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APPLICATION FILED UNDER SECTION 19 OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE

TRIBUNAL ACT, 1985

BEFORE THE CENTRAL ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNAL AT HYDERABAD

O.A. NO. OF 2010

BETWEEN:

1. P. Vigneshwar Raju, S/o P.V.R.N. Raju,


Aged about 51 years, Occ: Inspector,
R/o H.No. 2-3-919, Plot. No. 8, Road No.1,
Arunodayanagar, Nagole, Hyderabad.

2. G Vijaya Raghavan, S/o G. Namdev Goud,


Aged about 42 years, Occ: Inspector,
R/o 403, Raghavadendra Royal Fort Apts,
Street No. ii, Himayatnagar, Hyderabad.

3. G. Venkata Raghavan, S/o G. Namdev Goud,


Aged about 38 years, Occ: Inspector,
H.No. 5-6-500, Pragathinagar,
Behind Hotal Kapila, Nixamabad – 503003.

4. B. Ramakrishna, S/o Subba Rao, Aged about 41 years,


Occ: Inspector, R/o H.No. 4-6-361, Plot No. 71,
MIG, Phase IV, Vanasthali Puram, Hyderabad – 500070.

5. M. Narayana Charry, S/o MVN Chary, Aged about 59 years,


Occ: Supdt., H.No. 19-168/23, Road No. 15,
Dinakar Nagar, West Venkatapuram, Secunderabad.

6. V. Bhaskara Charry, S/o Laxmikantha Rao Aged about 51 years,


Occ: Inspector R/o H.No. 1-1-362, RBI Colony,
Mohan Nagar, Kothapet,Hyderabad

7. Chitta Sridev Kumar,S/o C.Gokhale Aged about 43 years,


Occ:Inspector R/o 201, Srinivasa Apts, Humayun nagar,
Hyderabad-28

8. C.Sridhara Murthy, S/o Bhanu Murthy Aged about 42 years,


Occ:Inspector R/o 104, Keerthi Apts, Vinay Nagar Colony,
Saidabad,Hyderabad-39

9. Donthi Reddy Chenna Reddy, S/o Masthan Reddy Aged about 41 years,
Occ:Inspector R/o Plot No. 605, Bhagat Singh nagar,
Beside Vasanthnagar Colony, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-85

10. Rayudu Rama Mohana Rao, S/o Manikyam Aged about 55 years,
Occ: Supdt. R/o Plot.No.71, Anand Nagar Colony,
New Bowenpally, Secunderabad

11. C.S.Srinivas S/o C.Seetharamaiah Aged about 38 years,


Occ:Inspector R/o Flat.No.307, L.V.Towers,
Maruthinagar,Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.
12. V.Vidya Sagar S/o v.R.S.Raju Aged about 44 years,
Occ: Inspector R/o H.No.1-4-476,
Old Alwal, Secunderabad-10

13. S.Satyanarayana Sastry S/o S.Rama Rao Aged about 51 years,


Occ: Inspector R/o D.No.8-12-44/21,
Nehru Nagar, 8th Lane,Guntur

14. Nookala Ramakrishna, S/o Venkata Ramana Sastry Aged about 41 years,
Occ: Inspector, R/o Flat No. 203, C.R.Towers,Gandhi Puram - 1,
Near 'Y' Junction, Rajahmundry - 533103.

.. APPLICANTS.
AND

1. The Government of India , Ministry of finance, Department of Expenditure, North


Block, New Delhi Represented by its Secretary Expenditure.

2. The Government of India , Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue, Central


Board of Customs and Central Excise ,North Block, New Delhi Represented by its
Deputy Secretary/Under Secretary.

3. Central Board of Customs and Central Excise, North Block


New Delhi, Rep. by its Chairman and Spl.Secretary.

4. Chief Commissioner of Customs, Central Excise & Service tax Hyderabad


Zone,Kendriya Shulk Bhavan,Basheerbagh, Hyderabad.

5. Chief Commissioner of Customs, Central Excise & Service tax Vishakhapatnam


zone, Port area, Vishakhapatnam.

.. RESPONDENTS

DETAILS OF THE APPLICATION:

1. PARTICULARS OF THE APPLICANT: As shown above ,address for service of


notice and process of the above named applicant is that of his counsel
N.Vijay,Advocate,H.No.6, Level IV, above SBI, Himayat nagar,Hyderabad-29.

