 as mischief-makers who inX the line of Sophocles which Bergler
ToifTiv aTTpdyfiotrw vfiStv avTaip^frlas Kai quotes, where Philoctetes, praying that
TTpo(rK\rj(reLs Km MAPTYPIA2 avveKoWoiv. he may not be deprived of the unerring
562. prjdftfiws tovt\ TToiTja-rjs^ He speaks bow of Heracles, exclaims npos 6fS>v
as if Praxagora had been saying that najptiaiv, toj/ /Si'ov pif pov'(f>eXris (Phil. 933,^;
she would forbid men to do so and so, a somewhat careless expression, for ^iov
whereas she had merely enunciated a would probably have been changed into
categorical proposition, it will not be (o bow), if indeed the poet had not

open to them to do so. Praxagora dis- guarded against this mistake by writing,
dains to notice his interruption, and two lines earlier, aTrearepijicns Toy (3i'ov to.
yet it affects her own language, making To^' eXav. There is perhaps a play on the


The statej they say, is handed over to you !

Prax. What for ? To weave ? Blep. Noj govern. Prax. Govern what ?

Blep. All the whole work and business of the state.

Prax. O here's a lucky state, by Aphrodite,

We^'e going to have ! Blep. How so ? Prax. For many reasons.
For now no longer shall bold men be free
To shame the city : no more witnessing,
No false informing Blep. Hang it, don't do that.
Don't take away my only means of living
Chu. Pray, sir, be still, and let the lady speak.
Prax. No thefts of overclokes, no envyings now,
None to be poor and naked any more.
No wranglings, no distraining on your goods.
Chr. Now, by Poseidon, wondrous news if true.
Prax. Aye and I'll prove it, so that you'll support me,
And he himself have nought to say against it.

two words /3ioy and /Sior in Plutus 34. is the masculine, in which case (fiepitv

567. eve)(vpa(6fifVov ^epeiv] Although would mean to harry (%<^epov aK\r]\ovs,

the general meaning is clear, viz. that Thuc. i. 7) the debtor who had given the
there will be an end of executions and bill of sale, ferre el rapture hominem
distraints, yet the exact meaning of a quo pignora capiuntur, as Le Pevre
each word is not equally clear. Pro- translates it. The two interpretations
bably however ivexvpaCofuvov is the come to exactly the same thing. The
neuter, and equivalent to the substan- process seems to have been familiar to
tive evxvpnv, in which case the significa- Chremes, who expresses himself with
tion would be to seize goods given as enthusiasm on finding that Praxagora
security goods over which (an English
means to do away with this extremely
lawyer might say) the debtor had given disagreeable proceeding. Cf. infra 755 ;

a bill of sale. So in Antiphon's speech Clouds 35, 241 ; Plutus 451.

In the matter of a choreutes (11) the 569. wore o"f' y p.oi fiaprvpelv^ She is
defendant choregus says tov xopov awi- perhaps thinking of the line in Soph.
\e^a las edvvd^rjp apiaTa^ ovre ^Tjfuayaas Trach. (899) to which Dr. Blaydes refers,
oiSeva, oCVc iv^xvpa pia (fiepaiv k.t.X. And 7rev(TL 5' &(TTs papTvpslv epol. With the
so it is taken by Brunok, who translates following line Le Fevre compares
it nan pignora a debitorihus anferre. It Clouds 1342, ware yi old' airos aKpoa-

is possible, however, that ivexvpa^ofievov (rdfieyos ovdev di/repets.

XO. vvv Stj Set ae irvKvfju kydpew
(ppovTiS' liTicrTafMeyrjv

TaTcri <pi\ai<nv dfiweiv.

KOivfj yap kn evTvyiaia-iv

'ip-)(Tai yXmTT-
jjy knivoia, noXiTrjy

Sfjfiov kiTay\a'iov(Ta 675

dxpeXtaicri ^lov. Sr]-

Xovv TL nep Svvaaai. Kai-

pos Sk' SeiTUL

yap TL ao(f)OV rivos e^ef-

prjpaTOS r] TToXty rip-wv,

dWa, nipaive povov

prjre SeSpapeva prjT el-

prjpkva nco nporepov pi-

aovai yap rjv rii, naXaia 580

571. vvv Si) 8f i] The time for expound- long or short : navros iiirpov d8ia0opds
ing the principles of the ywaiKoKpaTta itrnv fj reXeurata (rvWa^q, ware dvvaa'dat
has arrived aud the Chorus greet their
: dvai avr^v kiu ppax^lav kol /laKpav.
chieftainess with a little song of advice Hephaestion, iv. 2. Of the four remain-
and encouragement the strophe, pro-; ing lines, the fifth, eighth, and eleventh
bahly, to an antistrophe which has are trochaic dipodies whilst the final

dropped out after line 729 infra. It has an additional trochaic foot,
consists of eighteen lines, all but four and is therefore a trochaic dimeter
of which are composed of a choriamb brachycatalectio. The metrical scheme
and an Ionic a minore. The Ionic is of the chorus is set out in the Appendix,
twice shorn of its final syllable, and so The first line appears in the MSS. as
becomes an anapaest, and once of its vvv Si) Sel o-e TrvKvfjv cjjpfva koi (j)iK6cro(j)ov

first syllable, and so becomes a bacchic iydptiv, but I have struck out the words
foot. Also the first line has a dissyllabic, ^piva km which are useless

and the fourth a, monosyllabic', base, to the and destructive to the

And of course in all non-continuous metre, and have plainly crept into the
metres the final syllable may be either text from some gloss on the words
Ctiou. Now waken your intellect bright,

Your soul philosophic, that knows

So well for your comrades to fight.

For all to our happiness goes

The project your tongue will disclose,
As with thousands of joys you propose
The citizen life to endow.
Now show us what things you can do !

It is time ; for the populace now

Requires an original new
Experiment ; only do you
Some novelty bring from your store
Never spoken or done heretofore.

The audience don't like to be cheated

With humours too often repeated.

n-vKufjv <j)povTlha. They are however the poet's rivals, with whose constant
retained in the translation. harping on the self-same topics he is
573. Koivji yap] The Chorus are ex- fond of contrasting his own boundless
plaining why they had used the words variety and originality. " Unlike them,"
ToitTi (jiiKaKTiv dfjivvfiv, " We say to assist he says in the Clouds, " I am del Kaivas
your friends, for you are not acting for Ideas i(r(l)ef}aVj ovdev d\Xr]\oi(Tiv o^otas Kat
yourself only it is for the cause of
: ndaas 6e|ids-." Clouds 547, 548. " You
Womanhood in general that the scheme should love and cherish a poet,'' he
which you are about to expound is set says in the Wasps, "who is ever seeking
in motion (literally, the scheme of your Katvov rt Xeyeiv Wasps

tongue is proceeding), embellishing the 1053. And compare the opening scene
civic populace with ten thousand bless- of the Frogs. He was probably unjust
ings of life. You are fighting the battle to his rivals, but that his own self-praise
of us all." was justified, the existing comedies
576. btfKoxiv . . . buva(Tai\ Show what thou abundantly testify. If the entire sen-
canst do. The infinitive is here, as con- tence from piaova-i to deSivTai were read

stantly elsewhere, employed for the as one line, as it is by Brunck and the
imperative, XP"? ^^ some such word older editors, it would be in the same
being understood. metre as the concluding lines of the
580. TO. naXata noXkaKis] There is Wasps. See the note on Wasps 1518.
doubtless here a covert reflection upon
dW' oil /xeWeiv, dW' arrTecrOat kol Stj ^pfi rais Siavoiais,
coy TO Tayvvi.iv yapiTCov fieTeyei TrXetaTOv Trapa ToTai OearoL?.

YIP. Koi /ifjv OTL /lev yprja-TO, SiSd^co iriarivco' tovs Se OeaTocs,
el KaivoTO/jLeiv eOeXrja-ovatv Kal /jl^ roTs rjBdcn Xiay

TOis T dpyai0L9 evStaTpL^eiv, tovt ecrO' o jMaXicrTa SeSoiKa. 585

BA. TTepl /lev toivvv tov KaivoTO/ielv /z^ SeicrrjS- tovto yap rj/uv
Spdv dvT dX\r]s dpyjjs ecrriv, twv S dpyaicov d/j.eXrjo'aL.

nP. /LT] vvv TrpoTepov /irjSeii v/iZv dvTeuirrj /itjS {moKpovar/,

581. aTneaSai] To begin the fray, rah wliicli she is to fight. Compare Clouds
hiavolais, ivith your novel thoughts and 943,
arguments. These are the weapons with
p-qfjuniotaiv tcaivots avrbv
Kot biavoiai^ KaraTo^cvaoj.

With the expression ;^"/)iTa)v litrix^L novel a scheme. Toiis dfaTos is the ac-
TrXeicrro^ in the following line, Brunck cusative placed before the conjunction,
compares Frogs 334, xap'Toiv TrXfla-Tov instead of the nominative placed after
i)(ov(jctv fiepos. it. So Birds 652, 653, 1269, 1270 and
583. Toiis Si dearas] She is confident passim. And compare such passages as
in the merits of her case, but fears that that in Romeo and Juliet, iv. 2,
the audience may not approve of so
Now, afore God, this reverend holy friar,
All our whole city is much bound to him

Throughout the ensuing discussion, the ties were taken, for which it is hoped
long Aristophanics of the text are in that these considerations may be ac-
the translation unworthily represented cepted as an adequate apology.
by anapaestic dimeters, in which many 584. KaivoTofjiciv] It must have been
lines are omitted, and a few added, and suflBciently diverting to an Athenian
which generally aim at giving rather audience to hear themselves described
the spirit of the argument than a literal as too fond of standing in the old ways,
rendering of the words. At the time and impatient of everything novel and
they were written it was supposed that untried. For of course, as Blepyrus
in this play, as in the Lysistrata and immediately reminds his wife, their dis-
the Thesmophoriazusae, it would be tinguishing characteristic throughout
necessary to leave such large blanks in all their history was their inexhaustible
the translation as would unfit it for love of novelty and change. This indeed
appearing in juxtaposition with the was their very reason for adopting
Greek, and consequently various liber- Praxagora's revolutionary scheme,
: ; ;


So come to the point, and at once : for delay

Is a. thing the spectators detest in a play.

Prax. IVe an excellent sehemej if you will but believe it

But I cannot be sure how our friends will receive it

Or what they will do, if the old I eschew,

And propound them a system erratic and new.

This makes me a trifle alarmed and faint-hearted.
Blep. As to that, you may safely be fearless and bold
We adore what is new, and abhor what is old.

This rule we retain when all else has departed.

Peax. Then all to the speaker in silence attend,

i56Ki yap TOVTO fi6vov hv Tjj Tr6\l

ovwai yeycvijaOai. Supra 466, 457.

In Thuoydides, iii. 38, Cleon, struggling not told her husband that she had been
to maintain the decree for the massacre the leader of the movement, or the
of the Mitylenaeans, says that the speaker in the Assembly, or that she is

Athenians were SoCXoi tS>v ad aroTrav, the elected chieftainess of the New
vnepoirrai he rmv clcoBoTcov. And the same Republic. Aristophanes seems to have
character is constantly given of them thought this unnecessary ; the audience
by Isocrates, Demosthenes, and the other knew it, and that was enough for his

political orators. purpose. not until the discussion

It is

587. avT aWtjs apx^s] 'AvtI tou apxfiv has closed that she mentions, and then
TO KaivoTojxelv, as the Scholiast rightly only incidentally (infra 714), that she
explains it. The speaker is playing on is now the ruler of the state. At the
the words apx^js and apxaiav. They have outset she stipulates that nobody shall
lost their fair empire, the koKtjv apxriv gainsay or interrupt her, so that her
of which Aristophanes speaks in the entire plan may be presented to her
Knights (m A^/xe, KoKfjV y fx^'f apxriv), audience before the heckling begins.
and now their only substitute is Kaivoro- vnoKpoviiv is the regular word for inter-
fUlv and to keep clear of tSiv apxalav, rupting a speaker. Cf. supra 256, infra

and whatever is in any way connected 596, Aoh. 38. So in Luoian's Toxaris,
vidth apxTj. the Hellenic speaker, having been al-
588. /iijvuj/K.T.X.] Praxagora, hitherto lowed to finish his own speech without
a mere innocent inquirer, proceeds to interruption, begins at once to inteipose
develop her scheme with the air and in the Scythian's reply. And the latter

authority of a lawgiver. Yet she has says, opas, TouTO i>s ipumKov ttolhs Ka\

TTplv kirtcTTaa-QaL rriv irriuoiay Kal toD (fipd^oi/Tos aKovcrai.
Koiva>ve?v yap Trdvras ^tJctco -^pfji/ai wdvTtav fieTeypvTos, 590
KOLK ravTOv (rjv, Kal fifj tw /leu irXovreii/, Toy S' dOXiov eivai,
lirjSe yeccpyeiy tou jAv iroWfjv, t5 S etvai /iJj^e Ta^fjvar
firjS' dvSpanoSois top fikv ^prjaOai TroWots, top 8' ovS" dKo\ov6<o'

aAX' (va noia> koivov ttcco-iv ^iotov Kal tovtov o/j.oioi/. 594
BA. TTcoy ow ecTTai Kotvo? diracnv ; IIP. KaTeSei aireXedou irpoTepos fiov.

BA. Kal tS)V (nrfXeOoiv Koivrnvovjiiv ; HP. /ia At", aXX e<f)6r]s p. iinoKpovcrai.

TOVTO yap ijfieWoi' eya Xe^uv ttjv yfjf irpd>Ti<TTa Troirjaeo

StKai'tKOf, VTTOKpo' av fj.Ta^v Kai hia<^9eipaiv and Aristophanes, having gone so far
fiov Tov \6yov' e-yo) 5e rjav^^iav ijyoVy o"o{J on one tack, suddenly finds before him
"KeyovTos. Toxaris, 38. a unique opportunity for bringing those
589. TOV (fypat^ovTos] She uses the mas- theories into ridicule and caricature ;

culine because, as Bergler observes, she and, unable to resist the temptation, he
is enunciating a general maxim, Oratori throws to the winds the consistency of
auscultandum. She means, of course, his plot. Some remarks on this subject
" Listen to me," but she puts it in the will be found in the Introduction to the
form of a general rule, " Listen to the play.
speaker." 592. fir^he Ta<j)rjvai] These words occur
590. Koicmi'fii/] The first word of again in Plutus 556, where Poverty says
Praxagora's address strikes the keynote that a poor man's lot is "for ever to toil
of the scheme she is about to propose, and to slave At Poverty^s call : and to leave

a scheme which aims at making a clean after all not even enough for a grave,^'
sweep of the existing order of things, KaTdK(ly\rei /iijSe Ta<privai. There, however,

social as well as political, and setting the reference is to the cost of the
up in its place a system of pure un- funeral here, to the ground required

adulterated communism, under the con- for the interment.

trol of the women. This is the more 593. ovb' aKoKov6to\ Not even a single
surprising, because the special qualifica- attendant or body servant. aKoKovdor
tion put forward by the women in their Bepanav ivepX to <Ta>jia. Hesychius. To
bid for power is the intense innate con- be without an aKoKovBos was a sign of
servatism of their sex (supra 215-238), extreme destitution. Reiske refers to
as contrasted with the incessant craving Dio Chrys., p. 486 D, oi fiovov aoiKos /col
for novelty and change exhibited by areo"rto?, a\Xa /xijSe qkoKovBov eva yovv
the men. But the theories of Plato, want of apedisequus
enayopevos, as if the
which we now find embodied in the was more grievous than the want of
Fifth Book of his Republic, were begin- hearth and home. And Dr. Blaydes
ning to attract very general attention refers to the oration of Lysias against

And don't interrupt till I come to the end,

And weigh and perpend, till you quite comprehend,
The drift and intent o the scheme I present.
The rule which I dare to enact and declare.

Is that all shall be equal, and equally share

All wealth and enjoyments, nor longer endure
That one should be rich, and another be poor,
That one should have acres, far-stretching and wide.
And another not even enough to provide
Himself with a grave : that this at his call
Should have hundreds of servants, and that none at all.

All this I intend to correct and amend :

Now all of all blessings shall freely partake,

One life and one system for all men I make.

Blep. And how will you manage it ? Prax. First, FIl provide

That the silver, and land, and whatever beside

Diogeiton, 23, where Diogeiton is said to whether her communistic system extends
have turned his grandchildren out of their to the muck, so that she will share it
own house dwTrodrjTOVSf ov fiera aKoXovdoVy with him. No, she says, hut you were
oil [xerh tTTpafidTOiP, ov /ira ifjLaTtMV. The too quick with your interruption j you
name was perpetuated both in the Greek forestalled me by breaking in upon my
empire and in the church, one of the speech, f(f>6rjs /i moKpoitras. You inter-
highest dignitaries in the former, and rupted me by asking a question which my
one of the lowest ministers in the other, next words would have answered. After
being designated an acolythe or acolyte. this little ebullition, though Blepyrus
595. KnreSei a-jriXedop] Praxagora has continues to they get on
stipulated that she shall be allowed to amicably enough. As to airi\6av, see
unfold her plan without any inteiTup- Acharnians 1170. These two lines are
tion, but hardly has she got through omitted in the translation, which pro-
when her husband strikes in
five lines, ceeds as if the Greek ran, BA. nSis ovv
with a quite unnecessary question. This eVrat Koivo^ a-natriv. HP. rqv yJ)v Trpturtora
so exasperates the lady that she hurls TTOlrjcra),

at his head a slang expression of abuse, 597. Tqv yr]v K. T X.] This abolition of
You shall eat much before I do. Blepyrus private property is very prominently
affects to suppose this to be part of put forward by Plato, though of course
Jier scheme, and innocently inquires in his Republic it applies not to the
KOLvfjv irdvTwv Kal rdpyvpiov Kal rd'XX ottoct <7t/V iKaaTO).

e?T aTTo TOVT(t>v Kocvaiv ovTCov fifjLiTs po(rKt]aofiev vjids

Tafjuevo/ievai Kat (peiSo/ievai Kal rfjv yvwjjLrjv Trpocre-^ovaai. 600

BA. TTcSy ovv octtis fifj KeKTrjTai yfjy ij/icoj/, dpyvpiov Se
Kal AapeiKovs, dcfiaufj ttXovtov ; IIP. tovt es to fieaou KaraOrjcret.
BA. Kay, fifj KaraOels, y^ivSopKricrrj ; KaKTrjcraTO yap Sia. tovto.
nP. dXX' ovSev TOL )(pr]<TiiJ.ov ecrrai wdi/rais avTW. BA. Kara Sfj ti;

nP. oiiSeh oiiSey Trevia Spdaer iravra yap e^ovcriv airapTes, 605

citizens generally, but only to one par- fied the gold coinage of Persia (Hdt. iv.
ticular class, tlie (piXaKes, or warders of 166), but it is certain that the Daric
tlie state. " Must they not live in some was in use long before his time, elal

such fashion as this ? " asks Socrates at pev xpvcroi araTrjpes oi AapeLKoL eKXrjdijtrav

the end of the third book (chap. 22, Se AapeiKoi ovx, a>s ol nXeicrToi vopi^ovaw,
416 D), TTpbiTuv ^ev ovalav KeKTr^jxevov fxr}- OTTO Aapelov tou Step^ov Trarpos, aXX' a(^'

befiiav tir]hVa ISiav, av firj tracra avajKr)' erepov Tivbs nnXaiorepov PaaiXetos, Har-
cTreira oiKr]<Tiv Kal rafiteiov firjbevl elvai pocration and Suidas s. v. and the Aldine
fijjdev ToiovTOVj els o ov iras 6 ^ovKoixevos Scholiast here. Indeed, the great pro-
etrei(Tt. . , , tpoiTOiVTas Be els ^VfrmTia, fusion in which they weie everywhere
axnrep eaTpaTOnebevfLevovSj Koivfj ^rjv. And found at the time of the Persian wars
in the twelfth chapter of the fifth book seems to show that they must have
(464 B) he refers back to this statement, been in existence for a very considerable
ec^a/zey nov ovre oIklus tovtois (sC. toIs time. When Xerxes was marching to
(fyuXa^t) (Staff delii eiuat, ovre yrjVf ovre ti the invasion of Hellas, a Lydian named
Pythius entertained the king and his
601. dpyvpiov Koi AnpeiKois] The silver whole army, and afterwards offered all
of Laureium, and the gold of Persia. his \\ ealth (other than his land and the
The Darics are the famous gold coins of slaves who tilled it) to fill the cofl'ers of
the Persian empire, which from the the king. That wealth consisted of a
comparison made by Greek writers vast amount of silver, and four million
between their value and that of their (all but 7,000) Darics of gold. Xerxes,
own coinage would be deemed worth instead of taking the money, added the
about 16s. '6d. each, but which, from the 7,000 Darics required to complete the
specimens still extant in the British four millions (Hdt. vii 27-30). On a
Museum and elsewhere, appear to have smaller scale is the anecdote of the
been really worth about 21s. lOd. of Asiatic who endeavoured to bribe the
our money. See Hussey's Ancient Athenian Cimon by giving him two
Weights and Money, vii. 3. We know goblets, one filled with Darics of silver
that Darius, the son of Hystaspes, puri- and the other with Darics of gold for ;


Each man shall possess^ shall be common and free^

One fund for the public ; then out of it we

Will feed and maintain you, like housekeepers true.

Dispensing, and sparing, and caring for you.
Blep. With regard to the land, I can quite understand,
But how, if a man have his money in hand.
Not farms, which you see, and he cannot withhold,
But talents of silver and Darics of gold ?
Peax. All this to the stores he must bring. Blep. But suppose
He choose to retain it, and nobody knows ;

Rank perjury doubtless; but what if it be?

'Twas by that he acquired it at first. Peax. I agree.
But now 'twill be useless he'll need it no more. ;

Blep. How mean you ? Peax. All pressure from want will be o'er.

Now each will have all that a man can desire.

there were silver Darics too, though the illustrated by the present passage.
name, when standing alone, signifies as 603. Ktiv, /if) Knradeh, ^evSopKrjcrr] ;] So I

a rule the golden coin. Plutarch, think we should read these words, in
Cimon, X. See also Aelian, V. H. i. 22 lieu of the ordinary koi fif/ Karadeh \lrev-

Lysias against Eratosthenes, 12. Peri- which is usually continued to


zonius (on Aelian ubi supra) supposes Praxagora, and does not afford an al-
that the older King Darius to whom together satisfactory meaning. But
Harpocration refers was the " Darius with the slight alterations made above
the Made " mentioned by the Prophet in the text, all difiiculty appears to be
Daniel and this is likely enough,
; removed. How if he does not deposit
whatever may have been the real origin them at the stores, hut perjures himself hij
of the name " Daric." swearing that he has hrought in all his

602. a(j)avri ttXoCtoj/] This is a legal '

substance ? (He enough to
is likely
term, signifying movable property, as retain them by perjury) for it was by
contrasted with lands and houses, which perjury that he got them. Sta toiito

are always in can easily be identi-

situ, means, as the Scholiast says, hia to
fied, and cannot be concealed or car- emopKc'iv, or more strictly, 8ia to yJAevS-

ried away. a<f>avf]s oiiria Kal <j)avepd. opKeiv.

dipavrjs ixev r] iv }(prjiia(n Koi uaifxaai Koi 605. Trevia] By reason of poverty. dvT\
aKcifi, (j)avepa. Be f] 'iyyeios. Harpocration. Tov, oiSeis alcTXpovTt Spd(rei, rj ipyaaiToi ti,

The reason of the names is excellently napaKeifievav d(f)d6v<os oTracrii'. Scholiast.


dpTovs, Tendyji, fid^as, yXaivas, oivov, (rre(f>dvovs, epe^iudovs.
&(TTe Ti KepSos fifj KaTaQiivai ; aii yap k^evpwv dnoSn^ov.
BA. ovKovv Kat vvu oStoi fiaXKov /cXeTrroucr, oh ravra irdpeari ;

nP. irpoTepov y , Snaip , ore roTai vojiois Sie)(^pd>fi6a rois irpoTepoiatv

vvv S\ 'icTTai yap ^los e/c Koivov, ri to KepSos /ir] Karadeii/ai ; 610
BA. TJy fjieipaK IScor kwiOvjirjCTr) Kal fiovXrjTai crKaXaOvpai,
e^et TOVTCof dcpeXcbv Sovvai- tSiv eK kolvov Se fxe6e^ei

^vyKaraSapOcou. IIP. d\\ i^icrraL irpoiK avTcp ^vyKaraSapBeiv.

Kal Tavras yap KOivas ttolS) tois dvSpda-i a-vyKaraKeTaOai

Kai waiSoTToteiv t5 ^ovXo/ieum. BA. nw ovv, el irdvres lacriv 615

kirl rfjv wpaioTdrqv avr&v Kat ^tjTrja-ovcnv kpeiSeiv

nP. al ^avXorepai Kal cnfioTepaL irapa. rds (refivas KaOeSovvTai-

608. fiaWov KKinrovai] He is alluding gora's peroration, infra 693-709 ; and

here, as he alludes in almost all his again in the scene of the three hags,
comedies, to the peculation of the infra 877-1111.
demagogues and the state officials. 612. That is, of his own private

And as to the fiaXkov, compare the property, which he has not brought into
passage in Xen. Anab. iv. 6 (already- the public stores. But the commen-
cited in the note on Wasps 1100) where tators have strangely misconceived the
Cheirisophus says, jokingly, to Xeno- meaning of the latter part of the line.
phon, Ka\ eyo) v^ias aKOvta rovs 'Adrjvalovs Dr. Blaydes renders it " Postguam autem

detvovs civai KKenreiv ra dqfi6(ria, Ka\ ixoKa cum ilia dormiverit, communium partici-
OVTOS hetVOV TOV KlvbvVOV TO) KkeTTTOVTLj KoX pant; tantum inde argenti sumet
Tovs KpaTi(TTOvs fxivTOL MAAI2TA. quantum puellae donaverit.'' And he
611. (TKoXadvpai] ^vpova-id(rai. Scho- adds "Assumtum Blepyri hoc est Si quis :

liast. Hitherto we have been dealing puellam formosam viderit, pecunia ei

with the subject of the community of numerata vel praesenti (ut dicitur) opus
goods but with this suggestion of
; futurum, quam puellae extemplo donet,
Blepyrus we pass over to another branch tantundem mox ex acervo recupera-
of the Platonic scheme, that which is turus." But this is not the meaning of
called in the Republic ij rmv ywamtov re the passage. The words twv ck kuivov
KaX Traidaiv Kotvojvia tols ^vXa^tv, See are a mere piece of flippancy on the
the note three lines below. To this part of Blepyrus, meaning "the plea-
branch forty lines are devoted and we ; sures they will share together," or in
then return to the question of the com- other words "the pleasures of love."
munity of goods. The subject now 614. Kotvds] This is, in truth, the very
broached, however, reappears in Praxa- language of Plato in the fifth book of
; ;


Cakes, barley-loaves, chestnuts, abundant attire.

Wine, garlands and fish : then why should he wish
The wealth he has gotten by fraud to retain ?
If you know any reason, I hope you'll explain.
Blep. 'Tis those that have most of these goods, I believe.
That are always the worst and the keenest to thieve.
Peax. I grant you, my friend, in the daj's that are past,

In your old-fashioned system, abolished at last

But what he's to gain, though his wealth he retain.

When all things are common, I'd have you explain.
Blep. If a youth to a girl his devotion would show.
He surely must woo her with presents. Prax. O no.
All women and men will be common and free.

No marriage or other restraint there will be.

Blep. But if all should aspire to the favours of one,

To the girl that is fairest, what then will be done ?

Peax. By the side of the beauty, so stately and grand.

