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FUNDAMENTALS OF BTEC HND in

DRAWINGS & Quantity Surveying


and Construction
Economics

SURVEYING
Study and Practice on Fundamental
Drawing and Surveying
Fundamental of Drawing & Surveying

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to lecturer Ms. H.G.P.Indira who gave
me the golden opportunity to do this assignment on the title Fundamental of Drawing &
Surveying, which also helped me in doing a lot of research and I came to know about so
many new things, I am really thankful to her.

Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in preparing
this assignment and succeeding it.

Thanks to all

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Fundamental of Drawing & Surveying

TABLE OF CONTENT

INRODUCTION PAGE 03

TASK 02

2.1 PAGE 04

2.2 PAGE 08

TASK 03

3.1 PAGE 11

3.4 PAGE 14

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INTRODUCTION
Surveying supports all construction activity and infrastructure engineering in urban and rural
environments, as well as mapping and monitoring the natural environment. The services of
professional surveyors include; defining land boundaries, engineering and mining surveying,
offshore surveys, digital mapping, precise positioning and property development. Registered
surveyors are the only professionals who can redefine land boundaries.

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Fundamental of Drawing & Surveying

2.1 EVALUATE A RANGE OF LAND SURVEYING INSTRUMENS FOR


THEODOLITE TRAVERSE AND LEVELING WORK

What is Surveying?

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the
terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them.
A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor.

The Purpose of Surveying?

Engineering surveying is a general term that covers any survey work carried out in
connection with the construction of an engineering project, such as a road, a building, a
bridge etc. The main purposes are listed below.

To produce up-to-date Engineering Plans of the areas in which the work will be
carried out. These plans form the basis for the design of the construction, and so the
reliability of the design depends heavily on the attention to detail with which the
survey is carried out.
To determine the required areas and volumes of land and materials needed during
construction.
To ensure that the construction takes place in the correct relative and absolute position
on the ground.
To record the final position of the construction, including any design changes.
To provide permanent control points from which particularly important projects can
be surveyed - such as regular monitoring a construction to check for movement.

What is Traverse?

Traverse is a continuous series of lines called courses whose lengths have been determined by
field measurements. Traverse can be open or closed. Open traverse end without closure. Open
traverse are used on route surveys, but are to be avoided, if possible, because they cannot be
properly checked. With open traverse measurements should be repeated to guard against
mistakes.

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Theodolite

A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical
planes. Theodolites are used mainly for surveying applications, and have been adapted for
specialized purposes in fields like metrology and rocket launch technology. A modern
theodolite consists of a movable telescope mounted within two perpendicular axes the
horizontal or trunnion axis, and the vertical axis. When the telescope is pointed at a target
object, the angle of each of these axes can be measured with great precision.

Classification of Theodolites

Transit Theodolite.
Non Transit Theodolite.
Vernier Theodolites.
Micrometer Theodolites

Uses of Theodolite

The theodolite is a versatile instrument and is commonly used for the following tasks.
a) Measurement of horizontal angles
b) Measurement of vertical angles
c) Setting out horizontal angles

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d) Ranging
e) Leveling
f) Optical distance measurement
g) Controlling verticality

Leveling Instrument

A leveling instrument is an optical instrument used to establish or verify points in the same
horizontal plane. It is used in surveying and building with a vertical staff to measure height
differences and to transfer, measure and set heights.

Various types of Leveling Instruments

Dumpy level
Y-level
Modern Tilting level
Automatic level

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The leveling instruments essentially consist of the following:


A leveling head with three foot screws which enables to bring the bubble at its centre.

Telescope that provides line of sight to bisect distinct objects.

A bubble tube to make the line of sight horizontal either mounted on top or side of the

telescope.

A tripod for supporting the leveling instrument.