2. PARTICULARS OF THE RESPONDENT: As shown in the cause title.

1. PARTICULARS OF THE ORDER AGAINST WHICH THE APPLICATION IS


MADE:

The present O.A. is being filed against the proceedings dt.16.9.2009 issued by the
Respondent No.2 vide F.No. A-26017/98/2008-Ad.II.A with approval of Respondent
No.1 to the extent of Clause 4 thereof holding that Non-Functional Grade Pay will
not be granted to such of those Group B officers who have got Grade Pay of Rs
4,800/- on upgradation under the ACP scheme as contrary to the Clause (x) (e) of the
Govt. of India Resolution and CCS(Revised Pay) Rules 2008 ,illegal, arbitrary and
without jurisdiction.
2.JURISDICTION: The applicant declares that the subject matter of the issue against
which the redressal is sought is within the jurisdiction of this Hon’ble court and
under Sec.14 of the Administrative Tribunal Act,1985.

3 LIMITATION: The applicant declares that this O.S. is within time U/Sec. 21 of
Administrative Tribunal Act, 1985.

4. FACTS OF THE CASE:

4.1 The Applicant 1 to 4, 6 to 9 and 11 to 14 are working as inspectors (in the customs
and Central Excise Department), while applicant no. 5 and 10 are working as
superintendent w.e.f 21.06.2007 and 28.12.2007 respectively.

4.2 The Sixth Central pay commission was set-up by the Government of India vide
resolution no. 5/2/2006 – E.111(A) dt. 05.10.2006 as amended on 7.12.2009 &
08.08.2007 including the members of Regulatory bodies (excluding RBI) created
under the Acts of parliament and to include officers and employees of Supreme Court
of India respectively. On 24.03.2008, the commission submitted its report relating to
the structure of emoluments, allowances, conditions of service and retirement benefits
of Central Government employees including personnel belonging to union territories,
members of all India services personnel belonging to defense forces, offices and
employees of the Indian Audit & Accountant departments(IA & AD) &
Chairpersons / Members of Regulating Bodies. The Government of India vide
RESOLUTION G.I., M.F No. 1/1/2008-1C, Dt. 29.08.2008 which was published in
Gazette of India, accepted the recommendations as a package subject to the
modifications.

4.3 As per the Clause (i) of the Resolution, the PB-2 is Rs. 9,300-Rs. 34,800. The
concept of “Grade Pay” had been introduced through the Sixth Central Pay
Commission and the grade pay is dependent on the pay band of the employee. As
per clause (iv) of the Resolution, the calculation for fixation of revised basic pay has
been provided for. As per this clause, the basic pay drawn as on 01.01.2006 on the
existing fifth CPC shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.86 and then rounded off to a
next multiple of 10 and this will be the pay in the revised running pay band. The
grade pay as approved by the Government in the pre revised pay – scale will then be
added to the pay in the revised pay – band. The total of pay in the pay band and
grade pay will be the revised basic pay as on 01.01.2006. For easy reference clause –
iv is extracted below
“Clause iv- With regard to fixation of pay in the revised pay bands, the basis
pay drawn as on 01.01.2006 on the existing Fifth CPC pay scales will be
multiplied by a factor of 1.86 and then rounded off to next multiplier of 10.
This will be the pay in the revised running Pay Band. Grade Pay, as
approved by the Government, corresponding to the pre- revised pay scale,
will then be added to the Pay in the revised Pay Band. The total of pay in the
pay band and grade pay will be the revised Basic Pay as on 01.01.2006.”

4.4 The clause (x) of the Resolution deals with group “B” cadres. The relevant clause (x)
(e), thereof reads as follows
“Clause (x)(e)”- Group-B officers of Departments of Posts, Revenue, etc.
will be granted Grade Pay of Rs, 5,400/- in PB-2 on non – functional basis
after 4 years of regular service in the grade pay of Rs,4,800/- in PB-2.

As per this clause all the group “B” officers of Department of post, Revenue etc will
be granted grade pay of Rs. 5,400/- in PB- 2 on non functional basis after 4 years of
regular service in the grade pay of the 4800 in PB-2.