The dwarf, the deformed, and the ugly will stand

And before you're entitled the beauty to woo,

the Republic, thougli here again the 617. ai rfiavXoTfpai] Ai aiiop^oi. Scho-
rule ia of course applicable to the liast. As to o-ifidrcpai it is to be ob-
warders of the state and to none others. served that whether in man or

There will be a law, he says, ras ywaiKas in woman, is throughout accounted one
rairas rav avbpSiv tovtoov navToiv ira<Tas of the greatest possible blemishes. On
etvai Roivas, ISia 8e firjSevl ij.rj8eij.iav avvoiKeiv' crefivas Kuster observes" Propiie super-
Koi Toiis naiSas av Kotvoiis, Kal fjiyre yovea has vel fastum prae se ferentes. At per
Kyovov elSevai tov uvtov firjTe Trai&a yovea, metonymiam consequentis pro ante-
chap, vii. 457 C. And a few lines lower cedenti, foitnosas, pulchras. Puellae
he adds, As a question of utility, I think enim /ocmosae fastu carere non solent."
that nobody will doubt as ov fieyiarov But I doubt if that excellent commen-
ayadbv Koivas ficv ras yvviuKas elvai, Koivoiis tator, when he penned the foregoing
8e Toiii naldas. And again, in chap. xii. criticism, was not himself suffering
464 B, ToO fieyia-Tov ayaBov rfj jrdXet alna from the airs of some formosa puella.

rjiiiv TTetpavrai r) Koivavia Tois iiriKovpois (refivus an epithet of the gods, and

Ta>v re Traidaii Kal rmv yvvaiKav. thence comes to be applied to men

; ;

KaT fjv TavTTjs eTriOvfiijarj, ttji/ alaxpai' npaiO' vnoKpova-ei.
BA. Kai TTiSy fifids ToiJs Trpea-^vTas, fjv rais ala-^pala-i crvvcofiev,
ovK eTTLXeiyjrei to neos irpoTepov Trplv eKeia' o? (prjs dtpLKecxOaL ; 620
nP. ovyl na-^ovvraL rrfpl crov, Odppei, /if) Seia-jjs ; BA. ovx^i pa-)(ovvTaL

rrepl tov ; HP. wepl tov ^vyKaraSapOelv. kov aol tolovtov virdp^ei.
BA. TO pev vptTepov yvd>prjv Tiv e^^'" Trpo^e^ovXevTai yap, ottcos dv
prjSepids fi Tpvnripa Kevov to Se tS^v dvSpS>v Ti woirjcrei

^ev^ovTai yap tov9 aia-yiovs, kirl tovs Se KaXoiis ^aSiovvTai. 625

nP. dWd (fivXd^ova 01 ^avXoTepoi Toiis KaXXiovs dtriovTas
dirb TOV Biinvov Kal TTjprjaova enl toIctlv Srjpocrioiaiu

[oi ^avXoTepoi]- kovk f^iaTai napd Tocai KaXoTs KaraSapOetv

TuTcri yvvai^l Trplv dv Tois aiay^pols Kal Toh pLKpoTs )(^apiaeovTai.

BA. Tj AvaiKpdTovs dpa vvvl pis icra roTai KaXolai (ppovqcrei. 630

and women, who in beauty, stateliness, is apprehensive lest a certain disaster

and nobility of mind and manners seem should befall him on which Praxagora

to come nearest the gods. says, " You need not be alarmed : you
620. Kf 1(7* 01 ^^7?] Dpoff TCLS eu^op(^ou?, will not be in such request as you
says the Scholiast, rightly as regards anticipate. They won't fight about
the meaning, though as Blepyrus is you." Blepyrus does not quite catch
referring to the language employed by her meaning. "Won't fight!" he re-
Praxagora, the Scholiast ought perhaps torts, "what for?" "For the honour
to have written npos Tas (refj.vds. He is of being your bedfellow," she replies.
speaking of the old men here, but the "No such disaster as you fear will
young man asks the same question, befall you." inrdp^et used here
is ex-
infra 1080. actly as in Soph. Antigone 931 :

621. oi;(i /laxoOvrai Trepi o-oD] Blepyrus

Totyctp TovTojv TOLffiv ayovffiv

Lines 619-622 are omitted in the trans- yvvatKav, and therefore Blepyrus, speak-
lation. For KOV <roi the MSS. and ing of the men's part, says to 8e tS>v
editions have kuI aoi. av8pS>v instead of to 8i rjfitTcpov. With
623. TO ftev vixerepov] Your part (that the expression yvap-riv nv' ep^ei compare
is, the provision made for the ladies) yvaifiriii ^xov, Wasps 64.
yvwfirfv TIV c^f ^as some sense in it. to 624. rpxmrjp-a K^vov] Tpunrjfia seems
fifv vfieTipov is equivalent to to tS>v properly to have signified an oar hole :


Your court you must pay to the hag and the shrew.
Blep. For the ladies youVe nicely provided no doubt;
No woman will now be a lover without.
But what of the men ? Eor the girls, I suspect,
The handsome will choose, and the ugly reject.

Pkax. No girl will of course be permitted to mate

Except in accord with the rules of the state.

By the side of her lover, so handsome and tall.

Will be stationed the squat, the ungainly and small.

And before she's entitled the beau to obtain,
Her love she must grant to the awkward and plain.

Blep. O then such a nose as Lysicrates shows

Will vie with the fairest and best, I suppose.

see Peace 1234 ; and there probably is says Praxagora, the law awards them
here, as there certainly is there, an The translation of this little speech
allusion to the fraudulent tricks of seems to have quite lost touch with
trierarchs, who sometimes did not pro- the original.
vide the full complement of rowers, so 627. eVl ro'ia-w trjuocrioia-tv] Tdn-oir.

that some TpvTvrjjiaTa were Keva. Scholiast. In the public places, such
626. aWa <j)vXd^o\j<T'' k.t.X.] The (f)av\6- as the mentioned 693 infra.

Tpoi, the ugly, stunted, clownish, and 628. The repetition of

oi (jiavXc'repoi]

other unacceptable wooers will keep an these two words can hardly be right,
eye on the dandies, as they emerge And having regard to the contrasted
from the banquet (infra 694) flushed epithets in lines 701, 705 infra, I think
with love and wine (infra 948), and that, combining the suggestions of
when they go to pay court to their lady various critics, we might read lines
loves will claim the precedence, which, 628, 629 as follows :

KOVK e^cffrai Trapci ToTtxt KoXots Tofs t' evirpfueatv Kara^apBiiv

Tatfft yvvat^l, Tipiv hv rois alffxpoTs Kol tois ffipois xop^*^^^Tat.

But this is too uncertain to justify 6 AvcnKpdrrjs.

Scholiast. And yet he
an alteration of the text, and I have was apparently what we call " a ladies'
therefore, with some of my predecessors, man," and endeavoured, by dyeing his
been content to enclose the words in hair, to make himself look younger,
brackets. See 736 infra. His nose may now hold
630. ij AvcTiKpaTovs pLs\ 2i/i6r fcal aluxpos itself as high as anybody's.

nP. i>f] TW 'AttoAXw Kat SijfiOTiKTJ y' 17 yvwfir] Ka.1 KaTa')(fjvr]

t5>V (TiflVOTipOilV 'icTTai TToXXfj Kul T&V (T^piiyiSai e-^OVTCOV,

orav fj.j3d8' 'iymv e'lTrrj, irporepo) irapa^mpei, Kar knirripei,

oTav tJSt] 'ya> Siairpa^dfxevos irapaSm croi Sevrepid^eiv.

BA. nm ovu ovtco (mvTa>v rjfioiu rods airov TraiSas eKacrros 635
ea-TUi SvvaTos SiayiyvSa-Keiv; UP. riSeSei; Trarepas yap airavras
Tovs irpear^VTepovs avrSiv iivai rotcri y^povoicnv vofiiovcriv.

BA. ovKOVv ay^ova ev Kal ^prjcrTcos e^rjs rore travTa yipovra

Sia, TTjy dyvoLav, hrd Kal vvv yiyvdxTKOVTei irarep ovTa
dyxovcri. ti Sfj6' , orav dyvms fi, trots ov t6t6 KaiTi^ea-ovvTai ; 640

631. KaTaxr]vq] A derision, a mocking which great and wealthy criminals abase
of. The word is used in precisely the themselves before the poor and needy
same sense in Wasps 575, where Philo- dicast, exclaims :

cleon, after narrating the manner in

ap' oil fjLeydXrj tovt <n' apx^ foi rod ttXovtov Karax^vfJ ]

Is this not a fine dominion of mine, a jape upon wealth with its show and its pride ?

On a-<ppayTSes as a sign of luxury of. entirety, unless, indeed, it was intro-

Clouds 882. duced into Persia by the fanatic Maz-
683. e/i^<lS' ex'^''] Here cV/3atmeans a dak in the sixth century of our era
coarse rustic shoe, see supra 345 and ; see Gibbon's Decline and Fall, chap,
ixav is the country clown as
6 e'fipdS' xlii, and Milman's note. But the
contrasted with 6 o-^payiS' extof, the problem here raised must frequently
town gentleman. The eix^aS i'xav is have been faced in Ceylon, Tibet, and
irporepos, the other has to play the other Asiatic regions, where women are
second fiddle, SevrepidCetv. A fuller the " The choice of a
illustration is given of this infra 701- wife," says Mr. Andrew Wilson in his
709. interesting work on Tibet, " is the
635. nas Siayiyvaa-Ketv] Here again right of the elder brother and among ;

we are treading in the footsteps of the all the Tibetan-speaking people it uni-
Platonic Socrates. Trarepas Se kui 6vya- versally prevails that the contract he
Tepas 7ro>s dtayvaxrovTat aXkrjXoii' ;
OiiSajuw?, makes understood to involve a marital

rjv 8' iya>. But in what way, said he, contract with all the other brothers if
will they distinguish the respective fathers they choose to avail themselves of it."
and daughters ? In no way, said I. Consequently there is sometimes but
Republic, v, chap. ix. 461 C, D. The one wife between five or six brothers.
system of Praxagora has never, I sup- These numerous husbands with their
pose, been anywhere adopted in its one wife constitute one family and ;
; ;


Prax. yes 'tis a nice democratic device,

A popular system as ever was tried,
A jape on the swells with their rings and their pride.
Now^fojpling, away, GafEer Hobnail will say,
Stand aside : it is I have precedence to-day.
Blep. But how, may I ask, will the children be known ?
And how can a father distinguish his own ?
Prax. They will never be known : it can never be told
All youths will in common be sons of the old.
Blep. If in vain to distinguish our children we seek,
Pray what will become of the aged and weak ?

At present I own, though a father be known.

Sons throttle and choke him with hearty goodwill
But will they not do it more cheerily still,

When the sonship is doubtful ? Prax. No, certainly not.

the strong family feeling prevailing wives in common. To some extent also,
amongst them " prevents any diflBculty under the laws of Lycurgus, the like
arising in connexion with the children, question must have arisen in Sparta.
who are regarded as scions of the house Plutarch, Lycurgus, chap. xv.
rather than of one particular member 639. KaX vvv] It should be observed
of it." " There is no noticeable differ- that Blepyrus and his wife employ the
ence in the relationship of a child adverbs viv and totc in exactly opposite
to his different fathers."The surplus senses. Blepyrus, not realizing that
women are provided for in the Lamian the revolution of which they are speak-
nunneries. See Andrew Wilson's The ing is already an accomplished fact,
Abode of Snow, chapter xxxv. These uses vvv of the old established govern-
customs prevail even among the Tibetan ment, and Tore of, what he considers,
tribe known as the Ladakis, who dwell the impending ywaiKoKpaTia. Praxagora,
under the rule of Kashmir among on the other hand, already the chief-
the Western Himalayas. See Knight, tainess of the just established ywmKo-
Where Three Empires meet, chap. ix. Kpana, uses viiv of that government,
Mr. Wilson refers to Caesar De Bello and rdrf of the pre-existing and now
Gallico, V. 14, where it is said that abolished system. Her vvv therefore

a somewhat similar custom existed answers to the roVf, and her totc to the

amongst the ancient Britons, a little vvv, of Blepyrus.

group of ten or twelve having their 640. ayxov(n.\ This charge is brought

nP. dX\' 6 napea-Tm ovk eniTpeyfrei- Tore 5' avroTs ovk efj.iX' oiiSkf

t5>v dXXoTpiwv, oa-Tis rvvTor vvv S' rjv irXrjyivTOS aKOva-r],

/ifj Toy eKiivov tvtttt] SeSiMS, toTs Spaxnv tovto na^drai.

BA. ra /lef dXXa Xeyeis ovSey crKaim- d Se TrpoaeXdoip 'EiriKOvpos,

fj AevKoXoipos, Trdmrav fie KaXd, tovt rjSr] Sfivov aKovaai. 645

XP. noXii fi^vTOi Seivorepov tovtov tov irpdy/xaTos earri BA. to ttoIov ;

XP. d ae (piXrja-Lv 'Apio-TvXXos, ^d(TK(ov avToD waTep' eTvai.

BA. olfido^oi y du Kai kcokvoi. XP. (tv Si y o^ots dv KaXafiivOtjS.

against Athenian youngsters in many standers should come to his victim's

of the plays of Aristophanes. See assistance, some as sons, some as brothers,
Clouds 1385 Wasps 1039 Birds 1848,
; ;
some as fathers.'' heos hi to ra nacrxovTi
1852. cannot be doubted that some
It TOvs aWovs ^or^SilVj roiis fisv as vleis,

startling instances of this crime had Toils 8e a>s d8e\cf>0VSf tovs de ws iraTipas,
occurred in his days. The last words of Eep. V. chap. xii. 465 B.
the line are rendered by the Latin 644. 'EiriVovpor] Epicurus, Leucolo-
translators, "quomodo non tunc eum phus, and Aristyllus were obviously some
etiam male concacabunt ? " of the most disreputable young Athe-
643. fiq TOV eKfiVou] Sc. irtiTspa, the nians of the day. ovtoi alcrxpo'i, says
lystander-'s father. So I thint we should the Scholiast of the two former and

read for the common fifj avrbv inelvov, alaxpoTToios ovtos of Aristyllus. Of Epi-
which does not give the sense required. curus and Leucolophus we know nothing
Hitherto, she argues, if a son assaulted further : though looking to the Athenian
his father, the bystanders would not habit of naming children after their
interfere was no business of theirs
; it grandfathers, some may conjecture that
it was not their own father who was the former was the grandfather of the
being evil entreated but under the famous philosopher, and the latter the
new system, the victim may, for aught son of the traitor Adeimantus. See
they know, he their own father, and Frogs 1513. Aristyllus, however, is
they will at once interpose. Praxagora again mentioned in Plutus 314, and
is still borrowing the arguments of that in a way which enables us to
Plato, who draws precisely the same understand why a kiss from his lips
conclusion from the same considera- would have been so specially objection-
tions. "A youth will not now,'' he able. For it is plainly indicated there,
says, "strike or insult his senior; he that his face and gaping mouth had,
will be deterred by two considerations, on some OQcasion or other, been
viz. reverence and fear reverence lest : smothered over with dung. Cario has
he should perchance be striking his been telling the needy agriculturists
own parent; and fear lest the by- who form the Chorus, that the god of

; ;


For now if a boy should a parent annoy.

The lads who are near will of course interfere
For they may-themselves be his children, I wot.
Blbp. In much that you say there is much to admire
But what if Leucolophus claim me for sire.
Or vile Epicurus ? I think you'll agree
That a great and unbearable nuisance 'twould be.

Che. a nuisance much greater than this might befall you.

Blep. How so ? Che. If the skunk Aristyllus should call you
His father, and seize you, a kiss to imprint.

Blep. O hang him ! Confound him 1 O how I would pound him !

Che. I fancy you soon would be smelling of mint.

wealth is witliin, and will speedily turn Chorus are not slow in expressing their
them all into rich and leisured men. The surprise and delight at the prospect :

Chokus. He says we'll all be wealthy now upon my word this passes, sirs.

Cabio. 0, yes, you'll all be Midases, if only you've the asses' ears.
Chokus. O, I'm so happy, I'm so glad, I needs must dance for jollity,
If what you say is really true, and not your own frivolity.

Thereupon they break out into a rustic who at first represents the Cyclops
dance, in which the Chorus personate Polyphemus, and afterwards the en-
the comrades of Odysseus, chasing Carlo, chantress Circe :

Cabio. And now I'll change to Circe's part, who mixed her drugs with baleful art
Wlio late in Corinth, as I've learned, Philonides's comrades turned
To loathsome swine in a loathsome sty,
And fed them all on kneaded dung which, kneading, she amongst them flung
And turn you all into swine will I.
And then ye'll grunt in your bestial glee,
Wee wee wee ! 1 !

Follow your mother, pigs ! quoth she.

Choeus. We'll catch you, Circe dear, we will who mix your drugs with baleful skill
; :

"Who with enchantments strange and vile ensnare our comrades and deiile.
"We'll hang you you erst were hung
up, as
By bold Odysseus, lady fair and then, as if a goat you were,

We'll rub your nose in the kneaded dung.

Like Aristyllus, you'll gape with glee.
Wee wee wee ! ! !

Follow your mother, pigs ! quoth he.

648. KaXaiitvOrjs] The speaker makes a slight pause after the first two syllables

H 3

nP. d\\' offroy /ley irponpov yeyovev, vplv to y^rj^icriia yevecrdai,
&<tt' ovy) Seoi firi (re (piXrjarj. BA. Seivoy fiePT&,v knenovOeiv. 650
Triv yfjv Se Tis eaO' 6 yimpy^aaii/ ; IIP. ol SovXoi. aol Se fieX'^crei,

oTav ^ SeKanovf rh (TTOL-)^i'iov, XmapS y(copuv knl Sunvov.

BA. irepl S' IpariODV Tis nopos earai ; Kai yh,p tovt ecrTiv epiaSai.

nP. TO. filv ov6' iip-tv TTp&Tov vwdp^ei, t3; Se Xoicp' ri/j.i'is {xpavovftev.

in order to bring out the last two, dience of the with which the

-Iiiv6r]s, with greater emphasis. For face of Aristyllus was bedaubed. The
undoubtedly, as Dr. Blaydes .observes, reference to Aristyllus in the passage
-liivBtjs is intended to remind the au- translated in the preceding note is :

fuvOttiffoiilv ff wat!ip Tpdyov

tmaSe nrjTpl xoipot.

If Aristyllus presses his face to yours, 652. SeKawovv] When the {shadow of
you will certainly be smelling of fi.iv6os. the) gnomon is ten feet long, that is to
The old grammarians thought that say, rather more than half an hour
there must be some connexion between before sunset. In the primitive dials of
the words fxivBos and (livOrj. The author which Aristophanes is speaking the
of the Etymol. Magn. s. v. filvOri, after hour was determined not by the direc-
describing fiivBri as a sweet-smelling tion, but by the length of the shadow.
herb, adds fiijn-or' ovv fi/ieis fiivdov Kara And according to the most careful
avTl<j)pa(Tiv TTjv SucrtoStaf KaXovfiev, Hesy- observation which I have been able to
chius under the one title jiLvBa has tA make or procure, an object casts a
avBpamda Koirpos. And the
TjbioiTjiov Kai shadow of " over twenty-two " times its
Scholiast on Plutus 313 appears to think own height at sunset, and a shadow of
that fiivdrj derives its name because it is ten times its own height about thirty-
an avBos ev rfj Koirpio (jivofievov. one minutes earlier. It is plain there-
651. yeaipyrja-av] That the Athenians fore that the gnomon or (as we are
loved to cultivate their own lands, accustomed to call it) index of an
though of course with the assistance of Athenian dial was one foot in height,
numerous slaves, is plain, as from other rising vertically from the ground. Dials
authorities, so from countless passages of this kind are frequently mentioned
in the plays of Aristophanes ; especially by the ancient writers. Thus Eubulus
the Acharnians and the Peace. In the (apud Ath. i. 14) tells a story of a para-
latter play, as indeed in the Plutus, site who, being asked to supper when
the Chorus consists of free Athenian the shadow was twenty feet long, that
yeapyoi. is, just before sunset, otttjvW av EtKoo-i


Pkax. But this, sir, is nonsense : it never could be.

That whelp was begotten before the Decree.
His kiss, it is plain, you can never obtain.

Blep. The prospect I view with disgust and alarm.

But who will attend to the work of the farm ?
Prax. All labour and toil to your slaves you will leave
Your business 'twill be, when the shadows of eve

Ten feet on the face of the dial are cast,

To scurry away to your evening repast.
Blep. Our clothes, what of them ? Prax. You have plenty in store,
When these are worn out, we will weave you some more.

noSav fierpovvTi to iTToixeiov ^, took the in the evening, and jnade his appear-
measurement in the morning instead of ance just after sunrise :

Come sup to-morrow, says a friend,

When twenty feet the shades extend.
He rises up before the lark,
And runs the dial's face to mark.
Lo, when the sun appears in view,
The shade is over twenty-two.
Off to his friend's at once he hies,
And, Sorry I'm so late, he cries,
'Twas urgent business made me stay.

This, though he came with break of day.

The expression " over twenty-two " is naked eye. Menander's parasite (apud
quite accurate the shadow beyond that
: Ath. vi. shadow on his
42) measured the
distance becomes imperceptible to the dial by moonlight :

K\r]diis TtOTf

(Is iariaaiv SaiSexiTroSos, ipSpioi

vpbs Tr)v crcA-^fi/v trpfx^ '"^^ aicAv ISaiv

cUs vCTepi^wv Kit iraprjv oifi ^fxipa.

So in Lucian's Gallus, 9, a poor man, Photius, s. v. ; Suidas, s. v. tfKanovs crKid ;

asked out to supper, is described as Scholiast on Lucian ubi supra ; Pollux,

(Tvpex^s eVio-Kon-Sj', oTroa-anovv to crTOixelov vi. segm. 44. By Xiirapa we are to
fit]. 'The Scholiast here explains o-ToixfroK understand bathed and oiled. Bentley
by ij ToO ijXiov (TKia, Srav y SeKa ttoSSiv. refers to Plutus 616, Xmapos p^topmv ex
6f\ei ovv flntiv, ore yiviTai t6 oyj^ivov, Cf. ^oKavdov.
BA. 1/ iTl ^T]tS>- 77(5?, TJV TIS 0(p\rj TTapOL TOIS dp^OVCTl SlKTjy TOO, 655
TTodev (.KTia-fL TavTTjv ; ov yap twv Koivmv y earl SiKaiou.

HP. dXX' ovSe ScKai irpcarov 'iaovrai. BA. tovtI 8e noaovs kniTptt^n ;

XP. Kaycb raijTr] yvw/irju k6e/ir]V. HP. tov yap, rdXav, ovveK 'iaovTai ;

BA. TToXXcSj' iVK(.v v^ TOV AttoXXw TrpS>Tov 8 iyos f'iveKa Srjnov,

fjv Tis 6<puXa>v e^apvyTai. HP. nodev ovv eSdveicr 6 Saveicras 660
kv t KOLvm TrdvTcav ovtcdv ; KXinrcou Srjirov 'err' eTriSrjXos.

XP. vfj Trjv ArjfirjTp' ev (re SiSdaKei. BA. tovtI toivvv (ppa(TdTco fioi,

655. TTwr . . . TTodfv ;] The double inter- only as an excuse for giving a transla-
rogative without any conjunotiye,thougli tion of that singular epigram which
almost unknown in English, is so com- purports to be a dialogue between a
mon in Greek that if I cite from the corpse in his grave (speaking perhaps
77th epigram of Paulus Silentiarius through the epitaph on his tombstone)
the question t'is^tIvi ravra Xe'yeis ; it is and an indifferent passer-by:
My name's
What matter? and my home i care not.
My was noble
What and if it were not ?
Glory I won
What boots it in the tornb?
And here I lie Who says so, and to whom?
By the words trapa rois npxovo-i he means that instead of directly answering her
"in the dicastic courts," over each of husband's question, Praxagora raises a
which, as we know, an archon was ac- preliminary objection, which disposes
customed to preside. "If one should of the assumption upon which the
lose an action before the archons, how question is founded. This is a common
and whence will he- pay the fine ? It meaning of Trparov, Before toe get to that

would not be fair to pay it out of the point. So in Lysistrata 497, the magis-
common fund." nodev is taken as the trate having said that the money was
equivalent to ex nVor, from which f k is required for carrying on the war, Lysi-
to be understood before rav Koivav. strata takes the preliminary objection,
657. ouSe 8iKat] She is again borrow- aXX ovhev Set TrpoiTOv noXefislv. So again
ing from the Republic. SUai re koi in Plutus 519, 522, in the course of the
fyKKTjfjLara npos aWrjXovSf says the Platonic dialogue between Poverty and Chremy-
Socrates, oIk oixri(TeTai i^ avToiv, ais cWor lus, a dialogue which, in many respects,
fljTflv, 8ia TO firjSfv iSiov cKTrjcrdai ttXiji/ to recalls the present.The statement that
rrStfia, to 8' aX\a Koiva ; V. chap. 12 there will be no more lawsuits naturally
(464 D). And Plutarch tells us that alarms the two old men, who are well
this result did actually follow from the aware that the bulk of the population,
legislation of Lycurgus. See his Ly- if not themselves (563 supra), gain their
curgus, chap. 24. It will be observed living, in one way or another, by means

Blep. Just one other thing. If an action they bring,

"What funds will be mine for discharging the fine ?

You won't pay it out of the stores, I opine.

Prax. a fine to be paid when an action they bring !

Why bless you, our people won't know such a thing

As an action. Blep. No actions ! I feel a misgiving.
Pray what are " our people " to do for a living ?

Chb. You are right : there are many will rue it. Prax. No doubt.
But what can one then bring an action about ?

Blep. There are reasons in plenty ; Fll just mention one.

If a debtor won't pay you, pray what's to be done ?

Peax. If a debtor won't pay ! Nay, but tell me, my friend,

How the creditor came by the money to lend ?

All money, I thought, to the stores had been brought.

I've got a suspicion, I say it with grief,

Your creditor's surely a bit of a thief.

Blep. Now that is an answer acute and befitting.

of litigation. Her husband at once ex- no letting of houses, nor any other
claims tovti 8e noa-ovs imTpl-^ei, quot cives transaction whereby the relationship of
nostras, dii loni, ea res pessumdabit? to debtor and creditor is created. Blepyrus
quote Le Fevre's rendering. And even therefore passes from the case of a civil
Chremes, who generally acquiesces in debt to that of a criminal liability.
Praxagora's scheme, cannot help sharing 662. XP. vfj t^v Aij/jTjTp'] This entire
the apprehensions of Blepyrus in this line (with ye SiSno-Kci? for o-e SiSdo-Kci)

matter : Kaya TavTn yva>firjv eSffitiv, And was formerly given to Blepyrus but ;

Itoo was thinking the same; with which Bentley saw that the direct address,
Dindorf compares Sophocles, Philoctetes "you explain the matter well," could
1448 and Hdt. i. 120. Compare St. not belong to the speaker who im-
Chrysostom, Horn. i. in Hebr. ad finem, mediately adds " now then, let her tell
TaCrrj Ttderai ras \//'ij(/)ovr. me," and with his usual acumen trans-
660. fSaveio-'] Praxagora deals with ferred the first six words to the friend
the particular case of money lent but ; of Blepyrus. But this involves a slight
her argument is equally applicable to further alteration, for Chremes never
every other sort of debt. Where there addresses Praxagora herself, but always
isno private property, there can be no speaks to his fi-iend. For ye fiiSdo-xtir

lending of money, no selling of goods, we should therefore read a-e 8iSdo-/ci.

7^S aiKiiai 01 TvnTovres irodev eKTia-ovaiy, kneiShv
eva))(r]6evTes v^pi^axriv ; tovto yap oifiai cr dnopria-eiv,

IIP. ano TTJs fid^rjs ^s criTe'iTar Tavrqs yap orav tls d<j>aLp^^ 665
ou^ vjSpieh at ^avXcos oiirms avOis rfj yaa-rpl KoXaadeis.

BA. 01^5' av KKinrrjs oi/Sels 'earrai ;HP. nas yap K\i-^ei fierou avrm ;

BA. 0^5' diToSvaovcr apa tS>v vvktwv HP. ovk, fjv olkoi ye KaOevSijs,

oiS' riv ye 6vpa^ , axrirep npoTepov ^ioTOS yap ndcriv inrdp^ei.

