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Assessment 1.
Comparisons Essay between Reggio Emilia and
Maria Montessori teaching methodologies.

Name: Mariam Juma.

ID: H00297920.
Course Code: EDU 2503.
Course Name: Theories of Teaching and Learning that impact the Preschool Curriculum.

Every education methodology has unique way that pushes the teaching up and
increases an opportunity for children to have that environment contribute to developing
their fundamental abilities. When I comparing between education mythology, there are
several questions comes in my mind, for instance, What the different of teacher and child
role in each mythology? What are the fundamental principles based on? What types of
assessment they used? How does the classroom environment arrange? What are the
advantage and disadvantage of applied education mythology with children? Those are the
important question that will deliver me to view those keys of each mythology.

This paper will provide a significant comparison between Reggio Emilia and Maria
Montessori methodologies, that includes keys I mention it above. Reggio Emilia is
approach created for early childhood education in Italy that consider every child is deep
curiosity and this innate curiosity drives them to understand their world (Consulting &
Solutions, 2016). Maria Montessori was an Italian educator and physician who created
her method based on the way of children naturally learn. (Linda, 2014, p. 29).

I will start my subject with important principles of Maria Montessori. She identifies
several principles that assist the child in developing their ability involved social, physical,
emotional and cognitive. She believes that there is a time when the child is ready to
acquire skills. For example, when the child doesn't sleep well and he is tired he may cant
develop his skills. Also, she thought that when we are mixing group age in classroom is
assist children in collaborating and learning from each other. For instance, when the older
and younger children are work together the youngest child will learn by observing the
older child. Additionally, Maria believes that the environment should be prepared with
appropriately sized of furniture and include self-corrective materials that encourage child
to work independently. For example, if the child play game and have the interacting
answer he has other chance, and he may play it again. She suggests creating the
environment that stimulates senses and learning children by prepared hand-on activity
that develop fine and motor skills when the child use his hand, figure, and arm.

Moreover, Maria claims that the child will have deep understanding if he had a
background about the topic. (Spielgaben, 2013).

After, that I will move to Reggio Emilia principles. Reggio Emilia approach is flexible
and stands out from children thoughts, creativity, discovery and their ideas. There are
Several fundamental principles of Reggio Emilia approach. Which includes, let a child
build his knowledge through exploring. For example, give the child an activity and let
him use his prior information to solve an activity and construct new ideas by discovery.
Also, Reggio approach believes the best method to let children learn is followed multiple
sensory methods which mean the activity that kids apple in classroom should contain all
senses. For example, children can touch the materials, can listen to the voices and can
speak with the partner. Also, in Reggio approach that considers document is necessary to
show a progress of children learning and thinking and documentation can provide many
different ways like taking photos, record videos when the children are sharing the idea
and talking, taking notes and observation. (Spielgaben, 2013).

When I set up the key principle of each approach, I see there are very similar in some
areas. For instance, The Reggio Emilia is likewise to Montessori how believes that
children should make their own meaning and knowledge by using their senses and
through exploration. In addition, The Reggio Emilia is same as Montessori in supported
sociable skills. Furthermore, both methodologies favor hands on activities. (Spielgaben,

After I terminated first part, I will interduce general history about Maria Montessori.
She was the first woman who receives a medical degree in Italy. She was born in the
provincial town of Chiaravalle, Italy at August 31, 1870. After she graduated in 1896
from medical school, she appointed in the Pedagogic School to the University of Roma as
a faculty of Natural Science and Medical at 1904. In 1907, she opened first Casa Del
Bambini (childrens house) in Roma. She died on May 6, 1952, in a friends garden.
(Group, 2017), (Linda, 2014, p. 29).

In this part, I will introduce brief history about a second mythology which is Reggio
Emilia. The Reggio Emilia idea is started in Italy, after World War II, by cooperative
movement from parent and members of educator who wish to have new world free from
oppression and rebuilding their lives and reconstructing their society. The person who
develops of Reggio Emilia approach was Loris Malaguzzi, who studied the work of
child-development specialists and pedologists. Also, he was a one who encourages early
childhood development. The involvement and role of parent and educator were the
essential elements of creative Reggio approach; they build their approach according to
responsibility, community through exploration and respect. (Consulting & Solutions,

Everybody influenced by someone idea thought or style, same as Maria Montessori

and Reggio Emilia who created their method from influence by other education theorists.
Consequently, I will introduce whose work has influenced them. Firstly, from searching
and reading I reflect that Maria create her method according to Piaget constructivism
theory that refer that human acquire knowledge by experience, explore and individual
constructivism theory based on two keys which are accommodation here where the child
uses existing schema while, assimilation here was child change or add new idea to his
background (McLeod, 2015). As well as Maria Montessori consider Piaget
constructivism theory as a necessary approach. According to Montessori curriculum
learning builds upon prior exposure, building deep understanding (Spielgaben, 2013).
That tells us, the child uses prior information to deal with object and test their hypothesis
by exploring.

