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Contents Spring 2018 Titles January 2 February 3 March 5 April 10 May 16 June
Contents Spring 2018 Titles January 2 February 3 March 5 April 10 May 16 June
Contents Spring 2018 Titles January 2 February 3 March 5 April 10 May 16 June
Contents Spring 2018 Titles January 2 February 3 March 5 April 10 May 16 June

Contents

Spring 2018 Titles

January

2

February

3

March

5

April

10

May

16

June

20

March 5 April 10 May 16 June 20 eBooks Many of our titles are also available

eBooks Many of our titles are also available as eBooks from major online stores. For details and links, please visit www.amberbooks.co.uk/ebooks

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JANUARY 2018 PUBliCATioN

JANUARY 2018 PUBliCATioN The Wehrmacht MichAel e. hAskew Rising from the ashes of the post-World War

The Wehrmacht

MichAel e. hAskew

Rising from the ashes of the post-World War I Reichswehr, the Wehrmacht became one of the cornerstones of Hitler’s re- assertion of German military might. With chapters on the history of the German Army, pre-war development, command structures, infantry, armoured formations, artillery and support services, The Wehrmacht offers military history enthusiasts key data on every aspect of Nazi Germany’s ground forces.

key data on every aspect of Nazi Germany’s ground forces. WORLD WAR II GERMANY: The Wehrmacht

WORLD WAR II GERMANY:

The Wehrmacht

240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)

192pp

50,000 words

150 photos, diagrams and maps

ISBN: 978-1-78274-592-1

£19.99 Paperback

command structure

authorized units of the Heer to utilize extreme measures in the process. Furthermore, officers were directed to use ‘collective measures’ against the local population where attacks against German forces occurred if the actual culprits could not be located. Officers were also empowered to execute hostile persons without trial or formal adherence to any law or legal process. Officers of the Heer were assured that they were

authorized to exercise such authority without fear of prosecution for actions which would normally be violations of German law. Generals and senior commanders who protested summary executions and acts of brutality committed by both Army and Waffen- SS personnel were often relieved of duty or otherwise silenced. Each of these orders originated with Hitler; however, the implementation of them rested with Wilhelm Keitel and the

signature on the actual paper order was his. While Keitel had considered himself a loyal officer of the German Army, he had fatally linked that loyalty to the person of Adolf Hitler. In doing so, he undermined the effectiveness of the Army General Staff and OKH, precipitated an indelible stain on the honour of the Army and the officer corps, and was hanged as a war criminal.

A

senior Nazi and member of Hitler’s inner circle throughout World War II, Keitel served as chief of the Oberkommando

der Wehrmacht (OKW) and conducted the armistice negotiations with the French government in the Forest of Compiègne in 1940. Keitel was a career soldier and was wounded in action during World War I. Acknowledged as a

capable staff officer, his blind allegiance to Hitler facilitated numerous errors in the strategic and tactical prosecution

of

the German war effort. Field Marshal Keitel was tried at Nuremberg and convicted of war crimes and crimes against

humanity. He was hanged on 16 October 1946.

n Keitel (left) talks with Luftwaffe supremo

n Keitel (left) talks with Luftwaffe supremo

Birth:

22 September 1882 16 October 1946 Helmscherode, Braunschweig Carl Keitel Apollonia vissering Married to Lisa Fontaine (six children) Cadet Officer 1901 Wounded in action 1914 Joined Freikorps 1919 Head of Army Organization Department 1929 Brigadier-General 1934 Head of Armed Forces Office 1935 Major-General 1936 General of Artillery 1937 Armed Forces High Command 1938 Colonel-General 1938 Chief of OKW 1938 Field Marshal 1940 Convicted and executed at Nuremberg 1946

Death:

Place of Birth:

father:

Mother:

Personal relationshiPs:

Service:

Hermann Göring, 1943.

42

command structure

The Führer’s Orders

In the spring of 1940, the German armed forces moved against Norway and Denmark. Historically, such an operation would have been planned by the General Staff of the Army and executed through OKH.