^v 8' dnoSvr] y , avTos Sooaei. ri yap airrS Trpdyfia /id)(_e<T6at ; 670

erepov ydp laiv eK tov kolvov KpeiTTOv eKeivov KOfiieiTai.
BA. ovSe KvjSevaovcr dp' dvOpconoi ; HP. wepl tov ydp tovto noiijaei ;

The change from the latter words to the rightful place amongst the warders, for
former -was inevitable, so soon as they whose education and mode of life he is
were supposed to be spoken by Blepyrus. there endeavouring to provide.
"By Demeter," says Chremes, in effect; 665, djro TTjS fia^r)s\ 'Airo Ttjs TpoCJ)rjs,
"she has given you a good answer.'' cfiqu'iv, Tjs \afi0dvi ano tov SrjfiOiriov, Sidaxri
" Then let her tell me this," says Ble^ Trjv ^rjfiiav. Scholiast.
is one of fiSfa
pyrus, propounding his next diflSculty the articles of food mentioned supra
And then turning to his wife, he adds, 606. There it is employed in its strict
" That difficulty, I think, you cannot sense of barley cake, aprovs Kal ijui(ns,

get over." The translation follows the wheaten and barley loaves. So Peace
old reading. 853, Plutus 190-2 Plato, Republic, ii.

663. Tijs aiKcias] Trjsv^pcais. Scholiast. chap. 12 (372 B), and passim. But here
The genitive is governed by rfjv ri/ji^v, it is not confined to one particular
understood after eKnaova-iv. Whence eatable. It is used, as the Scholiast ob-
shall they pay the penalty for their as- serves, and as is frequently the case, for
sault ? The aiKi'ar fii'xij (for the word is food in general. There seems little, or
spelled aiKLas as well as alKclas) is men- no, similarity between this regulation
tioned in that chapter of the Republic of Praxagora, and the Spartan custom
to which we have already so frequently mentioned in Athenaeus, iv. 18, with
referred (Book v. chap. 12, 464 E), but which Bergler compares it. The Spartan
in a manner which may seem to indicate offender was required to contribute a
that the passage was subsequently added dessert, or some accessories of a dessert,
to the Platonic sketch as a reply to the but he does not seem to have been de-
Aristophanic caricature. For he dis- prived of his own meal, or to have been
misses all such questions with the re- in any way tjj yaa-rpl KoXaa-deis.
mark that actions for violence and as- 666. (j)ai\as ouTO)?] So carelessly, with
sault, ^lalav and uiKi'uf fiiVai, will find no so little thought. Cf. Peace 25. He will


But what if a man should be fined for committing

Some common assault, when elated with wine;
Pray what are his means for discharging that fine ?
I have posed you, I think. Peax. Why his victuals and drink
Will be stopped by command for awhile ; and I guess
That he will not again in a hurry transgress.
When he pays with his stomach. Blep. Will thieves be unknown ?

Peax. Why how should they steal what is partly their own ?
Blep. No chance then to meet at night in the street
Some highwayman coming our clokes to abstract ?
Peax. No, not if you're sleeping at home nor, in fact. ;

Though you choose to go out. That trade, why pursue it ?

There's plenty for all : but suppose him to do it.

Don't fight and resist him j what need of a pother ?

You can go to the stores, and they'll give you another.

Blep. Shall we gambling forsake ? Peax. Why, what could you stake ?

think a long time before lie assaults carrying on their trade pretty briskly.
anybody again. Their modus ojierandi is described by
668. dffofiuo-ouo-'] See above 544, 565. Euelpides in Birds 496. He has been
From tbe repeated allusions in this stopping too late at a name-day feast,
play to these light-fingered gentry, we and is leaving the city at night to re-
may infer that they were at this time turn to Halimus,
But scarce I emerge from the wall
When I get such a whack with a stick on my back
from a rascally thief, that I fall,
And he skims off the cloke from my shoulders or e'er for assistance I'm able to bawl.

As aTToHvai, 'kanroSvT-qs, and the like, are miss the very gist of the argument.
specially applied to highway robberies, 670. avTos fioKTet] *0 anodvofifvoSf iKOiV,

Praxagora's first words ovk fjv olxot ye i^ov avra /SAtiok Xa^tic. Scholiast.
KaBevSrjs are a mere joke ; for it is certain aiiTos here, as very frequently elsewhere,
that if a man stays at home, says Le means of himself, of his otvn accord,
Fevre, "tutum eum a \to7To8vTu>v per- "sponte sua." Kpelrrov cKcivov, in the next
petuo fore, seu sub Praxagora, seu sub ar- line means better than the one he lost.
chonte quovis." But she quickly passes 672. irepi Toil] For what stake ? This
to a more serious answer, Nor indeed if is a special, but well-known, usage of
you walk abroad. Dr. Blaydes's transla- TTfpi. ntpidov /lioi Trepi Bvjxirihav (iXuy.

tion, Nor indeed if you sleej) out, seems to Ach. 772. i6tKa> TTfpi TTjS Ke(j)a\rjs rrepi-

BA. rfju Sk Mairav riva Trot-qcreis ; IIP. kolvt^v irda-iv. to yap dcrrv
fitav oiKT^criv ^rjfii noL-qa-etp a-vppij^acr els ef airavra, 674
(ucrre ^aSi^eiv els aXAijAouy. BA. to Sk Seinvov nov TrapaOrja-eis ',

nP. TO, SiKacrTrjpta /cat Tai aroias dvSpwvas irdvTa noLrjaco.

BA. TO Sk ^fjjia TL <Toi y^prjcripiov ea-Tai ; HP. rovs KpaTrjpas KaTaOijcrco

Kal Tas vSpiai, Kal pa^lrmSeif 'ia-Tai Toh naiSapioicrii'

Tovs dySpeiovs kv t& TToXf/ico, Ke'i Tis SetAoy yeyevrjTat,

iva fifj Semvaicr alay^yvofievoi. BA. v^ Toy AttoXXco ^dpuy ye. 680
TO, Sk KXrjpcoTrjpia wot Tpe-^ei9 ; IIP. eh Ttfv dyopav KaTaQfjdO)-

Sdo-flat. Knighta 791. As to the inter- the Madness of Heracles (954) the hero,
change of the singular and plural into whose soul the demon of madness
numbers, the class and the individual has entered, is described by Euripides
representing the class, see the note on as pi(Tov is avbpStv' c'cTTrecrwv, and feign-
Wasps 554. And of. in the present ing to prepare a banquet there. The
dialogue 618, 641, 642, and 664, 665 avSpav, at the wedding of Alexander
supra, and 688 infra. the Great, was large enough to contain
673. hiaiTav\ Trjv Ka6^ Ka(TTi]v Tpo(l>riv. a hundred couches. Ael. V. H. viii. 7.

Scholiast. Our mode of living, the 677. ^rjfia] *0 XlOos iv rco BiKatTTrjpia,
manner of our daily life. Scholiast. The term XiSos, though
674, avpprj^ao"' els ev aTravTo] There strictly, I suppose, applicable only to
are to be no more private apartments, the (irjp.a Pnyx (see the note on
in the
no more private houses : the middle Peace 680), seems to have been loosely
walls of partition are to be broken applied to any pulpit from which the
through, so that all the dwelling-houses orators spoke, and especially to the
in the whole city will become one great ^riixma in the law courts. Acharnians
public establishment for the whole body 683.
of citizens in common. This again is 678. Toif iraihaploiiTiv] For it was the
based upon the arrangements which custom in old times, that whilst the
Plato proposed for his warders. oiKi'as tc elders reclined at the banquet, the boys
KOL ^vtrtTLTta KOiva ;^ovT6ff, idia 5e ovdevos entertained them by singing or reciting
oidev Toioiro KiKTrjuivov. Book V. chap, the praises of famous men and valiant
vii (458 C). And see the passages cited deeds. Of this we have an excellent
in the note to 597 supra. illustration in Peace 1265-1304. In
676. dvSpavas] I will turn all the his speech against Timarchus (168)
courts and porticoes into banqueting Aeschines refers to the fact that Alex-
halls. " Graeci enim avbpSivas appellant ander the Great, then a boy of ten,
oecoB ubi convivia virilia solent esse." recitedand played the cithara to the
Vitnivius, vi. 7 (ed. Schneider). So in Athenian ambassadors, as they sat over


Blep, But what is the style of our living to be ?

Pkax. One common to all^ independent and free,

All bars and partitions for ever undone.
All private establishments fused into one.
Blep. Then where, may I ask, will our dinners be laid?
Prax. Each court and arcade of the law shall be made
A banqueting hall for the citizens. Blep. Right.
But what will you do with the desk for the speakers ?

Pkax. I'll make it a stand for the cups and the beakers
And there shall the striplings be ranged to recite
The deeds of the brave, and the joys of the fight,

And the cowards' disgrace ; till out of the place

Each coward shall slink with a very red face.

Not stopping to dine. Blep. O but that will be fine.

And what of the balloting booths ? Pbax. They shall go

To the head of the market-place, all in a row.

their wine in his father's palace. It itwas part of the training of a Christian
was the same in ancient Rome, " In knight that "during his repast his mind
conviviis pueri modesti, ut oantarent was to be refreshed with the recital,
carmina antiqua in quibus laudes erant from history, of deeds of ancient
majorum, et assa voce, at cum tibicine" heroism." Prescott's Ferdinand and
{assa voce, with the voice alone, un- Isabella, Introduction, sec. 1. The word
accompanied by instrumental music). pai}fa>8(cv carries us back to the Homeric
Varro (cited by Nonius, ii. 70). Various poems.
passages relating to these old Roman 681. K\r]pa>Trjpia} Since the discovery
recitations are collectedby Macaulay of Aristotle's Polity of Athens, it seems
in the Preface to his Lays of Ancient impossible to doubt that these were,
Rome. And although the practice of not the vessels employed for the purpose
employing boys for this purpose seems of the dicastic sortition, but the stalls
to have soon died out, yet, of course, or balloting booths in which the sortition
the recitations themselves have every- took place. The remarks of that treatise
where prevailed down to comparatively upon the dicastic arrangements at
modem times. During the mediaeval Athens are ably explained by Mr. Poste
period they were continually kept up in the Classical Review (vols, vii and x).

in the halls of powerful chieftains and The word is supposed to occur three
military knights. By the law of Castile times in that section of the treatise
Kara a-rrfCTaaa trap 'A/3/io5% KXrjpSarco irdvTas, 'e<cs &,v

etSas 6 Xaxcov dirir) y^aipoDv kv 6ito((o ypdnnan Senrfei-

Kal KTjpviei Tovs e/c tov ^fJT iirl ttjv crToiay aKoXovBdv

whicli deals with ras KKr^piaras apxas ; have nothing to do with any dicastic
but in chap. Ixiii the manuscript gives proceedings. To say, as Mr. Poste says,
the first three letters only, and Mr. that in the Utopia of Praxagora the
Poste's KXri[p(0TpiSfi] seems far more men were to dine in their dicastic

probable than the K\T][paiTfipia] of Mr. sections (or as them, their juror
he calls

Kenyon and Dr. Sandys; whilst the brigades) involves a complete misunder-

proposal of Dr. Sandys and Mr. Poste standing of Praxagora's Utopia. There
to read in the same chapter ttuoSoi St are now no dicastic sections ; all dicasts

elaiv els to. KkqptnTrjpi-a (for fls ra fii- and dicastic matters have been swept
Kaa-TTjpta) SeKa, jiia rfj 0vXn ^k-o-Ttji, though for ever away. All citizens are to come
I feel no doubt of its correctness, is yet to the banquet, and the merely
lots are

a pure conjecture, on which it would to assort the individual Athenians into

be unsafe to base an argument. But in their respective banqueting halls.

the fragmentary sentences which follow 682. (TTTjaacra nap' 'Apfio8iici] Saving

chap. Ixiii the word undoubtedly occurs set up the halloting booths by the statue

twice, and its meaning is unmistak- of Harmodius. The statues of Harmo-

able. Vl 8e KavoviSis (ticket-grooves) dius
and Aristogeiton not two separate
[ficKO e]v K.d<TTa tS>v KXrjpaTijpiav. [eVeiSay statues, but a group representing the
S'] iii^aKji Tovs Ku^ot)S 6 apxav, Trjv 4>v\fjv two friends in the act of delivering
Ka\[cl fls TO K]\T]pa>Tfipiov. Col. 31, lines their assault stood at the head of the
15-18. KKripcor^piov cannot be any-
Here Agora, nearest the Acropolis. Words-
thing but what Dr. Sandys calls
else worth (Athens and Attica, chap, xiv)
a "balloting chamber," which was quotes from an inscription a decree
probably, as Mr. Poste suggests, a mere granting to some person unlmown the
movable erection, like our polling daily banquet in the Prytaneum, a front
booths. And this accords with the seat at all public games, and the right of
testimony of all the old grammarians, erecting a bronze equestrian statue of
Pollux alone offering the alternative of himself, fiVdi/a iavrov X'^^'"!" ^^' 'tttoii,

a " balloting urn." The Scholiast's note in any part of the Agora he pleases,
here, ras KXriparas apxas, may possibly saveonly by Harmodius and Aristogeiton,
refer to the section of the Polity which wX^v Trap' 'Apfid&iov Koi ' Apia-Toyeirova.
contains the account of the xXijpojTijpia. However, in their strange adulation of
These balloting booths Praxagora will Demetrius Poliorcetes, the Athenians
bring into the Agora, and set them up passed a decree xpucSr elKovas icji' SpfiaTos
(o-T^crao-a) beside the statue of Harmo- (TTrjirai, tov tc 'Avri'ydi'OU Kal Ar)ji,rjTplov

diua. But her subsequent arrangements (father and son) jrXijo-ioi 'Ap/xoSi'ov koi


And there by Harmodius taking my stationj

I'll tickets dispense to the whole of the nation,

Till each one has got his particular lot,

And manfully bustles along to the sign

Of the letter whereat he's empanelled to dine.
The man who has Si shall be ushered away

'Apia-Toyflrovos. Diod. Sic. XX. 46. Nearly ing halls were still law courts, it was
three centuries later, they more appro- the practice, in the early morn, to affix
priately decreed to Brutua and Cassius on each hall, in which a court was to
(iKovas )(aXKas irapa Tf Trjv tov 'ApfioSiov be held that day, one of the second ten
Kal Triv TOV 'ApKTToyftTovos, forasmuch as letters (from A onwards) of the Greek
they too were tyrannicides. Dio. Cass. alphabet. The second ten letters were
xlvii. 20. It was for a somewhat similar employed because the first ten (from A
reason that the Chorus of men in the to K) were appropriated for a different
Lysistrata resolved to take their stand purpose in the process of assorting the
beside this group of statuary, with dicastic sections. These dicastic sections,
" swords in myrtles dressed " to hid having been fully formed, ascertained
defiance to the tyi-anny to which the the halls in which they were to sit by
women aspired. Lys. 633. "Some drawing tickets in the KXriparripiov the :

records of the group have been traced section, for instance, which drew a ticket
in coins and vases, and, it is believed, marked with the letter A, went off to
even copies in sculpture. By com- determine law suits in the hall over the
parison of these it is still possible to portals of which the letter A was aflSxed.
appreciate the skillwith which the But under Praxagora'a system all this
figures of the two youths, rushing is changed. There are no dicastic
forward together to an attack, were so sections to be assorted, and the first ten
composed as to display the action of letters are therefore available for the
both in effective combination from banqueting halls themselves. Every
whichever side they were regarded." citizen draws his individual letter at
Watkiss Lloyd, Age of Pericles, chap, Praxagora's balloting booths, and will
xviii. be duly admitted to the banquet pre-
683. iv oTTola ypd^/nart] Having ascer- pared in the hall distinguished by the
tained in what letter (that is, in what same letter. Hence in the Plutus the
banqueting hall) he is to dine, biov word ypappa is used to signify as well
eiVfly hiKCL^iiv dire demvftii, says the the letter on the ticket (277, 278) as the
Scholiast, merely, meaning
however, hall distinguished by that letter (972).
that SiKii^eiv would have been the word 684. ex TOV /3ijT'] To firira here, like TO
required under the pre-Praxagorean drjTa in the following line, seems to stand
arrangements. For while these banquet- for the entire class who have drawn

tV ^aaiXewv SemvritTovTar to fie 5^t' ey t^v Trapa Tavrt\v, 685
Toil's S' e/c Tov Kamr ks Trjy crToiav ^mpeiv Tr]v d\(piT6Tra>Xii'.
BA. lya KaTTTcocnv; TIP. fjia Ai',dW' ly eKeiSenrvwcrii'. BA. oto) Se to ypdfifia
jXTj '^eXKva-Ofj KaO' h Seiwvqcrei, tovtovs dinXSxnv airayres.
nP. dXX' ovK 'icTTai tovto Trap' r^pXv.

wdcri yap dcpdova irdvTa napf^ofLef 690

(Sare p.eOvo'Oels avr aTecpdvo)

Tray tis dweia-tv ttji/ SaSa Xa^wy.

al Se yvvaiKes KaTa Tas SioSovs
irpocnrtnTovaai toIs dno Seinvov

that particular letter, and oi in tov ^rjra joke was confined to the(S^ra. Words-
to signify those of the B class. Aristo- worth (Athens and Attica, chap, xxii)
phanes does not, as the translation does, says " the drira cannot refer to the
select the first three letters of the Theseum, which is not a stoa but it :

alphabet. He picks out, as most appro- refers to the stoa of Zeus Eleutherios,
priate to his purpose, the letters B, e, K. which stood parallel to the stoa Basi-
The Beta class are to dine at the aToiav leios, or napa TavTrjv. (Harpocration in
fiaa-lXeiov (a crroa frequently mentioned paaiXcios OTod" Sijo (TToal rjirav nap' d\-
by classical authors, as, e. g. by Aristotle, XrjKaSj rj tov ''EXevOeplov AioSf kol rj ^aa-l-
Polity of Athens, chap, vii, wherein, Xeiof.) And this was parallel to the
when a court sat, the apxav /3a<rtXeis stoa Basileios in site, as drjTa is to ^^xa
presided), cW i, as the Scholiast says, to in sound." This is very probable ; and
^aa-iXcwv diTO tov B apx^Tai. The Kappa for my own part, I think that if Aristo-
class are to go to the dXc^iVooy aroiau phanes had seen his way to making
(iv 17 TO a\(j)iTa eTrcoXfiTO, Hesychius), SO a joke on drjTa, he would have made it
giving an opening to the jest of Ble- and that his not doing so shows that
pyrus, ^va KairTaa-iv ; that they may gobble we are not to look for any jest, or pun,
up their food voraciously ? Where the or play upon words.
Theta class are to go is more doubtful. 688. 1j.f1 '^eX/cuo-^n] It frequently hap-
The Scholiast says tovs 6!jTas, tovs juadai- pened that the state of business did not
Tovs CIS TO Qrja-eiov' fTTfi izaktv dno tov require that all the ten courts should
BrjTa apxfTai. But the Theseium was not sit and on these occasions some of the

a nor is there any

SiKaa-Tripwv or a a-Toa, ten dicastic sections must have drawn
ground for supposing that the 6riTn were blanks, that is, tickets inscribed with
to go to a hall whose name commenced no letter. Blepyrus supposes that in
with 0, any more than the Kamra were like manner some of the citizens will
to a hall commencing with k. That still draw blanks ; and not unnaturally,


To the Royal i^rcade ; to the next will go 25

And C to the Cornmarket. Blep. Merely to see?
Peax. No, fool, but to dine. Blep. ^Tis an excellent plan.
Then he who gets never a letter, poor man,
Gets never a dinner. Prax. But "'twill not be so.

There'll be plenty for all, and to spare.

No stint and no grudging our system will know.

But each will away from the revelry go,
Elated and grand, with a torch in his hand
And a garland of flowers in his hair.
And then through the streets as they wander, a lot

Of women will round them be creeping,

since would be impossible in these

it scribing the xm/iof, the drunken revel
halls to accommodate all the- 30,000 or procession which followed a feast,
Athenian citizens. But of course a and of which the wreath and the torch
Utopia does not trouble itself about were the invariable concomitants. In the
such trifles as these; and Praxagora Plutus (1040, 1041) two persons discern
assures him that every citizen will get in the distance a youth of whom they
a ticket, and, by means of the ticket, were talking, and they observe to each
a dinner. other,
691. (TTe(j)ava . . . SaSa] She is de-

A. OiKv enl kwjxov ^ahi^HV, B. tpaiverai,

OT(pdvovs ye rot /cat 555' X**"' nopeverau

Athenaeus (vi. 42) cites from " The Scythian " of Antiphanes,

A. iiri Koj/^ov, el doKtt,

icafiCfj iuffirep exofJiev, B, oijKovv 5a5a Kal

ffT(ptivovs \al36vTs 'f

Plutarch (Pyrrhus, chap, xiii) tells us mighty little merriment after Pyrrhus
that a Tarentine citizen, wishing to had come: \a^uiv a-rifpavov KaWajiTrdbiov,
dissuade the people from sending for Sxmep oi fiedvovres, npos tyjv eKKkriaiav

Pyrrhus, came into the assembly, pre- K<afiaf'. And as to the wreath, see
tending to be tipsy, with a wreath and also supra 131, and the note there ;

torch, such as drunkards bear, and pro- Ach. 1145; Eur. Alcestis 796, 832;
tested that they had better be merry Cyclops 555 ; Lucian's Bis Accusatus,
while they could, for they would have 16. Usually they wore a wreath of
TciSe Ki^ovcTiv Sivpo nap rjnas- 695
hOdSe finpd^ icrO' wpaia.

vap ep-oi o erepa,

^rl(Tii TiS dvcaO' e^ iwepcpov,

Kal KaWia-TT] Kal XevKOTUTrj-

nporepoy fiivTOi Set ae KaOevSeiv 700
avTrjs trap kjioi.

Tois iinpinkcTLv S' aKoXovBovvTes

Kal fieipaKioii ol (fiavXoTepoi

ToidS' kpovaiv iroi Oels oStos ;

vdvTCDS ovSkv Spdcreis k\6d)v

ToTs yap aip.ois Kal toTs alcrxpois 705
e\lrrj<pi(TTai npoTepois ^iveiy,
iip.ds Se Teats 6pia XajSoyras

Si<p6pov avKTJs

iP Tois wpodvpoccri 8e(f>e(r6at,

roses, says Barnes on the last-mentioned 698. f| impioov] This is one of the
passage, referring to Anacreon. And many passages which show
that, in
as to the torch, see infra 1150; Wasps the time of Aristophanes at all events,
1331, 1390. the apartments of the women were
697. ircpa] It is not absolutely clear on the upper floor. Another occurs
whether eVe'pn describes the new speaker, 961 infra, where the girl is implored
or is part of her speech ; and some place to come down (KaraSpafiova-a) to open
a comma after nap' e'fiol S', and construe the door for her lover. A third is in
erepa Tit together, as in Lysistrata 524. Thesm. 482, where a wife does go down
This would leave for her speech Trap' (Kara^alva) ^d6pa) for that purpose. It
f/io"' ^f Kn\ (caXXiorr; Kai XfvKoraTi;, which is Unnecessary to cite passages from
does not seem sufficiently explicit. And other authors.
on the whole I think the speech must 708. Sitpopov avKrjs] The 8l(j>opos avKrI

be Trap' f'/xoi 8' erepa (sc. p.etpa^), Kal was a which bare fruit twice
The fact is that
KaXKlcrrr] Kal XevKordrrj. a year, but the word Seijxa-dai in the
erepa iswanted in both connexions, but following line, quite apart from such
can, as it seems to me, be less easily passages as Peace 1348, 1349, makes it
spared from the speech than from the plain that it is here, as Paulmier says,
description of the speaker. employed to signify t6 alSotov.
! ;


" O come to my lodging," says one, " I have got

Such a beautiful girl in my keeping/^
" But here is the sweetest and fairest, my boy/'
From a window another will say,
" But ere you're entitled her love to enjoy
Your toll to myself you must pay."
Then a sorry companion, flat-visaged and old,
Will shout to the youngster " Avast
And where are you going, so gallant and bold.
And where are i/ou hieing so fast ?
'Tis in vain ;
you must yield to the laws of the state,
And I shall be courting the fair.

Whilst you must without in the vestibule wait.

And strive to amuse yourself there, dear boy,

And strive to amuse yourself there."

709. cV To'is Trpodipoiai] In the vestibule : pathetic epigram (Anthology, Plato, vii)
where lovers awaited the summons to on " Lais dedicating her mirror to
their mistresses' presence. In the Aphrodite," she describes herself as

kfffiov yl TTpo6vpoLS Aa?s ix^^^ yiaiv.

The epigram may be, prosaically and imperfectly, rendered as follows :

I, Lais, whilom of my smiles so free,

Who kept a swarm of lovers at my door,
Now, Aphrodite, bring my glass to thee
What I am now, I do not care to see.
It cannot show me what I was before.

We should no doubt read tVl npoBipois bathing in its waters. " Is it a wife
for iin Trpodvpois in the " Inscription on who comes ? " it says, " her husband
a Woman's Bath " (Anthology, Anon. will love her more than ever. Is it

337), which invites all women to in- a virgin ? she will soon have lovers in
crease their charms and loveliness by plenty. Is it a courtezan ?

tff^bv ipaffrwv
e^ft kvl TTpoBvpoK, hSdSe Kovaap-iirri"

The language is evidently borrowed from that of " Lais and her mirror."

(f>pe vvv, (Ppdarof fioi., ravr dpiaKei crcpay ; BA. irdvv. 710
nP. ^aSccTTeov rap' ka-rlv eh dyopav e/iol,

Iv dnoSi^w/iai tol npoaiovTa ^prjfiara,

Xa^ovcra K-qpvKaivav ev<pcov6u riva.

kjik yap dvdyKr] ravra Spdv T]pT]/iii/r]y

dpyiiv, KaTacTTfjaai re to, ^vcraiTia, 71

OTTO)? av evwyfjade npcoTOv arjfiepov.

BA. rjSr] yap (ia>y(rja6iiea6a ; HP. 0J7/i' kyu).

fireLTa ras iropvas KaraiTavcraL ^ovXofiai

dwa^airdaas. BA. 'iva ti ; TIP. SrjXov rovToyi-
'iva tSiv viwv v^axnv avrai ras dK/ids- 720
Kal rds ye SovXas ov-^i Set Kocrfiov/xevas

Tr]v rSiv kXiv6ep(ov vcpapvd^eiv K.vwpiv,

dXXd Trapd rols SovXoiai Koifj.dcr6aL fiovov
KaTaiyaKT]!/ rov yolpov dwoTeTiXfiei'as.

BA. (pipe vvv ky& croi napaKoXovOai nXtjaiov, 725

iv dTTO^XeTTCofiai Kal Xiywai [loi raSi-

Tov Trjs aTpaTTjyov tovtov ov Bavfid^ere ;

Ar. eyco o , iv eis ayopav ye ra aKevr] <pep(o,

npoy^eipLovfiai Kd^erdaco rfjv ovcriav.

The lovers would be fVi tuis Bvpms n-dfeiv Kinpiv two lines below, doubtless
(infra 997, 1114; Clouds 467), but ei/ rois- originally borrowed from some tragic
npoBvpoiiTiv (Plato, Protagoras, cbap. vi), poet (Agatbon probably, or Euripides),
wbicb were adorned with statues, seats, is repeated here from Tbesm. 205. It
and the like see Anthology, Posi-
; means " to steal away the love which of
dippus, 13. Lovers of women like Lais right belongs to others." Cf. infra 921.
are described by St. Chrysostom as Sm- 724. KaTavaKrjv] Karacaxi) MSS. " Cor-
vvKTipivovT^s iv Tots iKilvav Tipodipois rigendum credo KaravaKrjv, slave-foshion.
Horn, vii in Eph. (50 A). Ita enim exprimebant Attici modum ad
715. KaracTTriam] To establish, institute, quetn aliquis vel aliqua sive eVeipero sive
set going, fViXXeTo. KaraivdKr), habitus servilis. Vide
720. avrai] She points to the Chorus Lysistr. 1151, 1155." Tyrwhitt. Many
who, for this purpose, as Dindorf re- instances of the kind to which Tyrwhitt
marks, represent the free Athenian refers are collected by Dobree, such
women generally. The expression iipap- as a-Kdcpiov dTrorcTiX/ie'cM, Birds 806,


There now, what think ye of my scheme ? Blep. First-rate.

PaAX. Then now I'll go to the market-place, and there,

Taking some clear- voiced girl as crieress,

Receive the goods as people bring them in.

This must I do, elected chief tainess

To rule the state and start the public feasts ;

That so your banquets may commence to-day.

Blep. What, shall we banquet now at once? Peax. You shall.