Important Definitions in Leveling;


Line of Collimation or line of sight - The line joining the point of intersection of the
cross wires of the diaphragm to the optical centre of the objective and its imaginary
continuation.
Reduced Level - The vertical distance measured above or below the mean sea level
or benchmark is called as reduced level.
Benchmark - It is a permanent reference point whose elevations or reduced levels are
known. All the leveling operations start from benchmark.
Backsight reading - The reading taken by levelling instrument on a levelling staff
held on a point whose elevation is known. It is very first reading taken on the
benchmark after setting up the instrument.
Fore sight reading - The reading taken on the point whose elevation is to be found
out. It is the last reading before shifting the instrument.
Intermediate sight - Any other staff reading taken on a point of unknown elevation
from the same setup of the instrument. All sights which are taken between back-sight
or fore-sight or intermediate sight.
Change point - It is a point on which fore-sights and back-sight are taken.

Comparison of Theodolite and Leveling instrument

In leveling instrument we can check only horizontal angles whereas in theodolite we can
check vertical angles also leveling instruments are more suited to measure elevations, and a
theodolite is more suited for angles, horizontal and vertical, but a theodolite will do both with
accuracy.

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2.2 COMPLETE ALL TEMPORARY ADJUSTMENTS USING THE


THEODOLITE TRAVERSE AND LEVELLING WORK SURVEYING
TASK(S)

Temporary Adjustments for Levelling instrument

The temporary adjustment of a Levelling instrument consists of Setting, Leveling and


Focusing.

Setting

During Setting, the tripod stand is set up at a convenient height having its head horizontal
(through eye estimation). The instrument is then fixed on the head by rotating the lower part
of the instrument with right hand and holding firmly the upper part with left hand. Before
fixing, the leveling screws are required to be brought in between the tribrach and trivet. The
bull's eye bubble (circular bubble), if present, is then brought to the centre by adjusting the
tripod legs.

Next, Leveling of the instrument is done to make the vertical axis of the instrument truly
vertical. It is achieved by carrying out the following steps:

Step 1: The level tube is brought parallel to any two of the foot screws, by rotating the
upper part of the instrument.
Step 2: The bubble is brought to the centre of the level tube by rotating both the foot
screws either inward or outward. (The bubble moves in the same direction as the left
thumb.)
Step 3: The level tube is then brought over the third foot screw again by rotating the
upper part of the instrument.
Step 4: The bubble is then again brought to the centre of the level tube by rotating the
third foot screw either inward or outward.
Step 5: Repeat Step 1 by rotating the upper part of the instrument in the same
quadrant of the circle and then Step 2.
Step 6: Repeat Step 3 by rotating the upper part of the instrument in the same
quadrant of the circle and then Step 4.
Step 7: Repeat Steps 5 and 6, till the bubble remains central in both the positions.
Step 8: By rotating the upper part of the instrument through 180 , the level tube is
brought parallel to first two foot screws in reverse order. The bubble will remain in
the centre if the instrument is in permanent adjustment.

Focusing is required to be done in order to form image through objective lens at the plane of
the diaphragm and to view the clear image of the object through eye-piece. This is being
carried out by removing parallax by proper focusing of objective and eye-piece. For focusing
the eye-piece, the telescope is first pointed towards the sky. Then the ring of eye-piece is
turned either in or out until the cross-hairs are seen sharp and distinct. Focusing of eye-piece

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depends on the vision of observer and thus required whenever there is a change in observer.
For focusing the objective, the telescope is first pointed towards the object. Then, the
focusing screw is turned until the image of the object appears clear and sharp and there is no
relative movement between the image and the cross-hairs. This is required to be done before
taking any observation.

Temporary Adjustments for Theodolite

Temporary adjustments are set of operations which are required to be done on an instrument
(theodolite) in order to make it ready for taking observations. Temporary adjustments of
theodolite include its setting up, centering, leveling up and elimination of parallax. Therefore
these adjustments can be achieved in 4 steps:-

Setting
Centering
Levelling
Focusing

Setting

The setting operation includes fixing the theodolite with tripod along with approximate
levelling and centering over the station mark. For setting up the instrument, the tripod is
placed over the station with its legs widely spread so that the centre of the tripod head lies
above the station point and its head approximately level (by eye estimation). The instrument
is then fixed with the tripod by screwing through trivet. The height of the instrument should
be such that observer can see through telescope conveniently. After this, a plumb bob is
suspended from the bottom of the instrument and it should be such that plumb bob should
point near to the station mark.

