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ECLIPSE TUTORIAL 1

(3D 2-Phase)

A Prepare an input data file for simulating the performance of a two-phase (water/oil) reservoir.
The model will have a regular shape, with two wells at opposite corners to simulate
production in a quarter five-spot pattern.

GRIDDING AND ROCK DATA (GRID)

The 3D section of reservoir being modelled has dimensions 2500' x 2500' x 150', and it is
divided into three layers of equal thickness. The number of cells in the x and y directions are
5 and 5 respectively. Other relevant data are given below, using field units throughout:

Depth of reservoir top: 8000 ft


Porosity: 0.20

Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3


Permeability in x direction: 200 mD 1000 mD 200 mD
Permeability in y direction: 150 mD 800 mD 150 mD
Permeability in z direction: 20 mD 100 mD 20 mD

1 2 3 4 5

500 50
500 50
500 50
500
1
500
2
1
3
2
4
3
5

500 500 500 500 500

Figure 1: Schematic of model.

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FLUID PVT AND FLUID-ROCK INTERACTION PROPERTIES (PROPS)

Water and Oil Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Functions

Water Saturation krw kro Pcow


(psi)
-- table 1 for 1000mD
0.15* 0.0 0.9 4.0
0.45 0.2 0.3 0.8
0.68 0.4 0.1 0.2
0.8 0.55 0.0 0.1

-- table 2 for 200mD


0.25* 0.0 0.9 9.0
0.5 0.2 0.3 1.8
0.7 0.4 0.1 0.45
0.8 0.55 0.0 0.22
* Initial saturation throughout layer.

Water PVT Data at Reservoir Pressure and Temperature

Pressure Bw cw w
(psia) (rb/stb) (psi-1) (cp)
4500 1.02 3.0E-06 0.8

Oil PVT Data, Bubble Point Pressure (Pb) = 300 psia

Pressure Bo Viscosity
(psia) (rb/stb) (cp)
300 1.25 1.0
800 1.20 1.1
6000 1.15 2.0

Rock compressibility at 4500 psia: 4E-06 psi-1


Oil density at surface conditions: 49 lbs/cf
Water density at surface conditions: 63 lbs/cf

INITIAL CONDITIONS (SOLUTION)

Initial pressure at 8075': 4500 psia

The oil-water contact is below the reservoir (8,500 ft), with zero capillary pressure at the
contact.

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WELLS AND PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (SCHEDULE)

Drill two wells:


producer PROD, belonging to group G1, in Block No. (1, 1)
injector INJ, belonging to group G2, in Block No. (5, 5)

The inside diameter of the wells is 8".


Perforate both the producer and the injector in all three layers.
The datum depth for pressure measurements during production is 8,000 ft i.e. the pressure
gauge is located just above the top of the completion.

Produce at the gross rate of 10,000 stb liquid/day with a minimum bottom hole pressure limit
of 2,000 psia

Inject 11,000 stb water/day with a maximum bottom hole pressure limit of 6,000 psia.

Start the simulation on 1st January 2010, and use 10 time steps of 200 days each.

OUTPUT (SUMMARY, GRID & SCHEDULE)

Ask the program to output the following data:

Initial permeability, porosity and depth data (keyword INIT in GRID section)

Initial grid block pressures and water saturations into a RESTART file (keyword RPTRST
in SOLUTION section set BASIC=2 to give basic dynamic output at t = 0)

Field Average Pressure (FPR) Bottom Hole Pressure for both wells (WBHP)
Field Oil Production Rate (FOPR) Field Water Production Rate (FWPR)
Total Field Oil Production (FOPT) Total Field Water Production (FWPT)
Well Water Cut for PROD (WWCT) CPU usage (TCPU)
to a separate Excel readable file (using keyword EXCEL) in the SUMMARY section.

Grid block pressures and water saturations into RESTART files at each report step of the
simulation (keyword RPTRST in SCHEDULE section again set BASIC=2 to give basic
dynamic output at each TSTEP)

PROCEDURE

1 Edit file TUT1A.DATA in folder \eclipse\tut1 by opening it in RE Studio or in Notepad,


fill in the necessary data, and save the file. (Make sure the file ending is .DATA and not
.txt)

2 If using RE Studio check the file. If using Notepad, activate the ECLIPSE Launcher from
the Desktop or the Start menu.

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3 Run ECLIPSE and use the TUT1A dataset.

4 When the simulation has finished, use RE Studio, or ECLIPSE Office -> Results and
menu File -> Open -> SUMMARY -> All Vectors, or use MS Excel to open the output
file TUT1A.RSM, which will be in the \eclipse\tut1 folder.

5 Plot the BHP of both wells (WBHP) vs. time and the field average pressure (FPR) vs.
time on Figure 1.

6 Plot the water cut (WWCT) of the well PROD and the field oil production rate (FOPR)
vs. time on Figure 2.

7 Plot on Figure 3 the BHP values for the first 10 days in the range 3,500 psia to 5,500 psia.

Explain the initial short-term rise in BHP in the injection well and drop in BHP in the
production well. Account for the subsequent trends of these two pressures and of the
field average pressure, relating these to the reservoir production and injection rates, water
cut and the PVT data of the reservoir fluids.