And next 1^11 make a thorough sweep of all

The flaunting harlots. Blep. Why? Peax. That these free ladies
May have the firstling manhood of our youths.
Those servile hussies shall no longer poach
Upon the true-love manors of the free.
No, let them herd with slaves, and lie with slaves,

In servile fashion, snipped and trimmed to match.

Blep. Lead on, my lass. Fll follow close behind
That men may point and whisper as I pass,

T/iere goes the husband of our chieftainess.

Chk. And I will muster and review my goods.

And bring them all, as ordered, to the stores.

Thesm. 838 ;
/loixov KeKapfieios Ada.. 849, the community of goods and the com-
&c. munity of women. First comes the
727. flavjuafeTe] Blepyrus now follows " scene of the two citizens," who ai-e

Praxagora off the stage, and Chremes, the two neighbours of Blepyrus, Chremes
two lines later, returns to his house to and the husband of the second woman ;

arrange and bring out his chattels. Of the former, in obedience to the law,
Blepyrus we hear nothing more until preparing to take his goods to the
the closing scene of the play, when he, public stores, whilst the other rails at
and the Chorus all
his little daughters, him for his folly in doing so. After
go off to join the festivities, which this comes the " scene of the three
under the new system are gratuitously Hags," all eager to avail themselves of
provided for the public. Meanwhile the privileges which Praxagora had
two more or less farcical scenes are promised them, supra 617, 618.
intercalated to illustrate the practical 729. Tfjv oicrlav] With these words
working of the new arrangements as to Chremes disappears into his house ;

I 2,

XP. ^(wpei. (TV Sevpo, Kiva)(ypa, KaXfj KaXcas 730
t5iv ^p-qjidraiv Ovpa^e irpatTt] tS>v e/xap,

OTTCoi ay kvTeTpLHii^vT} Kayrjcpop^s,

TToWovs KUTCO Sfj OvXccKOvs aTp(.y\ra(T e/iovs.
TTOv 'a-6' rj Si^po(f)6po9 ; rj )(yrpa Sevp e^iOi.
vfj Aia jXiXaivd y , ovS av, ei to ^dpfiaKOu 735

and the stage is now left vacant. Nor were the daWofopoi wanting, the
Whilst liebusy indoors with his
is feeble old men who walked in the pro-
chattels, the Chorus sing an ode which cession carrying their branches of olive
is now lost (its sole trace being the see Wasps 544 and the note there. And
survival of the word XOPOY in the doubtless if we knew more fully the
Ravenna MS.), but which, judging from details of a Panathenaic procession, we
the usual practice of Aristophanes, we should find something to explain all the
may safely conclude to have been anti- other directions which Chremes gives in
strophical to the ode supra 571-581, the passage before us. The Scholiasts
and to have celebrated the brilliant quite misunderstand the scene, and
success of Praxagora's exposition of her imagine that the procession is one, not
scheme, wherein she had more than of household goods, but of female slaves,
fulfilled the anticipations expressed in and accordingly take Kivdxvpa to be
the strophe. As soon as the song is ovopa SovXrjs, and explain arp^ij/aiTa by
concluded, Chremes reappears with his KKs^ava, KiBapaSos by 17 aXtrpls, and
goods, and proceeds to marshal them so on.
on the stage after the fashion, as Bergler The first article brought
730. Kivaxvpa]
observes, of a great religious procession out, and placed in the van of the pro-
at a Panathenaic or other festival. cession, is the Kivaxipa, a word which
is Queen of the
to be the Kavrjtpopos, the does not, I believe, occur elsewhere, but
May, the young and noble maiden who which, from its obvious derivation (irapa
bore the holy basket (Acharnians 242, TO kli'7p to axvpa, Bergler), can signify
258; Lysistrata646). Next to her walks nothing else than the "bran-sifter,"
the Si(ppn(l>6pos carrying her chair (Birds a sort of sieve-like instrument for sepa-
1552). Afterwards come the iSpmcjfjopoi rating the fine flour from the bran. We
and a-Ka(l>ri(pnpoi, the resident aliens and may infer from the present passage
their wives and daughters, carrying pots (1) that it was not an agricultural or
of water, and dishes filled with cakes mill implement, but a kitchen utensil
and honeycombs, Krjpiwv khI tronavoiv in a private house ; (2) that in figure it
Tr'Krjpus. See Photius, Hesychius, Harpo- was tall and slender, for it seems certain
cration, s. vv. ; Pollux, iii. segm. 55. that Aristophanes is selecting the most

{He1^e was a choral song, now lost, during which Chremes is pieparing to brhig out his
chattels from the house.)

Chk My sweet bran-winnower, come you sweetly here.

March out the first of all my household goods,
Powdered and trim, like some young basket-bearer.
Aye, many a sack of mine you have bolted down.
Now whereas the chair-girl ? Come along, dear pot,
(Wow ! but you're black : scarce blacker had you chanced

appropriate articles to represent the 734. f] &i<j)pn(fi6pos] Immediately after

various members of the procession, and the basket-bearer walked the 8i(^po<;f)opof

not raising a laugh by selecting the (Birds 1552), who carried the chair on
most inappropriate and (3) that the
; which, I presume, the basket-bearer
flour was poured in at the top with took her seat, when the procession
the bran still intermingled, and arrived arrived at Athene's Temple. The ex-
at the bottom as fine flour with no pression nap' avTr]v in line 737 has refer-
admixture of bran. It here represents ence merely to the juxtaposition in
the Knvrjcjiopos, the fair maiden who led which the two articles are placed by
the procession, to whom in the Achar- Chremes. In the procession she followed
nians (242-253) the direction npoW h immediately behind the leader. See
TO TTpoadfv is given, and to whom there, Birds 1551, 1552, and the Scholiast
as here, are applied the terms koXi) there. Here the chair-girl is repre-
KoKais, "with your. siveet face and m your sented by the pot, black and sooty by
sweet way," the KaXfj referring to the constant use : and if the part could be
maiden's personal beauty, and the icaXms taken by a slave (which, however, is
to the charming way in which she dis- hardly probable), it might be conjec-
charges her duty. Speah, my fair, and tured that there is an allusion here to
fairly, Henry V, last scene. Finally Ethiopian slaves, who (some years later
fiTfTpififiefri, powdered, as applied to at least) were considered very fashion-
a woman, me'ans "with cosmetics rubbed able at Athens. In the Characters of
in," whilst as applied to the Kivaxvpa it Theophrastus, xxi, one example of
which ''
Ambition in trifles " is for a man eVi-
refers to the floury state in it

would naturally be found. See Lysi- jXfXrjOrjVm ottios avra 6 cKoXovBos (supra
strata 149. In the lines cited by the 593) Aldioyjr (crrai.
" He means
Scholiast on Birds 1551 from the " Gods 735. TO <liapiJLaKov\ the hair-
of Hermippus, we should probably read dye, G)s Tov AvfftKpdTovs tpappaKw peXtil-

atrnep ai Kacij^dpoi A^vKoiatv dXcfiiTOitriv vovTOS avTov Tas no\ms. Scholiast. It

not ivT^Tpippivoii with the

cvrfTpipfievni., was doubtless from this passage that
Scholiast, noiivTeTpipLp-evos with Meineke, Lysicrates and his hair-dye became pro-
nor ivTerpiip-ivoi with Bothe. verbial in later days, a man who dyed
ey^ova iTvyiS co AvaiKpdTi]S fifXaiveTai.
'[(TTco Trap avT'qv Sevp 'id f] KOfificoTpia.-

<f)ipe Stvpo Tavrtju Tr]v vSpiav, vSpia^ope,

evravda- aii 8k Sevp' 17 KiOapmSos 'i^i&i,

noWaKis dvaaTrjaaad p. els eKKkqaiav 740

dcopl vvKTCop Sia Tov opOpiov VOjlOV.

6 Trjv (TKdcpriv Xa^cbv irpoLTCO, to, Krjpia

Kopi^e, Toiis daXXovs KaOicrTi] irXi]aiov,

Kal TO) TpinoS k^kveyKi Koi rfjv XrjKvQov

TO, yyTpiSi rjSrj Kal rov SxXou d(f>ieTe. 745
AN. eyo) KaTa6i]cra) rdpd ; KaKoSaifimf dpa
dvfjp ecropai Kal vovv oXiyov KeKTrjpii/os.

pa roy UocreiSai ovSinoTe y , dXXa ^aaaviS)

irpd>TiaToy aiiTa woXXdKis Kal aKe-^opai.
ov yap Tov kpov ISpwra Kal (peiScoXiav 750

his hair black beiug popularly called mentioned here, were attendants on,
a second Lysicrates. Dr. Blaydes quotes and mere appendages to, the noble
Apostol. X. 97 AvcnKpdrrjs erepos' iiri rav virgin who bare the holy basket.
liiKavoTpixmv. oJtos yap (j>appdKa nvl Those who follow are independent
e/xeKaive ras eaVTOv rpixaf, cip-os t>v KaX members of the procession. We are
piXas Kal alfrxpos Ka\ KXeirTrjs. Some of not told what household articles repre-
these abusive epithets are borrowed sent the Kopparpia, the iBpia(j)6pos, and
from the Scholiast on 630 supra, where the fTKa<^ri<p6pos,

see the note. The expression oib' fir, d, 789. r] Ki6apto&6s\ He is unquestionably
if the reading is correct, is strangely referring, as Brunck observes, to the
elliptical " Integra enim oratio foret,"
: domestic cock. Who else would have
says Kuster, " vtj Am fieXaivd y (ware ovk roused the sleeper before daybreak?
av iqs peXavTpa) 01)5' et to (pdppaKOv Who would have sung tov opdpiov
K.T.X." And Markland on Eur. Iph. in vofiov ? Even if the present description
Taur. 583, referring to this passage, could have admitted any other inter-
observes "locum optime explioat doc- pretation, all doubt would have been
tissimus Kusterus." removed by the terms in which Aristo-
737. KoixpaiTpi.a] A i ire-maiden. (pnXe- phanes elsewhere speaks of the bird of
KTpia, >; Kotr/ioCo-a rhi yvvmKas. Scholiast. dawning. " He was once the Great
The tire-maiden, the chair-girl, and the King," says the poet in the Birds, " the
parasol-holder (Birds 1550), who is not Autocrat of all the Persians and still :


To boil the dye Lysicrates employs)

And stand by her. Come bitberj tiring-maid ;

And pitcher-bearer, bear your pitcher here.

You, fair musician, take your station there,
You whose untimely trumpet-call has oft
Roused me, ere daybreak, to attend the Assembly.
Who's got the dish, go forward take the combs ;

Of honey ; set the olive branches nigh ;

Bring out the tripods and the bottles of oil

The pannikins and rubbish you can leave.

CiT. I bring my goods to the stores ! That were to be

A hapless greenhorn, ill endowed with brains.

I'll never do it ; by Poseidon, never !

I'll test the thing and scan its bearings first.

I'm not the man to fling my sweat and thrift

he wears his tiara erect : and still so pander's famous opSws vofMos. rfo-av &i
mighty is his power, that all mankind Enra (yopoi) ol vtto TfpTvdpdpnv' hv etf

spring at once from their beds morav op6ins. Photius, s. V. vofios.

v6iiov Hpdpiov aVi;." Birds 489. Cf. Id. 742. (TKaffiriv He who has taken

495, 496 ; Wasps 100. The feminine is the a-KcKpY] with the intention of bearing
used because the musician in the real it as aKarf>r](p6pos in the procession. We
procession was a female and should ; have already seen, on 729 supra, that
not have given a handle to such idle the o-Kac^ai were filled with Krjpia and
suggestions as the Scholiast's AXerph, TTOTrnva,

and Meineke's p-vXij, the hand-mill, in 746. eyo) KaTadfjaco] Now another door
support of which he cites Pherecrates opens, the door upon which Praxagora
apud Athenaeum, vi. p. 263, and Nico- had stealthily scratched, supra 34, and
stratus, Stobaei Florileg. Ixx. 12. Of the husband of the second woman
course here, as in Wasps 815, the bird again comes out, as he did supra 327.
produced on the stage is merely a model He is a heady and obstreperous indi-
or picture. vidual, the very opposite in all respects
741. opdpiov vopov] The song of dawn, to the tolerant and accommodating
from opdpos the early morn; but of course, Chremes, who had from the very first
both here and in the passage cited in expressed his willingness to adapt him-
the preceding note from the Birds, the self to the regulations of the new re-

expression is a mere parody on Ter- public. See supra 472.


ovSev npos eiros ovtms di/oT^rmi eK^aXm,
nplv Siv eKirvdcofiai irdv to irpayii ottcos e^et.

o5ro?, Ti TO, a-Kevdpia ravrl ^ovXerai

iTorepov fjieTOiKi(6p.vos e^eyqvoxas

avT , fj (pipeis ei/e)(ypa 6rjcrcou; XP. oiiSa/icos. 755
AN. ri SfJT km (yToiyov 'ariy ovtcos ; ov ti htj
'lepcuvi TO) KTjpvKi TTO/HTTji/ ne/nrT ;

XP. fia Ai' , dW aTTOcpipetv avra /liWco rfj irok^L

? Tr]v dyopav Kara tovs SeSoy/J-eyovs v6p.ovs.

AN. fJLiWeis dTro(f)ipeii' ; XP. ndw ye. AN. KaKoSaipatv ap el 760

vrj Tov Aia Toi' acorfjpa. XP. ttS? ; AN. irais ;

XP. ri S' ; ov)(l TreiBapyjuv pe rots popoicri Sa;

AN. TTOLOKTLv, & SvaTTjve ; XP. Tois SeSoyplvoLS.

AN. SeSoypkvoKTLV ; co? dyorjros rjcrO dpa.

XP. dv6r]T0S ; AN. ov yap ; rjXiOcaiTaTOS fMev ovi> 765
aTTa^aTTavTcov. XP. on to raTTopevov iroioa ;

AN. TO TaTTopevov yap Sei Troielv tov crauppoya ;

XP. pdXtaTa TrdvTcov. AN. top p\v ovv d^ekTepov.

XP. ai) 8' ov KaTaOuvai SiavoeT; AN. (pvXd^opai,
TTplv dv y 18(0 TO TrXfjOos o ti jSovXeverai. 770
XP. TL yap dXXo y f\ (pepeiy irapeaKevaa-pepoi
TO, -^pripaT ilaiv ; AN. aAX' ISoiv kireiOopr^v.

751. ovSlv irpos (TTOs] 'AvtI tov, as 756. eVi trToi;(Ou] Kara rci^iv. Scholiast.
(TV^fv, eucKa /xpSerdf. Scholiast. For 757. 'lepavi TW KrjpVKi] Krjpv^ ovTos,
no reason. In tlie passages cited by Dr. oo-ns to. wnrpaa-Kopfva iKrjpvrre. Sclio-
Blaydes from Luoian's Hermotimus, 36 liast. meaning is, "Are you send-
and Philopseudes, 1, the words have ing them to be sold by public auction?"
a totally different meaning, being equi- Hiero was a praeco ad merces turbam qui
valent to the Latin nihU ad rem. cogit emendas.
Horace, A. P. Praeconi,
753. ovTos] Whilst he is in the midst or praecoiiis voci, bona sttbjicere was the
of his soliloquy, he suddenly perceives ordinary Roman phrase for a sale by
the long row of chattels which Chremes public auction. So in Hdt. vi. 121 the
has been ranging in the street, and calls words ra xp^ipara airoij Kripvaa-oneva Itto
out to know what it all means. toC 8t]poa-iov iivUcrdai are rightly ren-

So idly and so brainlessly away^

Before I've fathomed how the matter stands.
Yoii there ! what means this long array of chattels ?

Are they brought out because you're changing house.

Or are you going to pawn them ? Chr. No. Cit. Then why
All in a row ? Are they, in grand procession,
Marching to Hiero the auctioneer ?
Che. O no, I am going to bring them to the stores
For the state's use : so run the new-made laws.
Cit. {-in shrill surprise) You are going to bring them ! Che. Yes. Cit. By Zeus the Saviour,
You're an ill-starred one ! Che. How ? Cit. How ? Plain enough.

Che What must I not, forsooth, obey the laws ?

Cit. The laws, poor wretch ! What laws ? Che. The new-made laws.
Cit. The new-made laws ? O what a fool you are !

Che. a fool ? Cit. Well, aren't you ? Just the veriest dolt
In all the town ! Che. Because I do what's ordered ?

Cit. Is it a wise man's part to do what's ordered ?

Che. Of course it is. Cit. Of course it is a fool's.

Che. Then won't you bring yours in ? Cit. I'll wait awhile.
And watch the people what they're going to do.
Che. What should they do but bring their chattels in
For the state's use ? Cit. I saw it and believed.

dered by Schweigliaeuser hona ilUus per and so, when

the speaker is asked
publicum praeconem venumdata. " How ? "
he retorts " Easily enough."
760. fxeXXets a7ro(pepiv ;] The speaker 772. Idwv fVci^d/xj/i/] The speaker is
asks this question in accents of shrill not applying these words directly to
surprise. He can hardly believe his ears. himself: he is using a proverbial ex-
761. pqSlas] The meaning of
precise pression, When I saw it, Ihelieved, or, as
paSlois here is very uncertain. Le Fevre's our own proverb goes, Seeing is believing,
rendeiing facile dictu has been preserved For a similar use of a proverbial saying,
by all subsequent revisers of the Latin compare Frogs 51 mr c-ya-y' e^rjypnp.rji'.
translation. But more probably we are The word enadcprjv is altered by Brunck

to take the words KaKodaipwv u as equi- into &v emBojxrjv, and by Dr. Blaydes
valentto"Youwill come to misfortune," into Traa-drjcrofiai, but there is really no

XP. Xeyovcri yovv kv rais oSois. AN. Xe^ovcri yap.
XP. Kai (pacTiv OLo-eiv dpdfievoi. AN. (prjcrovcrt- yap.
XP. dnoXfis aTna-Twu Tvavr AN. din<TTr](yov(n yap.
. 775
XP. Zei/y al y eTriTpiylreiev. AN. eTriTpLyjrqva-i yap.
oicreii' SoKfis Tiv octti^ avT&v vovv 'iyi.i

oil yap iraTpiov tout iffTiy, dWd Xa/J.^dueiv

Tjpds p-ovov Set i/f] Aia- Kai yap ol 6eoi'

yvdicTei 8' dirb tS>v yeipmv ye rmv dyaXpaTOOi/, 780

oTuy yap ev^copeaOa StSovai rdyada,
ea-TTjKey eKTeiuovra t^p )(^ip iiTTTiav,

ov)( oil? Tt SdxTOVT , dXX OTTCOS Ti Xrj'^^eTai,

XP. CO Saipovi dv8pS)v, ea pe t&v irpoiipyov ti Spay.

TUVTi yap ea-TL a-wSerea. trod povad' Ipds ; 785
AN. 6V7C09 yap oiaeis ; XP. ual pd Aia, Kai Sfj p\v ovu
rcoSl ^vyaTTToi Tcb rpiTroSe. AN. r^y pccpias,
TO prjSe nepipe'ivavTa tovs dXXovs 6 tl
Spdcrovatv, iiTa TrjviKavT rjSrj XP. ti Spdv ;

AN. eiravapivety, 'iireiTa SiuTpi^eiy sti. 790

XP. Lya Srj ti; AN. creicrpos el yivoiTO TToXXaKLS,

justification for these corruptions of the Xf^pas i'xovaiu. Scholiast. By x"p'

text. he means a hand with its palm

773. Xe'louo-t yap] This and the three upward, as a beggar would hold it for
similar ejaculations which follow are an alms, or an oflScial for a bribe. It
merely introduced for comic effect. exactly answers to the x^'P" ''"l^iv of
The first two, indeed, " Aye, talk they Thesm. 937. We
learn incidentally
will" and " Aye, speak they icill," are from Birds 518 that a sacrificer was
significative of scorn and contempt. accustomed to put a portion of the
But the second two, " Aye, disbelieve sacrificial meat into the outstretched
they ivill," and "Aye, destroy they will," hand of the god.
have not, and are not intended to have, 784. tS>v wpoTjpyov Tl bpa.v\ To get on
any meaning whatever. tvith my u'ork. The same language is
775. anokHs] You will he the death of used m Plutus 623 ti rav irpovpyov Tioieiv.

ie. Plutus 390. TO npovpyov are things which will advance

780. TU)v ayaKp-cLTUiv] ^EneiBrj 03s enl to or further the work ivhich I have in hand.
nXclo'TOP Ta ayaXfinra ToiV 6eu>v VTTTias ras 791. o-ficr^dr] It was of course not


Che. Whjj in the streets they talk Cit. Ay, talk they will.

Che. Saying they'll bring their goods Cit. Ay, say they will.
Che. Zounds ! you doubt everything. Cit. Ay, doubt they will.

Che. O, Heaven confound you. Cit. Ay, confound they will.

What ! think you men of sense will bring their goods ?

Not they ! That's not our custom : we're disposed

Rather to take than give, like the dear gods.

Look at their statues, stretching out their hands !

We pray the powers to give us all things good

Still they hold forth their hands with hollowed palms.
Showing their notion is to take, not give.
Che. Pray now, good fellow, let me do my work.
Hi ! where's the strap ? These must be tied together.
Cit. You are really going ? Che. Don't you see Fm tying
These tripods up this instant ? Cit. O what folly !

Not to delay a little, and observe

What other people do, and then Che. And then ?

Cit. Why then put off, and then delay again.

Che. Why so ? Cit. Why, if perchance an earthquake came,

merely tte Athenians who regarded an compelled to abandon his enterprise on

earthquake as a token of divine dis- the occurrence of a second -warning,
approval, requiring them to desist from this time by jrCp anoTpoirov. Id. iv. 7. 4-7.
the course they might then be pursuing. And see Thuoydides, iii. 89. But these
Some eight years before the date of Stoa-rjiiiai are more frequently noticed as

this an earthquake had caused

play, breaking up a popular assembly. See
Agis and the Spartan army to abandon Schoman (De Comitiis, i. 13), who refers
the invasion of Elis, Spn yap tov a-rpa- toThuc.v. 45; Plutarch, Nicias, chap, x;
TeCp,aros iv Tjj irokfp.ia ovtos, koI kottto- Achamians 171 Clouds 580-7. That

pvT]s Trjs x^P"^} (Ttap.os e'lriyiyveTaf 6 6' at Rome, too, thunder put an end to
"A-ytf, Bflov fjyria-dpevos, e^f\6av waKiv ck a meeting is well known from the story
T^y X<^P"s, dia<j)rJKe TO a-rpdrevfia. Xen. of the tribune Apuleius Saturninus.
Hell. iii. 2. 24. About three years after When he was endeavouring, with the
the date of this play, Agesipolis, in- aid of the country tribes, to force his
vading Argos, managed to disregard the revolutionary measures through the
warning of a aei-afws ; but even he was Assembly, 6 TroXiriKoy oxkos e'/3da, i>s ytfo-

^ nvp awoTpoirov, r) Sid^eiev yaXfj,
iravaaivr &v ela-cpepoi'Tes, a/i^povTrjTe <rv.

XP. ^(apUvTa yovv nddoip av, el fif] \oip. ottol

Tavra KaTaOdiqv. AN. pr) yap ov Xdj3ois onoi. 793

6dppei, KaraO-^creis, kS.v 'ivrjs 'iXQrjS. XP. Tirj

AN. kywSa TOVTOVS ^(^eipoTovovvTas pey TU-^v,

aTT av Se So^rj, ravra irdXiy dpvovpivovs.

XP. oicrovcTLv, S> TOLv, AN. r\v Se pfj Kopicraxn, ti;
XP. dpiXei KopLovaLv. AN. rjv Se prj Kopicrcoai, ti; 800
XP. paypvpeB' avTois. AN. ^f Se KpeiTTovs &(n, ri;
XP. aneip edcras. AN. ^j' Se KwXvaraxn, ti;

the thunderbolt, the speaker descends

eoTi Pta^aiois ov^^v ert Kvpouv. And to a ridiculous superstition, " if a marten
Marius, on taking tlie oath to obey the cat run across the way^ Kuster refers
law, observed that it would be easy to Theophrastus, Charact. xvi, irepX Scitri-

subsequently to show that a law, npbs &aip.ovias, where it is said of the super-
IStav re koI ^povrrjs o)VQfiaap.vqs K^Kvpa- stitious man, koI Trjv odov iav TrapaBpdfirj
p.eyos Trapa to. iraTpiaj was no law at all. yaXi], p.rj Trporepov nopevOrjvai, eos die^eXSr}
Appian, De Bell. Civ. i. 30. il noXkaKis Tiff, T^ XlOovs rpels vnep T^ff 68ou 6ta/3a\j/,

if perchance, infra 1105 ; Plato's Phaedo, See also Frogs 196.

chap, iv (twice), and very frequently 795. oil Xa/3oiff ojToi] The speaker's
elsewhere. meaning is clear enough, but nothing
792. TTvp anoTponov] Lightning. It can be more obscure than the words
derives its epithet anoTporroi' from the in which he expresses it. He is still
notion that where the fire of God, 7rp harping on the distinction between
Aios, had fallen, the foot of man must giving and taking, on which he has been
never tread : to ^aWofieva tois- xcpawois dwelling with such relish, supra 778-
dvp0ara fievet x'^'P'-"- Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 783. And so, when Chremes talks of
chap.xxix. In like manner it was believed giving in his goods to the public stores,
that neither dog nor bird of prey would he retorts, " You mean, to receive, don't
approach a body struck by lightning, you?" But it is diflScult to extract
SuKOucn Ka\ Kvfes /cat opi/t.$es air^xea-SaL this or any other meaning from the
rmv and such bodies
8iofi\rjTav (TWfiaTaiv ; words in the text, unless indeed we are
were often neither burned nor buried, to assume (which to my mind is im-
but fenced round, and left on the spot. possible) that he is merely substituting
Id. Symposiacs, iv. 2. 3. From sub- Xd^oif or Xd^rjs for the other's KwraSdriv,
jects so serious as the earthquake and and leaving the oTrot unchanged, though

Or lightning fell, or a cat cross the street,

They^ll soon cease bringing in, you blockhead you !

Che. A pleasant jest, if I should find no room

To bring my chattels ! Cit. To eeceive, you mean.
^Twere time to bring them, two days hence. Che. How mean you ?

CiT. I know these fellows ; voting in hot haste,

And straight ignoring the decree theyVe passed.
Che,. They^ll bring them, friend. Cit. But if they don't, what then ?

Che. No fear ; they'll bring them. Cit. If they don't, what then ?

Che. We'll fight them. Cit. If they prove too strong, what then ?

Che. I'll leave them. Cit. If they won't be left, what then ?

as inappropriate to Xd/3oir as it was suit- do not follow them up by a single

able to Karadeirfv. seems to me that
It deed."
the right expression would be either 800. Kopia-coa-i] The repetition of this

ovx, oiToSev Xd^oif or Xdj^i/s (this I see has question, though a stumbling-block to
also occurred to Dr. Blaydes) or ^117 yap some, seems not only natural but
Swov Xa/Seiv ixois- But this is purely- necessary. The speaker would not go
conjectural, and does not justify an on to a fresh question whilst the first
alteration of the text. remained unanswered. "But what if
796. eutjs] The day after to-morrow, els they don't bring them ? " " They're
TpiTi;!'. Scholiast, Harpocration, Suidas. sure to bring them.'' " Well, but what

TO ixTa Trju aijpiov. Hesychius. if they don't, I say."

797. TovTovs] He points to the audience 802. KoiXvcraxn] All the manuscripts
as representing the 'ABijvaiovs rajfu- and editions have noiXaa-' aira, sell the

^oiXovs and fiiTafiovXovs ;

quick to make things, remark which nobody has
up their minds,and quick to change attempted to explain, and which does
their minds ever ready to pass a
; not seem to admit of any satisfactory
resolution, and equally ready to ignore explanation. I have ventured to sub-
it when passed. "Were any man to stitute KioXiaaxTi, which is what the
peruse the resolutions ye have voted," context requires, and is to some extent
says Demosthenes (De Syntaxi, 35), confirmed by the Scholiast on 862 infra,
"and then go through the deeds ye where see the note. The thread of the
" They'll
have done, nothing would persuade him dialogue is as follows : bring
that the and the deeds
resolutions them sure enough." "But what if they
were those of the same people. Ye don't? " "We'll fight and compel them."
vote resolutions which are just and " What if they are the stronger ? " "I'll

noble and worthy of Athens, but ye leave them and walk off." " What if

XP. Siappayecrji, AN. fjv Siappaym Se, tl ;

XP. KaXms TTOirjaeis. AN. (^v S' Tri6vfir](rcs (pepew ;

XP. eycoye* Kal yap tovs e/iavTOV yeiTovas 805

opS) (pepovTas. AN. vdyv y &u ovv AvTicrBevrjS
avT (.IcrivtyKOf ttoXv yap kixp-eXeiyTepov

npoTepov ^eaai nXeiv fj rpiccKovO rjfifpas.

