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(First Edition)

The Authoritative Resource on Safe Water

AWWA Standard

Disinfection Systems
for Drinking Water


Effective date: Aug. 1, 2012.

This first edition approved by AWWA Board of Directors June 10, 2012.
Approved by American National Standards Institute June 7, 2012.

6666 West Quincy Avenue Advocacy

Denver, CO 80235-3098 Communications
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Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

AWWA Standard
This document is an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard. It is not a specification. AWWA standards describe
minimum requirements and do not contain all of the engineering and administrative information normally contained in specifi-
cations. The AWWA standards usually contain options that must be evaluated by the user of the standard. Until each optional
feature is specified by the user, the product or service is not fully defined. AWWA publication of a standard does not constitute
endorsement of any product or product type, nor does AWWA test, certify, or approve any product. The use of AWWA standards
is entirely voluntary. This standard does not supersede or take precedence over or displace any applicable law, regulation, or
codes of any governmental authority. AWWA standards are intended to represent a consensus of the water supply industry that
the product described will provide satisfactory service. When AWWA revises or withdraws this standard, an official notice of
action will be placed on the first page of the Official Notice section of Journal - American Water Works Association. The action
becomes effective on the first day of the month following the month of Journal - American Water Works Association publication
of the official notice.

American National Standard

An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American
National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an
American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether that person has approved the standard or not,
from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. Ameri-
can National Standards are subject to periodic review, and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions. Producers of goods
made in conformity with an American National Standard are encouraged to state on their own responsibility in advertising and
promotional materials or on tags or labels that the goods are produced in conformity with particular American National Standards.

Caution Notice: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approval date on the front cover of this standard indicates
completion of the ANSI approval process. This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. ANSI
procedures require that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of
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or emailing info@ansi.org.

ISBN-13, print: 978-1-58321-902-7 eISBN-13, electronic: 978-1-61300-197-4

ISBN-10, print:1-58321-902-1 eISBN-10, electronic: 1-61300-197-5

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information or retrieval system, except in the form of brief excerpts or
quotations for review purposes, without the written permission of the publisher.

Copyright 2012 by American Water Works Association

Printed in USA


Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Committee Personnel
The AWWA Standards Committee on Ultraviolet Disinfection, which reviewed and approved this
standard, had the following personnel at the time:

Christine A. Cotton, Chair

General Interest Members

J.J. Christensen, HDR Engineering, Austin, Texas (AWWA)

C.A. Cotton, Malcolm Pirnie, Los Angles, Calif. (AWWA)
S. Farabaugh, Hazen & Sawyer, New York, N.Y. (AWWA)
T.J. McCandless,* Standards Engineer Liaison, AWWA, Denver, Colo. (AWWA)
R.A. Hulsey, Black and Veatch, Kansas City, Mo. (AWWA)
E.D. Mackey, Carollo Engineers, Walnut Creek, Calif. (AWWA)
J.P. Malley, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H. (AWWA)
J.A. Oppenheimer, MWH, Arcadia, Calif. (AWWA)
C. Schulz, CDM Inc., Denver, Colo. (AWWA)
P.D. Swaim, CH2M HILL Inc., Englewood, Colo. (AWWA)
H.B. Wright, Carollo Engineers, Boise, Idaho (AWWA)

Producer Members

K. Bircher, Calgon Carbon Corporation, Richmond Hill, Ont. (AWWA)

A.D. Festger, Trojan Technologies, Tucson, Ariz. (AWWA)
P. Bhupen, ITT-WEDECO, Greenwood, Ind. (AWWA)
O. Lawal, Aquionics Inc., Erlanger, Ky. (AWWA)
P.B. Posy, Atlantium Technologies, Bet Shemesh, Israel (AWWA)

User Members

G.S. Ajy, River To Tap, Roswell, Ga. (AWWA)

P. Lill, Poughkeepsie WTP, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. (AWWA)
W.J. Soucie, CLCJAWA, Lake Bluff, Ill. (AWWA)
J.A. Fleming, GCWW, Cincinnati, Ohio (AWWA)
J.A. Nilson, Seattle Public Utilities, Seattle, Wash. (AWWA)
S.W. Paxman, Weber Basin Water Conservation District, Layton, Utah (AWWA)

* Liaison, nonvoting


Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

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Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

All AWWA standards follow the general format indicated subsequently. Some variations from this
format may be found in a particular standard.

Foreword 4 Requirements
I Introduction.....................................vii 4.1 Required Equipment..........................5
I.A Background......................................vii 4.2 Data to Be Provided by Purchaser......5
I.B History.............................................vii 4.3 Data to Be Provided by the
I.C Acceptance.......................................vii Manufacturer...............................8
II Special Issues...................................viii 4.4 Materials..........................................11
III Use of This Standard.........................ix 4.5 General Design................................11
III.A Purchaser Options and 4.6 Validation........................................14
5 Verification
III.B Laying Length...................................ix
5.1 Factory Testing.................................15
III.C Testing..............................................ix
5.2 Installation.......................................16
III.D Modifications to Standard.................ix
5.3 Manuals...........................................17
IV Major Revisions.................................ix
V Comments........................................ix 6 Delivery
6.1 Packaging.........................................18
Standard 6.2 Shipping, Handling, and Storage.....18
1 General 6.3 Notice of Nonconformance..............19
1.1 Scope.................................................1 6.4 Affidavit of Compliance...................19
1.2 Purpose..............................................1
1.3 Application.........................................1
1 Feedwater Quality Data to Be
2 References.........................................2 Provided by Purchaser..................7

3 Definitions........................................2

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

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Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

This foreword is for information only and is not a part of ANSI*/AWWA F110.