However, Operation ‘Weserübung’ (Weser Exercise) was controlled from the outset by OKW. Soon afterward, OKW issued orders to move an entire division of the Heer from Norway to Finland, establishing a new theatre of war for the armed forces which

OKW. In its subordinate role, OB West was mainly responsible for the implementation of orders issued directly by Hitler and transmitted through OKW. The OB West area of operations primarily included the coastal defences of the Atlantic Wall,

OB West no fewer than six times. Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt was appointed and then sacked on three occasions. He commanded OB West from October 1940 to April 1941 and was replaced by Field

was completely outside the control or

which opposed the Allied landings

Marshal Erwin von Witzleben from

influence of the General Staff or OKH.

in Normandy on 6 June 1944, and

May 1941 to March 1942. Rundstedt

When the invasion of the Soviet Union began on 22 June 1941, and

the occupied territories of the Low Countries. At the end of the war, the

was reinstated and commanded OB West from March 1942 to July 1944

120 German divisions attacked the

remnants of the OB West command

and was followed by Field Marshal

Red Army along a 1600km (1000-mile)

were concentrated in Bavaria.

Günther von Kluge from early July

Indicative of Hitler’s continuing suspicions of the Army General Staff and the high-ranking commanders whose careers were traced to the officer elite of the Junker class, he replaced the commanders of

to mid-August of that year. Field Marshal Walther Model held the post for only two weeks in August and September 1944, and Rundstedt again commanded OB West from September 1944 until March 1945. The final commander of OB West was

front, Hitler could not refrain from interfering with ongoing operations. He accomplished this through orders issued via OKW. Just as he had done in France weeks earlier, ordering his ground troops to halt and allowing thousands of British and French soldiers to escape from Dunkirk, he grew restless as German forces neared the Soviet capital of Moscow. Hitler diverted troops of Field Marshal Fedor von Bock’s Army Group Centre to the north and south of the Soviet capital, rendering Bock’s planned armoured thrust to capture Moscow impossible and depriving him of the initiative necessary to potentially win the war in the East. From the autumn of 1940 until the end of the war, the Feldheer in the West, also known as the Westheer, was under the control of Oberbefehlshaber West, or OB West, which answered directly to

THEATRE COMMANDS, 1940–45 u füHrer Adolf Hitler n n OB West Gen FM Gerd von
THEATRE COMMANDS, 1940–45
u füHrer Adolf Hitler
n
n
OB West Gen FM Gerd von Rundstedt (1940–1, 1942–4, 1944–5)
Gen FM Erwin von Witzleben (1941–2)
Gen FM Günther von Kluge (1944)
Gen FM Walter Model (1944)
Gen FM Albert Kesselring (1945)
n
OB Süd West Gen FM Albert Kesselring (1943–5)
Gen FM Heinrich von Vietinghoff-Scheel (1945)
n
OB Süd Ost Gen-Ob Alexander Löhr (1943–5)
n
OB Nord West Gen FM Ernst Busch (1945)

43

command structure

 

people. Every German is liable to

military service. In time of war, in

command structure

GERMAN MILITARY CASUALITIES IN WORLD WAR II (MILLION)

   

addition to liability to military service,

1.

While fighting for victory, the German soldier will observe

1. While fighting for victory, the German soldier will observe every German man and every German

every German man and every German

the rules of chivalrous warfare. Cruelties and needless destruction are below his values.

woman is liable to service to the Fatherland,’ it read.

 

From 1935 on, German men were

 

2.

Combatants will be wearing uniform or will wear specially

subject to military service from their

introduced and clearly identifiable badges. Fighting in civilian clothes or without such badges is prohibited.

18th birthday until the end of the month of March following their 45th

 

birthday. Later, conscription was

 
20 18,000,000 18 16 14 12 10,000,000 10 8 7,856,000 6 4,606,000 4 3,250,000 2
20
18,000,000
18
16
14
12
10,000,000
10
8
7,856,000
6
4,606,000
4
3,250,000
2
0
Total killed,
Total dead and
Killed and
Wounded
POWs
wounded and
wounded
missing
captured

3.