Centering

Centering implies that bringing vertical axis of theodolite immediately over station mark. To
do this the following procedure is followed:-

First, the approximate centring of the instrument is done by moving the tripod legs radially or
circumferentially as per need of the circumstances.

It may be noted that due to radial movement of the legs, plumb bob gets shifted in the
direction of the movement of the leg without seriously affecting the level of the instrument.
On the other hand, when the legs are moved sideways or circumferentially, the plumb does
not shift much but the level gets affected. Sometimes, the instrument and the tripod have to
be moved bodily for centring. It must be noted that the centering and leveling of instrument is
done recursively. Finally, exact centring is done by using the shifting head of the instrument.
During this, first the screw-clamping ring of the shifting head is loosened and the upper plate
of the shifting head is slid over the lower one until the plumb bob is exactly over the station
mark. After the exact centring, the screw clamping ring gets tightened.

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Levelling

Leveling of an instrument is done to make the vertical axis of the instrument truly vertical.
For accurate levelling the following steps are strictly followed:-

1. Bring one of the level tube parallel to any two of the foot screws, by rotating the
upper part of the instrument.
2. The bubble is brought to the centre of the level tube by rotating both the foot screws
either inward or outward. The bubble moves in the same direction as the left thumb.
3. The bubble of the other level tube is then brought to the centre of the level tube by
rotating the third foot screw either inward or outward. [In step 1 itself, the other plate
level will be parallel to the line joining the third foot screw and the centre of the line
joining the previous two foot screws.]
4. Repeat Step 02 and step 03 in the same quadrant till both the bubble remain central.
5. By rotating the upper part of the instrument through 180, the level tube is brought
parallel to first two foot screws in reverse order. The bubble will remain in the centre
if the instrument is in permanent adjustment.

Otherwise, repeat the whole process starting from step 01 to step 05.

Focusing

To obtain the clear reading, the image formed by the objective lens should fall in the plane of
diaphragm and the focus of eye-piece should also be at the plane of diaphragm. This is being
carried out by removing parallax by proper focusing of objective and eye-piece. Thus,
focusing operation involves two steps:

Focusing of eye-piece

For focusing of the eye piece, point the telescope to the sky or hold a piece of white paper in
front of telescope. Move the eye-piece in and out until a distinct sharp black image of the
cross-hairs is seen. This confirms proper focusing.

Focusing of object glass

It is done for each independent observation to bring the image of the object in the plane of
cross hairs. It includes following steps of operation: First, direct the telescope towards the
object for observation. Next, turn the focusing screw until the image of the object appears
clear and sharp as the observer looks through properly focused eye-piece. If focusing has
been done properly, there will be no parallax i.e., there will be no apparent movement of the
image relative to the cross hairs if the observer moves his eye from one side to the other or
from top to bottom.

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3.1 EVALUATE THE FIELD SURVEY METHOD IN TERMS OF


ACCURACIES OBTAINED FOR THEODOLITE TRAVERSE AND
LEVELLING WORK

POINT OBSERVED CORRECTED LENGTH WHOLE CIRCLE


ANGLE ANGLE BEARING
A 80 20 20 80 21 30 18.81 178 29 49
B 110 44 40 110 45 50 30.50 109 15 39
C 85 19 20 85 20 30 16.30 14 36 09
D 266 21 40 266 22 50 13.16 100 58 59
E 91 34 00 91 35 10 9.08 12 34 09
F 85 33 00 85 34 10 49.64 278 08 19

Total Observed Angle = 719 53 00

(6 2) 180 = 720

= 719 59 60

719 59 60 719 53 00 = 6 60 (Maximum allowed error is 3 minutes but the error occurred for
this field work is 6 minutes and 60 seconds)

Each Point has to be distributed with 01 minute 10 seconds (add)

This error can be occurred for 03 reasons (06 min 60sec)

1. Instrumental error: Surveying error may arise due to imperfection or faulty adjustment of
the instrument with which measurement is being taken. For example, a tape may be too long
or an angle measuring instrument may be out of adjustment. Such errors are known as
instrumental errors.