I. Introduction.
I.A. Background.Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems have gained
increased acceptance for use in water treatment plants based on information that UV
disinfection could cost-effectively inactivate Cryptosporidium. In addition, the Long
Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) has recognized UV
disinfection as a best available technology for meeting the requirements of the rule.
I.B. History. The need for a standard addressing UV disinfection systems was
recognized by the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in November 2005.
The committee was appointed for the task of standardization and at the first inaugural
meeting in June 2006, a committee was formed to develop a standard. This first edition
was approved by the AWWA Board of Directors on June 10, 2012.
I.C. Acceptance. In May 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) entered into a cooperative agreement with a consortium led by NSF
International (NSF) to develop voluntary third-party consensus standards and a
certification program for direct and indirect drinking water additives. Other members of
the original consortium included the Water Research Foundation, (formerly AwwaRF)
and the Conference of State Health and Environmental Managers (COSHEM). The
American Water Works Association and the Association of State Drinking Water
Administrators (ASDWA) joined later.
In the United States, authority to regulate products for use in, or in contact with,
drinking water rests with individual states. Local agencies may choose to impose
requirements more stringent than those required by the state. To evaluate the health
effects of products and drinking water additives from such products, state and local
agencies may use various references, including
1. An advisory program formerly administered by USEPA, Office of Drinking
Water, discontinued on April 7, 1990.
2. Specific policies of the state or local agency.

* American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.
Persons outside the United States should contact the appropriate authority having jurisdiction.


Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

3. Two standards developed under the direction of NSF, NSF*/ANSI 60,
Drinking Water Treatment ChemicalsHealth Effects, and NSF/ANSI 61, Drinking
Water System ComponentsHealth Effects.
4. Other references, including AWWA standards, Food Chemicals Codex, Water
Chemical Codex, and other standards appropriate to the state or local agency.
Various certification organizations may be certifying products in accordance with
NSF/ANSI 61. Individual states or local agencies have authority to accept or accredit
certification organizations within their jurisdiction. Accreditation of certification orga-
nizations may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Annex A, Toxicology Review and Evaluation Procedures, to NSF/ANSI 61 does
not stipulate a maximum allowable level (MAL) of a contaminant for substances not
regulated by a USEPA final maximum contaminant level (MCL). The MALs of an
unspecified list of unregulated contaminants are based on toxicity testing guidelines
(noncarcinogens) and risk characterization methodology (carcinogens). Use of Annex A
procedures may not always be identical, depending on the certifier.
ANSI/AWWA F110 does not address additives requirements. Therefore, users of
this standard shall consult the appropriate state or local agency having jurisdiction in
order to
1. Determine additives requirements, including applicable standards.
2. Determine the status of certification by all parties offering to certify prod-
ucts for contact with, or treatment of, drinking water.
3. Determine current information on product certification.
II. Special Issues. Conditions under which the UV disinfection system is to
be operated must be evaluated carefully by the purchasers. The evaluation must include
the determination of the hydraulic characteristics of the system in which the lamp will
be installed and the electrical circuits required for the operation of the lamp, including
the maximum and static differential pressures across the lamp and the range of flow
through the UV system under the most adverse operating conditions.
Small changes in transmittance in low-UV-absorbing waters can significantly
change UV dose delivery; where ultraviolet transmittance (UVT) monitors are used
as part of verifying adequate dose delivery, it is recommended the producer consider

* NSF International, 789 N. Dixboro Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.

American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.
Both publications available from National Academy of Sciences, 500 Fifth Street NW, Washington,
DC 20001.


Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

tightening UVT error limits above the minimum standard where UVT is high (e.g.,
94 percent).
III. Use of This Standard. It is the responsibility of the user of an AWWA
standard to determine that the products described in that standard are suitable for use
in the particular application being considered.
III.A. Purchaser Options and Alternatives. The following information shall be
provided by the purchaser:
1. Standard usedthat is, ANSI/AWWA F110, Ultraviolet Disinfection
Systems, of latest revision.
2. Equipment requirements (Sec. 4.1).
3. Request for validation status or an executive summary of the validation
report (Sec. 4.3.5).
4. Whether compliance with NSF/ANSI 61, Drinking Water System
ComponentsHealth Effects, is not required (Sec.
5. Details of other federal, state or provincial, and local requirements (Sec. 4.4.1).
6. Request for factory test results (Sec.
7. Request for shop inspection by the purchaser (Sec.
8. Request for a required number of training materials (Sec.
9. Specify acceptance testing time requirements (Sec. 5.2.6).
10. Request storage requirements (Sec. 6.2.3).
III.B. Laying Length. There is not a standard laying length for UV disinfection
systems and because of this, interchangeability between various manufacturers may
not be possible without modification to the existing piping system. The purchaser is
cautioned to obtain this information from the manufacturers for verification prior to
purchase (Sec. 4.4.1).
III.C. Testing. This standard requires the manufacturer to have third-party
validation testing conducted on a fully assembled system. If the purchaser desires that
an additional validation test be conducted on the installed, fully assembled system, this
requirement should be specified in the purchase documents (Sec. 4.6).
III.D. Modifications to Standard. Any modification to the provisions, definitions,
or terminology in this standard must be provided by the purchaser.
IV. Major Revisions. This is the first edition of this standard.
V. Comments. If you have any comments or questions about this standard,
please call AWWA Engineering and Technical Services at 303.794.7711, FAX at
303.795.7603, write to the department at 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, CO
80235-3098, or email at standards@awwa.org.


Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

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Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

(First Edition)

AWWA Standard

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems

for Drinking Water

SECTION 1: General

Sec. 1.1 Scope

This standard sets the minimum requirements for closed-vessel UV disin-
fection systems and equipment elements used for drinking water disinfection of
Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and viruses. It does not include wastewater, reuse, or
advanced oxidation treatment. Equipment and elements covered under this stan-
dard include UV reactors, related appurtenances, and reactor validation.
Sec. 1.2 Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to provide a minimum set of requirements
for UV systems for drinking water treatment systems. This standard is intended
to assist with the design, procurement, installation, and commissioning of UV
disinfection systems.

Sec. 1.3 Application

This standard can be referenced for design, procurement, installation, and
commissioning of UV disinfection equipment used in drinking water treatment.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.
2 AWWA F110-12

SECTION 2: References

This standard references the following documents. In their latest editions,

they form a part of this standard to the extent specified within the standard. In any
case of conflict, the requirements of this standard shall prevail.
ANSI*/IEEE 519MisapplicationsPoint of Common Coupling Issues.
ANSI/ISA5.1 Instrumentation Symbols and Identification.
ANSI/ISEA Z87.1American National Standard for Occupational and
Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices.
Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR)
NEMA MS 12Quantification and Mapping of Geometric Distortion for
Special Applications.
NSF**/ANSI 61Drinking Water System ComponentsHealth Effects.
Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM), USEPA.

SECTION 3: Definitions

The following definitions shall apply in this standard.

1. Absorbance: A measure of the amount of UV light that is absorbed by a
substance at a specific wavelength.
2. Absorbance at 254 nm (A254): A measure of the amount of UV light
that is absorbed by a substance at 254 nm.
3. Ballast: An electrical device that provides the proper voltage and current
required to initiate and maintain the operation of a UV lamp.
4. Calculated dose approach: A method used in validation and operation of
a UV system whereby the reduction equivalent dose is calculated from the operat-
ing parameters, such as flow rate, UV sensor value, and UVT.
5. Challenge microorganism: A surrogate microorganism used in validation
testing of UV reactors.

* American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 3 Park Avenue, 17th Floor, New York, NY 10016.
International Society of Automation, 67 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1752, Rosslyn, VA 22209.
** NSF International, 789 N. Dixboro Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48105.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 3

6. Collimated beam test: A controlled bench-scale test that is used to deter-

mine the dose-response of a microorganism. Both time and UV light intensity are
directly measured. The UV dose is calculated using the intensity of the incident
UV light, UV absorbance of the water, and exposure time.
7. Combined aging/fouling factor: Product of the lamp aging factor and the
fouling factor.
8. Design UVT: The UVT that must be used to size a UV facility. The
design UVT and design flow are typically used by the UV manufacturer to deter-
mine the appropriate UV equipment for a target pathogen inactivation. The design
UVT may not necessarily be the minimum operating UVT.
9. Dose: The UV energy per unit area, reported in units of mJ/cm2 or J/m2.
10. Dose-response: The level of inactivation of a microorganism as a function
of dose.
11. Duty UV intensity sensor: The duty (online) UV sensor installed in the
UV reactor that monitors UV intensity during UV equipment operations.
12. Emission spectrum: The relative power emitted by a lamp at different
13. Fouling factor: The transmittance of a fouled lamp sleeve and sensor
well relative to that of a new sleeve and sensor well.
14. Germicidal range: The range of UV wavelengths responsible for micro-
bial inactivation in water (200 to 300 nm).
15. Inactivation: A process by which a microorganism is rendered unable
to reproduce, thereby rendering it unable to infect a host.
16. Intensity: The power passing through a unit area perpendicular to the
direction of propagation.
17. Lamp aging factor: The output of a lamp relative to that of a new lamp.
18. Lamp sleeve: The quartz tube that surrounds and protects the UV lamp.
The exterior is in direct contact with the water being treated.
19. Low-pressure high-output (LPHO) lamp: A low-pressure mercury-
vapor lamp that operates under increased electrical input (1.5 to 10 W/cm),
resulting in a higher UV intensity than LP lamps. It has a monochromatic light
output at 254 nm.
20. Low-pressure (LP) lamp: A mercury-vapor lamp that operates at an
internal pressure of 0.13 to 1.3 Pa (2 10 5 to 2 10 4 psi) and electrical input
of 0.5 watts per centimeter (W/cm). This results in monochromatic light output at
254 nm.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

