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MATHEMATICS BASICS

1. FOUR BASIC OPERATIONS


1.1 Addition (Inverse Operation to Subtraction)
1.2 Subtraction (Inverse Operation to Addition)
1.3 Multiplication (Inverse Operation to Division)
1.4 Division (Inverse Operation to Multiplication)
https://www.universalclass.com/articles/math/pre-algebra/the-four-basic-mathematical-
operations-.htm
http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year8/ch01_arithmetic/01_basic/oper.htm
https://www.slideshare.net/J_A_R_E/basic-operations-in-mathematics
https://www.aplustopper.com/four-basic-operations-in-mathematics/

2. B O D M A S RULE

B BRACKETS ( ) or [ ] or { }
O OF OF
D DIVISION

M MULTIPLICATION

A ADDITION

S SUBTRACTION
https://www.mathsisfun.com/operation-order-bodmas.html
http://www.math-only-math.com/bodmas-rule.html
https://www.skillsyouneed.com/num/bodmas.html
https://byjus.com/maths/bodmas-rule/
http://planetmath.org/bodmasruleapplication
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_operations
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/maths/number/order_operation/revision/1/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBfI0-Kmj1g

3. PROPERTIES OF EQUAL RELATION


3.1 a = a (reflexive property; a quantity is equal to itself)
3.2 If a = b, and b = c, then a = c (Transitivity; transitive property; equal third)
3.3 If a = b, then a + c = b + c (Addition Property; equal addition)
3.4 If a = b, then a c = b c (Subtraction Property; equal subtraction)
3.5 If a = b, then (Multiplication Property; equal multiplication)

3.6 If a = b, and (Division Property; equal division)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equality_(mathematics)

4. COMMUTATIVE, ASSOCIATIVE AND DISTRIBUTIVE LAWS

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https://www.mathsisfun.com/associative-commutative-distributive.html

4.1 COMMUTATIVE LAW

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commutative_property

https://www.britannica.com/topic/commutative-law

4.1.1 a+b=b+a (Commutative Law of Addition)

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/pre-algebra/pre-algebra-arith-prop/pre-algebra-arithmetic-
properties/v/commutative-law-of-addition

4.1.2 a b=b a (Commutative Law of Multiplication)

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/pre-algebra/pre-algebra-arith-prop/pre-algebra-arithmetic-
properties/v/commutative-law-of-multiplication

4.2 ASSOCIATIVE LAW

4.2.1 a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c (Associative Law of Addition)

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/pre-algebra/pre-algebra-arith-prop/pre-algebra-arithmetic-
properties/v/associative-law-of-addition

4.2.2 a (b c) = (a b) c (Associative Law of Multiplication)

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/pre-algebra/pre-algebra-arith-prop/pre-algebra-arithmetic-
properties/v/associative-law-of-multiplication

4.3 DISTRIBUTIVE LAW

4.3.1 a(b + c) = a b+a c (Distributive Law of Multiplication over Addition)

4.3.2 a(b - c) = a b-a c (Distributive Law of Multiplication over Subtraction)

http://ictedusrv.cumbria.ac.uk/maths/pgdl/unit8/unit8/page_62.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributive_property

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/pre-algebra/pre-algebra-arith-prop/pre-algebra-ditributive-
property/v/the-distributive-property

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5. FACTORING (REVERSE PROCESS OF SIMPLIFICATION)
5.1 (Taking out a common factor)
http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year8/ch04_algebra/14_taking/comfac.htm

5.2 x2 + (a+b)x + ab = (x + a) (x + b)
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/polynomial-factorization/factoring-quadratics-
1/v/factoring-quadratic-expressions

5.3 a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)(a + b) = (a + b)2


a2 - 2ab + b2 = (a - b)(a - b) = (a - b)2
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/polynomial-factorization/factoring-polynomials-3-
special-product-forms/v/factoring-special-products-2

5.4 (Difference of two squares)

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/polynomial-factorization/factoring-
polynomials-3-special-product-forms/v/factoring-differ

5.5 (Sum of two cubes)


https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra2/polynomial-functions/advanced-polynomial-
factorization-methods/v/factoring-sum-

5.6 (Difference of two cubes)

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra2/polynomial-functions/advanced-
polynomial-factorization-methods/v/difference-of-cubes-factoring

6. SIMPLIFICATION (REVERSE PROCESS OF FACTORING)


6.1 (Distributive Law)
http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year8/ch04_algebra/09_dist/law.htm#distlaw

6.2 (Difference of two squares)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esVcl7gJoIM

6.3 (Sum of two cubes)

6.4 (Difference of two cubes)

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7. SIMILAR FIGURES

7.1 (Invertendo)

7.2 (Alternando)

7.3 (Componendo)

7.4 (Dividendo)

6.5 (Componendo et dividendo)

