Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Planning Orientation Through

Reference Studies

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.1) Explain the terms:-
Village, Town, City, Region, Metropolis and Megalopolis

Village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a Hamlet with the population
ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand, Though often located in rural areas.

Town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city.

City is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Cities generally have complex systems
for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The area which have all the facilities.

Region can be defined as areas that are distinctive by their uniformity of description based on a
range of statistical data, for example demographic, and locales.

Metropolis term is generally used to represent a large city or urban area. Urban areas of less than
one million people are rarely considered metropolises in contemporary contexts.

Megalopolis:- Once a city expands far enough to reach another city, this region can be deemed
a conurbation or megalopolis.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.2) Enumerate briefly:-
Five year Plan, Regional development Plan, Perspective Plan, Comprehensive
development plan .

Five year Plan is came in to account just because of problem of urbanism felt and manifestation was
huge. And in this plan there are various scheme like housing for industrial workers, rehabilitation for
refugees etc. The Planning Commission has to make periodic assessment of all resources in the
country, boost up insufficient resources and formulate plans for the most efficient and judicious
utilization of resources.
Major objectives of this plan are:-
1)Preservation and improvement of existing stock.
2)Provision of Housing sites for landless labourers.
3)continue existing schemes of Housing for EWS and LIG
4)Extent support to HUDCO and state Housing boards to poor Housing.

Regional Development plan The objectives of balanced regional development was sought to be
achieved through industrial location policy as "through balanced and coordinated development of
industrial and agricultural economy in each region, the entire country can attain higher standard of
living".

Perspective plan/vision document:- this plan is made for 25 years. It is essentially a policy program
for longer time period. Planning is a long term Perspective.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.2) Enumerate briefly:-
Comprehensive development plan, City development plan

Comprehensive development plan are prepared in conformity with Master Plan proposals, prepared
for smaller areas within the urban area. These are the action plans where the development projects and
programmes are envisaged. It is a micro-level plan with detailed road network in which Master Plan is
translated for development of specific area in the town which exhibits faster growth.
The Comprehensive Development Plan will provide all matters necessary for the proper development
of area covered by such plan and for the health, comfort, convenience and general betterment of the
present and future inhabitants of the development area.

City development plan:-The goal of CDP is to create an economically productive, efficient, equitable,
and responsive cities. The CDP focuses on the development of:
Economic and social infrastructure
Strategies for improving the lives of the urban poor strengthen municipal governments and their
financial accounting and budgeting systems and procedures would create structures that bring
accountability and transparency.
Provide the basis for cities to undertake urban sector reforms and help direct investment into city
infrastructure

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.3) What is meant by:-
Topography, demography and Economics

Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those of planets, moons, and
asteroids. It is also the description of such surface shapes and features (especially their depiction in
maps).
Topography specifically involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the
surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry.
Main objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more generally any point in
terms of both a horizontal Coordinate system such as latitude, longitude, and altitude.
Demography is the statistical study of human population. Demographic analysis can be applied to
whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion and ethnicity.
There are two methods of data collection:
o A) Direct
o B) Indirect.
Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods
and services.
Main aim is to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Economic analysis is
applied throughout society, in business, finance and government, but also in crime, education, the
family, health, law, politics, religion, social institutions, war, and science.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.3) What is meant by:-
Ecology, Sociology and geography

Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and
their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution,
amount (biomass), number.
Ecology is a sub-discipline of biology, the study of life.
Ecology is a human science as well. There are many practical applications of ecology in conservation
biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), city
planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science and human social
interaction (human ecology).

Sociology is the study of society. Its traditional focuses have included social stratification, social class,
social mobility, religion, secularisation, law,deviance.
Main objective of sociology is to apply findings directly to the pursuit of social welfare, while others
seek purely academic or intellectual knowledge.

Geography is the science that deals with the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and
phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth".
There are two subsidiary fields:
o A) Human geography
o B) Physical geography

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.3) What is meant by:-
Cartography, anthropology, statistics and archeology

Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique.
The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:
Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections.
Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the
concern of generalization.

Anthropology is the study of humanity. It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the
social Anthropology's basic concerns are "What are humans' physical traits?", "How do humans
behave?", "Why are there variations and differences among different groups of humans?