4.5 The revised scales of pay as per the recommendations of 6th CPC with the
corresponding grade pay has been specified in Annexerue – I Part –A of the
Resolution. At Sl.No. 15 the Grade pay for PB-2 pay band of Rs. 9300 -34800 in Rs.
4800/-.

4.6 Pursuant to the acceptance of 6th CPC vide the RESOLUTION in G.I., M.F No.
1/1/2008-1C, Dt. 29.08.2008 , the Union of India in exercise of powers conferred by
the proviso to Art. 309 and Clause (5) of Articles 148 of Constitution of India issued
Central Civil services (revised pay) Rules, 2008 which were published as GSR
622(E) in the Gazette of India Extra ordinary dt.29.08.2008 and the Rules were given
retrospective effect from 01.01.2006. The term “Grade Pay” has been defined
U/Rule 3 (6) thereof as follows.
“ Grade Pay” is the fixed amount corresponding to the pre – revised pay
scales /posts.

The term “Revised pay structure” has also been defined U/Rule 3(7) thereof as
follows.
“ Revised pay structure” in relation to pay post specified in Column 2 of the
First Schedule means the pay band and grade pay specified against that post
or the pay scale specified in Columns 5 and 6 thereof, unless a different
revised pay band and grade pay or pay scale is notified separately for the
post.

Further as per Rule 4, the pay band and grade pay on the pay scale, as applicable of
every post/grade specified in column 2 of the First Schedule shall be as specified
against it in columns 5 and 6 thereof.
4.7 The Rule 17 of the CCS(RP) Rules 2008 reads as follows:
“Interpretation – if nay question arises relating to the interpretation of any of
the provisions of these rules, it shall be referred to the Central Government for
decision.

As per this rule, doubts over interpretation of any provision of these rules shall be
referred to central Government for appropriate decision.

4.8 The 1st schedule of CCS(RP) Rules, 2008 as mentioned in Rule 3 & 4 above, pay
band & grade pay on the pay scale as applicable for every post/grade shall be
specified. Part – C section – II provides revised pay structure for the post in
Department of Revenue as follows.
Department of Revenue
9 Income Tax Officers / 7500-12000 7500-12000 PB-2 4800 7.15.17
Superintendent 8000-13500 PB-2 5400
Appraisers etc. (after 4 years)
(Customs and Central Excise)

An analysis of the Relevant provisions referred above would make it very clear that a
group “B” officer in PB-2 with a Grade pay of Rs.5,400/- on non – functional basis
after 4 years of regular service. The enhancement of grade pay is not dependent on
the post, but on regular service of 4 years in Grade Pay of Rs. 4,800/- (Rs.7,500-
12000 pre-revised)in PB-2.

The Central Board of Excise & Customs vide its F.No. A-26017/98/2008-Ad.II.A
dt.21.11.2008 on clarification sought by some field formations on how the 4 year
period is to be counted for the purpose of granting non-functional upgradation to
Group-B officers, i.e.whether the 4 year period is to be counted w.e.f. the date on
which the officer is placed in the pay scale of Rs.7500-12000(pre-revised), or w.e.f.
01.01.2006, i.e. the date on which the recommendations of the 6th CPC came into
force. After referring the matter to the Department of Expenditure, it was clarified as
follows.
“The Department of Expenditure have now clarified that the 4 year period is
to be counted w.e.f. the date on which the officer is placed in the pay scale of
Rs.7500-12000 (pre-revised) Thus, if an officer has completed 4 years on
01.01.2006 or earlier, he will be given the non functional upgradation w.e.f.
01.01.2006. If the officer completes 4 years on the date after 01.01.2006, he will
be given non functional upgradation from such date on which he completes 4
years in the pay scale of Rs.7500-12000 (pre-revised).”
4.9 Now coming to the post of Inspector in the Central Excise & Customs Department,
the post of Inspector of Central Excise in the pay scale of Rs. 6500-10500/- is Group
‘B’ Non – gazetted w.e.f 11.12.2003 as per DOP & T’s Instructions/Notification SO
No. 13012/1/98-Estt.(D) dt. 20.4.1998. The Government of India, Ministry of
Finance, Department of Revenue CBEC on 11.5.2004 uniformly revised pay scale of
Inspector of Central Excise from Rs. 5500-9000 to the Rs. 6500 – 10500. Consequent
to the revision of pay scale, all Inspectors in the Central Excise and Land Customs
continued to be under Group B. It is submitted that vide S.O. 946 (E) dt. 06.04.2009,
the posts under CCS (CCA) Rules have been re-classified. As per the re-
classification, Central Civil Posts carrying Grade Pay of Rs. 5,400/-, Rs. 4,800/-, Rs.
4,600/- and Rs. 4,200/- in the scale of pay of Rs. 9,300/- to 34,800/- in PB – 2 come
under Group – B. The post of Inspector even under the latest classification of posts
comes under Group – B.