No enemy who has surrendered will be executed, including

extended to cover those aged 17 to

partisans and spies. They will be duly punished by courts.

61,

and during the last days of the

 

Third Reich boys as young as 12 were

4.

POWs will not be ill-treated or mocked. Arms, maps and

defending the smouldering ruins of

records will be taken away from them, but their personal belongings will not be touched.

Berlin. Individuals who were deemed

as

somewhat short of immediate

 

fitness for service were classified in

5.

Dum-Dum bullets are prohibited; also no other bullets may

one of several reserve components

be transformed into Dum-Dums.

and

subject to activation as needed.

 

Certain classes of the population,

6.

Red Cross institutions are sacrosanct. Injured enemies

such as Jews, were excluded from

are to be treated humanely. Medical personnel and army chaplains should not be hindered in performing their medical or clerical activities.

service. However, as the need for

manpower increased the standards

for

physical fitness were lowered,

and tactical situation after 1942.

n every German campaign, even the

 

convicts serving prison terms

Although some Heer units are

successful ones, added significantly to

7.

The civilian population is sacrosanct. No looting nor

were pressed into the ranks, and

known to have committed atrocities

the death toll on the German army.

egregious destruction is permitted by the soldier. Landmarks of historical value or buildings serving religious purposes, art, science, or charity are to be especially respected. Deliveries in kind made, as well as services

convalescing soldiers who might

against prisoners of war and civilians alike, most common soldiers of the German Army acquitted themselves

tens of thousands died in poland,

have previously been sent on leave were returned to their units.

france, and the Balkans, but the real

price was paid on the eastern front.

During World War II, the strength

honourably in combat.

rendered by the population, may only be claimed if ordered

of

the Heer at its peak approached

In his acclaimed book

For all his ineptitude as a military

by superiors and only against compensation.

n a young German soldier poses for the camera

10 million men. Between 1939 and

Frontsoldaten, Stephen G. Fritz points

strategist, particularly his strategic blunders committed in 1940 and later, Adolf Hitler was nevertheless the catalyst for the growth and

 

during the invasion of france, may 1940. He is

1945, the Heer suffered more than

out, ‘As perpetrators, whether out of

8.

Neutral territory will never be entered nor passed over by

armed with a Kar 98 rifle and has a stick grenade

4.2 million dead and nearly 400,000

conviction or not, these common men

aircraft, nor shot at; it will not be the focus of warmaking of any kind.

tucked in his belt.

taken prisoner, bearing by far the

existed as part of a great destructive

lion’s share of the burden of the fight

machine, ready and willing to kill and

development of a fighting machine

 

for

Germany. The combat prowess

destroy in order to achieve the goals

which was, up to that time, the most

9.

If a German soldier is made a POW he will give his name and rank if he is asked for them. Under no circumstances

of

the German soldier in World War

of a murderous regime. In the role

formidable in the world. The Heer, in

will he reveal the unit to which he belongs, nor will he give any information about German military, political and

II

was grudgingly acknowledged

of victims, they lived daily with the

turn, was the premier component of

economic conditions. Neither promises nor threats may induce him to do so.

by

his adversaries, and historians

physical hardships, the psychological

that machine, fighting across fronts

 

have noted that as a whole the

burdens, and the often crushing

which extended from the Caucasus to the deserts of North Africa and

10.

Offences against the a/m matters of duty will be punished. Enemy offences against the principles under 1 to 8 are to

German Army acquitted itself with

anxieties of death and killing that

be reported. Reprisals are only permissible on order of higher commands.

a

tremendous courage in the face of

continually deteriorating strategic

constitute the everyday life of all

combat soldiers.’

from the English Channel to the

Arctic Circle.

