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CHAPTER 19: VIRUSES, BACTERIA, ARCHAEA - Replication of recombinant DNA herpes, infectious 2.

H1N1 (Swine flu) 0

19.1 Virus occurs. mononucleosis, severe respiratory
a. Definition (Host cell cant differentiate viral DNA and chicken pox) system
- Non-cellular/Non-living particles infectious agents its own chromosome) Influenza (flu)
b. Characteristics Mumps, measles,
1. Protein coat wrapped around RNA/DNA B2: Spontaneous - Cell is under stress and German
2. NO ribosomes Induction - Viral DNA excises themselves from measles
3. NO metabolic machinery chromosome
4. May/May not have envelopes made of membrane d. Severity of disease
(derived from host cells) C. Synthesis - Host replicates viral genetic material Endemic Disease that persists at a low level in a
- Builds viral proteins region or population
Diagram Pandemic Outbreak of disease that affects many
separate regions and poses a serious threat
D. Assembly - Viral proteins arrange themselves to to human health
specific protein code. Epidemic Disease outbreak limited to one region
- Self-assemble into a coat around
viral DNA. ****************************************************
E. Release - Cell lysis occurs (cell dies) 19.3 Viroids (Plant affecting Pathogens)
- Release of viral particles a. Definition = Plant pathogens

b. Characteristics
Contains; 1. small RNA
2. circular and single-stranded
c. Viral Replication (APSAR) 3. NO protein coat
Lytic Lysogenic Are ribozymes (RNAs with enzymatic activity)
19.2 Pathogens Human Affecting Disease
Fast replication Slow replication Do NOT encode proteins
a. Definition: Viral carrying disease
Host cells immediately die Viral DNA passed onto next
after lysis hosts generation c. Examples
b. Characteristics
Produce symptoms for long period i. Tobacco mosaic virus
Lytic Pathway (A-E)
Can be latent & reawaken ii. Potato tuber
A. Attachment Virus attaches to proteins in host cells
macromolecular membrane
c. Types d. Viroid replication

Common Viral Disease Emerging Viral Disease 1 Circular mechanism Host enzyme (RNA Polymerase)
Non- Adenoviruses - Virus mutation moves along circular RNA
B. Penetration Virus genetic material (Viral nucleic acid) enveloped (colds) Produce new strain 2 Long RNA strand Many viroid attached end to end
penetrates host cells membrane Viral - 2 viruses infect 1 3 Ligation of strand
gastroenteritis host gene 4 New viroids formed
(stomach flu) exchange Viral 5 Viroids spread through plasmodesmata of plant/phloem
Human recombination
papillomavirus New strain of virus
Lysogenic Pathway (Inc. B1 & B2)
(genital warts, (Lysogenic)
B1: Prophage - Viral nucleic acid joins with hosts
Formation chromosomes. cervical cancer)
Enveloped Herpes viruses Example:
(cold sores, genital 1. H5N1 (Bird flu)

