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Power System Grounding

In electricity supply systems, an earthing system defines the electrical potential of the conductors
relative to that of the Earths conductive surface. The choice of earthing system has implications
for the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the power supply. A protective earth (PE)
connection ensures that all exposed conductive surfaces are at the same electrical potential as the
surface of the Earth, to avoid the risk of electrical shock if a person touches a device in which an
insulation fault has occurred. It also ensures that in the case of an insulation fault, a high fault
current flows, which will trigger an over current protection device (fuse, CB) that disconnects the
power supply. A functional earth connection serves a purpose other than providing protection
against electrical shock.
Ground or earth in a main (AC power) electrical wiring system is a conductor that exists primarily
to help protect against faults and which in normal operation does not carry current. Neutral is a
circuit conductor that may carry current in normal operation, and which is usually connected to
earth. In house wiring, it is the center tap connection of the secondary winding of the power
companys transformer. In a polyphase or three-wire AC system, the neutral conductor is intended
to have similar voltages to each of the other circuit conductors, and similar phase spacing. By this
definition, a circuit must have at least three wires for one to serve as a neutral. In the electrical
trade, the conductor of a 2-wire circuit that is connected to the supply neutral point and earth
ground is also referred to as the "neutral". This is formally described in the US and Canadian
electrical codes as the "identified" circuit conductor.
International standard IEC 60364 distinguishes three families of earthing arrangements, using the
two-letter codes TN, TT, and IT. The first letter indicates the connection between earth and the
power-supply equipment (generator or transformer):
T: direct connection of a point with earth.
I: no point relates to earth (isolation), except perhaps via a high impedance. The second letter
indicates the connection between earth and the electrical device being supplied.
T: direct connection with earth, independent of any other earth connection in the supply system.
N: connection to earth via the supply network.
In AC power wiring installations in a main (AC power) wiring installation, the ground is a wire
with an electrical connection to earth, that provides an alternative path to the ground for heavy
currents that might otherwise flow through a victim of electric shock. These may be located locally,
be far away in the suppliers network or in many cases both. This grounding wire is usually but
not always connected to the neutral wire at some point. The ground wire is also usually bonded to
pipe work to keep it at the same potential as the electrical ground during a fault. Water supply
pipes often used to be used as ground electrodes but this was banned in some countries when
plastic pipe such as PVC became popular. This type of ground applies to radio antennas and to
lightning protection systems.
Grounding and Earthing systems form the first line of defense in every type of electrical systems.
The system may be a generator, transformer, housing installation, generating station etc. So, it is
strictly advised to know the basic concepts of grounding as far as electrical engineering is

Auto Reclosing Relay Application

Auto reclosing relay is intended for transmission or sub transmission lines to restore service
when a circuit breaker is tripped single- or three-phase, due to a line fault. The reclosing relay
requires a reclosing initiating signal from the line protection. The breaker is reclosed when the
recloser dead time delay has elapsed.
The extra high voltage transmission lines transmit huge amount of electric power. Hence, it is
always desirable that the continuation of power flow through the lines should not be interrupted
for long time. There may be temporary or permanent fault in the lines. Temporary faults are
automatically cleared and these do not require any attempt for fault rectification. It is normal
practice by the operators that after each initial faulty tripping of the line, they close the line. If
the fault is transient, the line holds after second attempt of closing the circuit breaker but if the
fault persists, the line is again tripped then it is declared as permanent fault.
But as the extra high voltage transmission lines carries huge power, if any delay occurs due to
manual operation for reclosing the circuit, there will be big loss of system in the view of cost and
stability. To avoid the unwanted delay due to human operation, auto reclosing scheme is
introducing in the extra high voltage transmission system. The faults in electrical transmission
system can be categorized in three ways,

1. Transient Fault
2. Semi-Permanent Fault
3. Permanent Fault
The transient faults are those which automatically removed momentarily. Semi-permanent
faults are also transient in nature but there take few moments to remove. Semi-permanent faults
may be occurred due to falling of twing on the live conductors. Semi-permanent faults are
removed after cause of faults is burnt away. During both of the above-mentioned faults, line is
tripped but the line can be restored if the circuit breakers associated with the line are closed.
Auto-recloser or auto-reclosing scheme exactly does this. In overhead transmission system, 80%
of the faults are transient and 12% of faults are semi-permanent in nature. In auto-reclosing
scheme if the fault is not cleared at first attempt, there will be double or triple shorts of reclosing
until the fault is cleared. It the fault persists; this scheme permanently opens the circuit breaker.
A prescribed time delay may be imposed in auto-reclosing system to permit the semi-permanent
fault to remove from the circuit.