48

49

the English Channel to the Arctic Circle. 48 49 The SS chris M c nAb The

The SS

chris McnAb

The SS examines the history and development of the Schutzstaffel from its origin as Hitler’s personal bodyguard to its growth into a millions-strong organization by the war’s end. Highly illustrated and broken down into key constituent parts – such as the police, concentration camps, security services, Waffen-SS, slave labour and Einsatzgruppen – the book is an essential reference guide for anyone interested in the history and structure of this infamous organization.

in the history and structure of this infamous organization. WORLD WAR II GERMANY: The SS 240

WORLD WAR II GERMANY:

The SS

240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)

192pp

50,000 words

150 photos, diagrams and maps

ISBN: 978-1-78274-593-8

£19.99 Paperback

chapter 6 Police and Intelligence The Nazi system of policing the Third Reich was labyrinthine

chapter 6

Police and Intelligence The Nazi system of policing the Third Reich was labyrinthine in the
Police
and
Intelligence
The Nazi system of policing the Third Reich was
labyrinthine in the extreme. There were multiple security
and police organizations, some of them legacies from
the Weimar Republic and older police institutions, while
others were new creations established after Hitler’s
taking of power in 1933.
What came to unite all the police and security
services of the Third Reich was the SS. When the Nazis
took control in 1933, the police forces of Germany were
arranged on an individual state basis. This arrangement
was not suited to a centralized dictatorship, so Hitler,
Göring and Himmler began to shift existing Landespolizei
(State Police) under SS control, while also establishing
new security services such as the Sicherheitspolizei
(Security Police; Sipo ) and Sicherheitsdienst
(Security Service; SD).
The German police and security services would
become both instruments of terror and order, integral
to the ideological and daily life of the Third Reich.
n The Gestapo often used dogs for lightning swoops on homes and snatches
of suspects. Here, dogs are being trained at the Gestapo School of Canine
Intelligence at Rotengal.
149

2

police and intelligence

uNITS WITHIN THE ORDNUNGSPOLIZEI (ORDER POLICE; ORPO)

Baupolizei (Buildings Police)

Motorisierte Gendarmerie (Motorized Traffic Gendarmerie)

Feuerschutzpolizei (Fire Protection Police)

Polizei Fliegerstaffeln (Police Flying units)

Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades) 1

Polizei Nachrichtenstaffeln (Police Signal units)

Luftschutzpolizei (Air Raid Police)

Gendarmerie (Rural Police)

Technische Nothilfe, TeNo (Technical Emergency Service)

Polizei Reiterstaffeln (Mounted Police units)

Feldjägerkrops, FJK (Auxiliary Police)

Schutzpolizei des Reichs (Reich Protection Police) 5

Verwaltungspolizei (Administrative Police)

Schutzpolizei, Schupo (Protection Police)

Gesundheitspolizei (Health Police)

Verkehrsbereitschaften (Traffic Police)

Gewerbepolizei (Factory & Shops Police)

Verkehrskompanien (mot) zbV (Motorized Special Duty Traffic Police)

Hochgebirgs Gendarmerie (Mountain Gendarmerie)

Wasserschutzpolizei (Waterways Protection Police)

Kasernierte Polizei (Barrack Police)

Schutzpolizei der Gemeinden (Municipal Police)

1. Served as an auxiliary force to the Feuerschutzpolizei

Landespolizei (Barracked Territorial Police) 2

2. under Wehrmacht authority from 1935

3. Assisted the Gendarmerie

Landwacht (Rural Guards) 3

4. Assisted the Schutzpolizei

Stadtwacht (City Guards) 4

5. Responsible for cities and large towns

In a sense, the regular street-level

 

into

the following administrative

policing continued much as it had

Another major organizational

divisions. At the regional level was

always done, but there were distinct

change in policing during the 1930s

the

Landespolizeibehörde (Regional

signals that it was now the SS that

came with the formation of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich

Police Authority), controlled by

Main Security Office; RSHA), which

the

Länder authorities or, in the

was in ultimate control, as Gordon Williamson here points out:

was

established in September 1939

case of Prussia and Bavaria,

as

the supreme security office

by

the Regierungspräsident

 