19.4 Bacteria & Archaea - All plants, some - 2 genetically identical cells
- Both are prokaryotes protists, bacteria produced
Chemo - Obtain energy by
a. Characteristics of Prokaryotes (Inorganic removing e from
substances) inorganic
1 NO Organelles molecules
Nucleus organic compound
Endoplasmic Reticulum (CO2 + H2O)
Golgi bodies - All
2 Single chromosome bacteria/archaeans
3 Cell Wall Photo Heterotrophic - Light energy +
4 Ribosomes in cytoplasm (Sunlight) (Organic breaking down
5 Reproduce by binary fission Compounds) organic
6 Gene exchange - conjugation, transduction, and
- All
bacteria/archaeans ii. Gene Exchange (Horizontal Gene Transfer)
1. Bacteria
Chemo - Breakdown - Move genes between existing individuals (cells)
(Organic Organic comp.
Compounds) Carbon + energy 1) Conjugation one cell gives a plasmid to the other.
- All animals, fungi, - Plasmid = small circular DNA molecule, separate from the
some bacterial chromosome, contains few genes.
1 One cell extends sex pilus to partner. Partner reels in.
c. Bacterial Reproduction & Gene Exchange 2 Sex pilus passes copy of its plasmid to partner
- Only produce asexually - binary fission 3 Cells separate
- Can produce new gene combinations gene exchange 4 Each cell pass plasmid to descendants/ donate to other
a. Basic structures/Characteristics i. Reproduction Binary Fission (Vertical Gene
1 Double stranded DNA Transfer) 2) Transformation
2 Nucleoid - Division of a parent cell 2 genetically equivalent - DNA uptake from environment by prokaryote
3 Ribosomes descendants
4 NO endomembrane system - Replication of a single, circular chromosome 3) Transduction
5 Many have flagella/s dont contain microtubules, - Bacteriophage (virus) sometimes move genes between
rotate like propeller/dont bend side to side - A bacteriums circular their hosts.
6 Pili (Hairlike filaments)- Grappling, Extension for gene chromosome attaches inner
exchange plasma membrane. a. Implications of gene transfer
7 Shape: Coccus (round), Bacillus (Cylinder), Sprillum - Cell duplicates its chromosome - Gene in mutated bacterial cell (antibiotic resistance) can
(Spiral) - Attaches the copy beside the be transferred to descendants and other existing cells
original - Rapid spreading of gene, accelerates response to selective
b. Metabolic Diversity - adds membrane and wall pressure.
- 4 types; material between them.
Energy Carbon Source Details - cell almost doubled in size d. Bacterial Diversity
Source - new membrane and wall are - Made of peptidoglycan
Photo Autotrophic - Use light energy deposited in middle. - Gram staining is used to;
(Sunlight) (Carbon organic compound i. Differentiate thickness of the cell walls
Dioxide) (CO2 + H2O) ii. Determine bacterial lineages

- Cause of Lyme disease, transmitted by ticks
Gram (+) Gram (-)
Purple stained Pink stained
Thick walls Thin walls e. Roles of bacteria
Some produce Decomposers
endospores Survival Cycle nutrients
against boiling, freezing, Form partnerships with other species; mutualists
radiation Human resistance to some disease
Most are Negative As pathogens; anthrax, tetanus// infections;
chemoheterotrophs tuberculosis, streptococcus (flesh-eating bacteria),
Lactobacillus yogurt, Cyanobacteria, staphylococcus (staph infections)
cheese Proteobacteria

2. Archaea
i. Cyanobacteria Oxygen producing bacteria
- Carry out nitrogen fixation to produce ammonia
Nutrient for algae and plants
- Partner with fungi form lichens
- Applications:
1. Agriculture Increase organic material in soil.
- As proposed in 3 domains of life.
2. Health food - Relationship with both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
- Archaeans coexists with bacteria, some exchange genes by
ii. Proteobacteria Nitrogen-fixers conjugation
- Most diverse bacterial lineage - Evidence
- Example: Archaeans & Bacteria Have diff. cell wall and
Rhibozium (roots of legumes) enriches soil membrane components
Myxobacteria Forms multicelled fruiting body Archaeans organize DNA around histones (Bacteria do
spores (dormant state) when lack of food Wind not)
disperses spores Germinates in favourable
condition a. Types
Escherichia coli (mammalian gut) normal flora
provision of vitamin K Methanogens - organisms produce methane (CH4)
Thiomargarita namibiensis - The largest known - Anaerobic conditions
bacterium - Exposure to O2 prevents growth/kills
Pathogens: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Helicobactor them
pylori, Vibrio cholerae - Habitat: Deep sea, in soils, ocean
Rickettsias (intracellular parasites) are the closest sediment, gut (humans/cow/sheep)
relatives of mitochondria Extreme - Habitat: Salty environment (lake,sea)
halophiles - Some have purple pigment
iii. Spirochetes (bacteriorhodopsin) allow use of
- Spiral-shaped bacteria light energy produce ATP
- Include aquatic decomposers, nitrogen fixers, and bacteria Extreme - Habitat: Very high temp. (hot springs,
that live in cattle gut and break down cellulose thermophiles deep sea hydrothermal vent)
- Some are pathogens
- Cause of sexually-transmitted disease syphilis