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT24_05.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/Index25.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT24_06.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT25_03.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT25_04.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT24_08.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT24_09.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT24_10.htm

http://academic.sun.ac.za/mathed/shoma/MATUNIT25_10.htm

8. CONCEPT OF A GRADIENT

https://www.mathsisfun.com/gradient.html

http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year10/ch03_linear_graphs/02_gradient/line.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/graphsrev4.shtml

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykeCKm9JqSA

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http://www.teacherschoice.com.au/Maths_Library/Gradient/gradient_-
_two_fixed_points.htm

http://www.explainingmaths.com/what-is-the-gradient-of-a-line.html

https://www.intmath.com/plane-analytic-geometry/1b-gradient-slope-line.php

http://www.mathcentre.ac.uk/resources/uploaded/mc-ty-gradstlnseg-2009-1.pdf

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra2/intro-to-conics-alg2/standard-
equation-circle-alg2/e/graphing_circles

9. ALGEBRAIC GRAPHS

9.1 Linear Graphs:


9.1.1 Given gradient m and y-intercept
y= mx + c

9.1.2 Given a point P and gradient m:

9.1.3 Given two points P and Q :

9.1.4 Given dual intercepts (a;0) and (0;b)

http://www.staff.vu.edu.au/mcaonline/units/graphs/linear.html

http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year8/ch15_graphs/04_plot/graphs.htm

http://www.analyzemath.com/Graphing/GraphingLinearFunction.html

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/8th-engage-ny/engage-8th-module-4/8th-module-4-
topic-b/v/graphs-of-linear-equations

9.2 Parabola:

Given

92.1 Shape: and

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9.2.2 Y-intercept:

9.2.3 X-intercepts/Roots:

Solve for x (factorisation; completing a square; formula)

9.2.4 Co-ordinates of the turning point:

Write in the form

Turning point will be (-p;q)

Alternatively,

Substitute into to obtain

y-coordinate of turning point

9.2.5 Use facts from 7.2.1 to 7.2.4 to plot the graph

https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/quadratic-equation-graphing.html

https://www.desmos.com/calculator/pfdwlq5qht

http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMT668/EMAT6680.Folders/Barron/unit/Lesson%206/6.html

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/quadratics/quad-standard-form-
alg1/v/graphing-a-parabola-using-roots-and-vertex

10. SIMULATNEOUS EQUATIONS

http://mathsfirst.massey.ac.nz/Algebra/SystemsofLinEq/EMeth.htm

http://www.analyzemath.com/Tutorial-System-Equations/Tutorial-System-
Equations.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/quadequationshirev4.shtm
l

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_equations

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPzlCNDEJqA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtyveL7SrEE

http://www.mathsmutt.co.uk/files/simgraph2.htm

11. TRIGONOMETRY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometry
https://www.skillsyouneed.com/num/trigonometry.html
https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/trigonometry.html
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/trigonometry
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/hs-geo-trig/hs-geo-trig-ratios-
intro/v/basic-trigonometry
https://betterexplained.com/articles/intuitive-trigonometry/
https://www.germanna.edu/documents/Howtographtrigfunctions.pdf
http://www.purplemath.com/modules/triggrph.htm
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra2/trig-functions/graphs-of-sine-cosine-
tangent-alg2/v/we-graph-domain-and-range-of-sine-function
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ijTIr-aykUk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHYI93UV5Kg
http://www.themathpage.com/atrig/graphs-trig.htm
http://www.sparknotes.com/math/trigonometry/graphs/section3.rhtml

12. CALCULUS

https://revisionmaths.com/gcse-maths-revision/algebra/gradients-and-graphs
https://www.siyavula.com/read/maths/grade-12/differential-calculus
http://www.ecdoe.gov.za/documents/learners/learner-support/maths-911/gr-12-
calculus.pdf
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYQ08qEZxQY
https://www.google.co.za/search?
dcr=0&source=hp&ei=SakjWpXVK4GPU8G5pGg&q=calculus+grade+12&oq=calculus
&gs_l=psy-ab.1.1.0l2j0i20i263k1j0l7.2625.8031.0.14438.9.6.0.2.2.0.283.1579.2-
6.6.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..1.8.1596.0..35i39k1j0i131k1j0i67k1.0.46L0wbHngn0
https://cnx.org/contents/lKwDs6cA@1/Differential-Calculus-Introduc
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nxa6IQPqlas
http://learn.mindset.co.za/resources/mathematics/grade-12/differential-calculus

13. SETS

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https://www.mathsisfun.com/sets/sets-introduction.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Set_(mathematics)
https://www.khanacademy.org/math/statistics-probability/probability-library/basic-set-
ops/v/intersection-and-union-of-sets
http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/math-sets.html
https://study.com/academy/lesson/mathematical-sets-elements-intersections-unions.html
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Set.html
https://www.google.co.za/search?
rlz=1C2CAFA_enZA732ZA732&dcr=0&source=hp&ei=8MYjWoSCKMr5UOf7iuAO&q=sets&oq
=se&gs_l=psy-
ab.1.0.35i39k1l2j0i67k1l2j0i131k1l3j0j0i131k1l2.2130.2485.0.5446.4.3.0.0.0.0.396.668.2-
1j1.2.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-ab..2.2.667.0...0.tBH6jPZvzho

14. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/meanmode.htm

https://www.thoughtco.com/the-mean-median-and-mode-2312604

https://www.universalclass.com/articles/math/statistics/how-to-calculate-mean-
median-mode.htm

https://www.thoughtco.com/variance-and-standard-deviation-3026711

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variance

https://www.mathsisfun.com/data/probability.html

https://brilliant.org/courses/probability/

https://www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/vol6/intro_probability

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Probability.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathematical_statistics

15. SOLUTION OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

Using:
15.1 Factorisation

http://www.montereyinstitute.org/courses/DevelopmentalMath/COURSE_TEXT2_RESO
URCE/U12_L3_T1_text_final.html

https://www.varsitytutors.com/hotmath/hotmath_help/topics/solving-quadratic-
equations-using-factoring

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http://www.purplemath.com/modules/solvquad.htm

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/quadratics/solving-quadratic-equations-
by-factoring/v/example-1-solving-a-quadratic-equation-by-factoring

15.2 Completing a square

(Take the term that is independent of x to the


RHS)

( Divide throughout by the coefficient of )

(Add the square of half the coefficient of x to

both

sides and simplify the RHS)

(Express LHS as square of a binomial)

(Find the square root of each side)

(Solve for x)

https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/completing-square.html

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/solvquad3.htm

https://www.brainfuse.com/jsp/alc/resource.jsp?s=gre&c=35261&cc=108824

https://www.intmath.com/quadratic-equations/2-solving-quadratic-equations-
completing-square.php

15.3 a Formula:

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https://www.montereyinstitute.org/courses/DevelopmentalMath/COURSE_TEXT2_RES
OURCE/U16_L5_T2_text_final.html

http://www.sosmath.com/algebra/quadraticeq/quadraformula/quadraformula.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/algebra/quadequationshirev3.shtm
l

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadratic_formula

16. QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES

https://www.siyavula.com/read/maths/grade-11/equations-and-inequalities/02-
equations-and-inequalities-07

https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/inequality-quadratic-solving.html

https://www.shmoop.com/quadratic-formula-function/quadratic-inequality-
examples.html

https://www.cliffsnotes.com/study-guides/algebra/algebra-ii/quadratics-in-one-
variable/solving-quadratic-inequalities

17. NATURE OF ROOTS

17.1 Use of (Delta) to determine the nature of roots

17.1.1 If = 0, then the roots are real, rational and equal

17.1.2 If then the roots are real

17.1.3 If then the roots are non-real (imaginary)

17.1.4 If and a perfect square, then the roots are real, rational and unequal

17.1.5 If and not a perfect square, then the roots are real, irrational and
unequal

http://www.math-only-math.com/nature-of-the-roots-of-a-quadratic-equation.html

http://www.tutorsonnet.com/nature-of-roots-of-quadratic-equations-homework-help.php

http://www.ask-math.com/nature-of-roots-in-quadratic-equation.html

http://www.national5maths.co.uk/nature-of-roots/

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http://www.mathwarehouse.com/quadratic/discriminant-in-quadratic-equation.php

17.2 Determine the value of an unknown in a quadratic equation if the nature


of roots
is given

https://www.siyavula.com/read/maths/grade-11/equations-and-inequalities/02-
equations-and-inequalities-06

http://mathinstructor.net/2012/05/sample-questions-nature-of-roots-of-quadratic-
equation-cbse-ncert-solutions-chapter-4-exercise-4-4-q2/

18. RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS

http://www.sparknotes.com/math/algebra2/functions/section1.rhtml

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/fcns.htm

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/cc-eighth-grade-math/cc-8th-linear-equations-
functions/cc-8th-function-intro/v/relations-and-functions

http://www.mathwarehouse.com/algebra/relation/math-function.php

19. HYPERBOLA

https://www.google.co.za/search?
rlz=1C2CAFA_enZA732ZA732&dcr=0&source=hp&ei=8MYjWoSCKMr5UOf 7iuAO&q=h
yperbola&oq=HYPERBOLA&gs_l=psy-
ab.1.0.0l10.3673.20601.0.23296.13.10.1.1.1.0.310.2528.2-8j1.9.0....0...1c.1.64.psy-
ab..2.11.2544.0..0i131k1j0i10k1.0.XiPzvh_dDyo

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbola

https://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/hyperbola.html

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Hyperbola.html

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/hyperbola.htm

20. CIRCLE

https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/circle-equations.html

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/circle.htm

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http://www.purplemath.com/modules/sqrcircle.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle

https://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/circle.html

21. GEOMETRY

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/geometry-help.html#CircleTheorems

http://study.com/academy/topic/high-school-geometry-triangles-theorems-and-
proofs.html

https://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/circle-theorems.html

http://www.math.com/tables/geometry/circles.htm

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