XP. oifico^e. AN. YLaXkLpLayos S' 6 yopoSiSda-KaXos

avTOicriv el<roicrei tl; XP. TrXiiai JLaXXiov. 810
AN. dyOpconos ovtos diro^aXeT rr^v ovatav.
XP. Suva ye Xeyeiy. AN. ri Seivou ; ma-irep ov)( opSiv

da. Toiavra yiyv6[ieva i^r](pi<Tiiara.

ovK olcrQ (KiLv oiiSo^e, to irepl t5>v dXSyv ;

XP. 'iya>yi. AN. Toil's ^aXKovs S' eKeivovs fjviKa 815

f\lrr](piadficrd , ovK olaOa ; XP. Kal KaKov ye p.oi

TO KOfi/i kykviT eKelvo. ircoXSiiv yap ^OTpvs

they won't let you walk off ? " To this of Hipponicus), who, having inherited
Cliremes lias no reply ready. had wasted his sub-
a colossal fortune,
807. TToXii yap ejLi/xsXecTTepoi'] would
It stance in riotous living. More than
he far more to his taste. " Multo sane twenty years ago he had begun to "shed
lepidius ei videretur plus quam triginta his feathers" (Birds 283, 284) but he ;

dies prius cacare." Brunck. And yet cannot even yet have reached the utterly
he would be suffering pain all that destitute condition in which he died,
time. See supra 366. The expression since we find him shortly afterwards in
TrXew Tpia.Kov6' fjfiepas is repeated from
fi command of an Athenian contingent at
Aohamians 858. The wdm in the line Corinth.-Xen. Hell. iv. 5. 13. And
above is, of course, as Bergler remarked, about six years later, Lysias, in the
merely ironical. And Paulmier and matter of the estate of Aristophanes
others infer from this passage, perhaps (50), says that the grandfather of Cal-
rightly, that Antisthenes was a man of lias assessed the rateable value of his
niggardly spirit, always very unwilling estate at 200 talents, and that Callias
to part with his property. himself, on his was
father's death,
809. KnWinaxm} Ovroi mvrjs, says the esteemed the richest man in Hellas
Scholiast. But, poor as he was, he yet and yet the rateable value of his
had more goods to bring in than the whole estate did not then amount to
once wealthy and luxurious Callias (son two talents.

Chk. Go, hang yourself. Cit. And i I do, what then ?

Chr. "Twere a good deed. Cit. You are really going to bring them ?

Chk. YeSj that's exactly what I''m going to do.

I see my neighbours bringing theirs. Cit. O ay,
Antisthenes for instance. Heavens, he'd liefer

Sit on the stool for thirty days and more.

Chb,. Be hanged ! Cit. Well but Callimaehus the poet,
What will he bring them? Che. More than Callias can.
CiT. Well, here's a man will throw away his substance.
Che. That's a hard saying. Cit. Hard ? when every day
We see abortive resolutions passed !

That vote about the salt, you mind iliat, don't you ?

Che. I do. Cit. And how we voted, don't you mind.

Those copper coins. Che. And a bad job for me
That coinage proved. I sold my grapes, and stuffed

811. avBpamos ovtos] This is a sort of statement is generally accepted. In

soliloquy, like the corresponding line either case the resolution failed to effect
in Wasps 168 av6pa>Tros ovtos l^fya tj its purpose.
dpamUi KQKOP. 815. ^''^'"''f] The expression 'ivayxos,
813. TOiavra \|';;^i'(r;iaTa] Resolutions with which the case of the
quite recently,
eagerly voted by the Assembly, and property tax is ushered in (823 infra),
presently rescinded or ignored. He shows that the case of the bronze coinage
gives three instances : (1) the case of belonged to an earlier date; and no
the salt, (2) the case of the bronze doubt the speaker is referring, as Kuster
coinage, and (3) the case of the property pointed out, to the bronze coins issued
tax. We know nothing of any of these in the arohonship of Callias (the Callias
^rj(ptcriJ.aTa, except what we are told in who followed Antigenes), very shortly
the present passage, or may infer from before the exhibition of the Frogs of
the language used. Aristophanes. See the notes on the
814. TTcpl Twv aXmv] It is impossible antepirrhema of that play. They were
to tell whether this was a tax upon issued because the supply of silver from
salt, or an attempt to lower its price. the mines of Laureium was stopped by
The Scholiast takes the latter view, the presence of the Lacedaemonian
e'^r]CJ)icravTO yap aiirovs euavorepovs eivai, garrison at Deceleia, and were doubt-
KCLi rb i^ri'^iixfi.a aKvpov yeyove. And his less called in soon after the war was

/xecTTrji' djrfjpa rfju yvdQov y(a\KZv e-XCfv,

KdireiT kydipovv eh dyopav en dXipira.

imiO' vTre^oj/roy dpri fiov top OvXaKov, 820

dveKpay 6 Krjpv^, /xfj Sexea-Oai jxrjSiva
yaXKovv TO Xoinov dpyvpa> yap -^pcopeQa.

AN. TO S' eVayxoj ou^ aTravres r]p.eTs mpvvjxiv

TaXavT 'icrecrOai irevTaKocna ttj iroXei

, TTJs TecraapaKocTTfjs, fju knopLcr KvpLmSrjs 825

KevBvs KaTey^pvaov irds dvrjp Y.vpnriSrjv
ore Srj S' di^acrKOTTOUfievois k^aiveTO
6 Aioy K6pip6os koI to Trpdyji ovk TJpKecrey,
TrdXiv KaTeiriTTOv Tray dvfjp 'E.vpnriSrjv.

closed, and the fountain of silver was that " on one occasion (De Symmoriis,
again in flow. sec. 33) Demosthenes alludes to a pro-
818. Tr]v yvilBov] That it was the position for raising 500 talents by direct
custom of the Athenians to carry money property tax as something extravagant,
in their mouths is, of course, well known. which the Athenians would not endure
See Wasps 791 and the note there. to hear mentioned." But this is not so.
airrjpa, I made off. Demosthenes says that the Athenians
825. T((Tcrapa<o(TTrjS , , , EipwriS7f] OJros would not stand a direct property tax
eypn-^e Te(r(rapaKO(rTriii el(T(veyKelv diro Trjs of one-twelfth (which would be required
oiatas els to koivov.- Scholiast. That to raise 500 talents). He does not
this TecytrapaKoarq was, as the Scholiast suggest that they would not stand a
says, a direct property tax of 2J per direct property tax of one-fortieth,
cent., just as the nfvTeKocrtocrTri mentioned which was the proposal of Euripides :

infra 1007 was a direct propei-ty tax of on the contrary, he speaks of a tax of
one-fifth of a unit per cent, on the one-fiftieth as if it would create no
taxable capital is, in my judgement, difiiculty whatever. It seems to me
absolutely certain. No other percentage that Euripides (whether a son of the
could have been expected to raise the great poet or some other Athenian of
enormous sum of 500 talents whilst ; the same name) was one of the officers
a property tax of one- fortieth would not whose duty it was both to

exceed an income tax for one year of devise and levy taxes (see the note on
6s. in the . Mr. Grote's objections Frogs 1505) that there had arisen

(History of Greece, chap. Ixxv) rest on some urgent necessity for 500 talents,
no substantial foundation. He says possibly on account of the expenses


My cheek with coppers ; then I steered away

And went to purchase barley in the market
When just as I was holding out my sack,
The herald cried. No copjier coins allowed !

Nothing hut silver must be paid or taken !

CiT. Then that late tax, the two-and-a-half per cent.,

Euripides devised, weren't we all vowing

^Twould yield five hundred talents to the state ?

Then every man would gild Euripides.

But when we reckoned up, and found the thing
A Zeus''s Corinth, and no good at all.

Then every man would tar Euripides.

incurred by reason of the Anti-Spartan bare no fruit.

League thatEuripides proposed to meet

: 826. KaTexpvo'ov'l Kara^pvaovv pera-
this need by a property tax of 2\ per tpoptKOis \t]77TOV ovtI tov inaivelv j fieya-

cent. that the people were overjoyed

; \uPiVj is fieycOos atpeiv. to de ivavriov^

to think that they could get out of their KaTanmovv avTi tov evTeXi^etu, XoidopecVf

diflBculties by so small a sacrifice ; that KOKoXoyfiu. Bisetus.

the tax was accordingly voted, and 828. 6 Aiof Kopivdos] The origin of
Euripides proceeded to assess it ; but this proverbial expression is explained
that, no suflBcient allowance having in the note on Frogs 439, to which the
been made for the vast decrease of tax- reader is referred. Here it will be
able capital which had followed the suflBcient to say that the words o Atos
disastrous termination of the Pelopon- K6piv6os (Corinthus, son of Zeus, the
nesian War, itwas found that a tax of eponymous founder of Corinth) were
would be quite inadequate used over and over again, by way of
2J per cent,
{ovK ^pKea-ev) to realize anything like menace, to the revolted Megarians by
the amount required and that there-
; the Corinthian ambassadors, till the
upon the popular feeling ran high Megarians rose up, defeated the Corin-
against the financier who proposed it. thians and secured their own indepen-
Very possibly at that time, as in the dence. Hence the words became a
time of Demosthenes, would have
it proverbial expression applicable either
required a tax of one-twelfth, and not to wearisome iteration, as in the Frogs,
merely of one-fortieth, to raise 500 or to grand professions which are not
talents. This -^^(purtia therefore became justified by the result, as in the present
one of those which were passed and passage.

XP. ov ravTov, S> rdv. Tore jAv -qfieTs rjp^o/Ku, 830
pvv S' at yvfaiKss. AN. as y kya> ^vXa^ofiai
vfj Tov TlocreiSco /xfj KaTovprjcraia-L /lov.

XP. oiiK oIS' T Xrjpi'is. (pipe ait rdvd(popoi/ 6 naTs.

KH. CO Trdyres da-rol, vvv yap ovtco ram e^ei,

yuipeir , krveiyeaff ev6v rr^s (rrparrjyiSos, 835

OnCOS dv VfUV 17 TV)(rj KXTjpov/iivoLs

(ppdarj Ka6' eKacrrov dvSp ottol SeLirvqaere'

coy ai rpdrre^ai y elcrlv eTrLvevqajxevai

dya6S>v dirdvrcoi' Kal napecrKevaafievai,

kXIvui re atcrvpoov Kal SaniSeov vevaajievai. 840
Kparfjpas kyKipvdcnv, at /ivpoircoXiSes
eardcr ecpe^rjs' ra refid)(r] piwi^erai,

Xaym dvaifr]yvvacyi, rronava rrerrerai,

crre<pavoL rrXeKovrai, ^pvyerai rpayrj/iara,

yyrpas eryovs eyjrovaiv al vewrarai- 845
2/ioroy S' kv avraii iTnriKfjv aroXrjv e)(a)v
ra rSiv yvvaiKcov SiaKaOaipec rpv^Xia.

830. oil ravTov] The cases are not tliatunder tlie old democracy only a
analogous. few distinguislied guests were enter-
831. at y' ym] This is of course in- tained by the state in the Prytaneum
tended merely to express the speaker's but now the invitation is extended to
contempt for the sex. Men are accus- every citizen. Some would change
tomed KnTaxpv(Tovv and KaramTTovv, "fjpv^ into KrjpvKawa, referring to 713
women, he thinks, are fit only Karovpe'iv. above ;but there the crieress was to be
Therefore he vrill give them as wide the immediate personal assistant of
a berth as possible. Praxagora. That she was not going
833. Tavdrjiopov] The yoke for carrying to dispense with the services of men
burdens. See Frogs 8, where the Scho- generally is shown by the 6 ttjv fia^au
liast gives precisely the same definition <f>pa>v of 851 infra and the present

as here, ^vXov dpcfiiKoikov, iv o> ra (jiopria speech is plainly that of a man, and
e^aprfjtrapTes ot epydrat ^aaTdCov(rt. not of a woman.
834. K^pi'g] A crier enters to summon 837. on-oi] This is the reading of the
all the citizens to the state banquet: bestMSS. and of almost all the editions.
fvv yiip ovra Taiir' ex(i, he says, meaning Brunck introduced ottou from the only
: ; ;


Che. But times have altered ; then the men bare sway,
'Tis now the women. Cit. Who, I'll take good care,
Shan't try on me their little piddling ways.
Chr. You're talking nonsense. Boy, take up the yoke.
Criee. O all ye citizens (for now 'tis thus),

Come all, come quick, straight to your chieftainess.

There cast your lots ; there fortune shall assign
To every man his destined feasting-plaee.
Come, for the tables now are all prepared
And laden heavily with all good things :

The couches all with rugs and cushions piled !

They're mixing wine : the perfume-selling girls

Are ranged in order : collops on the fire

Hares on the spit ; and in the oven, cakes

Chaplets are woven comfits parched and dried.

The youngest girls are boiling pots of broth

And there amongst them, in his riding-suit.
The gallant Smoius licks their platters clean.

MS. with whicli he was acquainted con- See Pollux, x, segm. 94, and the 00m-
taining this part of the play, and has mentators So in Aoharnians,
been followed by a few editors ; but 665-670, the Chorus pray that the Muse
oTToi is doubtless correct in the sense of will come to them keen and bright, " As
whither ye shall go and dine. Cf. Eur. the spark leaps up from the oakwood
Bacchae 184 noi bei xop^i^iv; ttoI Ka6i- ashes, stirred by the breath of the fan"
(TTcivai noSa ; and Elmsley'a note there. (Rudd), ipeBi^o/xevos ovpta pnrldi. The
838. emvevria-fiivai] Nevi)o-/xcVai from meaning here is that the fish-cutlets
veo) to heap, veva<Tfivai from yao-crw to are broiling on a well-fanned fire.

press, 846. 2/AOtOff] Kvpiov ovopa, alaxpoTroios

840. cri(TvpS)ii] TS)V iiaWarau arTpafidnDv.
fh ymmKas. Scholiast. A double mean-
SaniSav de rav rairriTav. Scholiast. ing runs through lines 845-847, for
842. piTTiffT-ai] 'Avt\ tov owTOTai. TO Bergler is no doubt correct in saying
yap TTvp ol nvffpawoi ipprnt^ov, "va otttij- that Smoius is charged with the same
a-axTiv. Scholiast. The
was a fan, prnls bestiality which, a generation earlier,
which played the part of the modern was attributed to the filthy Ariphrades
bellows (as we still say, to fan the fire). (Knights 1285, Wasps 1283, Peace 885),
K a
; ; ; ;

Tipcov Sk X^pii )(\avi8a Kai KovinoSa

iX'^v, Ka-)^d(<ov /ie6' irepov veayiov

e/x^as Se Keirai Kal Tpi^mv ippifi/jiivos. 850
TTjooy Tavra y^^copeW , a>s 6 ttji/ jid^av (pepcci'

earrjKfv dXXa Tas yvdOovs SioiyvvTe.

AN. ovKovu PaSiovfiai Sfjra. tl yap ea-rrjK e-)(<iiv

kvTavO' , eTreiSrj Tavra rfj woXeL SoKeT;

XP. Kal not ^aSiei ail p-f] KaraOeis ttjv ovaiav 855
AN. enl Siinvov. XP. oii SfJT, rjj/ y eKeiyai? vovs kvfj,

irplv av y aTrerly/CT/y. AN. aAX' dnoL<T<o. XP. Trrjj/iKa

AN. ov Tovfiov, S> T&v, e/i7ToSo)i' earai. XP. tl Srj

AN. eTepovs dnoicreLv (prjji 'id' vcrTepovs ep-ov,

XP. ^aSiei Se Su-rrvrja-wv 6p.m ; AN. tl yap nddco 860

rd SwaTo, yap SeT rfj TroXet ^vXXap^dveiy
Tovi ev (fipovovvTas. XP. rju Se KOoXvacocrL, tl;
AN. opoa elpi Kv^jras, XP. rjif Se fiacrTiySicrL, tl;
AN. KaXovfjied' avTds. XP. ^y Se KaTayeXSxTL, tl;
AN. (.ttI rats 6vpai9 i<rroos XP. tl Spdcreis ebre pot. ; 865

the ervovs x^Tpas here being equivalent used. As to f'/i/3ar see the note on 345
to the (afiov of Peace 885 the rpvffXia ; supra. In his speech, " In the matter
signifying, as Brunck observes, ra rap of the estate of Dicaeogenes," 20, Isaeus
yvvMKmv alSolaand the ittttikiji' (rTo\r)v
says that a claimant who had reduced
involving an allusion of the same kind Cephisodotus to penury by unjustly
as the 'iniriov 7vpami8a of Wasps 502. depriving his cousin, the mother of
848. Teponv] Dindorf observes that Cephisodotus, of her share in the estate,
Geron occurs in some inscriptions as now upbraided Cephisodotus on ifi^dSas
a proper name, and it is unquestionably koX rpi^avia t^opeX, Siimfp dSiKovfievos n
so used here ; but the bearer of the el e/i^dSas Kr)(pi(T6doros (pope'i, dXX.' ovk
name was undoubtedly a yepmv, a shabby uSlkSiv oti, a<^eXojuvos avrov ra ovra,
old fellow who, having been rigged out irivrfTa mnolrjKev, And of. Plutus, 842,
in a new suit of clothes from the public 847.
stores, now fancies himself a youth 860. ri yap nddo) Quid enim faciam ?

again, and struts about, joking and Cf. Birds 1482 rt yap nddo)(TKanreiv yap

laughing, with " another youth." ovk. imarafiat. So long as it was a ques-
850. f;u^(is',Tpi/3mv] Which he formerly tion of giving up his private property,


There Geron too, in dainty robe and pumps,

His threadbare cloke and shoon discarded now,
Struts on, guffawing with another lad.
Come, therefore, come, and quickly : bread in hand
The pantler stands ; and open wide your mouths.
CiT. I'll go, for one. Why stand I idly here,
When thus the city has declared her will ?

Che. Where will yoti go You

? haven't brought your goods.
CiT. To supper. Chb. Not if they've their wits about them
Until you've brought your goods. Cit. I'll bring them. Chi!. When ?

CiT. My doings won't delay the job. Che. Why not ?

Cit. Others will bring them later still than I.

Che. You are going to supper ? Cit. What am I to do ?

Good citizens must needs support the state
As best they can. Che. If they say no, what then ?
Cit. At them, head foremost. Che. If they strike, what then ?
Cit. Summon the minxes. Che. If they jeer, what then ?

Cit. Why then I'll stand beside the door, and Che. What ?

lie held it the part of a fool to obey the 864. KaTayCKa><Ti\ If they laugh to scorn
behests of the law, supra 768. But your threats of a summons ? The thread
now that it has become a question of of this short dialogue is as follows
attending the banquet, he remembers "I must do what the State orders."
that it is the duty of all well-disposed "What if the women will not let you ?"
citizens {tovs ev (fypovovvTas) to support "At them, head foremost." "What if
the institutions of their country. He they repel you with blows ? " " I'll go
has no alternative whether he like
; it to law,I'll summon them." " What if

or not, he must needs obey. they laugh your summons to scorn?"

862. fju 8e Kokiaaicn, Ti ;] Chremes Bergk, apparently not perceiving the
commences his little string of repartees continuity of the dialogue, would destroy
with the very question with which the it by substituting, out of his own head,
second speaker had concluded his. And Kan-eXcocn for KarayO^aa-i.cannot help I

this is, I think, the meaning of the thinking that if all the MSS. had read
Scholium, i^ &v wpcorjv 6 firj /SouXd/ifcoy KaireXuxn, the genius of a Bentley or

rfjv oialav KaraSflvm (i.e. the second a Person would have been equal to
speaker) inripiiTa. restoring KOTayeXaio-i.
AN. Twv elo'cpepouTccv apTrdcro/iai ra crtTia.

XP. ^d8i(e Totvvv va-repor at) S', & ^ikcou

Kal Ylapnevaii/, aipea-6e ttju na/iTrija-Lav.
AN. (pepf vvv kyo) aoi ^v/i^epco. XP. firj, firjSafiws.

SiSoiKa yap p-fj Kal irapa rfj a-TpaTrjyiSi, 870

OTav KaTariOw, npocnroifj tS>v y^prip.aTOiv.

AN. VT] Tov Aia Sil yovv p.t]yavr\yi.aTQS two's,

OTTCos Ta pkv ovTa -^p-q/iaO' e^eo, roiaSe Se

Tail' [laTTopivoDV KOLvfj p.e6e^a) wcos eyco.
6p6ms 'ijioiye (paiveraf ^aSicTTeoy 875
opocr earl SenrvrjcrovTa Kov fieWrjTeoy.
rP. A. Ti iroB avSpes ov^ fjKovcnv ; wpa S rjv TrdXav
kyai Se KaTaneTrXacrfiivr] yp-ipv6ico

868. TTafjLTrqdtav] Tfjv rraaav Krrjaiv supra, the Ravenna MS. inserts XOPOY,
Scholiast. TrayKT^/o-iaw Piotius, Eusta- showing that the scene of the Two
thius (on Od. iv. 413). rfjv okoKkrjpiav Citizens, which is now followed without
TT^V oXrfv KTrj(TLV, TCapO. TO TTcio), TQVT(TTlj any interval by the scene of the Three
KTajxai Le Fevre. It is a vox Tragica, Hags, was formerly separated from it
says Brunck, referring to Aeaoh. Septem by a choral ode. Judging from analogy
813; Eur. Ion 1305. we may suppose it to have been a
872. firfxavqiiaTos^ Chremes goes oflf to strophe, to an antistrophe separating
deposit his chattels, and share in the the scene of the Three Hags from the
public entertainment. The other, left entrance of Praxagora's handmaiden ;

behind, endeavours to excogitate a but if there ever was an antistrophe

scheme by which he also may share in after line 1111, it has absolutely dis-
the feast, and yet not deposit his appeared, and "left not a wrackbehind."
chattels. His exclamation shows that Even the XOPOY of the Ravenna MS. is
he has hit upon a plan, the particulars wanting there.
of which he does not divulge, but which 877. tI nod' avBpes] The scenery seems
he hopes may accomplish his purpose, to have remained unchanged throughout
and away he goes after his companion. the play and Blepyrus comes out of

876. &unvr)aovTa\ The accusative is the central house at 1128 infra, just as
used, says Dr. Blaydes, " quasi praecess- he has already done at 311 and 520
isset non (SaSio-rcoj/ sed PaSiCuv xpn" Cf. supra. But the houses on either side,
Birds 1237. After this line, as after 729 hitherto the residences of Chremes and


CiT. Seize on the viands as they bear them in.

Chk. Come later then. Now Parmeno and Sieon
Take up my goods and carty them along.
CiT. I'll help you bring them. Che,. Heaven forbid ! I fear
That when I'm. there, depositing the goods
Beside the chieftainess, you^ll claim them yours.
CiT. (alone) Now must I hatch some crafty shrewd device
To keep my goods, and yet secure a part
In all these public banquets, like the rest.
Hah ! Excellent ! ^Twill work. Away ! Away !

On to the banquet-hall without delay.

{Here again was a choral song, now lost.)

Hag. Why don't the fellows come ? The hour's long past
And here I'm standing, ready, with my skin

the Second Woman respectively, have which, according to Vitruvius (v. 6, ed

changed their occupants and one of ; Schneider), formed part of the stock
them has become the abode of an scenery of the comic stage : and indeed
ancient Hag and a young girl. It is such balconies are never mentioned in
the case contemplated in Praxagora's the Comedies of Aristophanes, and were
speech, supra 693-701, but the pro- probably a later invention.
ceedings do not exactly follow the lines 878. ^ifivdia] White lead ; the Latin
there shadov^ed out. For one thing, cerussa, the ceruse of our old dramatists,
both the girl and her young lover are by the use of which women acquired
in full revolt against the regulations of a whiter and more delicate complexion
Praxagora. For another, no Gaffer Hob- " Cerussata timet Sabella solem."
nail, no snub-nosed Lysiorates, comes to Martial, ii. 41. 12. " 'Tis the sun Hath
claim precedence over the youth. It is given some little taint unto the ceruse."
difficult to feel absolute certainty as to Ben Jonson's Sejanus, ii. 1. See Pliny,
the stage arrangements, but in my xxxiv. 55. In 1072 infra another Hag
judgement the Hag is peeping out is described as avdn\(a>s -^ifivSiov. And
through the half-closed door (Peace in some lines, preserved by Athenaeug,

980, 1), whilst the girl is looking from xiii. 6,from the " Wreath-sellers " of
the window overhead. The contention Eubulus (to which Bergler refers),
between the two could hardly have been harlots are described in both ways as
carried on, had the girl been standing 7rpi7r7r\aafivai ^j/i^ivdioLS and avdnXeco

in one of the balconies (menianorum) \jfilj.v6iov, doubtless a reminiscence of

; ;

<TTr]Ka Kal KpoKooTov fjiKpucriiivr},

dpyo9, jxivvpojihr] ri npos efiavrfju /ilXoy, 880

wai^ova, oTTCos &v nepiXd^oifi aiirHiv two,
Trapiovra. M.ovcxaL, Sevp' it Itti toviwv a-To/ia,

HeXvSpiou evpovtrai ri tcou Iccvik&v.

MEIPAS- vw jiiv fie irapaKvyj/aaa 7rpov(f)6r]s, & (xaTrpd.

a>ov S' prjfj.as, ov TrapovarjS evddSe 885

ifiov, rpvyrjcreiv Kal npoad^ecrBai riva
aSova'' eycb S', rjp tovto Spas, avTacrojiac.
Kil yap Si o)(Xov tovt karl Toh OewfiiyoiT,

o/xtBy )(et repTTVOP ti Kal KcojiaSiKov.

rP. A. TovTCp SiaXeyov Kawoxdip-qaov aii Se, 890
(fyiXoTTdpiov avXrjTa, Toiis avXovs Xa^a>v
d^Lov kjJLOv Kal aov trpocravXrjcroi/ /liXos-
{aSei rj ypavs.)
et Tis dyaOov ^ovXeraL ira-

Oeiv Ti, Trap e/xol x/o^ KaOtvSuv.

the present scene. "A harlot's cheek, iii. 1. Kuster refers to the sixth epigram
beautied with plastering art." Hamlet, of Lucian in the Anthology,

/t^ roivvv rb Trpuffcunov atrav ^jjifj-vdiv KaTdn\aTT

c&ffTe npouojTTiToVj kovxl TrpotJojirov ex^^^

ovb^v yap TiXiov karL tl puiivcai ; ovnoTe (pvicos

Kal \pinv$os Tfu^ct TTjv 'Etcd0T]V ^E\Vriv.

And see the note on 929 infra. excelled the lonians in luxury, the
883. 'lavLKan'] TS)v Tpv<j)ri\S>v' "imie? Thebans in gymnastics, the Thessalians
yap rpviprj'Xoi. Scholiast. No authorities in horsemanship, the Spartans in endur-
need be cited to show that the epithet ance, the Thracians in hard drinking
" Ionian," in this connexion, signifies ev 'Icovta fiev i>v, 'Imftaj/ f<j>ai.veTo rpu^epm-
everything that is soft, voluptuous, and repos. Athenaeus, xii. 47. Up to this
dissolute. Cf. infra Thesm. 163
918 ; point the Hag alone has made her ap-
Athenaeus, xii. chaps. 28-31 Harpo- ; pearance, but now the girl looks out
oration and Hesychius, s v. ; Horace, from the window above.
Odes, iii. 6. 21. The historian Satyrus, 885. eprjtias rpuyijo-fiv] Scilicet n^i-

remarking that Alcibiades excelled niXovs. We have already met with this
everybody in everything, says that he proverbial expression in Wasps 634.


Plastered with paint, wearing my yellow gown.