CHAPTER 20: PROTISTS A2. Trypanosomes
a. Characteristics

1 1st Eukaryotic cell - Red algae One mitochondrion
B endosymbiosis engulfs - Green algae Membrane-encased flagellum Wavelike motion, moves the
cyanobacterium - Land Plants cell
2 Resulting Trypanosoma brucei (Insect transmitted) African sleeping
C chloroplast with sickness
2 membranes
3 2nd Heterotrophic 3 membranes; A3. Euglenoids
endosymbiosis protist engulfs - Euglenoids
D autotrophic - Dinoflagellates
protist (with
E evolved from
4 Final 4 membranes;
chloroplast has - Diatoms
4 membranes - Brown algae
A. Flagellated Protozoans (4 Types)
a. Characteristics
a. Characteristics Multiple mitochondria
NO cell wall Some have chloroplast (2nd endosymbiosis from green alga)
H Photo/heterotrophs
Have pellicle (layer of protein under plasma membrane)
maintains cells shape Long flagellum - detects light Photosynthetic
Mostly heterotrophic Aquatic (freshwater)
20.1 Introduction to Protist Contractile vacuole collects/expels excess water
A1. Diplomonads & Parabasalids
a. Definition A collection of single-celled Eukaryote that is a. Characteristics
not a fungus, animal, or plant. Diplomonads Parabasalids

b. Linkage of Protist with Higher Organisms

- Ancestral Prokaryotes Protists Eukaryotes
- Protists as the middle link between lower and higher
- Phylogenetic tree (look above) based on RNAs of the cell
- Multiple flagella//NO mitochondria
c. Endosymbiosis Origin of Protists (Chloroplast) - Adaptive to oxygen-poor habitats
- Molecular evidence of chloroplast contains - Instead of mitochondria have ATP producing
cyanobacterium organelles (anaerobic pathway)
- - Both have (pathogenic) species - Parasitic

B. Rhizarians host Source of Source of aligns;
(mosquitoes/hum diatomaceous -Emulsifiers
B1. Foraminiferans B2. Radiolarians ans) earth - insecticide (food/beverages/
Some Example: Example: cosmetics/lotions
bioluminescent Paramecium Plasmodium )
Convert ATP into Malaria caused Aquatic habitat Sea, damp soil Temperate sea
light Protects by apicomplexan floor
from predators

Marine protist
Sieve-like shells
Microtubule-reinforced cytoplasmic extensions that
protrude/stick out of shells opening capture food
May be a part of plankton
Calcium Carbonate shell Glassy Silica shells
(from CO2)
Deposits of remains mined Planktonic Abundant in
for chalk/limestone Nutrient-rich water

C. Alveolates

C1. C2. Ciliates C3.

Dinoflagellates Apicomplexan
- Unicellular
- Small sacs (under plasma membrane)
Aquatic reef Aquatic Infect hosts D. Stramenophiles E. Red Algae Closest to Plants?
Mutualistic 2 nuclei types: Complex D1. Water Molds D2. Diatoms C3. Brown Algae
- supply corals 1. Macronucleus microtubules - Defined by genetic similarities than visible traits
with O2 and controls daily (apical/top) - Aquatic
sugars activities Pierce/penetrate Heterotrophic Autotrophic/Phot Autotrophic/Phot
- receive shelter 2. Micronuclei host osynthetic osynthetic
and CO2 Sexual
Unicelled Unicelled Multicelled
- Imbalance: Coral reproduction
Mesh of Silica-shells Brown pigment
absorptive (fucoxanthin)
Predator Predators and All Parasites
parasites Photosynthetic
Decomposers/Par Some form toxins
Photosynthetic/A Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Multicelled
utotrophic/Heter Aquatic
Example: Some live; Seaweed to giant
otrophic Deposit cellulose in cell walls
Phytophthora -individually kelps
Swim with 2 Cilia Non-motile Store sugars as starch
destroy -form chains
flagellas - rotate locomotion/feedi Has chloroplasts containing chlorophyll a and red pigments
ng called phycobilins
Marine planktons Contractile Life cycle involves Pigments allow them to capture light even in deep waters
vacuole more than one Example: Nori seaweed/agar-cosmetics,bakeries,gelatin

F. Green Algae Closest to Plants? G2. Slime Molds
Lives communally social amoeba
Closest relative to land plants Fungus like
Photosynthetic Habitat: Floor of temperate forests
Chloroplast (chlorophyll a and b) G2a. Plasmodial Slime G2b. Cellular Slime Molds
Habitat: freshwater, ocean, soil, tree trunk surfaces Molds
May be single cells/colonial/multicelled
Example: Chlamydomonas (single-cell), colonial Volvox,
Multicelled Ulva
Charophyte algae (Chara) Unlike other green algae;
i. divide by cell plate formation
ii. have plasmodesmata cytoplasmic connections