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects
of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

Archaeology is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material
culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture,
biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.4) Discuss and explain
Four different urban forms with examples from world:linear, radial, grid, star.

Linear city The main feature of the linear urban form is its ability
to deal with the rapid and efficient mass movement of people and
goods within and between cities. A further quality of the linear
structure is its ability to deal, in theory, with infinite growth. Two
early examples of linear urban forms are Ciudad Lineal by Soria y
Mata for the suburbs of Madrid and Cite Industrielle by Tony
Garnier

The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of


city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming
a grid. In the context of the culture of Ancient Greece, the grid
plan is called Hippodamian plan.

Radiocentric: The most frequently found urban form is the


radio-centric, a large circle with radial corridors of intense develop-
ment emanating from the center.

Star: A star shape is a radio-centric form with open spaces be-


tween the outreaching corridors of development.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.5) Explain various hierarchies of roads as proposed by Le-Corbusier for
Chandigarh with detail sketches.

THERE ARE SEVEN CATAGORIES OF ROADS PROPOSED BY LE-CORBUSIER IN CHANDIGARH.

V1:These include N.T.Road, comes from Delhi on the one side and from Shimla on the other, also
connecting from Lahore.
V2:These include the major vehicular arterials like Madhya marg, Dakshin marg, Jan marg, Himalaya
marg.
V3:Each sector is surrounded on all four sides by V3 this is a road reserved exclusively for the fast
moving traffic.
V4:These include the market roads inside the sector.
V5:These are the curved roads that go inside the sectors and intersect the V4 roads at two points
V6:These include the access roads to properties.
V7:These include the cycle tracks.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.6) Define Town Density, Gross Residential density, Net Residential density with
refrence to indian planning standards for various size of urban areas.

Town Density:- Cities with the largest land area and their surrounding urban areas by population
density expressed in people per square kilometre. Most such agglomerations are economically,
socially and culturally dominated by one city at their centre.

Gross Residential Density:- In urban planning, gross residential density is the number of housing
units divided by site area. It is expressed in units per acre (upa) or units per hectare (ha).

Net Residential density:- The maximum number of dwelling units allowed per unit area under
applicable zoning regulations; often expressed in dwellings per acre or dwellings per hectare.

Greater residential density allows for more and better transportation choices, including mass transit,
biking, and pedestrian trails. Such density also improves the workability of neighborhoods and access
to services and amenities while decreasing sprawl and the consumption of land. Density depends on
both dwelling unit size and household size

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.7) Explain the terms relation to the Housing:-
Neighbourhood, Radburn concept, Sites and Services, Self-Help Housing

Neighbourhood unit is simply a physical environment. The environment in which mother knows that
her child will have no traffic streets to cross on his way to school. It is an environment in which the
house- wife may have to an easy walk to a shopping centre, to obtain daily household goods & an
employed person may find convenient transportation to and from the work.
Redburn concept :- The Radburn Concept involves houses which are designed back to front with the
front door facing walkways and common open space and the back door facing the street and the
separation of pedestrians and motor vehicles.
Radburn Plan was developed by with several objectives:
To relieve traffic congestion and promote street safety.
To alleviate crowded living and working conditions.
To provide city dwellers with more sunlight and air.
To regulate the size of cities.
To combine beauty with efficiency.
Site and Services is an approach to bringing shelter within the economic reach of the poor.
Recognizing that the vast majority of low income families in the world build their own shelter, which
lacks basic hygiene, access and electricity, the strategy was developed.

Self-help housing It is a government program to assist groups of low-income families in building


their own homes. Each family is expected to contribute at least 700 hours of labor in building homes
for each other,when their own financial state allows them to invest. Self-help housing is mainly an
economic necessity .

Refrences:- Wikipedia, Encarta, visual Dictionary

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.8) Explain the terms:-
Mass or Public Transit, Para-Transit, Private Transit, Non-Motorised Transit

Mass Transit is a system of large-scale public transportation in a given metropolitan area, typically
comprising buses, subways, and elevated trains. mass transit, also called mass transportation, or
public transportation.

Public Transit is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general
public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by
strangers without private arrangement.

Para-Transit is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed
routes or schedules. Typically mini-buses are used to provide paratransit service, but also share taxis
and jitneys are important providers.