B Make a copy of the file TUT1A.DATA called TUT1B.DATA in the same folder tut1.

By modifying the keyword TSTEP change the time steps to the following:
15*200

Modify the WCONINJ keyword to operate the injection well at a constant flowing bottom
hole pressure (BHP) of 5000 psia, instead of injecting at a constant 11,000 stb water/day
(RATE) i.e. delete reference to 11000 and replace with 1*.

Add field volume production rate (FVPR) to the items already listed in the SUMMARY
section.

Run Eclipse using the TUT1B.DATA file, and then plot the two following pictures:

Figure 4: both well bottom hole pressures and field average pressure vs. time, showing
pressures in the range 3,700 psia to 5,100 psia
Figure 5: field water cut and field volume production rate vs. time

Account for the differences between the pressure profiles in this problem and Tutorial 1A.
To assist with the interpretation, calculate total mobility as a function of water saturation for
the 4 saturation points given, using:

kro(Sw) krw(Sw)
MTOT(Sw) = +
o w

and show how this would change the differential pressure across the reservoir as the water
saturation throughout the reservoir increases. From Figure 5, explain the impact of the
WWCT profile (fraction) on the FVPR (rb/day).

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C Copy file TUT1B.DATA to TUT1C.DATA in the same folder.

This time, instead of injecting at a constant flowing bottom hole pressure of 5000 psi, let the
simulator calculate the injection rate such that the reservoir voidage created by oil and water
production is replaced by injected water. To do this, modify the control mode for the
injection well (keyword WCONINJ) from BHP to reservoir rate (RESV), and use the voidage
replacement flag (FVDG) in item 8. Set the upper limit on the bottom hole pressure for the
injection well to 8,000 psia again.

Note the definitions given in the manual for item 8 of the WCONINJ keyword. Based on the
definition for voidage replacement,
reservoir volume injection rate = item 6 + (item 7 * field voidage rate)

Therefore, to inject the same volume of liquid as has been produced, set
item 6 to 0, and
item 7 to 1.

Run Eclipse using the TUT1C.DATA file, and then run Floviz, Kraken or Petrel, to display
the grid cell oil saturations (these displays need NOT be printed).

Discuss the profile of the saturation front in each layer, and explain how it is affected by
gravity and the distribution of flow speeds between the wells.

SENSITIVITIES
For the sensitivity calculations try variations of +/- 10% from the base case (TUT1A), and
use a spider diagram to plot the results.

(i) Long-term behaviour (0-2000 days): Assess impact of varying oil formation volume
factor (Bo) and separately, the injection rate on field average pressure (FPR)

Short-term behaviour (0-10 days): Assess impact of varying absolute permeability


and separately the porosity on bottom hole pressure response (WBHP) in either of the
wells.

(ii) Mobility effects: What happens to the pressure differential between the wells when
you use straight line rel perms (by deleting rows in SWOF keyword containing
saturation points 0.5 and 0.7? What if you then change the values of the relative
permeability endpoints (initially Krw = 0.55 and Kro=0.9)?

(iii) Study impact of oil density and total flow rate across field on flow distribution in field.

D Copy file TUT1A.DATA to TUT1D.DATA in the same folder.

The data file should be adapted to include the following features:


Porosities varying according to layer (PORO in the GRID section)
NTG varying according to layer (NTG in the GRID section)
Water saturations that can go up to Sw=1 should there be an oil-water contact
introduced into the model

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To implement these, replace the entire GRID section with the following:
--================================================================
GRID

EQUALS
-- Keyword value X1 X2 Y1 Y2 Z1 Z2
DX 500 1 5 1 5 1 3 / whole model
DY 500 / same as above
DZ 50 / same as above

TOPS 8000 1 5 1 5 1 1 / grid layer 1

PERMX 200 1 5 1 5 1 1 / geological layer 1


PERMY 150 /
PERMZ 20 /
PORO 0.19 /
NTG 0.95 /

PERMX 1000 1 5 1 5 2 2 / geological 2


PERMY 800 /
PERMZ 100 /
PORO 0.20 /
NTG 0.99 /

PERMX 200 1 5 1 5 3 3 / geological 3


PERMY 150 /
PERMZ 20 /
PORO 0.19 /
NTG 0.95 /

-- Output file with geometry and rock properties (.INIT)


INIT

and replace the old SWOF tables with


-- Water and oil rel perms & capillary pressures
-- Sw Krw Kro Pc
-- ----- ----- --- ----
SWOF
-- table 1 for 1000mD
0.15 0.0 0.9 4.0
0.45 0.2 0.3 0.8
0.68 0.4 0.1 0.2
0.8 0.55 0.0 0.1
1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 /
-- table 2 for 200mD
0.25 0.0 0.9 9.0
0.5 0.2 0.3 1.8
0.7 0.4 0.1 0.45
0.8 0.55 0.0 0.22
1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 /

Run the model in ECLIPSE, visualise the grid in Floviz, Kraken or Petrel, and plot the same
properties as in TUT1A. The purpose of this part of the exercise is to familiarise you with
some features of ECLIPSE that you will find useful later. No in depth analysis of results is
required for part D, but it will be used as a starting point for Tutorial 2.

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