4 AWWA F110-12

21. Manufacturer: The party that manufactures, fabricates, or produces

materials or products.
22. Medium-pressure (MP) lamp: A mercury-vapor lamp that operates at
an internal pressure of 13 to 1,300 kPa (2 to 200 psi) and electrical input of 50
to 300 W/cm. This results in a polychromatic or broad-spectrum output of UV
and visible light at multiple wavelengths, including wavelengths in the germicidal
23. Minimum operating UVT: The lowest UVT expected to occur during
the lifetime of the UV facility. The UV reactor shall be designed and validated
for the range of UVT and flow-rate combinations expected at the water treatment
24. Monochromatic: Light energy output at one or a narrow range of wave-
lengths, such as with LPHO lamps.
25. Off-line cleaning system: A process to clean the lamp sleeves with the
reactor taken off-line, drained, and cleaned with an acid solution.
26. Online quartz cleaning system: A process to clean lamp sleeves (e.g., by
the use of wipers) either manually or at automatically initiated, prescribed intervals
while UV disinfection is occurring.
27. Off-specification: A facility that is operating outside of the validated
envelope at a flow rate higher than the validated range or a UVT below the vali-
dated range or is not achieving the required dose or log inactivation or is not
operating with properly calibrated sensors or does not conform uniformly to the
validated unit.
28. Polychromatic: Light energy output at several wavelengths such as with
MP lamps.
29. Power quality fluctuations: The number of voltage sags and short cycle
interruptions over a defined period of time, usually between a month and a year.
30. Purchaser: The person, company, or organization that purchases any
materials or work to be performed.
31. Reactor validation: Full-scale testing by an independent third party to
determine the operating conditions under which a reactor can deliver a specific
32. Reduction equivalent dose: Dose derived by using the log inactivation
measured during full-scale reactor testing in the dose-response curve that was
derived through collimated beam testing. Reduction equivalent dose values are

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 5

specific to the challenge microorganism used during experimental testing and the
validation test conditions for full-scale reactor testing.
33. Required dose: The dose in units of mJ/cm2 needed to achieve the tar-
get log inactivation for the target pathogen. The required dose is specified in the
34. Supplier: The party that supplies material or services. A supplier may
or may not be the manufacturer.
35. Target log inactivation: For the target pathogen, the specific log inacti-
vation the public water system wants to achieve using UV disinfection.
36. Target pathogen: The microorganism for which a public water system
wants to obtain inactivation credit using UV disinfection.
37. UV intensity sensor: A photosensitive detector used to measure the
intensity at a point within the reactor.
38. UV transmittance: A measure of the fraction of incident light transmit-
ted through a material.
39. Validation: The testing of a reactor to determine its performance under
all operating conditions, including flow, UV transmittance, and lamp power.
40. Validated dose: The dose in units of mJ/cm2 delivered by the reactor as
determined through validation testing. The validated dose is compared with the
required dose to determine log inactivation credit.
41. Validation factor: An uncertainty term that accounts for the bias and
uncertainty associated with validation testing.

SECTION 4: Requirements

Sec. 4.1 Required Equipment

UV disinfection systems shall include reactor with lamps and quartz sleeves,
duty and reference sensors, system controller, reactor protective devices, spare parts,
lamp ballasts, and power supply.
4.1.1 Options. Optional equipment include a UV transmittance analyzer,
if a calculated dose control approach is used, and if necessary, a cleaning system.

Sec. 4.2 Data to Be Provided by Purchaser

4.2.1 Structural and process. Purchaser shall provide information on loca-
tion and overall building and piping layout of UV facility.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

6 AWWA F110-12 Process train location. Identify the location of the system in the
plant process train. Unit processes and chemical application points. Describe the
unit processes and chemical application points upstream of the proposed system. Footprint. Describe the available footprint for the system, service
and maintenance areas, and any restrictions that may apply. Piping. Provide connection pipe size and configuration. Storage. Provide description of available storage area and environ-
mental conditions.
4.2.2 Target pathogen, log inactivation, and dose. Purchaser shall identify
the target pathogen, log inactivation level, and corresponding required dose. Target pathogen. The target pathogen shall be Giardia, Crypto-
sporidium, or virus. Log inactivation. The log inactivation level shall range from 0.5
to 4 logs. Dose. The required dose shall be as specified in the LT2ESWTR
or by state-accepted substitute.
4.2.3 Design flow. Purchaser shall provide the maximum, average, and
minimum design flows for the system and for each reactor. Monthly design flows. Monthly design flows may be provided if
they are presented with corresponding monthly water quality data.
4.2.4 Water quality data. Purchaser shall provide available historical
feedwater quality data for parameters shown in Table 1. Presentation. Feedwater quality values shall be presented for
maximum, minimum, and average values if available. Values may be presented for
1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 99th percentile values if the water quality dataset is large
enough to do a statistical analysis. Sampling. Sampling of feedwater for UV254 transmittance is rec-
ommended to be performed weekly over a period of one year to determine seasonal
variations in water quality. Seasonal differences in water quality may be provided if
they follow a repeatable, cyclical pattern and can be used in conjunction with design
flows for sizing the system. For large historical datasets, a conservative UV transmit-
tance design value (typically 1st or 5th percentile of the dataset) shall be selected for a
sizing system unless site-specific variations justify selection of a higher or lower UVT
at the design flow rate. For small groundwater systems (i.e., those designed to treat
less than 100 gpm), a minimum of three UVT is recommended in order to establish
a representative design UVT.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 7

Table 1 Feedwater quality data to be provided by purchaser

Parameter MP UV System System
UV 254 Transmittance, percent R R
UV Scan, 200 to 300 nm in 1 to 5 nm increments, percent NR NR
Temperature, C O O
pH R R
Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3 R R
Hardness, mg/L, as CaCO3 R R
Aluminum, mg/L O O
Iron, mg/L R R
Manganese, mg/L R R
Chlorine Residual, mg/L R R
Nitrate, mg/L R O
R = Required, O = Optional, NR = Not required