Himmler would ensure that the

in

the Third Reich. (The previous

(Government President). The next

security office had been known as

level of command came with the

majority of senior and middle-level

the

Sicherheitshauptamt.) Headed

Kreispolizeibehörde (City/County

Police posts were filled by men

by

Reinhard Heydrich until his

Police Authority), headed by various

who were also members of the SS

assassination in 1942, the RSHA

civic officials depending on the

and thus owed obedience to him

nature of the territory, and finally

Senior ranks who remained in the Police and who were not already

became the umbrella organization for suppressing ‘enemies of the state’.

the

Ortspolizeibehörde (Local Police

members of the SS were pressured

 

Authority), controlled typically by

into

joining; membership became

Structured law enforcement

a

local mayor. While the security

a

prerequisite for a successful

The

RSHA was divided into seven

services were the most feared

Police career.

major departments, including two

elements of policing, the main

 

(Williamson, 2006)

SD

departments (Amt III and Amt VI)

interface of law and order – and

 

responsible for domestic and foreign

therefore the most pervasive tool of

Williamson also goes on to note that

intelligence respectively, and Amt

the

domestic SS – was the regular

from 1942 all police were issued with

IV

– the Gestapo. It also included the

police forces.

Kriminalpolizei in Amt V (see below).

 
 

a pay book ‘bearing the SS runes

In

terms of their regional and

Ordnungspolizei

rather than the Police eagle on the

local arrangements, the police

The

two major regular police

cover’. There was no doubt as to who was in charge.

forces within Germany were split

forces in the Third Reich were the

152

police and intellige 6 kripo offices the kripo maintained offices in most of the major
police and intellige
6 kripo offices
the kripo maintained offices in
most of the major towns and cities
across the reich . the offices at a
sub-regional level would report
back to the relevant regional office
headquarters. in turn, the reports
from regional offices were then
passed on to the central office in
Berlin, part of the rsha.
C Z E
Kriminalpolizei – the Criminal Police,
better known as the Kripo – and the
Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo).
The Orpo was commanded from 1936
to 1945 by SS-Oberstgruppenführer
Kurt Daluege, an unpleasant and
brutish man who was generally
unpopular with the civilian career
policemen who made up the service’s
ranks. Daluege purged Orpo officials
L O
C H O S
V A K
I A
who were not oriented towards t
Nazi Party, in the process deprivi
the force of thousands of excelle
officers and consequently reduci
its efficiency.
He also encouraged members
of the Allgemeine-SS to join the
police ranks, breeding tensions a
suspicions amongst the older offi
and the new intake.
LOCATION OF KRIPO REGIONAL OFFICES
n Danzig
n Königsberg
E
A S T
P
R u SSIA
n Stettin
n Bremen
n Berlin
n
Posen
n Hanover
POLAND
n Dresden
n
Breslau
n Cologne
n Kattowice
GERMANY
n Prague
n Nuremberg
n Stuttgart
n Strasbourg
Vienna n
n Munich
n Salzburg
A u STRIA

FEBRUARY 2018 PUBliCATioN

n n Munich n Salzburg A u STRIA FEBRUARY 2018 PUBliCATioN Hitler’s Secret Weapons dAvid porter

Hitler’s Secret Weapons

dAvid porter

Following the invasion of the Soviet Union and the realization that the war could continue for years, Hitler put great resources into the development of technologically advanced weaponry, in the belief that the production of ‘wonder weapons’ was the key to victory. From submarines to chemical and nuclear weapons, from superguns to experimental aircraft, Hitler’s Secret Weapons reveals the extent of Germany’s munitions development.

reveals the extent of Germany’s munitions development. WORLD WAR II GERMANY: Hitler’s Secret Weapons 240 x

WORLD WAR II GERMANY:

Hitler’s Secret Weapons

240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)

192pp

50,000 words

150 photos, diagrams and maps

ISBN: 978-1-78274-595-2

£19.99 Paperback

missiles and air-launched weapons

missiles and air-launched weapons

   

considerable, given the limitations of

quarries that had been taken over for

at this time about the feasibility of

and was a four-stage, fin-stabilized

supply port. The unit was supposed

accentuated the ineffectiveness

rocket was militarily useless and

to

be equipped with 12 launchers, but

of the Rheinbote bombardment

the project was finally cancelled the

1940s technology.

the large, liquid-fuelled missiles

only seems to have received four.

which began on Christmas Eve and

following month.

