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Lahore University of Management Sciences

PHIL 100 - Introduction to Philosophy

Fall 2009

Instructors Name: Ghazala Irfan Fall 2009-2010

Office hours: TBA 4 Credit Hours

Room Number: 239-B Ext: 8104 Freshman

Course Description

This course will study philosophic questions and issues raised from the ancient period to
modern and contemporary times although not in a chronological order. The course will
discuss both the history and problems of philosophy. The course is divided into six modules.
Module I will deal with the Philosophic Method, Module II with Ancient Philosophy,
Module III with the three Major Paradigms of Muslim Philosophy, Module IV with
Metaphysics, Module V with Epistemology and Module VI with Applied Philosophy.


This course does not envision philosophy as an 'ivory tower' conceptual discourse. The
objective is to trace the application of theoretical concepts to the life of an individual in

The course exposes the students to a close examination of mostly primary and some
secondary texts in order to develop their understanding of the original spirit and thought of

The purpose of the course is to develop the students analytical and critical acumen to
evaluate issues and problems. The emphasis is, therefore, on the methodology of philosophy
rather than on the specific content of the works.

1. The First module deals with the Philosophic Method. The method aims to clarify
and elucidate concepts. The module will examine the definition and clarification of
concepts through the Socratic method of sustained argument and the Aristotelian
methods of deductive and inductive analysis. Thus the purpose of the module is to
acquaint students with the characteristic methodology of Philosophy.

2. The Second Module deals with Ancient thinkers, to trace the origins of the
philosophic quest for reality, truth, knowledge & wisdom.
3. The Third Module deals with the three Major Paradigms of Muslim Philosophy,
specifically The Asharite, Rational, and Sufi traditions. The module will focus on
Philosophical contributions of Muslim luminaries in general and on philosophers
from the sub-continent in particular.

4. The Fourth module is Metaphysics. Metaphysics deals with the responses of various
philosophic traditions to the question: What is Real? This section attempts to divide
reality into basic categories and in doing so, clarify and improve our thinking about

5. The Fifth module is Epistemology. Epistemology aims to clarify our understanding

of the concept of knowledge. It examines the concepts of Truth, Certainty, Doubt
and Verifiability in order to arrive at a clearer definition of knowledge. Thus the
purpose of the module is to help students learn to think clearly and arrive at a better
understanding of the nature and limits of knowledge.

6. The Sixth Module will deal with Applied Philosophy. This module aims to discuss
some practical applications and relevance of philosophy in the 20th and 21st century.
The focus will be on the different branches of contemporary philosophies, namely
Political and Social philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Philosophy of Science,
Philosophy of Art and History etc.



Lectures and exams

Twenty-Eight 70-minute lectures, Ten 60 minute lectures, four term tests, one paper
(Dialogue) and one final exam. The Term Tests will be held during four periods (not
counted in the course outline).


Class Participation and Attendance: 10%

Term Tests (4) - Open Book/ open notes: 40%

Paper/ Dialogue: 20%

Final Exam - Open Book/ open notes: 30%

Module I: Introduction to the Philosophic Method

1. a. What is Philosophy? pp. 3-10 (Capaldi & Navia, Ed)

b. Nature of Philosophy pp. 1-4 (Earle)

c. General Introduction: pp. 1-7 (Blackwood & Herman)

What is Philosophy?

d. Reading Philosophy pp. 7-11 (Edwards)

e. Using Research in a Philosophy Paper pp. 70-80 (Edwards)

f. Glossary pp. 595-600 (Pojman)

2. The Value of Philosophy pp.19-22 (Pojman)


Ten Commandments of Philosophy pp. 4-5 (Pojman)

Criticizing and Creating Philosophical pp.589-596 (Hall & Bowie)


3. The Problem of Definition pp. 517-530 (Stumpf)

Plato "Euthyphro"

4. The Problem of Clarification pp. 531-549 (Stumpf)

Plato "The Apology"

5. Scientific Method pp. 207-217 (Capaldi & Novia, Eds)


6. On Induction pp. 139-144 (Edwards & Pap)


Term Test 1
Module II: Ancient Philosophy

7. Introduction to Ancient Philosophy

China, India, and Greece

8. Confucius and Eastern Tradition: pp. 43-50 (Hall & Ames)

Thinking Through Confucius

9. The Four Noble Truths pp. 61-70 (Billington)

Buddhism II: The Way of Buddha

10. Pre-Socratic Greek Philosphy and the Natural

Order pp. 3-12 (Stumpf)
Ionians and Pythagoras

11. Greek Attempts to Explain Change pp.13-28 (Stumpf)

12. Sophists Rhetoric pp. 1325-1331 (McKeon)


Term Test 2
Module III: The Three Major Paradigms of Muslim Philosophy: Classical & South
Asian Texts

13. Introduction:
Doctrinal Systems pp. 41-64 (De Boer)
The History of Philosophy in Islam

14. Traditionalists:
A Vindication of Kalam. pp. 119-134 (McCarthy)

15. Political Thought in Early Islam

(Syed Abul Ala Maudoodi) pp 656-672 (Sharif)

16. The Decisive Treatise, Determining pp. 44-62 (Averroes) On the Harmony
the Nature of the Conception between of Religion and Philosophy,
Religion and Philosophy. Translated by George F. Hourani.
Ibn Rushd

17. The Spirit of Muslim Culture pp. 99-115

Iqbal The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought In Islam.
18. Pantheists:
The Wisdom of Divinity in the Word pp. 45-59
of Adam. Fusus al-Hikam
Ibn Al Arabi

19. On Sufiism. pp. 30-44 (Ali Al-Hujwiri)

Hujwiri Kashf-al-Mahjub.