2. Human error: Error may also arise due to want of perfection of human sight in observing
and of touch in manipulating instruments. For example, an error may be there in taking the
level reading or reading and angle on the circle of a theodolite. Such errors are known as
personal errors.

3. Weather condition: Error in surveying may also be due to variations in natural


phenomena such as temperature, humidity, gravity, wind, refraction and magnetic
declination. If they are not properly observed while taking measurements, the results will be
incorrect. For example, a tape may be 20 meters at 200C but its length will change if the field
temperature is different.

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LINE INCLUDED FOREWORD BACKWARD WHOLE CIRLCE


ANGLE BEARING BEARING BEARING
AB 80 21 30 178 29 49 358 29 49 178 29 49
BC 110 45 50 109 15 39 289 15 39 109 15 39
CD 85 20 30 14 36 09 194 36 09 14 36 09
DE 266 22 50 100 58 59 280 58 59 100 58 59
EF 91 35 10 12 34 09 192 34 09 12 34 09
FA 85 34 10 278 08 19 98 08 19 278 08 19

Note* The North is taken as Birth date (98 08 19)

Calculation of Latitude and Departure

POINT LENGTH WHOLE LATITUDE LATITUDE


CIRCLE CALCULATION
BEARING
AB 18.81 178 29 49 18.81 X COS -18.80
178 29 49
BC 30.50 109 15 39 30.50 X COS -10.06
109 15 39
CD 16.30 14 36 09 16.30 X COS 15.77
14 36 09
DE 13.16 100 58 59 13.16 X COS -2.51
100 58 59
EF 9.08 12 34 09 9.08 X COS 8.86
12 34 09
FA 49.64 278 08 19 49.64 X COS 7.03
278 08 19

POINT LENGTH WHOLE DEPARTURE DEPARTURE


CIRCLE CALCULATION
BEARING
AB 18.81 178 29 49 18.81 X SIN 0.49
178 29 49
BC 30.50 109 15 39 30.50 X SIN 28.79
109 15 39
CD 16.30 14 36 09 16.30 X SIN 4.11
14 36 09
DE 13.16 100 58 59 13.16 X SIN 12.92
100 58 59
EF 9.08 12 34 09 9.08 X SIN 1.98
12 34 09
FA 49.64 278 08 19 49.64 X SIN -49.14
278 08 19

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LINE LENGTH LATITUDE DEPARTURE BOWDITCH BOWDITCH


LATITUDE DEPARTURE
AB 18.81 -18.80 0.49 0.29 X 18.81 0.85 X 18.81
137.49 137.49
BC 30.50 -10.06 28.79 0.29 X 30.50 0.85 X 30.50
137.49 137.49
CD 16.30 15.77 4.11 0.29 X 16.30 0.85 X 16.30
137.49 137.49
DE 13.16 -2.51 12.92 0.29 0.85
X 13.16 X 13.16
137.49 137.49
EF 9.08 8.86 1.98 0.29 0.85
X 9.08 X 9.08
137.49 137.49
FA 49.64 7.03 -49.14 0.29 0.85
X 49.64 X 49.64
137.49 137.49
137.49 0.29 -0.85

BOWDITCH RULE
TOTAL ERROR IN SUM OF LATITUDES OR DEPARTURES WITH SIGN CHANGED
(LENGTH OF PARTICULAR COURSE)
TOTAL LENGTH OF SURVEY

The total of latitude and the total departure should be zero (0.00) but due to certain errors the
total latitude and total departure is not zero for this field work. (Total Latitude is 0.29 and
Total Departure is -0.85). The errors which can occur are human errors, instrumental errors
and weather condition which are already discussed above. So to adjust or compensate this
error we use the Bowditch rule to distribute the values equally to all points.