4.10 The applicants were appointed as Inspector and were granted ACP in the scale of
7500-12000 on the dates mentioned below. Further the dates on which the applicants
were placed in Grade Pay of Rs. 4,800/- as well as completion of 4 years in(pre-
revised scale of Rs.7500-12000/-) as prescribed, is also furnished in the table below.
Sl.No. Date of Date of Date Date of
joining ACP to placed in completion of 4
7500- 4800 years in scale
12000 Grade Pay 7500-12000(pre-
revised)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Applicant No.1 03.5.1993 03.5.2005 1.1.2006 03.5.2009

Applicant No.2 30.12.1993 1.4.2006 1.1.2006 30.12.2009

Applicant No.3 30.12.1993 30.12.2005 1.1.2006 30.12.2009

Applicant No.4 30.8.1993 30.8.2005 1.1.2006 30.8.2009

Applicant No.5 9.4.1992 21.4.2004 1.1.2006 21.4.2010

Applicant No.6 15.4.1993 15.4.2005 1.1.2006 15.4.2009

Applicant No.7 7.1.94 7.1.2006 1.1.2006 7.1.2010

Applicant No.8 13.8.1993 13.8.2005 1.1.2006 13.8.2009

Applicant No.9 21.7.1993 21.7.2005 1.1.2006 21.7.2009

Applicant No.10 16.4.1992 16.4.2004 1.1.2006 16.4.2008

Applicant No.11 5.5.1994 5.5.2006 1.1.2006 5.5.2010


Applicant No.12 21.4.1992 21.4.2004 1.1.2006 21.4.2008

Applicant No.13 25.5.1993 25.5.2005 1.1.2006 25.5.2009

Applicant No.14 10.4.1992 10.4.2004 1.1.2006 10.4.2008

4.11 As per the Government of India Resolution and CCS(RP) Rules,2008, the
applicants are entitled to non-functional Grade Pay of Rs 5400/- upon completion of
regular service of 4 years in the Grade Pay of Rs 4800/- (pre-revised 7500-12000
scale). It is submitted that all the applicants have been granted Grade pay of Rs 4800/-
as per the Resolution Clause (iv) w.e.f 01.01.06. The applicants have completed 4
years of regular service in the Grade pay of Rs 4,800/- (pre-revised 7500-12000 scale)
and are due non-functional Grade Pay of Rs 5400/- w.e.f the dates shown in column
No. 5 of above table . However, Respondent No.2 issued impugned proceedings vide
F.No. A-26017/98/2008-Ad.II.A dt. 16.09.2009 with the approval of Dept. of
Expenditure and Implementation whereunder at Clause (iv), it is observed that Non-
Functional Grade Pay will not be granted to such of those Group B officers who have
got Grade Pay of Rs 4,800/- on upgradation under the ACP scheme as contrary to the
Govt.Resolution and CCS(Revised Pay) Rules 2008. In view of the impugned
proceedings the Respondents have denied enhanced Grade Pay of Rs 5400/- to the
applicants w.e.f. the dates shown in column No. 5 of above table. Hence the present
OA is being filed on the following grounds.

5. GROUNDS

A) The impugned proceedings in refusing to grant the grade pay of Rs 4,800/- to


5,400/- to those officers who got Grade Pay of Rs 4800/- on upgradation under
the ACP Scheme is contrary to the Govt. of India Resolution and CCS(Revised
Pay) Rules 2008 and is illegal, arbitrary and is unsustainable.