Private Transit:- Private transportation is when you provide transportation for yourself. Private
transportation is also when your buddies give you a ride. There are different kinds of private
transportation. For, example bikes, motorcycles, cars and scooters are all forms of private
transportation. Private transportation is much faster than public transportation.

Non-Motorised Transit:- it is the main mode of transportation for the poor, and in some a significant
source of income for them.
Type of Non-Motorized Transport are :- Bicycle, cycle rickshaw, horse-drawn carriages.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.9) Elaborate the terms:-
Infilteration well, sedimentation, chlorination, flocculation, septic tank, oxidation pond.

Infilteration well:- The idea is based on the concept of natural water balance as apart of hydrological
cycle.When the ground surface is covered fully with vegetation and is permeable, some precipitation
will then infiltrate naturally and the rest as runoff flows along the ground surfaces.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are
entrained, and come to rest against a barrier.
Flocculation in the field of chemistry, is a process where colloids come out of suspension in the form
of floc or flakes. The action differs from precipitation in that, prior to flocculation, colloids are merely
suspended in a liquid and not actually dissolved in a solution.
Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification
to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. Water which has been treated with chlorine is
effective in preventing the spread of waterborne disease.
Septic tank A septic tank is a key component of the septic system, a small-scale sewage treatment
system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or
private corporations. The term "septic" refers to the anaerobic bacterial environment that develops in
the tank and which decomposes or mineralizes the waste discharged into the tank.
Oxidation Pond:- Oxidation Ponds are also known as stabilization ponds or lagoons. They are used for
simple secondary treatment of sewage effluents. , the use of oxidation ponds is largely restricted to
warmer climate regions because they are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature changes.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.9) Elaborate the terms:-
Clarification, Pressure flow system vs. gravity flow system, run-off coefficient,
Time of concentration.

Clarification The suspended matter can consist of large solids, settable by gravity alone without any
external aids, and non-settleable material, often colloidal in nature. Removal is generally
accomplished by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. The combination of these three
processes is referred to as conventional clarification.
Pressure flow system:- When the flow is under pressure, then the type of flow is known as pressure
flow. Generally the Pressure flow is also referred to as conduit flow, pipe flow. The fluid flowing full in a
conduit is an example of pressure flow.

Gravity flow system:- when water flows between 2 bodes of water. that are connected by a common
channel / stream / pipe. and simply the difference between the heights of water level between the 2
bodes of water, causes the water to move from one body of water to the other body of water. this would
be known as gravity flowing of water.
Run-off coefficient:- Runoff Coefficient is the ratio of between the peak runoff rate and intensity of
rainfall. In other words The ratio of the amount of water that is NOT absorbed by the surface to the total
amount of water that falls during a rainstorm.

Time of concentration It is defined as the time needed for water to flow from the most remote point in
a watershed to the watershed outlet.It is a function of the topography, geology, and land use within the
watershed. This can be important for infrastructure development (design of bridges, culverts, etc.) and
management.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.10) Define the terms:-
Age-sex pyramid, Fertility rate, Birth rate, Infant mortality rate, natality rate,
life expectancy and Human development index.

Age-sex pyramid A population pyramid, also called an age structure diagram, is a graphical
illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a human population, which ideally
forms the shape of a pyramid when the region is healthy.

fertility rate of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over
her lifetime.
Birth rate is the number of births over a given period divided by the person-years lived by the
population over that period. It is expressed as number of births per 1,000 population.
Infant mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths (one year of age or younger) per 1000 live
births.
Life expectancy is the expected number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by ex,
which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy,
education and standards of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-
being, especially child welfare. There are also HDI for states, cities, villages, etc. by local organizations
or companies.
Natality rate is used to calculate the dynamics of a population. They are the key factors in determining
whether a population is increasing, decreasing or staying the same in size. Natality is the greatest
influence on a populations increase. Natality is shown as a crude birth rate or specific birth rate.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.11)What are these terms used for:-
GDP, GNP, FDI, PPP(purchasing power parity), rate of unemployment,
Rate of inflation in relation to economic planning.

