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Microfluidic CFD Simulation

1. Geometry Drawing
The first step of CFD simulation is drawing the geometry, the geometry as seen on Figure
1. In this case, the blood plasma is separated at the separation zone. Then the separation
zone wasnt included on the geometry for simulation.

3 mm

1 mm

2 mm

2 mm
1 mm

Figure 1. Geometry

2. Meshing
The next step is meshing which is dividing the geometry into small elements. The all
triangles and sizing element method are used in this meshing. The element size is 20 m.
The skewness value in this simulation is 0.32 which is categorized as very good (Figure
2). The inlet and outlet are defined as seen on Figure 3.

Figure 2. Meshing quality based on skewness value (ANSYS UK Ltd., 2009)

Figure3. Inlet (red line) and Outlet (blue line)

Figure 4. Meshing Preview

3. Processing
The first thing to do before processing is determining the viscous model using Reynold
Number (Re). The flow is defined as laminar if the Re value less than 3 and turbulent if the
Re value more than 3 (Ergun, 1952). The Re is determined using equation below:
Dp v
Re

1025kg m 3 1x10 6 m 6,75 x10 5 m s 1
Re
0,0016kg m 1 s 1
Re 4,32 x105
Based on the the Re value above, then the viscous model modeled is laminar. After determine the
viscous model, define the material (in this case is blood plasma). Viscosity and density value of
blood plasma was needed to define the blood plasma material on CFD software. In this case the
viscosity of blood plasma is 0.00165 kgm-1s-1 and 1025 kgm-3 for blood plasma density. Because
the heat transfer was neglected, then the solid material was not defined.
Then define the cell zone conditions as a porous zone and input the porosity (), viscous resistance
(-1), and inertial resistance (C2) which has been defined using equation below:
Pore Diamter Surface Area

Pore Volume
9
2,1x10 m 11,8m 2 gr 1
0,708
0,035 x10 6 m 3 gr 1
150 (1 ) 2
1
D p2 3
150 (1 0,703) 2
1 6 2
3
3,603x1013 m 2
(1x10 ) 0,703
3,5 1
C2
Dp 3
3,5 1 0,703
C2 2879725,708m 1
1x10 6 0,70353
Then, input the velocity as a boundary conditions, the velocity value is 6,75x10-5 m.s-1. Then run
the simulation until converged to get velocity contour, pressure contour, and velocity profile on
graph.

4. Result

Figure 5. Dynamic Pressure Contour

Figure 5 shows there is significant pressure drop change on the branch, it shown by the
color change from light blue into blue. This phenomena caused by cross sectional area
change, this confirmed by Darcy and Kozeny-Carman Law. Pressure drop change cause
velocity drop as seen on Figure 6.

5. Step by step on ANSYS

Design on Design Modeler
This simulation is using Fluid Flow (Fluent). The first, the geometry of the device must
be finished on menu which is shown by red arrow.

Figure 7. Workbench to Draw The Geometry

In this case, the device is reputed as 2 dimensional geometry. So, it only use XYPlane.
The geometry of the device is made on sketching part, as the Figure below.

Figure 8. Design Modeler of ANSYS

It can be started by drawing the neck of the device then the cross sectional areas. This
step is done by determine the shape, size, and dimension as same as the reality, as
shown in Figure 1.

Meshing
After finished the geometry, the next step is meshing. Meshing menu can be found in
Workbench ANSYS like Figure 9 (see red arrow).

Figure 9. Workbench for Meshing

This meshing is using All Triangles Method and Body Sizing. Firtsly, the geometry
that has been made must be selected. Then, details of geometry must be set as needed,
like length unit (in this case is using micrometers), sizing of mesh, etc. This meshing
is using fine Relevance Center to get the best result of the mesh. The element size of
the mesh is 20 m. The skewness value in this simulation is 0.32 which is categorized
as very good.

Determine The Propertises of Fluid

The next step is determining the fluid propertise like viscous, viscousity, velocity, etc,
by using menu Setup on Workbench, as shown this figure below.

Figure 11. Workbench for Setup

In this step, the setup propertises is filled as same as reality by experiment. This
simulation is using type Pressure-Based, absolute Velocity Formulation, and the
time is reputed to be steady, as Figure 12.

Figure 12. General Setup

Based on the calculation of Reynold Number, has been gotten the Re value is
4,32 x10 5 . So, the viscous is laminar.

Figure 13. Models Setup

The next step is determining the fixed materials. This experiment using blood-plasma
which has 1025 kg/m3 for its density and 0,00016 kg/ms for its velocity. Those value
is input at the column propertise, as this figure below. Because the heat transfer was
neglected, then the solid material iss not defined.
Figure 13. Input Material Propertise.
Then, the value of porosity and inertial resistance at Setup-Materials-Fluid as the values
hav been calculated before.

Figure 14. Porous Zone Propertise

After fill all the setup, then the simulation can be run. It will show the result of contour
dynamic pressure and velocity magnitude.