Humming an amorous ditty to myself,
Trying, by wanton sportiveness, to catch
Some passer-by. Come, Muses, to my lips,
With some sweet soft Ionian roundelay.
GiEL. This once then, Mother Mouldy, you've forestalled me.
And peeped out first ; thinking to steal my grapes,
I absent ; aye, and singing to attract
A lover ; sing then, and 1^11 sing against you.
For this, even though 'tis irksome to the audience.
Has yet a pleasant and a comic flavour.
Hag. Here, talk to this, and vanish : but do you.
Dear honey piper, take the pipes and play
A strain that's worthy you, and worthy me.
(singing) Whoever is fain lovers bliss to attain.
Let him hasten to me, and be blest

888. dt ox^^ov] This self-depreciation, dressing the theatrical aiXrjTfjs, who was
like the common I have already detained there for the very purpose of playing
you too long of our platform speakers, accompaniments to the songs.
was no doubt intended merely to elicit 893. 1 Tiy] They now commence their
-from the audience a counter expression rival madrigals, the shrill cracked treble
of.encouragement. The words are used of the Hag alternating with the full
in precisely the same manner by the rich tones of the girl. The Hag has the
Athenian orator in Thuc. i. 73. fiist turn. The first three songs are in
890. TovTo] Tm alSoia. Scholiast, the trochaic metre; the second and third
referring no doubt to a Sep/iani'oy alSolov, corresponding as strophe and anti-
a penem scorteum, called in Lysistrata strophe. The anapaest in the second
109 an oKkt^ov. She throws one of these place of lines 893 and 894, though un-
to the girl, and bids her amuse herself usual in Aristophanes, is, of course,
with that. SiaXiyov is used in much the perfectly regular, ro rpoxaiKov Kara fiep
same sense as ds \6yov cX^n in Knights Tas 77pLTTas x^pas 5e;^erat rpoxdlov, Tpt-
806. ^pa)(vVj Ka\ 8aKTv\ov' Kara be ras apTiovs,

891. avXrjTo] Some have thought that TOVTOVS T, KOi tTTVovheiov^ Kai avaTTaitTTOv,
the Hag is speaking to a private musician Hephaestion, chap. vi. ad init.

of her own; but, of course, she is ad-

oil yap kv viais to aocpby ev- 895
eaTiv, dW' iv rais TreneipoiS'

oiiSe Toi o'Tepyeiv clu eOiXoi

fidWov r] ya> tov ^tAoj/ y co-

Trep ^vvdr}v
dW e0 'irepov av ttTolto.

(dyraSei rj via rfj ypal)

MEL firj (p66vei raicrii' veaicn. 900
TO Tpvcf)epov yap /j.Tre<pvK

Tois aTraXoicn pr)poTs,

Kawl ToTs prjXoL^ kirav-

deh crij S , & ypav,

Trapakike^at KdvTeTpiyp-ai,
tS) 6avdT(o fiiXrjfia. 905
rP. A. e/CTreVoi ye aov to Tprjfx.a,

TO T euiKXivTpov dno^aXoio,
^ovXajxivr] a-troSeiadai,

Kdnl Trjs kXivtjs b(f)Lv

\y^v^pov\ ivpois
Kal TrpoaeXKVo-aio [ijavTrf] 910
^ovXofiiyT] cpiXfjcrai.

896. Trenitpois] Ripe, mature. Some borrowed from Eur. Phoenissae 5S9,
MSS.read ijnrelpou, experienced, and in 530, where, however, they are used in
good truth, thougli the two words are a totally different connexion.
quite different in meaning, they would 897. ieiXoi] Scilicet ^ via. The first

come to the same thing here, ro aocpov, four lines of the song are a comparison
sollertia in re amatoria, is described as between two classes, the veats and the
Tu c/iTTfipo)/ by the Scholiast. And the nenetpois. The last four are a com-
argument is that repeated in Lucian's parison between two persons, the girl
Amores 25, ywrj fiev oiv, cmo nnpdevov and herself. The Hag has now had her
fi^XP''^ ijXiKi'ar ficn]!, TTpiv f) TfXf'cur rqv say, and the turn has come. The
(T)(aTt]v puTida rod yrjpas iircdpape'LVf idea of prefixing musical terms to the
evdyKoXov avdpatrtv ofilXrjfia, k&u napeXdrj following songs is, and some of the
TCI rris oypas, ofias rj efmcipia \i rt Ae^at musical terms themselves are, bor-
tS>v vkusv crorpaiTfpoi/. The last words are rowed from the Rev. Rowland Smith's


For knowledge is sure with the ripe and mature,

And not with the novice, to rest.
Would she be as faithful and true to the end,
And constant and loving as I ?
No she would be flitting away from her friend,

And off to another would fly,

Would fly, would fly, would fly.

And off to another would fly.

GiBL. (affettuosamenfe) O grudge not the young their enjoyment.

For beauty the softest and best
Is breathed o'er the limbs of a maiden,
And blooms on the maidenly breast.
You have tweezered your brows, and bedizened your face,
And you look like a darling for death to embrace.
Hag. (confuoco) I hope that the cords of your bedstead will rot,
I hope that your tester will break.
And O when you think that a lover you've got,
I hope you will find him a snake,
A snake, a snake, a snake,
I hope you will find him a snake

translation. Death's darling, " cura et delioiae


904. TTopaXeXelai] The Hag's song was mortis " as Kuster translates it. Cf.
addressed to her expected lovers; but infra 973.
the girl, rejoicing in her youth, makes 906. to rp^/io] At this direct attack,
a direct attack upon the Hag. You the Hag loses her temper, and utters
have picked out the shaggy hairs (a sign imprecations which it is not easy or
of age) from your eyebrows, she says. desirable to interpret with exactness.
irapoKiyeiV ras virfpexoycos iv rais 6(j}pv(Ti Le Fevre supposes rprjfia to be " earn

Tpix^s eKKeyfiv. Photius, s. v. napaXeyeiv. leoti quam funiculi intende-

partem, per
Cf. Id. s. V. TTopeXflaj. irapaXi^m' napa to bantur unde Homero Tp>;roif Xe;(c'eo-o-ii',"
Tas V7rfpfx^<^<'^ f" '"'s ocppvai TrapaKiyeiv. and imKXivTpov a cushion or pillow. But
Hesychius. napaXiKexQai. Tas rpixas' cf. Lysistrata 410. o(j)is is used, both in

TO Tas TvepiTTas d(f>aipei(rdai. Pollux, ii. Greek and in Latin erotics, to denote
segm. 35. KavTeTpt\j/ai, and have rubbed a cold and languid lover. Two trochaic
paint into your face, supra 732, Lys. 149. feet have dropped out of this antistrophe,
MEI. al ai, ti noTe ndaojiaL ;

oiy^ rjKet jxovTaipos'

fiovr] S' avrov XeiTTO/i- 17

yap [loi lirjTr]p dXXrj ^e^tjKe

Koi TolWa /J, ovB\v ra ftera ravra Sei Xiyeiy,
dXX', c5 /J-ai', iKeTevofiai, 915
KciXei Tou OpOayopay, owoni
cravTrji Karovat avTi^oXoa
, ere.

rP. A. r/Sr] TOU dir Icovias

TpoTTOv ToXaiva KvrjaLaS'

SoKels Si fioL KoX Xd^Sa Kara tovs Aecr^iovs. 920

MEI. dXX ovK av tto6 iKpapnacTaLo
rdjia waiyvLa' Trjv 8 e/irjv

&pav OVK diroXeis ovS diroXrjyfrei.

rP. A. aS onocra ^ovXei Koi irapdKV(pd acnrep yaX^'

ovSeh yap co? ae npoTepov daeicr dvT kjiov, 925
MEI. ovKovv kn kK<popdv ye; Kaivov y - m craiTpd;

and I liave inserted, in brackets, Bergk's tion might perhaps lead the reader to
yj/vxpov, and Blaydes's a-avTr;, not as suppose that the love-sick maiden in
thinking that they are the genuine the ditty is really bewailing her mother's
words of Aristophanes, but to show the absence, whereas she merely regards it
reader the metrical completeness of the as affording a good opportunity for
song. a stolen meeting with her lover. If
911. aiai] Instead of bandying threats this song is intended to correspond
with the Hag, the girl pursues the with the double song which follows, as
doubtless more aggravating course of can hardly be questioned, its opening
lifting up her voice in a young maiden's lines must have been greatly amplified,
love-ditty. The words aXX' a /jma, the possiblyby the introduction of a further
Scholiast says, are addressed irpos rrju portion of the original love-ditty, from
ypavv, but although on the stage the which Aristophanes is borrowing,
girlmay, by way of mockery, so address 918. t6v air 'lavtas rpowov] 'fir fiaXa-
them, yet in the song itself p-ala signifies Kav eKeivav oWwi'. Scholiast. We have
an overindulgent old nurse, such as she already seen (supra 883) that the lonians
who brought Romeo and Juliet together, were notorious for their dissolute and
'Opday6pas is the name which this Juliet voluptuous habits. The girl's song and
bestows on her Romeo. The transla- demeanour may have justified this


Girl, (tenerameme) O dear, what will become of me ?

Where can my lover be flown ?
Mother is out ; she has gone and deserted me,
Mother has left me alone.

Nurse, nurse, pity and comfort me.

Fetch me my lover, I pray j
So may it always be happy and well with thee,
O, I beseech thee, obey.
Hag. (fortissimo) These, these, are the tricks of the harlotry,
This, the Ionian itch
GiEL. (con spirito) No ! no ! you shall never prevail with me,

Mine are the charms that bewitch.

Hag. Aye, aye, sing on : keep peeping, peering out
Like a young eat. They'll all come first to me.
GiEL. What, to your funeral ? A new joke, hey ?

charge, but the old lady is certainly- Hag, explains it, "horam, h. e. tempus
going too far when she imputes to her mihi constitutum atque assignatum
rival the terrible vice of the Lesbians. lege nova."
Itwould seem that this vice (X(r/3iafic) 926. eV eK(j)opdi>] I have arranged the
was at Athens described by its initial speakers in these lines, and indeed fre-
letter \ (Xd^Sa or Xd/xj3Sa), otto tou quently elsewhere in this scene, some-
apxovTos (TToix^lav, as the Scholiast says. what differently from preceding editors.
The same vice is imputed to the flute- The Hag is reduced to iambics, but still
girl in Wasps 1346. asserts her legal rights. "Sing what
921. i(papnda-ai,o] See supra 722. The you will," she says, "
and peep out like
girl closes the contest with a little out- a cat : no man
go first to you all
will :

burst of triumphant insolence. Never " will come first to me." "First to you?"
shall you intercept (wile away) my retorts the girl, " yes, to your funeral,

lovers (tous e/iovs epacrras, Scholiast),' I suppose. Isthat a novel jest. Mother
Mouldy ? " The same question eV ik-
she sings, "Never shall you destroy or
carry off the charm of my youth." With (jiopdv ; occurs in a very similar passage
Bergk and Velsen, I have given these in Plutus 1008, and is there too ad-
last three lines to the girl, for by Tqv dressed to an ancient coquette. Both
ip.i]v &pav we must necessarily under- there and here some translate it "to
stand "my youth." It cannot mean, carry away your goods " but in both ;

g,s Bothe, thinking it spoken by the places it clearly means to carry you out

rP. A. ov SfJTa. MEL Ti yap av ypai Kaivd ris \iyoi

rP. A. oil Tov/xou oSwrjaei ere yrjpa9. MEI. dXXa Ti;

riy^ovcra fiaXKov Kai to abv ^ifivdiov ;

TP. A. Ti fioL SiaXeyei ; MEI. av Se Tt SiaKvirreis ; TP.A.fyw; 930

aSco TTpos kjiavTriv 'EuLykvei t(o/j.& <f>i\a.

MEI. (Tol yap (piXo9 tls kcmv aXXos rj Teprjs ;

rP. A. So^ei ye Kal aoi. rd^a yap eiaiv Ss efie.

oSl yap avTos eartv. MEI. ov aov y , aXeOpe,

Seofievos ovSeu. FP. A. v-q At', Si (pOivvXXa av. 935
MEI. Sei^eL Td)(^ aiirbs, coy eymy direpyofiai.

rP. A. Kayoay , 'Iva yvSi^ d>s iroXv aov fJ-ei^ov cftpovm.

to burial (cf. Progs 170), and is so taken 929. fj ay;:(oiio-a] ' Kyxovtra (or as some
by all the best scholars. So Lysias, De spell it eyxova-a) is the plant now known
Caede Eratosthenis 8, eVeiSij de fiot tj as Dyer's Alkanet {Anchusa tinctoria),
^TjTTjp eTe\evTr](T, navnov Tav KaKwv airo- of which we are told by Miller and
Bavovfja QLTLa /iot yeyevrjrat. irr K(j)opav Martyn that it " Is cultivated in the
yap avTJj aKo\ov6Tjaa(ra tj ifirj yvvq^ vtto south of France for the deep purplish
6<f>6ei(Ta, red colour of the roots. It imparts
4>6dpeTai. Very possibly tbe passage in a fine deep red to oils, wax, and all
our Plutus was repeated from tbe first unctuous substances its chief use is;

comedy of that name, so tbat tbe joke for colouring plasters, lipsalves, &c."
was a stale one at the date of tbe Hellenic ladies used it as rouge; and
Eoclesiazusae. The girl excuses herself in the British Museum (Third Vase
for using an old joke by exj)laining that Room, Case 43) some of this rouge may
it was all the more suitable to an old stillbe seen in a pyxis or rouge-pot
woman. discovered in the Greek cemetery at
928. Tovpov yrjpa'i] Perhaps this little Naucratis, and ascribed by the Museum
speech should conclude with a note of authorities to the best period of Greek
interrogation. As the words stand, they art. Both the alkanet and the ceruse
must be translated It is not my age that (supra 878) were constant accessories
will vex you ; meaning, I suppose, that to a Greek toilet, and are frequently
it is not by her age, but by her superior mentioned in that character. Thus in
wisdom and experience, that she will Xenophon's Oeconomicus, chap, x,
wileaway the girl's lovers. "Not your Ischomachus tells us that when he saw
age?" says the girl, "what then? his wife (amongst other things) evrerpip.-
your beauty I suppose : your rouge and fiivrjv TtoWa fiiv ifnfivdia, ojrmr XfUKorepa

ceruse." en doKolrj eivai y ^v, TToXXfj 8e eyxoioT),

;; ;


Hag. No, very old. Giel. Old jokes to an old crone.

Hag. My age won't trouble r/ou. Giel. No ? Then wLat will ?
Your artificial red and white, perchance.
Uag. Why talk to me ? Giel. Why peeping ? Hag. I ? I'm singing
With bated breath to dear Epigenes.
Girl. I thought old Geres was your only dear.
Hag. You'll soon think otherwise : he'll come to me.
O here he is^ himself. Giel. Not wanting aught
Of you, Old Plague. Hag. O yes. Miss Pineaway.
GlEL. His acts will show. I'll slip away unseen.
Hag. And so will I. You'll find I'm right, my beauty.

oncos ipv9poTpa <j>aLvoiTO rrjs aXrjSelas, lie who has left the
obviously a reveller
persuaded her to give up the use of dinner table (supra 692). It is im-
cosmetics by declaring that he preferred possible that he can be carrying the
her own natural complexion xfrLfjivdiov fj torch through all the ensuing scene
iyxoicrrjs xp^Miti. And to a similar effect and I imagine that he deposits it in
St. Chrysostom : eTrotrja-e a-e KaXfjV 6 Beds; some place, where Blepyrus finds it,
tL Toivvv KaraiTKevd^dS afiop(j)Ov (ravrrjP infra 1150. The words 86^ei ye Ka\ aol
wcrirep yap av f'i Tis xP^<^'f avhpiavTi em- in the preceding line mean Yes, and
Xpt^iXfLe TTjfKov ^op^opoVf ouTcos eta^jj at yourself will he of that opinion soon.
ToTs eTTiTpi/i/iatn Ke^prififvai' yrjv Karawdtr- 987. fieL^ov
cl>pova>] Am much more
treir <Tavrr]V, rfjv fiiv (j)oivi.Krjv, Trjv 8e XeuKijv. sensiUe, know much more about things,
Horn, iv in 1 Tim (571 E. P.). than you. She means that her opinion
931. 'ETTiyeVci] Epigenes does not seem as to the youth's object in coming will
intended to represent a real person be found more correct than the girl's.
but Geres was doubtless known as a The rivals now profess to retire, so as
disreputable old man, and therefore, to yield a free field for the youth to
the girl thinks, a fitting partner for disclose the object of his quest :but in
the old Hag; cf>aXaKp6s ovtos kol TrivrjS, reality each is endeavouring to outwit
says the Scholiast. Epigenes is appa- the other. The girl does indeed go in,
rently the name of the youth who enters but she is keeping an eye on the Hag's
three lines below : but it would be movements, and reappears the moment
profitless to prefix that name to his the other is gone. The Hag at first does
speeches ; merely as a typical
since it is not withdraw at all, but stays by the
veavias that he comes before us. door till she has overheard whom the
934. 681 yap airos] A youth enters, youth is seeking: she then does retire,
with a torch in his hand (infra 978), but keeps a watch on him, and reappears


NEANIAS. dd' eifjy Trapa. rfj via, KaOevS^iir,

Kal fir] 'Sei wporepov Siao'TroSfja-aL

dvaa-iiiov rj irpea^vripav 940

ov yap avaa-yjerov tovto y eXev6epa).

rP. A. olp-m^coy dpa vr] Aia cnroS-qaeis.

ov yap TUTrl ^api^eyrjs rdS kaTLV.

Kara tov vojiov TaCra woieiy
effTt BiKaiov, el SrjfioKpaTovfieOa. 945
dXX' et/i,!, rrjprjcrova- o tl Kal Spdo'eis nore,

NEA. eiff, m 6eol, Xd^oifit rfju KaXfjv novrjv,

ecf Tjp TrencoKOis 'ipyop-ai wdXai ttoOSiv.

MEI. e^rjirdrricTa to Kardparov ypaSiov

(f)pov8rj ydp k(TTiv OLOfieyrj p, evSov fiiveiv. 950
dXX' ovTOcrl yap avrbs ov fj.efivi]pe6a.

Sevpo Srj Sevpo Sfj,

(piXoy kpov, Sevpo pot

so soon as she thinks it desirable to will be found in the note to Wasps

vindicate her legal rights. 1225. The first two lines are identical
938-945. Tyrwhitt was the first to with the hendecasyllables of Catullus
arrange these two stanzas properly, and and Martial " Doctis, Jupiter, et labo-

to show that they are in the most riosis." Tyrwhitt also suggested that
familiar and most famous of all scolium- the commencement of the first stanza
metres, viz. that of " Harmodius and is borrowed from one of the scolia pre-
Aristogeiton." The metrical system served by Athenaeus, xv. 50,

t0' i^TjVj 6TTOi6s TIS ^v ettaffTOS,

rb <TTTJ9os Sie\6vT, iireira tov vovv

cfftScii/Ta, KXiiaavra TTa\iVj

dvdpa (pi\ov vojjLi^iiv ahoKco (ppfvi.

And this seems probable enough. See aware of the proximity of the Hag
also Fritzsche, Quaest. Aristoph. p. 48. and the Hag's recitation being an
But the last line seems also a borrowed " aside," inaudible to the youth.

line,and possibly the entire stanza is 943. Ton-i Xapi^fVijs] Charixena is de-
a parody of some lost scolium. In the scribed by some as a fool (evrjdrjs Kai
passage before us each stanza appears ixwpa. Scholiast. fVi ficopia fiif^e/SdiyTO.
to be a soliloquy : the youth being un- Hesychius) ; by others, as a writer of
! ! ;


Youth. O that Inow might my darling woo

Nor first be doomed to the foul embrace
Of an ancient hag with a loathsome face
To a free-born stripling a dire disgrace !

Hag. That you never, my boy, can do !

'Tis not Charixena's style to-day ;

Now the laws you must needs obey

Under our democratical sway.
1^11 run and watch what next you are going to do.
Youth. O might I catch, dear gods, my fair alone,
To whom I hasten, flushed with love and wine.
Girl. {Seappearmg That vile old Hag, I nicely cozened
above) her.
She deems I'm. safe within, and off she's gone.
But here's the very lad of whom we spake.
(Singing) This Way, this way.
Hither, my souFs delight

amatory songs and melodies {iroirjTpia are antistrophical, as Bentley pointed

cpcoTtKOiv HesychillS. noir^rpia Kpovfiarav out, it is impossible to doubt : the first
Etymol. Magn. Eustathius on Iliad line, and the last three, are identical
ii. 711). And possibly the two cha- in both, and there are many traces of
racters are not absolutely inconsistent. correspondence in the intermediate
The phrase oTa rani Xapt^evrjs passed portions. But in one or other of them,
into a proverb applied to performances if not in both, the metrical system has
without restraint or reason. It is used fallen so completely out of gear, that
not only by Aristophanes, but also by it would require far more conjectural
Cratinus and Theopompus (Etymol. pressure than, in the absence of any
Magn). The passages are collected help from the MSS., it is permissible
in Kuster's note. olfimCav in the pre- to exert, bring them back into
ceding line is translated by Brunck harmony with each other. Brunck and
magna tuo malo. some others, contraiy to all authority
949. i^rjirarrjad] The Hag having gone and, as seems to me, contrary to all

in, the girl immediately reappears; sense and likelihood, take the first song
and she from the vrindow above, and from the girl and transfer it to the Hag.
her lover from the street below, indulge The neuter (piXov is used here for the
in a littleamatory duet. masculine, and in the antistrophe for
952. bei'po brj\ That these two songs the feminine, by way of endearment.
Trp6<Te\0e Kal ^vuevvos fioi

rr]v ivcppdvriv oiTCos etret.

ndvv yap tis epeos /ie Sovei

TMvSe T&v (tZv ^oiTTpvywv. 955

aronos 8 eyKeirai jioi ris

TToOos, OS /Me SiaKvaiaas )(^et.

p-ides, iKvov/iai a', "Kpcos,

Kal TTOLTJCTOV TOvS ? iwfjl/

Trjv e/ifjv iKiadai.

NEA. Sivpo Sfi Sivpo Sfj, 960

Kal <jv fioi KaraSpapov-
aa rfiv Ovpav dvoi^ov
TT]vS'- ei Sk pfj, KaTaweaoii' Keicropai.
(piXov, dXX kv T(o <rw ^ovXopai
koXtto) TrXrjKTL^eadai pera
rfjs a-fjs TTvyrjs.

K.vTrpi, TL p iKpaiueis eirl TavTr) ; 965

pidis, iKvovpai a , "E/jwy,
Kal TTOLTjaov TrjvS es evpfjv

rfjv kp-qv iKeaOai.

Kal TavTa piv poL pirpicos npbs Trjv eprjv dvdyKrjv

iip-qptv icTTiu. crij Si poi, (jtiXraTOv, & iKeTivco, 970

958. go, set me free : not

iJL(6is] Let insists, a wapaKXava-lBvpov, since that is

from love but from the misery

itself the wail of an excluded lover, and is

of disappointed love. Le Fevre trans- incompatible with the sight of his

lates it, sine, Brunck concede, Bothe mistress. But there seems no reason
cessa, desine me vexare. The way in why the girl should re-enter the house,
which she wishes to be set free is until the Hag comes out of it, infra
described in the two following lines. 976 ; and in my judgement this is not
TavTa elnova-a elcrepxerai, says the Scho- a -napaKkava-idupov at all, but the youth
liast ; and this must of course be the from below is singing to the girl at
fact, if the youth's song is, as Kuster the window, just as she from above has


O come to my arms, my love, my own,

O come to my arms this night.
Dearly I long for my love ;

My bosom is shaken and whirls.

My heart is afire with a wild desire
Eor my hoy with the sunhright curls.

Ah me, what means this strange unrest,

This love which lacerates my breast ?
O God of Love, I cry to thee
Be pitiful, be merciful.
And my love to me.
Youth, {singing.) Hither, O hither, my love,
This waj-, this waj'.
Run, run down from above
Open the wicket I pray :

Else I shall swoon, I shall die !

Dearly I long for thy charms,

Longing and craving and yearning to lie
In the bliss of thy snow-soft arms.
O why my bosom stir.
Making me rage and rave for her ?
O God of Love, I cry to thee,
Be pitiful, be merciful,
And send my love to me.
Enough, I trow, is said to show the straits I'm in, my lonelj^ grieving.

Too long I've made my serenade descend, sweet : heart, thy chamber leaving,

been singing to him. iia^ia-dai, v^pl^av,and irkrjKTrjs' pAjfinos,

964. TrXijKWffo-^ai] Properly to fight, v^pta-rfjs, and again TrK-qnTiKinepov' v^pi-
to exchange blotcs with, but the word a-riKoiTepov. And ijjpia-Tfjs, as Le Fevre
is frequently used in the sense here remarks, "'vox est amatoria." With
attached to it. Le Fevre translates it KaTanea-wp Kela-opm above, Kuster com-
" lascivire cum tuis natibus," and refers pares Theocritus, iii. 53 Kua-^vfiai. di
to Hesychius, who has TrXi/XT-iffO'^a'" ireaav.

L 2
dvoi^ov, da-trd^ov jie'

Sid 701 (7 TTOUOVS '^X^'

<i> XP^'^oSaiSaXrou e/j.bv fiiXTj/ia, KvirpiSos fpvos,
fiiXiTTa Mova-Tjs, ^aphoav Bpe/jifia, Tpv(pr]S TrpocrooTToy,

dvoi^ov, dawd^ov /le' 975

Sid TOi ere wovovs ex<.

rP. A. o?}tos, Ti KOTTTeis ; fiaiv e/xe ^rjTeis ; NEA. iroOw ;

TV. A. Koi T7]v Ovpav y rjpaTTes- NEA. drroOdfOtn' dpa.

rP. A. ToD Sal Seojiivo^ SaS 'iymv kXrjXvOas ;

NEA. 'Ava<pXv(TTiov ^-qTSiv tip dvQpcoiTov. PP. A. riva ;

NEA. ov Tov 'Se^Tvoi', ov <tv npocrSoKas icrcos- 980

rP. A. vr] Tr]v 'A(f)poSiTT]v, rjv re ^ovXr) y rjv re ftrj.

NEA. dXX' ov^i vvvi ray vTTepe^rjKovTkrei^

ilcrdyojjiev, dXX elcravdis dfa^e^X^qfieOa.

973. m ypDtroSdiSaXToj'] He addresses ttov is the personification, representa-

her by all tlie endearing names he can tion, of a thing. Spetifia " a nursling."
think She is his " golden-glittering,
of. A variant dpi/jL/ia is well supported, but
gold-bespangled darling " (^e'Xjj/xa, cf. I prefer Spefjifin, a word very cotnmon in

supra 905), " a sprig of Aphrodite," " a such collocations as this. Nothing can
bee of the Muses," "a nursling of the be more natural than to say that she
Graces," "the embodiment of soft de- was reared by the powers who confer
lights." The expression /ieXn-ra Movo-r,r grace and loveliness ; like Sappho, av
refers to the honied sweetness of her KuTrper/cai'Epa>s(ri>i'dfi'E7-j:)a^oi'(Antipater
song; compare Birds 224, 749-751 just ;
Sidonius, Epigram 70). Bergler refers
as Sophocles, from the sweetness of his to some dactylics of Ibycus preserved
verse, was called the Attic bee. vpocra- by Athenaeus, xiii. 17,

EupvaXe, yKvfcicov XapiTajv OdKoSj

KaWticopwv fxsKeSTjpa, d p^v Kvirpis
a T dyavoPXefpapos poSiOiaiv tv avBioi Opei^av,

976. oJros] The door is opened, but 1455 and the note there,
the wrong woman comes out. Expect- 979. ' h.va4>ki<TTiov] The seaport of
ing his love, he is confronted by the Anaphlystus, immediately to the south-
Hag. She asks if he is seeking her. He west of the silver mines of Laureium
replies with an indirect but strong (Xen. DeVect. iv. 43), formed one of the
negative, T.66ev Is it likely ? see Frogs
; Attic demes ; and it may be that some
;; ;


Open, true welcome show,

Sore pangs for thee I undergo.
O Love, bedight with golden light, presentment fair of soft embraces,

The Muses' bee, of Love's sweet tree the flower, the nursling of the Graces,

Open, true welcome show.