GDP:- Gross Domestic Product


Total output of goods and services for final use produced by an economy by both residence and non-
residence regardless of allocation to domestic and foreign claims. It does not include deduction for
depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of national resources.
GNP:- Gross National Product
Gross National Product comprises, addition of GDP and net factor income from abroad, which is the
income residence receive from abroad for factor services (labour and capital) less similar payments
made to non-residents who contribute to the domestic economy.
PPP:- Purchasing Power Parity
At Purchasing Power Parity rate 1$ has the same purchasing power over domestic GDP that the US $
has over US GDP.
FDI:- Foreign direct investment
It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital
as shown in the balance of payments. It usually involves participation in management, joint-venture,
transfer of technology and expertise.
GATT:- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and
Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International
Trade Organization (ITO).

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.11)What are these terms used for:-
GDP, GNP, FDI, PPP(purchasing power parity), rate of unemployment,
Rate of inflation in relation to economic planning.

Rate of unemployment :- The percentage of the total labor force that is unemployed but actively
seeking employment and willing to work. And The labour force is defined as the number of people
employed plus the number unemployed but seeking work. The non-labour force includes those who
are not looking for work, those who are institutionalised and those serving in the military.
The unemployment rate is defined as the level of unemployment divided by the labour force. The
employment rate is defined as the number of people currently employed divided by the adult
population (or by the population of working age). In these statistics, self-employed people are counted
as employed.

Rate of inflation :- The inflation rate is a measure of inflation, the rate of increase of a price index (for
example, a consumer price index). It is the percentage rate of change in price level over time. The rate
of decrease in the purchasing power of money is approximately equal. The inflation rate is used to
calculate the real interest rate, as well as real increases in wages .
There are two general methods for calculating inflation rates - one is to use a base period, the other is
to use "chained" measurements. Chained measurements adjust not only the prices, but the contents of
the market basket involved, with each price period.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.12) Explain the role of the organizations:-
UNESCO, FAO, CPCB, INTACH, GSI.

UNESCO:- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration
through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law,
and the human rights along with fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.

FAO:- Food and Agriculture Organization


FAO is a specialised agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Serving both developed and developing countries. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information,
and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernise and improve agriculture,
forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.

INTACH:- Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage


INTACH is an autonomous non-governmental Indian NGO that seeks to preserve Indian Art and
Cultural heritage. In 2007, United Nations awarded INTACH with a special consultative status with
United Nations Economic and Social Council.
GSI:- Geological Survey of India
It is a government organization in India controlled by the Union Ministry of Mines for conducting
geological surveys and studies. It is one of the oldest of such organizations in the world.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.12) Explain the role of the organizations:-
UNESCO, FAO, CPCB, INTACH, GSI.

CPCB :- Central Pollution Control Board

The main function of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB as spelt out in Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 are:-
To promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States through prevention, control
and abatement of water pollution.
To improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air
pollution and improvement of the quality of air.
Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of
water and air pollution.
Coordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them.
Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigations
and research relating to problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention, control
abatement.
Plan and organise training of persons engaged in programmes for prevention, control or abatement of
water and air pollution.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.13) Highlight the key issues of the following Acts in India:-

Land acquisition act, 1894

Land Acquisition literally means acquiring of land for some public purpose by
government/government agency, as authorised by the law, from the individual landowner(s) after
paying a government fixed compensation in lieu of losses incurred by land owner(s) due to
surrendering of his/their land to the concerned government agency
It extends to the whole of India except (the state of Jammu and Kashmir).
the expression land includes benefits to arise out of land, and things attached to the earth or
permanently fastened to anything attached to the earth.
the expression local authority includes a town planning authority.
Whenever it appears to the land in any locality is likely to be needed for any public purpose, a
notification to that effect shall be published in the Official Gazette and the Collector shall cause public
notice of the substance of such notification to be given at convenient places in the said locality.
Provided that no person shall enter into any building or upon any enclosed court or garden attached to
a dwelling house without previously giving such occupier at least seven days' notice in writing of his
intention to do so.
Payment for damage:- The officer so authorized shall at the time of such entry pay or tender payment
for all necessary damaged to be done as aforesaid, and, in case of dispute as to the sufficiency of the
amount so paid or tendered, he shall at once refer the dispute to the decision of the Collector or other
chief revenue officer of the district, and such decision shall be final.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.13)Highlight the key issues of the following Acts in India:-