B) The clause (x) of the Govt. of India Resolution and the CCS (Revised Pay) Rules
2008 contemplates that Grade pay of Rs 5,400/- in PB-2 will be granted on non-
functional basis after 4 yrs of regular service in the Grade Pay of Rs 4,800/- in
PB-2. There is no restriction in Resolution and the CCS (Revised Pay) Rules
2008 vis-à-vis that employees who were granted Grade Pay of Rs 4800/- on
account of ACP scheme will not be granted non-functional Grade Pay of Rs
5400/- upon completion of 4 yrs regular service.
C) Therefore the condition prescribed by respondents vide F.No. A-26017/98/2008-
ad. II A dt.16.9.2009 for grant of Higher Grade Pay of Rs 5,400/- vide executive
instructions cannot override the plain meaning of the Govt. of India Resolution
and CCS(Revised Pay) Rules 2008 made under Article 148 (5) and Art.309 of
Constitution of India by the President of India.

D) The impugned proceedings vide F.No. A-26017/98/2008-ad. II A dt.16.9.09 does


not refer to the any of the clauses of the Govt. of India Resolution nor does it refer
to the provisions of the CCS (RP) Rules, 2008 and further no reasons are
assigned. The impugned proceedings smacks of bureaucratic arrogance and is
liable to be set aside.

E) The Clause ( iv) of the Govt. of India Resolution provides for the formula for
calculation of Revised Pay scale and according to the Revised Pay scale, the
Grade Pay as per the schedule would be granted. It is pertinent to note that the
basic pay includes ACP scheme scale also and taking the same into consideration,
the scale of Pay of the applicants was revised w.e.f. 1.1.06 and according to the
revised Pay scale, the applicants were granted Grade Pay of Rs 4800/-. The
respondents take ACP scale into consideration for revising the scale of Pay and
for fixing Grade Pay, Inexplicably do not take into consideration ACP scale for
grant of enhanced Grade pay.

F) The Clause (x) (e) of the Govt. of India Resolution and the Part – C section – II of
1st schedule of CCS(RP) Rules, 2008 referring to Dept. of Revenue, Customs and
Central excise clearly mentions Supdts, Apprisers etc. are entitled to higher Grade
pay of Rs 5400/- on completion of 4 yrs of regular service in Grade pay of Rs
4800/-.The term “etc.”, occurring at both the clause and schedule has to be given
full effect so as to include Inspectors therein. Any exclusion of Inspectors there
from would be contrary to Govt. of India Resolution and the CCS(RP) Rules,
2008. It is to be noted that all the Inspectors of Customs and Central Excise were
granted Grade Pay of Rs 4800/- taking into consideration the ACP scale only and
those inspectors who are yet to get ACP scale are granted a Lower Grade Pay.
Therefore the impugned proceeding virtually exclude the Inspectors of Customs
and Central Excise from for further grade pay of Rs 5400/- and the same is in
violation of the to Govt. of India Resolution and the CCS(RP) Rules, 2008.

G) All the grounds will be urged at the time of hearing of the case.

6. DETAILS OF REMEDIES EXHAUSTED:


The applicant has no other alternative remedy except to approach this Hon’ble tribunal.

7.MATTERS NOT PENDING WITH ANY OTHER COURT ETC.:

The applicant further declare that they have not filed any application, Writ petition or suit
regarding the matter in respect of which this application has been made before any court
of law or may authority or other Bench of Tribunal and nor any such application, writ
petition or suit pending before any of them.

8.MAIN PRAYER :

It is therefore prayed that this Hon’ble Court be pleased to declare the proceedings
dt.16.9.2009 issued by the Respondent No.1 vide F.No. A-26017/98/2008-Ad.II.A with
approval of Respondent No.1 to the extent of Clause 4 thereof holding that Non-
Functional Grade Pay will not be granted to such of those Group B officers who have got
Grade Pay of Rs 4,800/- on upgradation under the ACP scheme as contrary to the
CCS(Revised Pay) Rules 2008 ,illegal, arbitrary and without jurisdiction and set aside the
same and consequently direct the respondents to grant Higher Grade Pay of Rs 5,400/-
w.e.f date of completion of regular service of 4 years in the Grade Pay of Rs 4,800/-(pre-
revised 7500-12000) and pass such other order or orders as this Hon’ble Court may deem
fit and proper in the circumstances of the case.