CORRECTIONS CORRECTED
LINE LENGTH LATITUDE DEPARTURE N E LATITUDE DEPARTURE
AB 18.81 -18.80 0.49 -0.04 +0.12 -18.84 0.61
BC 30.50 -10.06 28.79 -0.06 +0.19 -10.12 28.98
CD 16.30 15.77 4.11 -0.03 +0.10 15.74 4.21
DE 13.16 -2.51 12.92 -0.03 +0.08 -2.54 13.00
EF 9.08 8.86 1.98 -0.02 +0.06 8.84 2.04
FA 49.64 7.03 -49.14 -0.10 +0.31 6.93 -48.83
137.49 0.29 -0.85 -0.28 +0.86 0.01 0.01

CORRECTED COORDINATES
STATION LATITUDE DEPARTURE NORTH EAST
A 2000 1000
B -18.84 0.61 1981.16 1000.61
C -10.12 28.98 1971.04 1029.59
D 15.74 4.21 1986.78 1033.80
E -2.54 13.00 1984.24 1046.80
F 8.84 2.04 1993.08 1048.84
A 6.93 -48.83 2000.01 1000.01

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3.4 JUSTIFY THE USE OF DATA OBTAINED FROM DIGITAL


DRAWINGS IN TERMS OF A SECONDARY PURPOSE
Comparison of Manual and Digital Traverse drawing

When comparing the manual drawing and digital drawing we can come to a conclusion that
while preforming the manual traverse drawing it is hard to find the accurate area or perimeter
but in digital it is very much easy because readymade equations and calculations are available
in the specific software. Therefore it reduces time and energy, even the data obtained from
digital is highly trustable than manual because the data obtained from manual might be
incorrect due to the poor or incorrect work by the responsible individual or group,
instrumental error and weather condition so it is highly recommended in many countries to
use digital traverse drawing method compared to the manual one.

Calculation of area for surveyed Traverse using Trapezoidal Rule

In mathematics, and more specifically in numerical analysis, the trapezoidal rule (also known
as the trapezoid rule or trapezium rule) is a technique for approximating the definite integral

Width of interval = 4.93 m

Y1 = 18.92 m
Y2 = 19.98 m
Y3 = 20.86 m
Y4 = 21.84 m
Y5 = 22.81 m
Y6 = 23.78 m
Y7 = 14.84 m
Y8 = 8.57 m
Y9 = 8.82 m


Trapezoidal Rule = ( ) [(First + Last Ordinates) + 2 (Height of Remaining
2
Ordinates)]


Area = [ (Y1+Y9) + 2 (Y2+Y3+Y4+Y5+Y6+Y7+Y8) ]
2
4.93
Area = [ (18.92+8.82) + 2 (19.89+20.86+21.84+22.81+23.78+14.84+8.57) ]
2

Area = 2.465 ( 27.74 + 265.18 )

Area = 2.465 ( 292.92 )

Area = 722.05 m2

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Calculation of area for surveyed Traverse using Counting Square Method

It is a suitable method often adopted for very small areas with highly irregular boundaries.
The procedure is

Prepare a grid of squares on a piece of tracing paper or film to predetermined


dimensions (e.g. 20m, 10m, 5m grid) and to the same scale of the drawing
Superimpose the grid over the area on th drawing under consideration.
Count the number of full squares and squares at least half filled and neglect the
squares filled lesser than half.

Note* The above square method diagram has squares of (1m x 1m)

There are 709 squares; therefore the area is 709 m2.

Comparison of Trapezoidal and Counting square method

The 02 methods are used for calculating the area, but there is minor difference between the
answers obtained from trapezoidal area (722.05 m2) and counting square method area (709
m2). This difference is due to the neglecting some boxes for not filling at least half the square.
Therefore we have 02 difference answers respectively. Trapezoidal rule can be considered as
an accurate method compared to counting square method but even trapezoidal is not accurate.
When we use the area calculation method which can be used in AutoCAD to find in digital
drawing we can find the accurate area.

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