Paper (Dialogue)
Module IV: Metaphysics
What is Real?

20. Introduction to Metaphysics pp. 87-88 (Earle)

21. Idealism. pp. 593-597 (Stumpf)

Plato, Allegory of the Cave

22. Materialism pp. 840-846 (Stumpf)

Marx; "Dialectical and Historical

23. Empirico - Positivism pp. 847-854 (Stumpf)

Russell "Understanding the Cosmos"

24. Pragmatism pp. 643-648 (Stumpf)

William James, Pragmatism and the
Enterprise of knowing.
"The Notion of Truth"

25. Existentialism pp. 300-316 (Crowley)

Kierkegaard- "Concluding Unscientific

Term Test 3
Module V: Epistemology
What is Knowledge?

26. Introduction to Epistemology: pp. 122-141 (Hospers)

The Sources of Knowledge

27. Certainty and the limits of Doubt pp. 614-622 (Stumpf)

Descartes "Meditations"

28. "Skeptical Doubts pp. 129-138 (Edwards

Concerning the human & Pap)

29. "How Knowledge pp. 91-101 (Stumpf - 4th edition)

Is Possible"

30. Defining the scope of our knowledge pp. 649-655 (Stumpf)

The test of Verification.

31. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions pp. 274-279 (Cahn)


Term Test 4
Module VI: Applied Philosophy

32. Philosophy of History

On Man's Ability to Think pp. 411-439(Ibn Khaldun)
The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to

33. Political Philosophy

Natural Rights and Civil Soceity pp. 820-832 (Stumpf)

34. Philosophy Of Education pp. 189-201 (Park)

Aims of Education

35. Applied Ethics pp.778-784 (Bowie, Michaels, Solomo)

Property and Hunger
Amartya Sen

36. Philosophy of Art pp. 813-823 (Cahn)

Of the Standard of Taste

37. Philosophy of Science

Conjectures & pp. 98-102 (Hall & Bowie)

38. Inter/Intra-Personal Reflections Oral & written

Final Exam

1. Ayer, A J. Logical Positivism, Illinois: Library of Philosophical Movements, 1959.

2. Al-Hujwiri, Ali B. The Kashif Al-Mahjub: The Oldest Persian Treatise on Sufiism,
London: Lowe and Brydone Ltd., 1959.

3. Austin R W J. (Translation) Ibn Al Arabi, The Bezels of Wisdom, The Missionary

Society of St. Paul, Sohail Academy Lahore, 1988.

4. Baloch, N.A. The Muslim Luminaries, Islamabad: National Hijra Council, 1988.

5. Bergh, Simon Van Den. Averroes Tahafut Al-Tahafut: The Incoherence of the
Incoherence, Oxford: University Press, 1954.

6. Billington, Ray Understanding Eastern Philosphy, London: Routledge, 1997

7. Bowie, G. Lee & Michaels, Meredith W. & Solomo, Robert C. Twenty Questions:
An Introduction to Philosphy, 5th Edition, Wadsworth 2004

8. Cahn, Steven M. Philosophy for the 21st Century, New York: OUP, 2003

9. Capaldi, Nicholas & Navia, Luis E. Journeys Through Philosophy, New York,
Prometheus Books, 1977.

10. Crowley, James F. The Changing World of Philosophy. Belmont: Wadsworth

Publishing Company, 1989.

11. Earle, William James. Introduction to Philosophy. Singapore: McGraw Hill, Inc.,

12. Edwards, Paul & Pap, Arthur, A Modern Introduction to Philosophical

13. Hall, David L. and Ames, Roger T. Thinking Through Confucius, New York:
SUNY, 1987

14. Hall, Harrison and Bowie, Norman E. The Tradition of Philosophy, California:
Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1986.

15. Hospers, John An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, New York: Routledge,

16. Hourani, George F. (Translation). Averroes, On the Harmony of Religion and
Philosophy, London: Gibb Memorial Series, 1961.

17. Iqbal, Allama M. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Lahore: Iqbal
Academy Pakistan, 1989 (Edited by M Saeed Sheikh).

18. Khaldun , Ibn. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, London: Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1958 (Translated from Arabic by FranzRosenthal).

19. Khan, Sir Syed Ahmed. Life of Muhammad, Lahore: Premier Book House, 1968.

20. McCarthy, Richard J. The Theology of Al-Ashari, Imprimerie Catholique, 1953.

21. McKoen, Richard The Basic Works of Aristotle, New York: Random House, 1941

22. Park, Joe (editor). Selected Readings In The Philosophy of Education, New York:
The Macmillan Company, 1968

23. Pojman, Louis P. Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, 3rd Edition, Wadsworth, 1996
Readings from Classical Contemporary Sources, NY: The Free Press, 1965.

24. Sharif, M.M. (Editor). A History of Muslim Philosophy, Lahore: Pakistan

Philosophical Congress, 1963.

25. Stumpf, Samuel Enoch. Philosophy: History And Problems. Singapore: McGraw-
Hill Book Company, 1989.