4.2.5 Combined fouling and aging factor. Purchaser shall provide the com-
bined fouling and aging factor, taking into account project-specific water quality
conditions, lamp aging, and sleeve-cleaning effectiveness data received from the
vendors and verified by the lamp manufacturer. Calculation. The combined fouling and aging factor shall be cal-
culated by multiplying the fouling factor by the lamp aging factor; it typically
ranges from 0.4 to 0.9.
4.2.6 Head loss. Purchaser shall provide the maximum allowable head
loss across the reactor, flange-to-flange, at maximum design flow for a predeter-
mined number of reactor trains in operation.
4.2.7 Operating pressure. Purchaser shall provide the maximum working
and test pressure for the reactor vessels.
4.2.8 Power supply constraints. Purchaser shall provide power supply con-
straints that may impact selection and sizing of the system, including available
power supply capacity, backup power capacity, and power quality fluctuations.
4.2.9 Number of UV reactors. If applicable, purchaser shall provide the
number of UV reactors needed, including the number of duty and standby trains
to meet capacity requirements of the system.
4.2.10 Type of system. Purchaser shall provide a description of the reactor
components to be considered for the project, including reactor vessel, lamp type,
electronic or electromagnetic ballasts, online automatic cleaning system or off-line

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

8 AWWA F110-12

chemical cleaning system, number of UV sensors, UV transmittance analyzer, or

UV spectrophotometer, if applicable.
4.2.11 Dose monitoring requirements. Purchaser shall provide the dose
monitoring strategy to be used for the system to confirm dose delivery, including
intensity set-point approach or calculated dose approach.
4.2.12 Control system requirements. Purchaser shall provide control sys-
tem requirements, including overall system architecture, instrumentation, and
programming services to be provided by the supplier or manufacturer.
4.2.13 Validation testing requirements. Purchaser shall provide validation
testing requirements, including scheduling constraints and whether on-site, off-
site, or prevalidated UV reactors will be allowed. Regulatory requirements. Purchaser shall include any require-
ments specific to the primacy agency.
4.2.14 Environmental conditions. Purchaser shall provide required envi-
ronmental conditions, including indoor or outdoor installation, ambient humidity,
minimum and maximum temperature, and maximum allowable equipment heat-
load rejection.
4.2.15 Average operating conditions. Purchaser shall provide average oper-
ating conditions for evaluation of operating cost, including average flow, average
combined aging/fouling factor, and ultraviolet transmittance.
Sec. 4.3 Data to Be Provided by the Manufacturer
If prevalidation is required by the purchaser, the manufacturer shall provide
the following information: letter from a third-party validation organization stating
that the unit has been validated, qualifications and experience of the third-party
validation test organization, and qualifications and experience of the laboratory
performing the microbiological work.
4.3.1 Validation envelope. Manufacturer shall provide details of the val-
idation envelope, including flow, UV transmittance, reduction equivalent dose,
power range, number of lamps, and validated dose.
4.3.2 Challenge organism. Manufacturer shall provide statement of the
challenge organism(s) used.
4.3.3 Confirmation of the validation. Manufacturer shall provide confir-
mation of the validation uncertainty and safety factors used. These factors may
include validation factor, reduction equivalent dose bias, uncertainty of validation
of UV intensity sensors, properties of validation quartz sleeves and sensor port
windows, lamp aging factor, and quartz-sleeve fouling factor.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 9

4.3.4 Pipe configuration. Manufacturer shall provide details of inlet and

outlet piping configuration used in the validation and its impact on the proposed
installed pipe configuration. Configuration guidelines. Confirmation should be made with
local and/or state guidelines with respect to final proposed pipe configuration.
4.3.5 Executive summary. Manufacturer shall provide a written statement
of the validation status or an executive summary of the validation report, including
the status of approval by state and provincial regulatory authorities.
4.3.6 System requirements. Manufacturer shall provide the following
requirements. Cleaning system. Cleaning system options shall be provided,
including an evaluation of the available UV systems and a recommended strategy
for cleaning the lamp sleeves and sensor windows. Storage and environmental conditions. Manufacturer shall
include environmental condition constraints, including temperature and humidity
limits, that will ensure reliable operations and any recommendations for storage
conditions for spare parts, as appropriate. Storage volume. Estimated storage volume requirements shall be
provided in accordance with the operations and maintenance manual (Sec. 5.3.1,
item 2). Control system. The control system shall include required alarms,
critical input/output parameters, dose monitoring equations, and off-specification
flows. Operating parameters. Manufacturer shall provide operating
parameters, including number of trains, number of lamps, and power consump-
tion under both design and average operating conditions. Cooling requirements. Manufacturer shall provide cooling water
requirements. Turndown. If applicable, manufacturer shall provide system
power and lamp turndown capabilities.
4.3.7 Prior to fabrication. The manufacturer shall provide the following
information prior to fabrication:
1. Revised documents. Revised versions of the documents and drawings
required in Sec. 4.3.1 and 4.3.2.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