Plasmodium like Amoeba-like

Feeds as multinucleated Feeds on bacteria
- Eats bacteria on forest
Reproduction mitosis Reproduction - mitosis
Single Colony Multicelled (without cytoplasmic
- Red algae, green algae, land plants have; In unfavourable condition: In unfavourable condition
i. cell wall made of cellulose - Forms a pore-bearing 1. Cells formed
ii. store sugars as starch structure multinucleated mass
iii. chloroplast evolved from cyanobacteria 2. Mass adhered as a
mobile slug
3. Find a suitable spot
G. Amoebozoans differentiates into
fruiting body
Heterotrophic 4. Disperses spores
Many solitary
Some display communal behaviour H. Choanoflagellates Simplest Living Animal
Have cell differentiation Complexities seen in animals

G1. Amoebas
Lives solitary
Habitat: freshwater
Pseudopods Locomotion/Feeding
May be pathogenic
Some live in gut (humans/animals) Closest protist to animals
Flagellum surrounded by collar (has threadlike projections)
Live as single cells
Some colonial
Similar to sponge cells


21.2 Adaptation of Land Plants

Green Algae Plants

Surrounding Embryophytes
water supports (multicelled
alga embryo on
Performs parental body)
photosynthesis Vascular plants
Absorbs water, in drier
CO2, minerals habitats
from water

Key Adaptations

Vascular Tissue Adaptations in Seeded Plants

Xylem Transports water and minerals (unidirectional:
from roots to stems) - Evolved in late Devonian
Phloem Transports nutrients (Bidirectional:Up/Down - Cyads/Ginkgos earliest gymnosperms
stem) - Magnolias earliest angiosperms
Seed sporophytes plants have;
Prevents water loss
Stomata Pollen sacs Structure which pollen grains develop
Open/Close: Water conservation, Gas exchange Ovules Structure which egg develops
Leaves Microspore Haploid spore develops in pollen sacs
Increase photosynthetic action/Gas exchange sperm
Reinforced lignin in cell walls Megaspore Haploid spore develops in ovule Egg
Structural support
Pollen Contains sperm cells
grains Dispersed in wind or water or insects
Seeds Seed into fruits
Can reproduce in dry places

Life Cycle
2 multicelled bodies
1. Haploid gametophyte
2. Diploid Sporophyte (In vascular plants)

Major Plant Types Characteristics Lignin Vascular Real Seeds/Spores How Dominant Relationship of Application
Groups Tissue Roots/Rhizoids/Hyphae sperm Stage Gametophyte &
(Xylem/Phloem) travels? Sporophyte
Bryophytes Mosses - Most diverse Absent Rhizoids; Spores Motile Gametophyte Sporophyte Peat Mosses
- Provide anchorage sperm dependant/attached - Dominant plants in
- Threadlike (Water) on/to gametophyte peat bog (wetland)
structure - for nourishment - Peat (carbon-rich
- Dont distribute material)
water/nutrients - Help retain soils
- Resources moisture
absorbed across - Dried and burned -
gametophyte fuel
Liverworts - Lives in moist places leafy surfaces
- Gametophyte is flattened
- Attaches to soil by rhizoids

Hornworts - Hornlike sporophyte

- Continually grow from base
- Survive even death of

Seedless Club Mosses - Forms strobilus spores Present Real Roots from Spores Flagellated Sporophyte Independent Medicinal Cancer,
Vascular soft, cone-shaped on leaves rhizome Specialized sperm gametophyte memory loss
Plants stem/grows released
underground by spores -

Horsetail & - Upright, hollow stem Pot scrubbers

Rushes - Non-photosynthetic leaves
- Few/no/Thin branches
- Forms strobilus spores
- Silica in cell walls structural

Ferns - Most diverse

- Many are epiphytes attach
to trunk/branch of plants,

does not withdraw nutrients

Gymnosperms Conifers - Oveules formed on surfaces Present Real Roots Seeds Non- Sporophyte Gametophyte Pines Lumber, sticky
(Naked seeds) of woody cones motile dependent on resin (turpentine/paint
- Needle like leaves sperm sporophyte solvent)
- Resistant to drought/cold
- Eg: Pines, Redwoods


Cyads - Palm-like leaves Flagellated Landscaping, ornaments

- Fleshy seeds Sperm

- Flagellated sperm Swim in Swim
fluid produced by plants through
ovule ovules
- Eg: Sago Palms fluid