9.INTERIM RELIEF:

It is therefore humbly prayed that this Hon’ble Court be pleased to direct the respondents
reconsider the proceedings dt.16.9.2009 issued by the Respondent No.1 vide F.No. A-
26017/98/2008-Ad.II.A with approval of Respondent No.1 to the extent of Clause 4
thereof holding that Non-Functional Grade Pay will not be granted to such of those
Group B officers who have got Grade Pay of Rs 4,800/- on upgradation in the light of
CCS(Revised Pay) Rules 2008 and pass such other order or orders as this Hon’ble Court
may deem fit and proper in the circumstances of the case.

10. DETAILS OF COURT FEE


I.P.O.NO.

DATE:

11. LIST OF DOUCMENTS:

All the documents relied upon are filed herewith duly indexing the same.
VERIFICATION
We,(1) P. Vigneshwar Raju, S/o P.V.R.N. Raju, Aged about 51 years, Occ: Inspector,
R/o H.No. 2-3-919, Plot. No. 8, Road No.1, Arunodayanagar, Nagole, Hyderabad.(2)G
Vijaya Raghavan, S/o G. Namdev Goud,Aged about 42 years, Occ: Inspector, R/o 403,
Raghavadendra Royal Fort Apts, Street No. 11, Himayatnagar, Hyderabad (3)G. Venkata
Raghavan, S/o G. Namdev Goud,Aged about 38 years, Occ: Inspector, H.No. 5-6-
500, Pragathinagar, Behind Hotal Kapila, Nixamabad – 503003 (4)B. Ramakrishna,
S/o Subba Rao, Aged about 41 years,Occ: Inspector, R/o H.No. 4-6-361, Plot No.
71,MIG, Phase IV, Vanasthali Puram, Hyderabad – 500070(5) M. Narayana Charry,
S/o MVN Chary, Aged about 59 years,Occ: Supdt., H.No. 19-168/23, Road No.
15,Dinakar Nagar, West Venkatapuram, Secunderabad ( 6). V. Bhaskara Charry, S/o
Laxmikantha Rao Aged about 51 years,Occ: Inspector R/o H.No. 1-1-362, RBI Colony,
Mohan Nagar, Kothapet,Hyderabad (7)Chitta Sridev Kumar,S/o C.Gokhale Aged about
43 years,Occ:Inspector R/o 201, Srinivasa Apts, Humayun nagar, Hyderabad-28
(8)C.Sridhara Murthy, S/o Bhanu Murthy Aged about 42 years,Occ:Inspector R/o 104,
Keerthi Apts, Vinay Nagar Colony, Saidabad,Hyderabad-39 (9) Donthi Reddy Chenna
Reddy, S/o Masthan Reddy Aged about 41 years,Occ:Inspector R/o Plot No. 605, Bhagat
Singh nagar, Beside Vasanthnagar Colony, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-85 (10) Rayudu Rama
Mohana Rao, S/o Manikyam Aged about 55 years,Occ: Supdt. R/o Plot.No.71, Anand
Nagar Colony, New Bowenpally, Secunderabad (11) C.S.Srinivas S/o C.Seetharamaiah
Aged about 38 years,Occ:Inspector R/o Flat.No.307, L.V.Towers,
Maruthinagar,Dilsukhnagar,Hyderabad.(12) V.Vidya Sagar S/o v.R.S.Raju Aged about
44 years,Occ: Inspector R/o H.No.1-4-476,Old Alwal, Secunderabad-10 (13)
S.Satyanarayana Sastry S/o S.Rama Rao Aged about 51 years,Occ: Inspector R/o
D.No.8-12-44/21,Nehru Nagar, 8th Lane,Guntur (14) Nookala Ramakrishna, S/o
Venkata Ramana Sastry Aged about 41 years,Occ: Inspector, R/o Flat No. 203,
C.R.Towers,Gandhi Puram - 1, Near 'Y' Junction, Rajahmundry - 533103 do hereby
verify the contents of the paras ( ) to ( ) are true to our personal knowledge and
others paras ( ) to ( ) are true on legal advise and that I have not
suppressed any material facts.

HYDERABAD
DT. .09.2010 APPLICANT

1 2
3 4
5 6
7 8
9 10
11 12
13 14

COUNSEL FOR THE APPLICANT

TO
The Registrar,
C.A.T.,
Hyderabad.

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