10 AWWA F110-12

2. Detailed descriptions of lamps, sleeves, duty and UV reference sensors,

UV transmittance analyzers and all other components included in the UV disin-
fection system.
3. Weights. Weight of component parts, assembled weight of equipment,
total shipping weight, and operating weight.
4. Drawings.
a. Equipment cross-sections.
b. Comprehensive schematic diagrams for equipment and field wiring
c. Process and instrumentation diagrams that comply with ISA Bulletin S5.1.
d. Input and output component locations, including maximum allowable
distance between control system, power supply, and reactor.
e. Electrical drawings, including conduit, grounding block, wiring, and
control diagrams.
f. Dimensions of wetted components.
5. Control system. Description of the control system and PLC software,
a. Required instrumentation.
b. Description of how software interfaces with plant processes up and down-
stream of the reactor, including valves, telemetry, and remote control systems.
c. Description of how validation equations will be programmed into the
system and how they will control the equipment.
6. Spare parts. A list of recommended spare parts, special tools, and spe-
cial services shall be provided.
4.3.8 Prior to startup. The manufacturer shall provide the following
information prior to startup. Revised documentation. Revised versions of documents and
drawings listed in Sec. 4.3.1, 4.3.2, and 4.3.3. Operation and maintenance manual. Operation and maintenance
manuals shall be provided that include the manufacturers installation and operating
instructions, startup procedures, troubleshooting guide, parts list, recommended list
of spare parts, special tools, and maintenance procedures in accordance with Sec. 5.3.
A manual shall be sufficiently detailed to direct the assembly and disassembly
of the equipment and for the ordering of spare parts. The manual shall include suf-
ficient detail to address emergency conditions such as power failure, fire, flooding,
or online lamp break.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 11 Validation report. Manufacturer shall provide a complete valida-

tion report that meets or exceeds the recommendation of the USEPA UVDGM or
state- or province-accepted substitute if getting LT2ESWTR pathogen inactiva-
tion credit.

Sec. 4.4 Materials

4.4.1 Regulatory requirements for materials. Materials shall comply with
the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and other federal, state, and local
requirements. NSF/ANSI 61. Components that come into contact with the flow
shall be certified as suitable for contact with drinking water by an accredited certi-
fication organization in accordance with NSF/ANSI 61.
4.4.2 UV light resistance. Components that are exposed to the reactors
UV light shall be made of materials that are resistant to UV light, including poly-
vinylidenefluoride, black high-density polyethylene, viton, ceramic, and metal.
4.4.3 Corrosion-resistant metals. Metals in contact with the flow shall be
made of corrosion-resistant materials, including stainless steel, nickelcopper alloy,
bronze, or zinc-coated steel. Long-term usage. Materials shall not show any sign of corrosion
during long-term usage. Hydraulic conditions. Treatment chamber shall be designed to
avoid corrosion caused by hydraulic conditions.
4.4.4 Heat resistance. Lamp connection materials shall be resistant to
high temperatures.
4.4.5 Pressure and leakage requirements. Components shall be tested and
documentation delivered to the purchaser that pressure, leakage, and performance
tests were conducted according to the requirements of the regulatory authority.
4.4.6 Lamp sleeves. Lamp sleeves shall be natural or synthetic quartz with
minimum UVT of 89 percent at 254 nm measured in air.
4.4.7 Oxidant tolerance. Oxidant tolerance of materials in contact with
the flow shall be identified in terms of maximum and long-term exposure expressed
as mg/L and mg/L-hr respectively for chlorine, ozone, and chloramines.
Sec. 4.5 General Design
4.5.1 Access. UV reactors shall have access to remove lamps, UV sensors,
cleaning mechanisms, and sleeves for maintenance and repair.

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12 AWWA F110-12

4.5.2 Location. UV sensors shall be installed in the same location as when

the reactor was validated.
4.5.3 UV reference sensors. UV reference sensors shall be calibrated
against a traceable standard.
4.5.4 UV duty sensors. One UV duty sensor shall be installed per lamp or
per group of lamps. The UV system shall monitor lamp on/off status, and the UV
dose calculation shall not include contribution from lamps that are not operating.
The sensor positions shall cover similar groups of lamps (that is, lamps operating at
the same power settings) and ensure that monitoring is representative of the disin-
fection performance of the system. Calibration. UV intensity sensors shall be calibrated monthly
compared with a reference sensor in accordance with the UVDGM or state- or
province-specified protocol. Recalibration. Recalibration shall be required if the calibration
ration is >1.2 in accordance with state or provincial requirements. Correction factor. UV intensity sensor calibration information
shall be available so that a correction factor can be calculated in accordance with
UVDGM recommendation if necessary.
4.5.5 Exposure. Sensors shall be dry type and not placed in contact with
the water.
4.5.6 UV transmittance analyzer. An online UV transmittance analyzer
shall be used if the reactor dose-monitoring strategy uses the calculated-dose
4.5.7 UVT monitoring. Online UVT analyzer calibration shall be
checked weekly with a benchtop or handheld spectrophotometer. Recalibration. Recalibration shall be required if the absolute dif-
ference in UVT measurements is greater than 2 percent in accordance with state
or provincial requirements. Frequency. Benchtop or handheld spectrophotometers shall be
calibrated at the frequency recommended by the manufacturer and zeroed before
each use.
4.5.8 Electrical requirements. General. Electrical system components for each reactor shall
include a ballast power supply and a controller system. Wiring. Wiring between power supply and controller shall be
factory supplied and pre-wired prior to shipment or wired on-site.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 13 Electrical enclosures. Electrical enclosures shall be designed in