Ginkos - Deciduous plant Medicinal properties

- Flagellated Sperm Alzheimer
- Eg: Ginkgo biloba

Gnetophytes - Vinelike/Shrubby Non- Herbal stimulant


Angiosperms - Specialized reproductive Present Real Roots Seeds Non- Sporophyte Gametophyte - Essential to human
(The ONLY Flowering Plant) shoot Fruits Motile dependent on existence
- Various flower structure Sperm sporophyte - Feed and shelter
- Seed Fruits animals
- Mature plant ovary - Provide us with
Encloses seed food, fabric, oils,
- Has flowers (Reproductive medicines, drugs
- Types: Monocots/Eudicots
- Double fertilization

Plant Groups Reproduction pathway
Bryophytes (Moss) 1. The leafy green part of a moss is the gametophyte.
2. It supports a sporophyte (stalk and capsule).
3. Spores form by meiosis in the capsule, are released, and drift with the
4. Spores develop into gametophytes that produce eggs or sperm in
gametangia at their tips.
5. Sperm released from tips of sperm-producing gametophytes swim
through water to eggs at tips of egg-producing gametophytes.
6. Fertilization produces a zygote.
7. The zygote grows and develops into a sporophyte while remaining
attached to and nourished by its egg-producing parent.

Seedless vascular Plants (Fern) 1. The familiar leafy form is the diploid sporophyte.
2. Meiosis in cells on the underside of fronds produces haploid spores.
3. After their release, the spores germinate and grow into tiny
gametophytes that produce eggs and sperm.
4. Sperm swim to eggs and fertilize them, forming a zygote.
5. The sporophyte begins its development attached to the gametophyte,
but it continues to grow and live independently after the gametophyte

1. Ovules form on cone scales.

Gymnosperm 2. Inside the ovule, a megaspore forms by meiosis and develops into a female
3. Male cones hold pollen sacs.
4. Where microspores form and develop into pollen grains.
5. The pollen grains are released and drift with the winds. Pollination occurs
when one lands on an ovule
6. The pollen grain germinates: Some cells develop into a pollen tube that grows
through the ovule tissue and delivers sperm to the egg.
7. Pollen tube growth is an astonishingly leisurely process. It typically takes
about a year for the tube to grow through the ovule tissue to the egg. When
fertilization finally occurs, it produces a zygote.
8. Over about six months, the zygote develops into an embryo sporophyte that,
along with tissues of the ovule, becomes a seed
9. The seed is released, germinates, then grows and develops into a new

Angiosperm 1. A sporophyte dominates this life cycle.
2. Pollen forms inside pollen sacs of stamens.
3. Eggs develop in an ovule within an ovary.
4. Pollination occurs and a tube grows from the pollen grain into the ovule,
delivering two sperm.
5. Double fertilization occurs in all flowering plant life cycles. One sperm
fertilizes the haploid egg. The other fertilizes a diploid cell, yielding a triploid
cell that divides to form endosperm, a tissue that nourishes the embryo
6. The resulting seed will grow into a new sporophyte.

CHAPTER 22: FUNGI ii. This cytoplasmic fusion produces a
dikaryotic cell
22.1 Definition - Dikaryotic: cell that has two genetically
- Eukaryotic heterotroph with cell walls of chitin; obtains distinct nuclei (n + n)
nutrients by digesting them outside the body and
absorbing them.
22.4 5 Major Fungal Groups
22.2 Structure & Function

It is a Organism that feeds on organic wastes and

saprobe remains
Some live May benefit, have no effect or parasitic to
inside others its host
Unicelled It is a yeast
Most Molds, mushrooms
Have Collective of threadlike filaments Each
mycelium filament is a hypha (cells attached end to
Have chitin cell walls
Grows by adding cells to hyphae
Depends on fungal group, may have
i. cross-walls (porous-enables flow of nutrients) or
ii. septa between hypha cells

22.3 Sexual Reproduction

Basic Life i. Two haploid hyphae meet and cells at

cycle/Sexual their tips fuse

1. Chytrids 2. Glomeromycetes 3. Zygote fungi 4. Sac fungi 5. Club fungi

Life Cycle

Mychorrhiza (Fungi & Plant root) Linchen Fungi & Photosynthetic part