Land Ceiling act, 1976, The rehabilitation and resettlement bill, 2009

An Act to provide for the imposition of a ceiling on vacant land in urban agglomerations, for the
acquisition of such land in excess of the ceiling limit, to regulate the construction of buildings on such
land and for matters connected therewith, with a view to preventing the concentration of urban land in
the hands of a few persons and speculation and profiteering therein and with a view to bringing about
an equitable distribution of land in urban agglomerations to sub serve the common good.
WHEREAS it is expedient to provide for the imposition of a ceiling on vacant land in urban
agglomerations, for the acquisition of such land in excess of the ceiling limit, to regulate the
construction of buildings on such land and for matters connected therewith, with a view to preventing
the concentration of urban land in the hands of a few persons and speculation and profiteering therein
and with a view to bringing about an equitable distribution of land in urban agglomerations to sub
serve the common good. AND WHEREAS Parliament has no power to make laws for the States with
respect to the matters aforesaid except as provided in articles 249 and 250 of the Constitution.

The rehabilitation and resettlement bill, 2009 :-To provide for the rehabilitation and resettlement of
families affected by the acquisition of land for projects of public purpose or involuntary displacement
due to any other reason, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.13)Highlight the key issues of the following Acts in India:-

73rd and 74th amendment, T and CP Act 1979

73rd and 74th amendment


The important provisions specified in the Act include constitution of three types of municipalities,
devolution of greater functional responsibilities and financial powers to municipalities, adequate
representation of weaker sections and women in municipalities, regular and fair conduct of municipal
elections, and constitution of Wards Committees, District Planning Committees, Metropolitan Planning
Committees and State Finance Commissions.
Accordingly, several State Governments have amended their Municipal Acts/Laws/Legislations so as to
bring these in conformity with the Constitutional Provisions.The main problem faced in assessing the
impact of the 74th Amendment Act was the non-availability of data on some aspects of the 74th
Amendment Act provisions. This problem was noted especially in the case of most north-eastern states
and the newly created states of Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttaranchal.
Empowerment of municipalities through functional devolution is an important objective of the 74th
CAA.
T and CP Act 1979
This is An Act, in which there is a assessment of development charges, determination of rates of
development charges, mode of application of permission, final assessment of development charges,
payment of development charges.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.14) Discuss the importance of the following surveys:-

O-D Survey, Total station survey, National sample survey

O-D Survey:- In order to determine the transportation needs and appropriate solutions for an area it is
important to have an understanding of the underlying characteristics of travel. The origins and
destinations of traffic are among the most important of these characteristics. Origin/Destination
Surveys are one of the more complex surveys to be undertaken, but are much requested for traffic
movement data within defined areas.

Total station survey is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern surveying. The total station is
an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope
distances from the instrument to a particular point.

National sample survey (NSS), initiated in the year 1950, is a nation-wide, large-scale, continuous
survey operation conducted in the form of successive rounds. the NSS was reorganised and all aspects
of its work were brought under a single Government organisation, namely the National Sample Survey
Organisation (NSSO) under the overall direction of Governing Council to impart objectivity and
autonomy in the matter of collection, processing and publication of the NSS data.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.15) what are the important contribution of the following stalwart planners:-

Patrick Geddes, Patrick Abercrombie, Chrishtopher Alexander, Kevin Lynch, Ian Mcharg

Patrick Geddes

Sir Patrick Geddes (2 October, 1854 - 17 April, 1932) was a Scottish biologist, sociologist,
philanthropist and pioneering town planner. He is known for his innovative thinking in the fields of
urban planning and education. Geddes shared the belief with John Ruskin that social processes and
spatial form are related.

His principles for town planning in Bombay included:


Preservation of human life and energy, rather than superficial beautification.
Conformity to an orderly development plan carried out in stages.
Purchasing land suitable for building.
Promoting trade and commerce.
Preserving historic buildings and buildings of religious significance.
Developing a city worthy of civic pride, not an imitation of European cities.
Promoting the happiness, health and comfort of all residents, rather than focusing on roads and parks
available only to the rich.
Control over future growth with adequate provision for future requirements.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.15) what are the important contribution of the following stalwart planners:-

Patrick Geddes, Patrick Abercrombie, Chrishtopher Alexander, Kevin Lynch, Ian Mcharg