accordance with the expected voltages and currents.
1. Enclosure types shall be NEMA 12 or rated sufficiently for the applica-
tion (e.g., indoor, outdoor, etc.).
2. Incoming power shall be connected to a junction terminal block in each
reactor power supply enclosure.
3. Enclosures shall be internally protected by fuse or thermal magnetic
circuit breaker.
4. Enclosures shall be provided with required cooling fans, thermal protec-
tion, and door access interlocks.
5. Panel enclosures shall include the following NEMA requirements:
a. Secured and legible legend plates.
b. Devices shall be identified with fuse block number and fuse size using
self-laminating printable labels. This shall be in addition to the terminal block
markers. Printable labels. Printable labels shall be applied to devices requir-
ing supplementary information, including the following:
1. Warning labels and tags inside or outside control panels and power supply
2. Control panel door identifying devices and equipment names. Lamp ballast. Lamp Ballast requirements shall include the
1. System power factor shall be minimum 0.92 at full power.
2. The unit shall be equipped with electrical protection such that a ground
fault does not cause permanent equipment damage.
3. System shall not increase the total harmonic distortion voltage, at the
point of common coupling, by more than the limits prescribed in ANSI/IEEE 519.
4.5.9 Instrumentation and control system. The instrumentation and con-
trol system shall provide a means by which the operator has control of the opera-
tion of the reactor. Operation. The control system shall be programmed to operate
the reactor in automatic or manual modes and shall report whether or not the reac-
tor is providing adequate disinfection. Control system shall provide manual override and safety interlocks
as needed to protect operators and equipment from harm. Power for the control
system shall be derived from the main feeder.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

14 AWWA F110-12 Data capture. The instrumentation and control system shall pro-
vide a means by which flow, UV intensity, lamp status, RED, and UVT are cap-
tured by the reactor or the plant control system. Required functions. The following functions shall be prepro-
grammed into the reactor control panel:
1. For UV systems operating under the UV Intensity Setpoint Approach
method, the measured sensor intensity and flow rate shall be displayed.
2. For UV systems operating under the Calculated Dose Approach, the vali-
dated dose shall be displayed.
3. Lamp hours of operation.
4. Controls shall be equipped with routines to sequence, pace, and control
reactor startup and shutdown.
5. Control system shall have at least two levels of alarm capabilities:
a. Level one shall inform the operator of impending or current issues.
b. Level two shall notify the operator of implementation of emergency
actions such as reactor shutdown or valve closure.
6. Alarms shall include off specification, communication failure, component
failure, high temperature, and excessive hours of lamp operation. Reporting. The system shall have available the information neces-
sary to complete the UVDGM and/or state- or province-specified reports includ-
ing off-specification, calibration, and related records, either automatically, in a log
file that can be printed or transmitted, or on a consolidated screen that the operator
can copy for submission.
Sec. 4.6 Validation
4.6.1 General requirements. UV systems shall undergo full-scale, third-
party validation testing in accordance with the current edition of the UVDGM or
a state- or province-accepted substitute. UVDGM checklists. If the UVDGM validation protocol is used,
the UVDGM checklists shall be included. Validation process. The validation process shall be based on the
1. A challenge dosimeter whose dose response behavior has been character-
ized and quantified with a Low-Pressure Collimated Beam Apparatus in accor-
dance with the quality assurance and quality control provisions in the UVDGM.
2. Identification and documentation of the critical components, including
UV sensors, wetted dimensions, lamps, and sleeves.

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Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 15

3. A documented validation envelope that includes upper and lower limits

for power, flow, UV transmittance, and reduction equivalent dose.
4. Validation testing shall bracket the design criteria provided by the
5. Validation report shall provide the head loss and power consumption cal-
culations that will be the basis of sizing calculations and bid documents.
6. Validation report shall include all elements described in Sec. 4.6.
7. Validation report shall include description of the hydraulic conditions. If polychromatic lamps (e.g., MP lamps) are used, it is recom-
mended that the UV manufacturer provide a review of the potential for action
spectra bias of the challenge microorganism relative to the target pathogen based
on current industry understanding.
4.6.2 Documentation. The equipment manufacturer shall provide docu-
mentation and verification that the reactor shipped conforms to the reactor vali-
dated and is programmed with the operating dose control methodology developed
based on the validation report, unless on-site validation is completed.

SECTION 5: Verification

Sec. 5.1 Factory Testing

5.1.1 Factory testing. Equipment manufacturer shall complete factory
testing prior to shipment. Assembled system. The following tests shall be completed on the
assembled system:
1. Hydrostatic pressure test, at the maximum design pressure for at least
30 min.
2. Operation of lamps, UV sensors, ballast or transformer, and sensor
3. Functional test of control system digital and analogue inputs and outputs. Test results. Test results shall be recorded and made available for
inspection if requested by the purchaser. Witnessing tests. Upon request, the manufacturer shall accom-
modate witnessing of the factory testing by the contractor, engineer, or purchaser.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

16 AWWA F110-12

Sec. 5.2 Installation

5.2.1 Installation. Equipment shall be installed in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions. Hydraulics. Inlet and outlet conditions that are consistent with
the USEPA UVDGM. Provision for Isolation. Drip-tight shutoff to allow the isolation of
each reactor. Double block and bleed valves must be provided if the reactor is taken
off-line for chemical cleaning. Cooling water. Provided in accordance with the manufacturers
requirements identified in Sec. Flooded reactor. Piping configuration ensures that the reactor is
flooded during normal operations. Flow-to-waste. Provisions to allow for disposal of off-specification
water and mitigation in the event of a lamp breakage
5.2.2 Field representative. If required by the purchaser, the supplier or
manufacturer shall have a qualified field representative on-site during the final
stages of installation.
5.2.3 Equipment checks. If required by the purchaser prior to acceptance
the supplier shall check that the equipment is properly installed and functions as
specified. Check requirements. The following items shall be included in the
equipment checklist:
1. Proper installation and alignment of support structure.
2. Watertightness of submerged equipment.
3. Electrical wiring and connections.
4. Proper operation of instrumentation, alarms, interlocks and operating
5. Adequate ventilation, and cooling in the control cabinets.
6. Proper operation of the lamp shutoff switches and ground fault circuit
7. Proper operation of the monitoring and control equipment.
8. Proper operation of the cleaning equipment.
9. UV transmittance monitor and sensor calibration checks.
5.2.4 Documentation. The field representatives shall provide documenta-
tion certifying that the equipment has been properly installed, is free of leaks, is in