Sore pangs for thee I undergo.
Hag. Hi knocking ? seeking me ?
! Youth. A likely joke.
Hag. You banged against my door. Youth. Hanged if I did.
Hag. Then why that lighted torch ? What seek you here ?

Youth. Some Anaphlystian burgher. Hag. What-'s his name ?

Youth. No, not Sebinus ; whom yoti, want belike.

Hag. By Aphrodite, will you, nill you, sir.

Youth. Ah, but we're not now taking cases over

Sixty years old : they've been adjourned till later

Anaphlystian really had the misfortune over sixty years old,'' like the Hag :

to bear the ill-sounding name of Sebinus " we are taking those under twenty,"
the double appellation {'AvaffiXvaTios as like the girl. " Loquitur quasi de litibus
if from aun(j)\av, and 2e^lvos as if from forensibus," says Bergler, "et intelligit
^tvelv) prompting the unsavoury jest aetates mulierum." fiVdyci!/ is a well-
which is found here, and in Frogs 427. known forensic term meaning "to intro-
In the next line, the Hag, whether duce an action before the dieastery,"
stimulated by the jest, or getting tired see the Wasps, passim. This duty de-
of all this dallying, grapples with the volved upon the presiding Archon, who
youth, and endeavours to drag him into was thence called the dcraymyevs.
the hoiise. 983. fltravdis avd^e^Xrjp.eBa] We have
982. VTTfpe^rjKOVTeTfis] 'Ano Tav 8lkS>v. adjoicrned them to some other time. At
eXpyov yap dfi, ra wpo rocrtov irmv SiKa^o- the commencement of Plato's Sym-
fiev. Scholiast. The courts heard causes posium (chap. 2) Aristodemus is repre-
of different dates at different times sented as coming to Agathon's house,
at one time, causes commenced or just as the guests were about to begin
entered for trial (it may be) more than the banquet, and Agathon said to him,
two years previously : at another, causes " Aristodemus, you are just in time
commenced or entered for trial (it may to join our feast : if you have come on
be) since the preceding Munychion. any other business, da-avBis ava^oKov,
Imitating their language, the youth put it off tillanothertime." So Lucian,
says, " We are not taking to day yvvaiKns rd Xoijrd clcravSis dva^aXapEda. Pseudo-
ray evTos fiKocriv yap eKSLKd^ofiev.

rP. A. eirl rrjs Trporepav cipxvs ye ravT ^v, (S yXvKcci'- 985

yvvi Se irpSiTov ilcrdyeiv rj/ids SoKe?.

NEA. T(3 ^ovXop.va> ye, Kara tov kv Hairols vofiou.

FP. A. dXX' oiS' eSeiTTveii Kara tou kv Hanoli vop-oy.

NEA. ovK oTS' 6 Ti Xiyets- TrjvBeSt /xoi KpovtrTeov.

PP. A. orav ye Kpova-r]s Tf]v e/j.fji/ irploTOV 6vpav. 990

NEA. aXX' ov-)(l vvvl Kpriaepav aLTOvjieOa.

PP. A. o18' OTL (j)i\ov/j.af vw Se Oavfid^eis on

Gvpaa-i \i evpes- dXXd Trpoaaye to aropa.
NEA. dXX', a peX', oppcoSa roy epacrr-qv aov. TV. A. riva ;

NEA. Tov tS>v ypa<pea>v dpiarov. PP. A. ovto? S' ecm ris ] 995

sophista, ad fin. ava^aXkia-dm Tr]v biKrjv is etTTt QpaKiKov, enaL^e Be irapa to -naUiv,

the proper legal phrase for adjourning And it was the reading of every edition
an action. before Brunck, who substituted mTTois
987, 988. Kara rhv ev TImTo7s No- co'/ioi/] from the only MS. of which he was cogni-
thing is known of this law or custom of zant for this part of the play, a MS. of
the Paetians, who were a Thracian tribe, little value,and as full of futile emen-
along whose territory Xerxes passed in dations as if it were a recension by

his march from the Hellespont to Thes- a modern critic. But it is infinitely
saly. Hdt. vii. 110. But it was obviously more probable that Ylairois should have
familiar to the Athenians at the date of been corrupted into the familiar nerTois
this play, and must have laid down some than that the converse corruption should
rule, which it was optional for a person have taken place. Nobody has attempted
to adopt, or repudiate, of his own free to explain the reference to veaao), a
choice, without incurring any penalty. game apparently bearing a slight re-
The youth then says, "I have my free semblance to our " draughts," though
choice to take you or not, in accordance played with fewer pieces and doubtless
with the Paetian law," and the Hag under very different rules. However, if
replies, " Had you your free choice were the true reading, the refer-

about your dinner? Had you not to ence must be to some, now unknown,
dine at the place assigned you by the rule of the game. If there were a rule
state ? " supra 684- 686. " So here you : that a player when he had an oppor-
must play the part the state assigns tunity of taking one of his adversary's
you." riaiToif is the reading of the pieces, might either do so, or else refuse
best MSS., and is confirmed by the to take it, without the liability of being
Scholiast, who says, Ilairoi' eduos fih (as tve say) huffed, that is, losing his


We're taking now those under twenty years.

Hag. Aha, but that was under^ darling boy^
The old regime : now you must take us first.

YoTJTH. Aye, if I will : so runs the Paetian law.

Hag. You didn't, did you, dine by Paetian law.

Youth. Don't understand you : there's the girl I want.
Hag. Aye, but me first : you must, you rogue, you must.
Youth. O
we don't want a musty pack-cloth now.
Hag, I know I'm loved but O you wonder, don't you

To see me out of doors come, buss me, do. :

Youth. No, no, I dread your lover. Hag. Whom do you mean ?

Youth. That prince of painters. Hag. Who is he, I wonder.

own piece, the reference, if we read Pvr}, papatTTTTos fie tIs icrriv avTi] XtvoCr.
TrexToiy,might be to that rule. The application of the word in the
991. Kprjtrepav] The word is not, I present line is not more clear than its
believe, used elsewhere by any writer of signification. Le Pevre takes the speaker
the classical period, and its meaning is to mean that the Hag might indeed
not altogether clear. But it seems to supply him with a Kprja-epa, but that is
me that the basket called a k6(Jiivos was not what he is wanting to-day. Bergler,
made of wicker cased in coarse linen, with more probability, suggests that she
and that xprja-epa was the name given to is herself addressed as a Kprjaepa, and

this casing. Both the Scholiast and that this was a cant term at Athens for
Suidas define Kpijaepa as to Trfpi^okawv a common prostitute. Anyhow there it*
t5>v <o(pivai>, and I think that the author a play on the words Kpovareov, itpovcrr]s,
of the Etymologicum Magnum would and Kpt](Tepn,

have done the same, had he not been 992. davpd^eis] The Hag speaks as if
led astray by his own fanciful derivation she were a shy and modestyoung maiden,
of the word from mpa (on the analogy, whom it is surprising to find out of
I presume, of Kpr)hepvov), and so con- doors alone. The youth tells her, in

sidered it the ini-^oKaLov, not the nepi- effect, that she matitro propior funeri,

The word was after-

^oXniov, of a Ko^ixof. and that her fittest lover is the " undei'-
wards used to denote various articles, taker," who paints the oil bottles carried
probably made of this pack-cloth, such out and buried vrith the dead. See the
as a strainer, a linen bag, the fan of note on 537 supra. And he warns her
a winnowing machine. Galen (in his not to be seen at the door, tVi dupata-iv,

"linguarum Hippocratis explicatio") de- lest the undertaker should think she is

scribes it as ^ Tov aXeCpov nriins ovopa^o- a corpse, and come to carry her out.

NEA. OS TO?s veKpoltn ^coypa(f)(i ras XrjKvOov?.

aXX' dniO', owcos firj a-' tnl Bvpaiaiv orjreTai.

rP. A. oiS' oIS' Ti ^ovXei. NEA. kuI yap iyS o-e vfj Aia.
rP. A. fia rrjv 'A<ppoSiTr}v, rj fi eXax^ KXrjpovfiivri,

fifi 'ydo a-' d(pTi(TCo. NEA. irapacppoveTs, & ypaSiov. 1000

rP. A. Xrjpeis- kya> 8' a^a> a-' tnl Toifia (TTpaifiaTa.

NEA. Ti Srjra Kpedypas toIs kuSois d>yoifj.id' Sii/,

e^oy KadevTa ypaSiov tolovtovI

iK t5>v (ppedroDV Toi>s KciSovs ^vWa[i^dveiv
TV. A. fii] aKmirri fi , c5 rdXav, dX\' iirov Sevp' as efiL 1005
NEA. aXX' ovK dvdyKT] fioiaTlv, el fit] twv hmv
Tf]v TrevTaKocrioa-rfji' KaTedrjKas Trj noXei.

rP. A. vfj Trj)> 'AfpoSiTTiv, Sei ye nevroi cr. coy eyo)

ToTs TrfXiKovTOis ^vyKa6evSovcr rjSojjLai.

998. f'yw ere] The full sentence would Origan, ol a-ocfioi "KeyeToa-av Salfiovas eiXij-

be eyoi oiSa erf o ti /3ov\ci. See the note x^"'^^ '''h"

avBpamvrjv ^\n)xr]v anb yeviaeas.
on 583 supra. This is a somewhat But we, he have been taught by

peculiar ellipse ; and there is much to the Lord not to despise one of His little
be said for the Scholiast's reading eymyc, ones, knowing that in Heaven their
which he explains by ^odkofiaL o-f amevai angels do always behold the face of His
eVt Bavarov. Father which is in Heaven. Adv. Gels.
999. jx 'iXaxf KKripoviievrj] Who h/ lot viii. p. 767 B. Many passages relating
acquired me. She is alluding to the to this Hellenic belief are citedby the
common notion that every soul at its Commentators on the well-known vf<vla
birth was allotted to the charge of some in the Phaedo (chap. 57). Thus Men-
divinity or Sai/iav, who was thence- ander (in Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom,
forward its guardian and companion v. 14. 130)
through life. 'EWrjvav fiev ovv, says

anavTt Satfiojv dv5pl ovfxnaptffTaTat

ivQvs yevoixivqjf ixvcrrayoiybs rov Piov
dya66s' KaKov yap Salftov' ov vofiiareov
eTvaif ^'lov ^Kd-nTOVTa Xf"]^"^^^'

So in Theocritus, iv. 40, Battus, be- claims & Saifiov, oy (xe KfxXiipcoo-at koi
wailing the loss of Amaiyllis, says, at at (Tkrjxas, as novrfphs u. The passage in
tS> (TiCkr]pS> fioKa haiixovos os p-e 'KiXoyxiv. the Phaedo, to which reference has
And in Alciphron, iii. 49, a parasite ex- already been made, is as follows :

Youth. "Who paints from life the bottles for the dead.
Away ! begone ! he'll see you at the door.
Hag. I know, I know your wishes. Youth. And I yours.
Hag. I vow by Aphrodite, whose I am,
Fll never let you go. Youth. You're mad, old lady.
Hag. Nonsense ! I'll drag you recreant to my couch.
Youth. Why buy we hooks to raise our buckets then,

When an old hag like this, let deftly down.

Could claw up all the buckets from our wells ?

Hag. No scoffing, honey : come along with me.

Youth. You've got no rights, unless you've paid the tax.

One fifth per cent, on all your wealth of years.

Hag. O yes, you must ; O yes, by Aphrodite,

Because I love to cuddle lads like you.

Aeyfrat fie ovTcas, as apa reXevTrjcravTa easily claw them up with her fingers ?
CKOCTTOV 6 Ikucttov baijiav, oamp fmira 1006. irav] This is Tyrwhitt's felicitous
ei\r]-)(ei, oZtos ayuv imx^ipel (Is 8^ riva emendation for the ejj.av of the MSS.
TOTTou^ 01 del Tovs ^vWeyevras dta8tKa(ra~ and older editions. Boeckh (Public
fj.evovs els Hence the
"AiSov ivopfveaBai, Economy of Athens, iv. 8) supposes that
terms and KaKohaifuov. The Hag
evhaly-aiv there really was at this time a small tax
declares that she was the allotted heritage, of one-fifth of a unit per cent, on the
and therefore the bounden votaress, of taxable capital of Athens. And as
the goddess of Love. debtors to the state were aVijuoi, de-
1001. a|o)] With these words she prived of the rights and privileges of
clutches hold of the youth, and en- citizens, the Hag could not exercise any
deavours to drag him indoors. He, privilege given her by law, until she
feeling the tight and eager grasp of her had paid to the state one five-hundredth
skinny fingers, likens her to a Kpedypa, of her possessions. But for rmi/ ovTav
which in means a flesh-hoole
strictness {bonorum), as Tyrwhitt observes, the
(see the note on Wasps 1155), but youth maliciously substitutes tSiv erav
which was figuratively applied to any [annorum), perhaps insinuating that
grappHng-hook for fishing up articles her " years " were her only possessions
from the depth's, as here a bucket from 'Vmv efjLcov made no sense at all for, :

a well. " Why should we spend our course, a citizen had to contribute one
money," he asks, " in buying grappling- five-hundredth of his own, not of some
hooks for our buckets, when this old body else's, possessions.
Hag, if deftly let down, could just as

NEA. eyo) Se rais ye T-qXiKavrais d^Qofiai., 1010
KoiiK Stu vi6oifir]v ovSeTTOT. FP. A. dXXa pfj Aia
dfayKaaeL TovTi ae. NEA. tovto S (.aTiri;
TV. A. ylrr](f)ia-fia, KaO' o ere Sei ^aSi(eiv d>s kfiL

NEA. Xey aiiTO tl nore Kaari. TP. A. /cat Sr) croi Xiyco.

eSo^e Tois yvvai^lv, fjv dvr^p yeos 1015

veas eTnOv/xfj, fxf] a-woSeiv avrfjv wplv &v
rf]v ypavv npoKpovcrr] rrpSiTov rjv Se /ifj OeXrj

irpoTepov wpoKpoveiv, dXX' eiriOufifj Tfjs yeas,

Tois irpea-^vrepais yvvai^lv e<TTat tov veov

eXKeiv dvarl Xa^opLevas tov narraXov. 1020
NEA. o'Lpoi- IIpOKpovcrTr]S Trjpepov yevrja-opLai.

PP. A. ToTs yap vopois toTs riperepoicn rreicrTeoy.

NEA. Tl S' , Tjy d(paipTJTai p dv-qp tS>v SrjpoTay

rj Tmy (piXcoy eXBwv tis ; FP. A. dXX ov Kvpios

iirrep peSipyoy ear dyfjp ovSeh en. 1025
NEA. e^copocria S" ovk ecrriy ; FP. A. ov yap Se? crTpo(f>fjs.

1012. Tovri] Slie brandishes a scroll 1023. a<f>aipriTai] He does not mean
wherein are contained the words of the a<}>aipeL(rdai pia, take me away by force,
law which she presently recites. as the Commentators, without any ex-
1020. avari] Mfj Ti/xmpou/ieVas iirep Trjs ception, understand it. The expression
iSiat. naTToXov 8c tov neovs. Scholiast. dtpaipcia-Bm, or (more commonly) acpai-

1021. UpoKpoiia-rris] I shall this day a technical one,

pela-dai els eXeudepiav, is

become a Procrustes. The name, of course, constantly used by the Orators in the
isborrowed from that legendary robber sense of hailing out an accused person
whom Theseus slew, who fitted all his (see, for example, [Demosthenes], against
captives to the length of his own bed- Neaera, p. 1358) and the reply to the

stead, by shearing off the extremities of youth's question conclusively shows that
such as were too tall, and stretching the such is its meaning here.
limbs of such as were too short. But 1025. virep piSiptiov] No man can bail
there no allusion to the legend itself
is you out for no man's credit extends

the name is employed merely as a play beyond one naedimnus of barley now.
on the irpoKpoUiv of lines 1017, 1018 The contracts of women, the Scholiast
supra: a play which I have not attempted tells us, were restricted by law to the
to preserve in the translation. value of one medimnus now, therefore, :

Youth. But I don't love to cuddle hags like you,

Nor will I : never ! never ! Hag. O yes you will,

This will compel you. Youth. What in the world is this ?

Hag. This is a law which bids you follow me.

Youth. Read what it says. Hag. O yes, my dear, I will.

Be it enacted, please to listen, you,

By us the ladies : if a youtJi would woo

A maiden. Tie must first his duty do
By some old beldame ; if the youth refuse,

Then may the beldames lawful viokfice use

And draff him in, in any way they choose.

Youth. A crusty law ! a Procrustean law !

Hag. Well, never mindj you must obey the law.

Youth. What if some Man, a friend or fellow-burgher,
Should come and bail me out ? Hag. A Man, forsooth ?

No Man avails beyond a bushel now.

Youth. Essoign I-'ll challenge. Hag. Nay no quillets now.

men and women having changed places, evKoyov alrlav. Suidas. to /jffi' opxov
the same limit imposed upon the
is dwapurja-aa-daL Trpa^lv nva 8ia voaov T) Trpo-

contracts of men. vojxos tjv, he says, (pacnvercpavTivd. Etymol. Magnum. It

rats yvvai^l fifj i^ilvai vnep p.(biiiv6v ri was the technical expression for an
ovvaWa(T(Tfiv. ovK 'iaovrai. ovv, (prjalv, oi excuse (such as ill health) put forward
avSpes oiSevos vnip ixebijivov KvpLoi, ineiSri upon oath for the purpose of escaping
avTea-Tpanrai rj noXireia. Bergler cites some public duty. Thus in his speech,
Isaeus, De Hered. Aristarch. p. 80, 6 yap De Falsa Legations, p. 379, Demosthenes
vopos hiapprfir)v KoXvei naiSl fifj i^elvm trvp.- alleges that Aeschines, heing elected to
^dWeiv, p.rjh yvvaiKi, Trepa peSipLvov KptBSiv. gO On the third embassy to Philip, felt

And Kuster refers to similar statements that for divers reasons he could not
by Harpocration, s.v. "On TrniSi, and safely go, Sei fie pivew. irmj ovv; [how
Dio Chrys. p. 638 D. A medimnus was was he to manage it?) appaxj-re'iv irpo-

about a bushel and a half of our dry (^acri^trai, /cai Xn^iov ''E.^tjkkttov top larpbv
measure the medimnus containing
: a8e\(j>bs avrov koI iTpoa-e\6a>p rij ^ouAif,

nearly twelve gallons, and the bushel i^i>p,o(Tev appaa-Teiv tovtov\, koI ovtos e'xf-

eight. In our law the word essoign


1026. i^apoa-ia] "EvopKos TrapaiVijair 8i' was employed to signify " an excuse for
NEA. dXX (jinopoi iivai cTKTJylro/iaL. FP. A. kXclcou ye av.
NEA. Ti SfJTa ^prj Spav ; FP. A. Sivp' aKoXovOiiv toy f/ue.

NEA. Koi ravr dvdyKr] nova-ri; FP. A. AiofiTjSeid ye.

NEA. VTTOa-Topecrai uw npwTa Trjs opiydi/ov, 1030
Kal KXrjfiaO iiwoOov (TvyKXd(ra(ra rerrapa,
KOI Taiviaxrai, Kal napdOov ras Xr]Kv6ovs,
vSaros re KardBov ToxiarpaKov irpo Trjs 6vpas.
FP. A. rj jiTjv er avricreL av Kal (TTeipdvqv kpoi.
NEA. vTj Tov Ai', T]i/iTep fj
ye ttov twp K-qpivrnv. 1035
oljiaL yap evSov Sia-TrecreicrOai <j avriKa.

him that is summoned to appear and will pretend to be an ennopos, and

answer to an action, by reason of sick- claim exemption from military service.
ness or infirmity or other just cause of His comparison of that service with
absence." the duties of love may remind the
1027. e[ki:opos\ Tipofjiao-icroiJiaL ilvai e'jLt- reader of Ovid's militat omnis amans,
TTopoSf a>s inl KLvdwevovroiVy cVeiS^ ovk and Horace's militavi non sine gloria,
ca-TpareiovTO oi 'ifinopoi. Scholiast. The though the comparison is not there
law of Athens, for the encouragement made in exactly the same sense as
of commerce, wisely exempted every here.
bona iide merchant from liability to 1029. Aio/iij8fin] "Ore AiOfii'iSqs 6 9pa|,
military service. And many, no doubt, TTopvas )(<ov duyarepa?, roiis irapiovTas
sought to avail themselves of this ^vovs J3id^T0 avTats avvelvai ecus ov Kopov
exemption, by pretending to be mer- (r;(co(rt Koi dvaXadaxriv ol avdpes' as Kal
chants when they were not really so. 6 pvdns LTTirovs dv6pti37ro(pdyovs httcv.
In the Plutus, an applicant is cross- Scholiast. The expression " Diomedeian
examined for the purpose of discovering necessity," whatever its origin, passed
his trade, which was really that of a into the proverbial phraseology of the
common informer and amongst other ; Greeks, and is frequently found in their
questions, he is asked, "Are you an writings. We know that all Praxagora's
efiTTopos'?" To which he replies, vai, communistic system is a caricature of
(TKrjnTOfiai y' , orav Tvxd- "lam: at least Plato's theories in the Republic ; and
I allege so, on occasion." Plutus 904. it is possible that the phrase may at
Theyouthhas three schemes for escaping this moment have been specially brought
the cruel exigency of the law first he ; to the poet's notice, by its occurrence
will be bailed out by one of his friends in that remarkable passage in the sixth
or neighbours if that will not do, he
; book, wherein Socrates is made to
will get excused on the ground of define the objects and the teaching of
ill health and as a last resource, he
; the sophists.

Youth. I'll sham a merchant. Hag. You'll repent it then.

Youth. And must I come ? Hag. You must. Youth. Is it a stern
Necessity ? Hag. Yes, quite Diomed^an.
Youth. Then strew the couch with dittany, and set
Four well-crushed branches of the vine beneath ;

Bind on the fillets ; set the oil beside ;

And at the entrance set the water-crock.

Hag. Now, by my troth, you'll buy me a garland yet.
Youth. A waxen garland. So, by Zeus, I will.

You'll fall to pieces, I expect, in there.

10.30. vTroa-Topea-cn] Then prepare a doors. Observe the occurrence in three

coucli, cries tlie youtli, but under the consecutive verses of the compounds
pretence of describing a nuptial bed, VTTodov, irapddov, KaTiidov.
he is really describing a funeral bier. 1034. a-Te(}>dpr]v] She is speaking of
We may gather from the present pas- the bridal wreath. 2oi KaTaoTeij^aa-' iyoi
sage that the bier was strewn with Viv riyov as yap.ovpivrjv, says Clytemnestra
dplyavnv (that species of marjoram which to Achilles about her ill-fated daughter.
we know by the name of dittany, Progs Iph. in Aulis 905. But the youth reverts
603), and crushed branches of the vine. to the funeral chaplet :
" I will buy

Of the wreathes or fillets which were you one with pleasure, one of the waxen
to be about the corpse, and the bottles sort," tS>v Krjplvav (o'Tf'pdvaii/ Scholiast).

of oil which were to be placed by its The art of imitating flowers and figures
side, we have already heard, supra 538, in wax, KrjpmtXaaTiKrj, was well known
&c. Taivta3(TaL' <TTe<pai/o)(rai ws ot PKpo in ancient Hellas see for example the

Scholiast. And a waterpot, called trick played by Ptolemy Philopator on

apSnviov, was placed at the house door, the philosopher Sphaerus with wax
that visitors might purify themselves fruits (Diog. Laert. Book vii. Sphaerus)
as they passed out. Kuster refers to or birds (Athenaeus, viii. 50) ; and
Pollux, viii. segm. 65, Ka\ ol eVi tIju oiKiav waxen wreaths are mentioned in a pas-
TOv nevSovvTos a<l)iKi'ovuevoi, i^ioVTCs K- sage of Artemidorus (Oneir. i. 77) cited
adalpovTO vbart Trepippmvop^voi. to 6e by Dr. Blaydes aT<pavoi Krjpivoi Tracrt
TTpoiiKfiTO iv dyyeiai Kepapta, i^ aXXijr KOKol, pdXiaTa de voaovaiv, eVel Kol tov
OLKLas KKopi(Tpevov. TO 5e oaTpaKov fV- BdvaTOv Krjpa Ka\ov(nv ol noujTaL And
aXciTo apSdvtov. Also to Eur. Alcestis doubtless they were commonly placed
98-100, where the Chorus think that on the bier or the person of the dead,
Alcestis must be still alive, because, or on the grave which contained the
amongst other reasons, there is no ashes of a friend.
waterpot standing before the palace

MEI. TTot TOVTOV eXKecs crv ; FP. A. rov e/iavTrjs eicrdyca.

MEI. ov a-axppovovad y. ov yap r]\iKiav 'i^^ei

irapa crol KadevSeif ttjXikovtos a>v, kna.

fjt'^TTjp av avTW fidWov urjs rj yvvrj. 1040.

&(tt' el KaracTTTjaiaQe tovtov tw vojxov,

TTjy yfjv auacrav OlSittoSccu ifnrXricreTe.

rP. A. (5 naiipSeXvpa, (p6ovova-a TovSe rov Xoyov

e^evpes' dXX eyd> ae Ti/icopTJcrofiai.

NEA. ffj Tou Aia rov craiTfjpa, Ke)(dpi(Tai ye jioi, 1045

CO yXvKvraTOv, rfiv ypavv diraXXd^aa-d fiov
axTT di/TC Tovfoav Twv dyaOav eh icnrepav
fieydXrjv dnoSScrw Kal iraytidv croi ^dpiv.

rP. B. avrr] ai), iroi tovSc, napa^daa tov vofiov,

eXKeis, Trap' kjiol tZv ypa[xfidTcov elprjKOTCov 1050
irpoTipov KadevSeiv avTou ; NEA. oifjioi SeiXaLOS.

TTodev e^iKV^frai, & KaKLCTT dwoXov/ievr] ;

TOVTO yap iKuvov TO KaKov k^coXkanpov.

rP. B. ^dSi^e Sevpo. NEA. firjSa/xai /le nfpuSrji

kXKojxevov {jTTo TrjdS , dvTL^oXS) cT . FP B. dXX ovK kyw, 1055

1037. ffoi rovTov] The girl suddenly 1049. avrr) eru] Just as the young
runs out of the house, and makes a couple are walking off in triumph, the
diversion, which is only temporarily door on the other side of the house of
successful, in favour of her lover. Blepyrus opens, and their hopes are
1042. OiSi7ro8o)v] Te'll people all the dashed to the ground by the appearance
land tvHh Oedipiises, that is, with men of another Hag. This second Hag is a
who have married their mothers. This mere legalist. She displays neither the
comparison of herself with locasta has amatory propensities of the first, nor
such an effect on the old Hag, that, like the fiery eagerness of the third. With
locasta in the play, she straightway her the whole transaction is a matter
rushes off the stage and returns no more, of legal business. " You are trans-
1048. fieydXrjv . . . nax^tav] These are gressing the law,'" she says to the girl
voces iechm'cae in this connexion. Ach. " 'Tis the law drags you, not I" ;
" Obey
787 ; Peace 1349 Lys. 23. And with
; the law, and follow me," she says to the
fir ioTvepav, compare Peace 966 Plutus ; youth. This characteristic runs through
1201. all her remarks. Nor has she any

Girl. Where drag you him ? Hag. I'm taking home my husband.
GiKL. Not wisely then : the lad is far too young
To serve your turn. You're of an age, methinks
To be his mother rather than his wife.
If thus ye carry out the law, erelong
Ye'U have an Oedipus in every house.
Hag. You nasty spiteful girl, you made that speech
Out of sheer envy, but I'll pay you out.

Youth. Now by the Saviour Zeus, my sweetest sweet,

A rare good turn you have done me, searing off
That vulturous Hag ; for which, at eventide,
I'll make you, darling, what return I can.
2'' Hag. Hallo, Miss Break-the-law, where are you dragging
That gay young stripling, when the writing says
I'm first to wed him ? Youth. Miserable me !

Whence did you spring, you evil-destined Hag ?

She's worse than the other : I protest she is.