After finished discussed who influenced Maria, I will transition to a theorist who
effects Reggio Emilia method. Through seeking of educational theorists whose work has
influenced Reggio Emilia approach, I found Reggio idea derives from Vygotsky Social
Influences on cognitive development theory which refers that are child is curious, they
want to know everything, and they make their own learning from what they discover
which called this pried schema. (McLeod, 2014). As well as Reggio considers
Vygotsky theory as important principles that they followed and apply it to children.

Additionally, Reggio derives social interaction from Vygotsky also, according to

Vygotsky much meaningful learning by the child occurs through social interaction with
a skillful tutor (McLeod, 2014). Which is reflect that cooperative dialogue assist child to
have clear understanding provide from teacher instructions. As same as Reggio citation
this method in his principles by encouraging children to work together and collaborate
with each other. (Spielgaben, 2013).

When I made the last point, am going to comparisons in several areas which include,
the role of teacher, the role of child, role of community, curriculum structure, an
organization of environment and types of assessment in each Montessori and Riggio
mythology. Firstly, I will start with the similarity of teaching role in both of approach.
Just like the teacher role in Montessori school, the Riggio teacher provides opportunity
for the student to communicate with other students by letting them work in groups and
give them time to discuss and share ideas. Also, both teachers are encouraging children to
explore, solve problems and test their hypothesis. For instance, they give kids activity and
let them solve it by use their background to make their own meaning. Furthermore, the
Montessori teacher is likewise to Riggio school teachers in observe children thinking the
process by watching them applying the activity and identify the ways that helps child to
avoid their weakness. Also, both of teachers prepared a safe and quiet environment with
rich materials to develop children skills. (Flavin, 2016).

While the varies between teacher role in each of Montessori and Riggio school. One
of the different roles is Riggio teacher document children learning process by several
different methods. Whereas, Montessori teacher uses observation than document. Also,
Riggio teacher involved parent as a part of children learns by share children learning
decimation with their parent to assist their skills at home. Different from Montessori role
how doesnt involve parent. Moreover, Montessori teacher identifies each child learning
style and she creates individual lesson plans according to child learning style. In contrast,
Riggio school teacher creates lesson plan for all student in class because they follow
calibration approach. (Flavin, 2016).

Secondly, comparisons child role in each mythology is coming; next, I will start with
view summarily roles of children in Montessori and Riggio school. Montessori child role
same as Reggio Emilia in collaborating with other students, create their own underrating
by discovery, use their senses through activity, develop skills and interact with
environment surrounding them.

Moving to differences of child roles in both method, in Montessori school children are
show respect, comfortable and self-responsibility. For example, children they wash their
hand if its dirty, they know how to prepare food for them self. However, the role of
Reggio child is to be a part of long term project.

Thirdly, I will view community role in both methods. I will interduce the similarity
before, both of Reggio Emilia and Montessori school, support children to have
connection between child and surrounding. For example, child is using materials are
available in the classroom to discover the world. Community role of both schools is
encouraging sociability by allowing children to work together in the group activity.
(Spielgaben, 2013). Moreover, the Reggio Emilia like to Montessori in the way to
supported children to make their own decisions. For example, in Montessori school chose
the activity they interest in, and in Reggio, students express their own creativity in art
activities. (Montessori and Classroom, 2017). Furthermore, in both community provide
exercise that allows children to adapt to the culture around them and prepare children to
behave well in the social situation. For example, in role- play area children learn how to
say, excuse me, Please and thank you also, learn how to help other.

The different areas are, in Monastir classroom communication occur by involves the
parent in teaching plan. As opposed to Riggio, the Monastir community happens when
the older children work and explain to the younger student. (Spielgaben, 2013).

Fourthly, when am finished talk about community roles, I will transition to next part of
comparisons physical environment for Montessori and Riggio classroom. The similar
things include several aspects, for instance, the Reggio Emilia is similar to Montessori
who has comfortable environment, quiet organize, warm and aesthetically pleasing by
pictures hang on the wall and brightly colors. Furthermore, both are designing with
spaces for different size group of children. For example, children can work alone, work
with partner or with groups. (MUIRHEAD, 2017).

The different of both classrooms are, in Reggio classroom, there is space of children
documentation. For instant, there is a bored with picture children work and their papers.
In contrast, there is no document area in the Montessori classroom. Moreover,
Montessori preschool room feature low Charis, table, reachable shelves consequently, it
allows children to play without asking for an adults help. On the other hand, in Reggio
classroom, the feature doesnt work in child level so, they ask for help. Furthermore, In
Reggio classroom, children learn directly from surrounding environment. For example,
its set up to assist children in reflecting their culture through seeing samples of
traditional dress. In contrast, children in Montessori physical environment learn directly
from self-corrective materials. For example, if the child plays with puzzle and he had
incorrect try he can try again and correct the mistake. (MUIRHEAD, 2017).