Two options were seriously

under development at Peenemünde

The launcher was the FR-Wagen,

continued into January 1945. The

While the service version of

considered, the first was guidance

and that Rheinmetall-Borsig were

a

modification of the Meillerwagen

average rate of fire for each launcher

Rheinbote was a total disaster,

by radio beacons which were to be

requested to design a solid fuel

transporter/erector trailer used for

seems to have been roughly one

there were designs derived from the

set up by German agents operating

missile to act as back-up in the event

the

V-2. The missile was fired from a

missile per hour – estimates of the

original study that could have been

 

in the USA and the second was to utilize a manned version of the A-4b/A-9. In theory, the pilot was to eject after setting the missile on

of the failure of the V-1 or V-2 design and construction projects. By May 1942, plans had been drawn up for a multi-stage, solid fuel

launch rail mounted on the erector frame rather than from a separate launch pad, as in the case of the V-2.

total number of missiles fired vary, but it was certainly no more than 200. As predicted, the effectiveness of these missiles was very limited

at least as effective as the V-2. The most advanced of these seems to have been the Rheinbote III, which had a 771kg (1700lb) warhead and a

   

course to its target.

rocket carrying a 1225kg (2695lb)

Combat Effectiveness

and by the end of January 1945,

range of 241km (150 miles).

The A4b/A-10 combination was

warhead to a maximum range

The

shortage of launchers

even the SS appreciated that the

NUMBERS OF V-2 s FIRED AT TARGETS IN EUROPE Location Total Belgium 1664 Antwerp 1610
NUMBERS OF V-2 s FIRED AT
TARGETS IN EUROPE
Location
Total
Belgium
1664
Antwerp
1610
Liège
27
Hasselt
13
Tournai
9
Mons
3
Diest
2
uK
1402
London
1358
Norwich
43
Ipswich
1
France
76
Lille
25
Paris
22
Tourcoing
19
Arras
6
Cambrai
4
netherlands (maastricht)
19
Germany (remagen)
11

designed in parallel with the A-9/A- 4b and its development was also officially suspended in 1943 to free resources for the V-2 programme. However, there is some surprising evidence to the contrary at two locations in Normandy, one at Haut Mesnil, near Caen and the other at La Meauffe, near St Lo. Both were

conversion to V-2 storage areas in

of 241km (150 miles). Although a production contract was issued, it soon became apparent that development would be a lengthy business and attention turned to smaller versions of the missile that could be brought into service more quickly. The selected type, the Rh-Z-61/9, was dubbed Rheinbote

missile with no guidance or control

V-2 LAUNCH SITES AND TARGETS North Sea Rijs NETHERLANDS Ommen Norwich Dalfsen Archem Burgsteinfurt Hellendoom
V-2 LAUNCH SITES AND TARGETS
North
Sea
Rijs
NETHERLANDS
Ommen
Norwich
Dalfsen
Archem
Burgsteinfurt
Hellendoom
Nikverdal
Darfield
Heek
ENGLAND
Ipswich
Wassenaar
The Hague
Hoek van Holland
Haaksbergen
Kleve
Serooskerke
London
Middleburg
GERMANY
Antwerp
Maastricht
BELGIUM
Liège
Lille
English
Channel
V-2 launch sites
Headquarters
FRANCE
Targeted cities
Distance: 319km (198 miles)
Altitude: 80km (50 miles)

failures, von Braun was confident

1942, but little work was completed

system that had to be accurately

 

that

the design was sound, but the

up to the end of 1943. In early 1944,

aimed at its target before launch to

deteriorating military situation forced

urgent construction work suddenly

have any chance of hitting it.

the

evacuation of the Peenemünde

began at both sites and after their

General Dornberger expressed

site

before any further trials could be

capture, Allied intelligence teams

deep reservations about the

carried out.