Patrick Abercrombie

trained as an architect before becoming the Professor of Civic Design at the Liverpool University
School of Architecture in 1915. He is best known for the post-Second World War Re-planning of London.
He created the County of London Plan and the Greater London Plan which are commonly referred to as
the Abercrombie Plan.
Contribution:- North East Wales Institute of Higher Education (NEWI) in Wrexham
He published A Plan for the City & County of Kingston upon Hull, with the assistance of Sir Edwin
Lutyens. Lutyens had died the year before publication whilst much of the plan was being finalized, and
the plan was ultimately rejected by the Councilors of Hull.
From the Abercrombie Plan plan came the New Towns movement which included the building of
Harlow and Crawley and the largest 'out-county' estate, Harold Hill in north-east London.
Within Britain the Greater London Plan of Leslie Patrick Abercrombie called for surrounding the
metropolitan area with an inviolate greenbelt, construction of new towns beyond the greenbelt that
would allow for lowering of population densities in the inner city, and the building of circumferential
highways to divert traffic from the core. The concept of the sharp separation of city from country...

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.15) what are the important contribution of the following stalwart planners:-

Patrick Geddes, Patrick Abercrombie, Chrishtopher Alexander, Kevin Lynch, Ian Mcharg

Christopher Wolfgang Alexander

He is a registered architect noted for his theories about design, and for more than 200 building
projects in California, Japan, Mexico and around the world. Alexander is often overlooked by texts in
the history and theory of Architecture because his work intentionally disregarded contemporary
Architecture discourse, appealing more through methods consistent with his theories than through
established practices.
The work originated from an observation that many medieval cities are attractive and harmonious.
The idea of a pattern language appears to apply to any complex engineering task, and has been
applied to some of them. It has been especially influential in software engineering where patterns
have been used to document collective knowledge in the field.
His contributions:- Alexander's most notable built works are the Eishin Campus near Tokyo the West
Dean Visitors Centre in West Sussex, England; the Julian Street Inn. the Martinez House the low-cost
housing in Mexicali, Mexico several private houses Alexander's built work is characterized by a
special quality that relates to human beings and induces feelings of belonging to the place and
structure. This quality is found in the most loved traditional and historic buildings and urban spaces,
and is precisely what Alexander has tried to capture with his sophisticated mathematical design
theories.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.15) what are the important contribution of the following stalwart planners:-

Patrick Geddes, Patrick Abercrombie, Chrishtopher Alexander, Kevin Lynch, Ian Mcharg

Kevin A. Lynch
He was an American urban planner and author. Lynch studied at Yale University under Frank Lloyd
Wright, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Lynch provided seminal contributions to the field of city
planning through empirical research on how individuals perceive and navigate the urban landscape.
His books explore the presence of time and history in the urban environment, how urban environments
affect children, and how to harness human perception of the physical form of cities and regions as the
conceptual basis for good urban design.
Lynch's most famous work, The Image of the City published in 1960, is the result of a five-year study on
how users perceive and organize spatial information as they navigate through cities. Using three
disparate cities as examples (Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles), Lynch reported that users
understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, forming mental maps with five
elements:
paths, the streets, sidewalks, trails, and other channels in which people travel;
edges, perceived boundaries such as walls, buildings, and shorelines;
districts, relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character;
nodes, focal points, intersections or loci;
landmarks, readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.
Question no.15) what are the important contribution of the following stalwart planners:-

Patrick Geddes, Patrick Abercrombie, Chrishtopher Alexander, Kevin Lynch, Ian Mcharg

Ian McHarg

He born in Clydebank, Scotland and became a landscape architect and a renowned writer on regional
planning using natural systems. He was the founder of the department of landscape architecture at the
University of Pennsylvania in the United Stateshe set forth the basic concepts that were to develop later
in Geographic Information Systems
McHarg set his thinking in radical opposition to what he argued was the arrogant and destructive
heritage of urban-industrial modernity, a style he described as "Dominate and Destroy.
He worked in major American cities - Minneapolis, Denver, Miami, New Orleans, and Washington (DC)
- and created environmentally-based master plans for Amelia Island Plantation and Sanibel Islands in
Florida.

Refrences:- Wikipedia, urban development plans formulation


and implementation (UDPFI), Encarta, visual Dictionary.