2^ Hag. Come hither. Youth. {To the Girl.) O my darling, don't stand by,
And see this creature drag me ! 2'^ Hag. 'Tis not I,

patience with the youth's unhusiness- present, and the youth points to this
like ways. " Don't keep chattering," and to that. The al in the later verse
" Hold your tongue and come," she refers of course to the speaker's earlier
experience here.
1053. TovTO yap eKeivov] In the cor- 1055. oix eya, aXX' 6 vo^or] This is

responding line, infra 1070, we read not an uncommon way of putting the
70VT* av TToXv TOvTov TO KaKov e^o)Xe(rTepor. matter, ovk iyut o"e anoKTevS), aW 6 ttjs

It is ixeivov here, because the first hag TrdXemrj/o/ior. Lysiasde caede Eratosth.

has disappeared; it is tovtov there, 26 (to which Bergler also refers),

because the second and third are both

(povea vofii^ojv X^^P^j '''^^ vopiov S' viro

evrjoxeiv. Iph. in Taur. 585-5S7.

So in " Measure for Measure," ii. 2, Angelo says to Isabella,

It is the law, not I, condemns your brother.

; ;

d\X' 6 yo/ios e\Ket a. NEA. ovk e//e y , dXX' '4/nrovad tis

| atfiaTos (pXvKTaivav riiJ.(piecriJ,iyri.

rP. B. evov, fiaXuKicoi/, Sevp dvvcras Kal fir) \d\fL.

NEA. idi vvv 'iacrov els dcpoSoi/ Trpd)Tia-Td /le

kXOovTa QappfjaaL TTpbs kfiavTov el Se nfi, 1060

avTov Ti BpaivTa nvppov o-^ei ji avTiKa
VTTO Tov Siovs. TV. B. Odppei, ^dSi^'- evSov xeo""-

NEA. SeSoiKa Kdyo> /ifj wXeov y fj ^ovXofiai.

aAX' eyyvrjrds croi KaracTTTJa'a) Svo

diioxpews. rP. B. firj jioi KaOlcrTr]. FP. T. vol av, iro'i 1065
)(a>pe'LS nera Tavrrjs ; NEA. ovk 'iyccy, aXX' eXKOfiai.
drdp iJTis el ye, woXX dyadd yevoiTo aoi,

OTi jjL oil irepLecSes eiriTpi^euT . (5 HpaKXeis,

CO Have?, cS K-opv^avTes, m AioaKopco,
TOUT av TToXii Tovrov TO KaKov e^coXea-repov. 1070
drdp ri to Trpdyp. ecTT , dvTL^oX5>, tovti irore

TTOTepov TTidrjKOS dvaTrXecos ylnp.vdwv,

fj ypavs dveaTTjKma irapd tcou nXeiofoii'

1056. iforovo-d Tis] "Hi/ KaXoifiev vvv sureties proposed. One example will
ovouKfXi&a. Scholiast. See Frogs 293 suffice. In Plato's Apology, chap. 28,
and the note there. The Scholiast gives Socrates, having been found guilty, and
two explanations of the expression e| being entitled to propose an alternative
aluaros, viz. ^Toi i>s e'xouffjjf rrjs ypaos penalty to the death-punishment de-
KpoKcoTov, fj i)s eXxor c'xoijcnjf. The latter manded by his accusers, says that,
is of course the true meaning. There own inclinations, "Plato
contrary to his
was nothing terrifying in a KpoKwror, here and Crito, and Critobulus and
which no doubt all the Hags wore. See ApoUodorus tell hitn to propose a
supra 879. penalty of thirty minas, and that they
1064. iyyvr]Tas . . . a|ioxpfaif] If she will be his sureties accordingly he

will let him retire for a few minutes, proposes that penalty : cyyuijrai S" vfiiv
he will give her substantial sureties that ea-ovTm tov dpyvplov oStoi d^ioxpeta."
he will duly return. The sureties are 1065. n-oi a-ii, ttoI] The third hag now
of course altogether imaginary, a^w- makes her appearance, a skinny corpse-
Xpfojs is the technical word for the like little body, but full of fight and
sufficiency, in a pecuniaiy sense, of the determination. She immediately throws


'Tis the LAW drags you. Youth. 'Tis a hellish vampire,

Clothed all about with blood, and boils, and blisters.
2'' Hag. Come, chickling, follow me : and don't keep chattering.
Youth. O let me first, for pity's sake, retire
Into some draught-house. I'm in such a fright
That I shall yellow all about me else.
2""* Hag. Come, never mind ;
you can do that within.
Youth. More than I wish, I fear me. Come, pray do,
I'll give you bail with two sufficient sureties.
2""^ Hag. No bail for me ! 3"^ Hag. {To Youth.) Hallo, where are you gadding
Away with her ? Youth. Not " gadding " : being dragged.
But blessings on you, whosoe'er you are.
Sweet sympathizer. Ah Oh ! ! Heracles
Ye Pans ! ye Corybants ! Twin sons of Zeus !

She's worse than the other ! Miserable me !

What shall I term this monstrous apparition ?

A monkey smothered up in paint, or else

A witch ascending from the Greater Number ?

herself upon the youth, and endeavours ance. Now he suddenly discovers what
to wrest him by main force from, the she is, and calls for help to Heracles,
clutches of her rival and though she; the Destroyer of Monsters, and to Castor
cannot effect that purpose, she sticks to and Polydeuces, the great twin brethren,
him like a limpet, and continues gamely the helpers ofmen in peril and distress.
to pull and drag and vociferate, until With these he apostrophizes the Pans
they both, the youth and herself, ai'e and the Corybants, as the authors of
haled together into the second woman's those panic fears and frenzies with
house. Prom the moment she appears which his mind is at present distracted.
up to the close of the scene, there is 1073. irapa tS>v TrXfioi'mi'] JJaph rav
nothing but one unintermitted struggle vexpav. Scholiast. Suidas. irXdovis' oi
over the body of the youth. TfTeXeuri/KOTff. Hesychius. Weouvselve?
1068. 'HpaxXftf] Up
moment to this frequently speak of a deceased person
hehasnotcaughtsightof the person who as having gone over to, or joined, the
is interfering with his captor; and he majority. Butthephraseispre-eminently
imagines that, as before, it is some fair a Greek one. Pausanias (Attica, i. 43)
girl who is trying to effect his deliver- tells us that the Megarians sent an em-
; ;

rP. r. fifj a-K&TTTi n', dXXa. Sevp eirov. FP. B. Sevpl jilv ovy.

rP. r. coy ovK d(f>rj<j-a> cr ovSeiroT . FP. B. oiiSk /J.fjv eya>. 1075
NEA. Siacrirda-ea-Oi fi, (S kukcos diroXov/jifyai.
FP. B. efiol yap dKoXovdeiu a 'iSeL Kara tou vopov.
FP. F. OVK, fju iripa ye ypavs 'ir aicrylwv (payfj.

NEA. -^v ovv v(f>' ifiaiv TrpwTov diroXaiifiat KaKW,

(pipe, TTfflS eTr' eKeivrju Tr]v KaX-qv d^i^opai 1080
FP. F. avTos (TKonei av- rdSe Se aoi iroi-qTiov.

NEA. TToripas Trporepas ovv KareXdaas diraXXayw ;

FP. B. OVK oi<r6a ;

^aSiei Sfvp'. NEA. d<piTco vvv p avr-qi.

FP. F. Sevpl piv ovv 'i&' coy 'ip. NEA. r\v p. r]8t y dcpfj.

FP. B. dXX' OVK d(prj(ra> pa Aia cr. FP. F. ovSe prjv eyes. 1085
NEA. -^aXeTTai y &v rjare yevopevai nopdpfjs. FP. B. rtij

NEA. eXKOvre tovs TrXcorfjpas dv direKvaUri.

FP. B. (Tiyfl ^dSt^e Sevpo. FP. F. pa At" ctXX' coy ipe.

NEA. TovTt TO Trpdypa Kara to K.avvd>vov cracjiws

bassy to Delphi to inquire how they till they had nearly killed him, writes
might best ensure the prosperity of their to a friend, 'iaTTarmd^, tIs Saifjiaiv fj Btos
city; and the god replied Meyape'as ev iiTTo firj^avrjs {deus ex niachina) eppucrard
Tvpd^eiVj riv ^(Ta tu>v nXeiovoiv j3ov\V(To)VTat, fie fieXXon-a napa tous jrXdovat livai ; for,
The Megarians therefore, tovto to eVor he had not the doctor found me
eV TOVS TeOviuiTas e^^iv iiOfii^ovTeSf built staggering homeward more than half-
their council-chamber so as to include dead, and carried me off to his own
within its precincts t6v Td(j)ov tS>v ripaap. house, and physicked and bled me, ovbh
Polybius (viii. 30) gives a very similar av KO>\vfTv aifeirataOfiTOi fie T(B Savdrto
account of the reasons which caused dcnCpdapevTa dTToXatXevai. Eustathius, in
the Tarentines to make their cemeteries a note on the second and third lines of
within the walls of their city, an oracle the Odyssey, remarks, i>s 6c koi vfKpoXs
having declared aiieimv koI \a>'iov ((recrdai Trpo<T(pves TO " oi ttoXXoI " Kal to " ol
a-ipio-t noiovfievois Trjv olKijcnif ficTa Tap TrXeiouff," drjXoL 6 elnwv to " ajreXeuffO/iat
TrXfioj/o)!/.The expression ad plures in TTapa TOVS TrXeiovas,^^ o eVrt Savovfiai,
the Trinummus of Plautus (ii. 2. 14) is nXftovas yap, tovs TfdveMTas (Kflvos e<^7.
doubtless a mere translation of Phile- Aristeides, in the course of his declama-
mon's Tmpa TOVS nXeiovas. In Alciphron, tion "For the Four" (viz. Miltiades,
iii. 7, a parasite, whose wealthy patrons Themistocles, Cimon, and Pericles), re-
bad plied him with wine and tit-bits presents the illustrious dead as ascending

3"^ Hag. No scoffing : come this way. 2'' Hag. This vr&j, I tell you.

S"""! Hag. I'll never let you go. 2"^ Hag. No more will I.

Youth. Detested kites, ye'll rend me limb from limb.

Hag. Obey the law, which bids you follow me.

3^ Hag. Not if a fouler, filthier, hag appears.

Youth. Now if betwixt you two I am done to death,
How shall I ever reach the girl I love ?
2*"^ Hag. That's your look-out ; but this you needs must do.
Youth. Which shall I tackle first, and so get free ?
Hag. You know ; come hither. Youth. Make her let me go.
Hag. No, no, come hither. Youth. If ^e'll let me go.
Hag. Zeus I'll not let you
! go. 2,"^ Hag. No more will 1.
Youth. Rough hands ye'd prove as ferrymen. 2"* Hag. Why so ?
Youth. Ye'd tear your passengers to bits by pulling.
2'* Hag. Don't talk, come hither. 3'''^ Hag. No, this way, I tell you.
Youth. O this is like Cannonus's decree.

to expostulate in person with. Plato for ferrymen. He is alluding, the Scholiast

the treatment he had accorded them in tells us, to the rough competition of the
the Gorgias. The expostulation being rival ferrymen, each striving to secure
finished, the orator proceeds, raOr' elirov- the passenger for his own boat ; eW iSij
ras av avrovs, oifiaij padltos ndXtu Tropeve- 01 TTopaprjs Tovs iraptoPTas avayKa^ovciv els

<t6ui Ttapa Toiiy nXfiovas, ci Si) KOKfivovs ra iSta TrXoia ip,^aiviiv,

fiera tS)V irXeiovaiv XPV K-ei(r6ai hoKiiv, acrirep 1089. y.avva>vov\ The youth, fettered
cya>ye ovk olfiai.. iii. 392 (ed. Canter). on each side by the clutch of a resolute
Cf. Canter, Nov. Lect. iv. 18. The Hag, likens himself to a prisoner on his
phrase, which did not find favour witK trial,under the provisions of the pse-
Anacharsis the Scythian (Diog. Laert. phism of Cannonus, for wrong done to
in vita), or with the Indian gymno- the Athenian people. See Bishop Thirl-
sophists (Plutarch, Alexander, chap. 64), wall's note to chap. 30 of his History of
occurs twice in the Greek Anthology ;
Greece. The substance, if not the very
Epigram 30
Crinagoras, ; Leonidas of language of the psephism, is given us
Tarentum, Epigram 79. Most of the by Xenophon (Hellenics, i. 7. 21). The
foregoing passages have been already psephism of Cannonus, he represents
mentioned by preceding editors, from Euryptolemus as saying, enacts that
Le Fevre and Kuster downward. if any one shall wrong the people of
1086. iropd/i^s] Were you to become Athens, he shall make his defence before
M a

yjrrj<f>ia-fj.a, ^Lviiv Sit [le Sia\e\T][ifieuoi/. 1090
TTcSy ow SiKCOTreiy dfi(j)OTepas Swrjcrofiai

rP. B. KaX(09, knuBav KaTa(pdyTj5 jSoX^aii/ yyTpav.

NEA. ofyuot KaKoSatfj-cav , eyyijs tjSt] Ttji 6vpas
eXKOfiefos djJL. TV. V. aXX' ovSev 'icrrai croi TrXeov.

^vvea-ueaovnai yap /lera crov. NEA. fifj npos 6f.5)V. 1095

ivl yap ^vvi^eaOaL KpeiTTOv rj Svoiv KaKolv.

rP. V. VT] TTjv 'E.KdTT]v, kav Te jSovXrj y fjv re firj.

the people in fitters. And if he shall he must be admitted, has found some veiy
found guilty, he shall lie put to death and distinguished supporters, including Mr.
throum into the Deadnian's Pit : and his Grote in the sixty-fourth chapter of his
goods shall he forfeited to the state, and History. In the speech, to which refer-
the tithe thereof shall belong to the goddess. ence is made in the preceding note, Eury-
The distinctive feature of the Decree of ptolemus is earnestly pleading that a
Cannonus, and the point in which it separate trial should be accorded to each
resembled the youth's case, was that the of the accused generals; but well knowing
prisoner was to plead in fetters. In like that he must not altogether run counter
manner Hesychius, s. v. Kawovou says, to the popular feeling, he proposes that
Kavpovou ^r](^i(Tfxa. eto-T^vey/ce yap ovtos these separate trials should be conducted
y^fjt^iafia axyre bii\t]^i^Vovs tovs Kpivo^ef- under the severest conditions, either
ous eKaTepatdfv aTToKoyelaBal. And SO the under the provisions of the psephism of
Scholiast here : \jffj(j>ia-iJ.a yeypa(pe KiiTe- Cannonus (which he describes in the
)(6fievov iKaripaiOev diroXoyela-dai tou kut' terms already given), or under the law
etfrayyeXiav Kpivopivov. This is all that against sacrilege and high treason (crimes
the ancient authorities tell us about the of which they were not even accused).
Decree of Cannonus. And the resolution which he ultimately
1090. StrtXeXij/z/zefOf] Me(rou etKrj^psrov. proposed took the following shape. That
Scholiast. Cf. Knights 262. And each general should have a separate trial,

this is a very common meaning of the conducted under the provisions of the
word. Le Fevre translates hinc illinc psephism of Cannonus, koto to Kamavov
prehensum; JimTick diremtuiu but lam ; ^Tj^iirpa KpivetjOat tovs nifbpaSj 5t;^a eKaarov.
convinced that the former is the true Brunck, laying hold of these words, and
The prisoner was
interpretation here. apparently having entirely overlooked
brought forward in chains, and was the account which the speaker had
probably supported by, if not actually already given of the psephism in ques-
bound to, a jailer on each side. But tion, concludes that instead of being, as
Brunck started a novel theory about all the authorities describe it, a severe
the psephism of Cannonus, which, it and rigorous measure against a prisoner,


To play the lover^ fettered right and left.

How can one oarsman navigate a pair ?

2'' Hag. Tush, eat a pot of truffles, foolish boy.

Youth. O me, I'm dragged along till now I've reached

The very door. 3''^ Hag. That won't avail you aught
1^11 tumble in beside you. Youth. Heaven forbid !

Better to struggle with one ill than two.

S"^"* Hag. O yes, by Hecate, will you, nill you, sir.

it was really his Magna Cliarta, ensuring by the pun of ^ivdv biak(\r)ijiiihov in

him a separate trial. And he explains place of K.plviv ^inXeK-qixiiivov." This

the foUowingpassage as follows :
" Juxta amendment of Brunck's explanation,
Cannoni decretum ait adolescens sibi though clear and coherent in itself,

impositam esse necessitatem Si^a iKaa-TTjv, shocks all one's notions, not only of
non KpiVeij/ judicare, sed ^ivuv permolere. Aristophanic humour, butalso of dicastic
Jocus in eo consistit, quod quum in de- usages. A dicastery had no power to
creto esset reos SiiXj)/j/xeVous imoXoye^crBat, subdivide itself in the way suggested ;

seorsum causam dicere, adolescens dicat there were dicasteries enough to give a
se 8iaKe\riij.fievov, tanquaiu in diversa di- separate and simultaneous trial not only
ductum binis vetulis simul morigera- to two, but to ten defendants; whilst, as
turum." Mr. Grote, avoiding the con- regards the proposal of Euryptolemus,
fusion of thought involved in this it is clear that he intended the trials
explanation, observes, "The young man to be not simultaneous, but successive,
does not compare his situation tvith that so that the popular fury might have time
of the culprit, but with that of the dihastery to calm down ; he even suggests'which
ivhich tried ciilpriti. The psephism of prisoner shall stand his iriaXfrst. There
Kannonus directed that each defendant is no ground for supposing a pun
should be tried separately accordingly ; between Kpiveiv and p.vHf. There is no
if it happened that two defendants were such phrase known as Kplvnv SuAiXrui-

presented for and were both to be

trial, jx(vov. And the youth's ^iveiv SiaXfXrui-
tried without a moment's delay, the fievov is intended to answer to the words
dikastery could only effect this object aiTohi.Kelv SeSf/ieVoj/ which are found in

by dividing itself into two halves or the psephism of Cannonus.

portions. By doing this (Kpiviiv SmXt- 1092. ^oKfiaiv] 'ETTiTrjSfLoi yap npos
Xrnijievov) it could tri^ both the defendants avvoxxriav ol 0oX/3oi. Scholiast. Bergler
at once but in no other way. Now the
; refers to Athenaeus,ii. chaps. 64 and 65,

young man in Aristophanes compares where many passages are cited, showing
himself to the dikastery thus circum- that 0o\3oi were considered fitcyepriKoi
stanced which comparison is signified
a(j)po8ia-ia>v. And see also Ath. i. 8.
NEA. (3 TpiaKaKoSai/j-ccp, el yvvaiKa Sei a-anpau
^iveiv oXrjv Tr]v vvKTa Kal t7)v fjfiepay,
KaireiT, iireiSau rfjaS' dnaWayco, -ndXiv 1100
^pvfrjf i-^ovaav XrJKvdoy npbs rals yuaQois.
dp 0X1 KaKoSatficov el/xi ;
^apvSai/j.atv jitv ovv

vfj TOf Ala rof acoTrjp dvfjp /cat SvcTTV)(^fjS,

OCTTIS TOlOVTOtS BrjpiOlS (TVUfip^Ofial.

ofLws S' kdv Ti TToXXa woXXdKts 7rd6co 1105

iino raivSe raiv Kaa-aXjSdSoiv, Sevp ecnrXecoy,

ddyjrai fi kiT avrZ t<o (TTO/j-aTi ttjs ecr^oXfji-

Kal TTjv dycoOev iTTnroXrjs tov (rrj/iaros

^Sxrav KaTawiTTaxTavTas, flra too noSe

HoXv^8oy(orj(TavTai kvkXco nepi rd acpvpd, 1110
dVo) 'wiOeivai irpocpaa-iv uvtI Xr]Kvdov.

0E. w fiaKdpios fikv Sfjfios, ivSai/j-cov S eyai,

1101. ipivrjv] *puvi;, whicli properly used in thesense of "bringing together"

means a toad,yias a nickname commonly a bride and bridegroom fifi ^wep^avms

given to courtezans at Athens, possibly a/JXOTov, when the Archon has not shut
from the unnatural brilliance of their them up together as a wedded pair,
eyes. The Phryne, of whose beauty so chap. 9. Dr. Blaydes refers to Plutarch
many anecdotes are told, belonged of (Alexander, chap. 2) who, speaking of
course to a later period. The words the marriage of Philip and Olympias,
which follow, )(OviTav XrjKvdov irpos Tins says, r) fih ovv vi/iipri npo Trjs vvktos, j;

yvadois, are plainly a continuation of a-iiveipx6r)anv els Toi' 6dKaij,op, k.t.X., and
the grim joke which pervades the scene, many other passages.
that the Hag resembles a corpse with 1105. noWa TToWctKis] The reduplica-
her funeral bottle beside her. It is tion of TToXXa increases the emphasis of
impossible to accept the Scholiast's the phrase, expressing the speaker's
explanation ci^rjKvtav, meaning that the conviction that the dreaded event will
Hag's cheeks were swoln like a bottle in all probability occur, f'av n-oXXiiKit
of oil. is merely equivalent to if {which is
1104. o-vmpfopii] Shall be shut up possible), supra 791. eav noWa noXXaKis
toith, as bride and bridegroom. In the means if {which is probable). On the
fifth book of Plato's Republic, to which use of f'av TI Trddto, if anything happens
such constant reference is made in this to me, in the sense of if I should die,
play, we find the active of this verb see Peace 169 Wasps 385 Frogs 737
; ;

Youth. Thrice hapless me, who first must play the man
With this old rotten carcase, and when freed
From her, shall find another Phryne there,

A hottle of oil beside her grinning chaps.

Ain't I ill-fated ? Yea, most heavy -fated !

O Zeus the Saviour, what a wretch am I

Yoked with this pair of savage-hearted beasts !

And O should aught befall me, sailing in

To harbour, towed by these detested drabs.
Bury my body by the harbour's mouth ;

And take the upper hag, who still survives.

And tar her well, and round her ankles twain
Pour molten lead, and plant her on my grave.
The staring likeness of a bottle of oil.

Maid. O lucky People, and O happy me.

and the notes there. And add Lucian's is finished and we pass into a lighter

Dial. Mer. viii. ad fin., nXoia-tos Sf d and pleasanter atmosphere.

viavi(TK.os eoTai, rjv Tt 6 irarqp avTov iraorjj 1112. GEPAnAlNA] A waiting- maid
" the youngster will be well off, on his of Praxagora enters, with a commission
father's death." from her mistress to fetch Blepyrus and
1108. Tqv avadtv] It would seem that the children, and bring them down to
as they go tumbling into the second the public banquet. In former times
Hag's house, the youth is sandwiched it would have been the husband who
between the two one of whom is Kara,
sent the maid to fetch his wife and
pulling him in, and the other ava>, trying children but we have changed all that.

to drag him back. The one who is The wife is now the head of the house,
Kara) will, as Dr. Blaydes suggests, fall and it is she who sends the maid to
to pieces (SiaTrecrcirai, supra 1036) and ; fetch her husband and children. The
BO will apparently form the young waiting-maid calls her mistress /MKapico-
man's grave. The one who is ava> will rdrrjv, because she not only has, like

survive, but she is to be blackened with all other wives, assumed the awful rule
pitch, and fixed to the place with and right supremacy which formerly
molten lead, so as to represent (n-po- belonged to the husband, but has in
<l)a(nv) one of the funeral XrjKvBoi. The addition been recognized as the chief-
youth and his tornientors now disappear tainess of the New Republic, which

from sight the scene of the Three Hags

; she had so large a part in establishing.

avTTj Ti fioi Se<TiToiva /laKaptcoTdTrj,

vjiih 6' oaai wapea-TaT kni Toicnv dvpais,

01 yeiToyis re ircivm o'i t SrjfioTai, 1115
eyoo T TTyOoy tovtoictiv f] SiaKOvoi,

j]Tis fiifivpoofiai Tf]v Ke^aXrjv [ivpwfiacrii'

dya6ol.(nv, 3) ZeC* iroXii S inrepTriTTaiKeu av

rovTCof andvTdiV to, &dcn dfx<f)0pi8ia.

kv TTJ Ke<paXfj yap kfifiivei ttoXvv xpovov 1120

TO, S' dXX' diravOriaravTa irdvT dneiTTaTO-

mdT k<TTi TToXv pkXTicTTa, noXti Sfjr , to 6eoi.

Kipacrov aKpaTov, ev(j)pavfi rfiv viy^Q oXrjv

1114. eVi Tola-iv 6ipais] That is, tlie was famous for its bouquet, and when
door of Blepyrus's house, the scene it was bottled in these earthen flagons,

having remained unchanged throughout the vintners were accustomed to put

the play. She goes on to laud her own in it wheaten dough (orais-) steeped in
happiness once more, the fragrance of honey, more tiJv oo-^ijv ajr' airov, rqu de
the Thasian wine being obviously still yXvKvrrjTa ano tov crraiTos Xa/iSaveiv tov
potent in her brain. olvov. See Athenaeus, i. chap. 58, and
1118. TTokv d' iif^pji-enatKev] So the old Theophrastus de Odoribus there quoted,
woman in the Curculio of Plautus (i. Aristophanes mentions the Thasian vrine
2. 5, to which Brunck also refers), ad- in the Lysistrata and in the Plutus,
dressing a flagon of fragrant old wine, and in each place refers to its delightful
exclaims, " Omnium unguentum odor, fragrance. Many passages relating to
prae tuo, nautea est." it are collected from the poets in
1119. eacrt' afi<popfi&ia] Of all the Athenaeus, i. In the
chapters 51-53.
unguents with which the outside of her latter chapter he cites some hexameters
head was perfumed, none was so fragrant of Hermippus, describing the various
as the Thasian wine which had got kinds of wine and of the Thasian

inside her head. The Thasian wine he says

A sweet apple-fi-agrauoo so mellow.
Has the flagons of Thasos invaded,
That the Thasian has hardly its fellow,
'Tis the best of all wines, I'm persuaded,
Excepting the rival-defying.
The faultless, the exquisite Chian.

/fai eiffiov, Ty St) iiri\aiy imUSpo/ifv oS/ifi,

TOVTOV (yij Kpivto TToXv irAvTajv i1i/ai afnarov

rail' &K\aii' olvaiv, /lex' d/iv^ora Xiov a\vnov.


And O my mistress, luckiest of us all,

And ye who now are standing at our door,
And all our neighbours, aye and all our town.
And I'm a lucky waiting-maid, who now
Have had my head with unguents rich and rare
Perfumed and bathed ; but far surpassing all

Are those sweet flagons full of Thasian wine.

Their fragrance long keeps lingering in the head.
Whilst all the rest evaporate and fade.
There's nothing half so good ;
great gods, not half !

Choose the most fragrant, mix it neat and raw,

(aXvTTov leaving no headache after it, of. classes in contrast with the poor labourer
Eur. Baoch. 423). The last two lines who drinks the water from the crystal
are a parody of a favourite couplet of spring. Clement of Alexandria in

Homer, who says that Nireus was the his Paedagogus, ii. 30, running through

fairest (11. ii. 674) and Aias the shape- the principal Hellenic wines, and ap-
liest and mightiest (II. xvii. 280 Od. ; propriating to each its special attribute,
xi. 469 and 550 xxiv. 18), tS>v aXXav
; gives to the Thasian the epithet 6
Anvacov, /xer* dfivfiova Urj^eiava. The
Thasian and the Chian are frequently 1123. Kepaaov aKparov] These words
bracketed together as the noblest wines are of course in direct contradiction to
of Hellas and though in the days of
; each other. The speaker was expected
Horace the Chian seems to have main- to say, " Mix it in the proportion of
tained an absolute supremacy, yet in 3 (water) to 1 (wine) or in the propor-
softer and more luxurious times, the tion of 2 to 1, or 1 to 1 {'l<7ov I'o-o)),"

sweet-tasted and sweet-scented Thasian or otherwise as her taste might suggest.

was at least an equal favourite. "Ye But instead of this she adds napa irpocr-

drink your Thasian wine," says St. honiav, the word tiKparov that ; is, in
Chrysostom to the wealthy members of the proportion of to 1 : or in other
his congregation (Horn. 48 in Matth. words, don't mix it at all. It is the
501 B), " Ye drink your Thasian wine, joke which Aristophanes was so fond
and will not give even a cup of cold of making upon the (alleged) bibulous
water to the Lord who gave you all," propensities of Athenian women. With
that is, to the