Fifthly, I will compare the Reggio Emilia and Montessori curriculum, in the first part,
I will identify similar approach while in the second part I will discuss the variation of
both approaches. Same as Reggio Emilia the Montessori curriculum suggests that
children have success learning when they are using their senses to make their own
meaning through exploration in hand-on activities. In addition, both of curriculum
support social aspect by prepared group work activities and give opportunity to children
to discuss with group members. (MUIRHEAD, 2017).

The difference between two of those curriculum is in Montessori curriculum there are
main areas that support children social and personal development, the areas are science,
math, language, education of the senses also practical skill that involved care of
environment, care for other in community and care of individual, each area support

children in fundamental skills, for instance, in language area children will develop
writing, riding, self- expression by socially with other friends. However, there is no
particular area in Reggio curriculum. Moreover, Reggio curriculum followed mix of
long- and short-term projects method, for example, teacher can teach the same topic for
two weeks until the children get the idea and develop their thinking prosecco by solving
problems. Different from Montessori curriculum. (MUIRHEAD, 2017). (Spielgaben,

Moreover, after complemented completion curriculum part, I will move to

comparisons of assessment types in Reggio Emilia and Montessori methods. The
resemblance of assessment way is, the Reggio Emilia is like Montessori way, evaluations
are apples by observed children develop skills and thinking process. Moreover, both of
schools are not assessments by taken testing and grading students. (MUIRHEAD, 2017).

The variation is Reggio Emilia is followed documentation approach as an evaluation.

For example, the teacher document children learning by different visual methods such as
audio, writing notes or taking photos. In contrast, Montessori schools who dont
assessment by document children learning. (MUIRHEAD, 2017).

After accomplishment comparisons part, I will discuss the advantage and

disadvantage of Montessori mythology. Firstly, the main benefit of the Montessori
approach is involved different ages in the classroom because it supports children social
skill when the older child explains and help younger student consequently, they will build
a relationship. Furthermore, Montessori curriculum accommodation designed the lesson
that fulfills to child learning style. For example, if the child visual learner the teacher
papered visual lesson that includes pictures, videos, and materials for him. Also, there is
no motivation come as awards or grades Instead of taking natural inner-drive of
exploration, which encourage the child to love to learn and make them curiosity love to
learn. Moreover, a Montessori approach followed Piaget method learning by doing
which is successful way to develops children grass and fine motor skills through they are
using their senses. (Pros and Cons, 2017).

Secondly, Montessori education has a great approach for childhood period because its
created to develop children needs, but it is not without its critics. The main disadvantage
points of Montessori approach are the teacher may have issues to make individual plan
for each child because as I said each child has unique individual way to learn so, the
teacher will need more time to identify each child learning style. In addition, the child
maybe faces a difficulty if he transitions to traditional school later because there each of
them has the different approach. For example, in Montessori school children learn by
learning by doing approach so, they learn by themselves while in traditional school the
child learns by memorizing, and test so, the child may cant adapt with traditional school
approach. (Pros and Cons, 2017).

Now, I will move to Advantage and Disadvantage of Reggio Emilia methodology. All
education approach has advantage and disadvantage sides for both of students and
teacher, and Reggio Emilia is no different. The advantage areas are documentation that
means the Reggio teachers collect students work and information which assists the
teacher in gathering information about child ideas and the thinking and development
process. Other strengths are Reggio curriculum apple long- and short-term projects which
are mean project can go for weeks or month it doesn't matter the aim of it provides
students with deep understanding by letting children solve the problem, thinking, test
their knowledge and exploration. In addition, it allows children to express their creativity
through art activities by giving them freedom. (Spielgaben, 2016).

The disadvantage of Reggio Emilia refers that teacher sometime doesnt know how to
apple Reggio approach with children because its not formative model so, there is no
steps can teacher followed. Also, its can be a disadvantage for a parent how want to see
daily result of children works, because there is no homework sending home. (Spielgaben,

To summarize, it can see that Reggio Emilia and Montessori methodology has almost
similar aspect. They are likewise in role of teacher because both are prepared a higher
environment with useful materials. Also, the same in the role of child because they
believe that child create his understating by discovering. Moreover, they similarly in role
of environment because they thought the environment assist child in exploring
surrounding and understanding the world by interacting with environment. Furthermore,
they analogous in the curriculum because their approach biased in assistance children to
discover by use background. On the other hand, they are totally opposed in assessment
method because in Riggio they use documentation, however, Montessori approach use

Reggio Emilia and Montessori methodology are apple hand-on activities that assist
child to learn and develop their skills. Such as fine and gross motor skill when they use
their finger and hand, social skill when they discuss and share idea with partner and
cognitive ability when they are thinking and use their prior information to solve activities.
According to Ministry of Education (MOE), he also, believe that school should prepare
activities to help student with acquiring skills in higher education that tell us hand on
approach is the best way. (Education, 2010). Additionally, Ministry of Education agrees
with both methods to have success environment with higher tool that meet children need
and motivate them to explore the surroundings. (Education, 2010).

In my view, both of methodology is useful for children because it assists children to

acquire the concept by "learning by doing" instead of rote memorization.


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