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 17

alignment, is free from any undue stress imposed by anchor bolts, and conforms to
manufacturers electrical connection requirements.
5.2.5 Training. Manufacturer or supplier shall provide training to pur-
chasers maintenance and operating staff. Classroom and hands-on training. Training shall consist of both
classroom and hands-on training. Training materials. Manufacturer or supplier shall provide the
required number of training material packages, which may include manuals, com-
pact disks or digital video disks, and programs.
5.2.6 Acceptance test. After training from the supplier, the equipment
shall be operated by the purchasers personnel, for a specified length of time. Tests. Purchaser shall conduct the following tests to demonstrate
equipment performance:
1. Startup and shutdown sequencing.
2. Alarm verifications.
3. Power failure and power restoration sequences.
4. Power usage verification.
5. Response to flow-rate changes. Test Failure. If the system does not operate trouble-free, the
supplier shall make the necessary corrections and rerun the tests.
Sec. 5.3 Manuals
5.3.1 Operation and maintenance (O&M) manuals. O&M manuals shall
include the following items:
1. Component information. Reactor and subcomponent design criteria,
data sheets, shop drawings, parts lists, and diagrams.
2. Contents. Instructions for receiving, storage, installation, startup, shut-
down, routine and normal operations, regulation and control, and emergency con-
3. Calibration. Equipment calibration frequency, procedures, and specifi-
cations. Sensor and UV transmittance calibration analyzer frequency and proce-
dure for evaluation of lamp output variability shall be included.
4. Maintenance. Maintenance instructions for removal and replacement
of subcomponents, including lamps, sleeves, ballasts, fuses, cooling fans, filters,
and cleaning mechanisms. Recommended frequencies of maintenance for filters,
monitors, common subcomponents, and lamp sleeve cleaning.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

18 AWWA F110-12

5. Troubleshooting guide. Troubleshooting guide shall include known

failure conditions and their remedies.
6. Safety. Recommended safety and emergency procedures.
7. Personal protection equipment. Personal protective equipment shall
include the following:
a. Face shields, which shall provide full-face protection from exposure to
UV light and shall meet the requirements of ANSI/ISEA Z87.1.
b. Clean cotton gloves, which shall be worn when handling UV lamps.
c. Rubber gloves, which shall be worn if handling a lamp that is damaged
or when in contact with mercury and broken glass or when handling chemicals.
d. Disposable coveralls, which shall be worn when handling and cleaning up
mercury spills or handling cleaning chemicals.
e. A respirator, which shall be worn when handling and cleaning up mer-
cury spills or handling cleaning chemicals.
8. Mercury spill protocol. Mercury spill protocol shall include the following:
a. A mercury spill kit shall be kept on-site that includes rubber gloves, dis-
posable protective coveralls, respirator, plastic sheeting, plastic dustpan, flashlight,
eye dropper, swabs, and sealable plastic bags.
b. Lock-out/Tag-out procedures shall be followed for maintenance of con-
taminated electrical equipment.
c. Correct labels and warning signs shall be used in contaminated areas
to indicate requirements for personnel protective equipment, UV light exposure
potential, electrical and chemical hazards.

SECTION 6: Delivery

Sec. 6.1 Packaging

6.1.1 Equipment. Equipment, spare parts, special tools, and other items
provided by the manufacturer shall be properly marked and packaged for protec-
tion during shipping, handling, and storage.

Sec. 6.2 Shipping, Handling, and Storage

6.2.1 Recommendations. Equipment items shall be handled and stored as
recommended by the manufacturer (Sec. 5.3.1 item 2).

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems for Drinking Water 19

6.2.2 Deliveries. Deliveries shall be coordinated with the contractor, sub-

contractors, and the purchaser so that construction and installation schedules are
not negatively affected.
6.2.3 Storage. Equipment shall be stored and kept clean in the recom-
mended storage packaging and kept within the required environmental conditions
(Sec. 5.3.1 item 2). Removal from packaging. Equipment shall not be removed
from packaging materials until the time of installation and only with appropriate
personnel present.

Sec. 6.3 Notice of Nonconformance

Any UV disinfection system not conforming to the requirements of this
standard shall, at the request of the purchaser, be made satisfactory or replaced.
The purchaser must provide a written notice of nonconformance to the equipment
manufacturer that explains the reason for nonconformance.
Sec. 6.4 Affidavit of Compliance
6.4.1 Equipment. The manufacturer shall provide an affidavit stating
that the equipment provided complies with the applicable requirements of this
6.4.2 Testing. The manufacturer shall furnish a sworn statement that the
inspection and all specified tests have been made and that the results comply with
the requirements of this standard.

Copyright 2012 American Water Works Association. All Rights Reserved.

AWWA is the authoritative resource for knowledge, information, and advocacy to improve the quality and
supply of water in North America and beyond. AWWA is the largest organization of water professionals in
the world. AWWA advances public health, safety, and welfare by uniting the efforts of the full spectrum
of the entire water community. Through our collective strength, we become better stewards of water for
the greatest good of people and the environment.

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