found that they contained networks

practicality of the design which

 

A

final variant of the A-4b was

of tunnels and loading equipment

used a 1715kg (3775lb) multi-stage

intended to be fitted with a ring of

for missiles almost twice the size

missile to inaccurately deliver a

10 solid propellant booster rockets

of the V-2. Perhaps, therefore, work

40kg (88lb) warhead containing only

to

achieve a speed of Mach 6 at an

on A-4b/A-10 was much closer

20kg (44lb) of explosives. However,

altitude of 20km (12 miles), extending

to completion than official historical

the SS believed that the system

the

range of the missile to 950–

research suggests.

had real potential to damage Allied

1000km (590–621 miles).

Rheinbote (Rhine Messenger)

targets and used their increasing influence over missile development

First ICBM

In the late 1930s, the armaments

to issue a production order for the

 

The

first stage of the proposed ICBM,

firm Rheinmetall-Borsig had built

Rheinbote in November 1944.

the

A-10, was to be powered by six

up considerable expertise in the

The Rheinbote trials unit was

modified V-2 rocket engines and was intended to carry the second stage

development of solid fuel rockets

accordingly mobilized as Artillerie

 

A-4b/A-9 embedded in its nose. The problem of achieving any sort of accuracy against US targets was

for army use in the short-range bombardment role (the 28/32cm (11/12.6in) NbW 41 series). It appears that there were some misgivings

Abeitlung 709 and deployed to Nunspeet in the Netherlands to take part in the massive bombardment of Antwerp, which was an important

148

 

149

missiles and air-launched weapons

Surface-to-Surface Missiles

Although they were far from being the decisive weapons that Hitler had envisaged,

the V-1 and V-2 inflicted significant damage to their targets and compelled the Allies to

divert considerable resources to countering the threat that they posed.

V-1 While it was a crude engine, which and a speed of 720–800km/h (450– In
V-1
While it was a crude engine, which
and a speed of 720–800km/h (450–
In
common with many other
could only operate effectively at low
500mph) but in practice these figures
countries, Germany had
altitude, it would run well on low
experimented with unmanned aircraft
octane petrol and was ideally suited
were reduced to approximately
240km (150 miles) and 560–640km/h
during the inter-war years, but had
to power a flying bomb.
(350–400mph).
never seriously considered their
potential as flying bombs. Tentative
proposals for such weapons were
rejected in 1939 and 1941, but by
1942, the erosion of German air
superiority prompted the Luftwaffe to
reconsider the matter and begin the
development of a small, cheap flying
bomb, with a range of about 250km
The initial test flight of an air-
launched unpowered prototype was
made in early December 1942, with
the first powered flight following on
Christmas Eve, when a missile was
air-launched from a Focke-Wulf Fw
200 Condor from Peenemünde.
(155 miles) and a 800kg (1760lb)
warhead, that could hit an area
New launch system
Considerable development work
was still required, but by mid-1943, a
Production examples of the V-1
were fitted with an odometer driven
by a vane anemometer on the nose
that determined when the target area
had been reached. Before launch, the
counter was set to a value that would
reach zero upon arrival at the target
in the prevailing wind conditions. As
the missile flew, the airflow turned
the propeller, with every 30 rotations
counting down one number on the
target, evading interception by flying
workable catapult launching system
counter. This counter triggered the
in
at high speed and low altitude.
had been devised. A gyrocompass-
arming of the warhead after about
The project was given the cover
designation of Flakzielgerät 76 (FZG
76) – ‘AA target equipment 76’.
The FZG 76 was powered by an
Argus pulse jet – a simple tube
based autopilot guidance system had
been adopted which gave sufficient
accuracy for use against area
targets and selection of launch sites
began. Potential launch sites were
60km (38 miles). When the counter
reached zero, two explosive bolts
were fired and two spoilers on the
elevator were released, the linkage
between the elevator and servo was
containing a fuel injection system and
fewer than had been anticipated,
jammed and a guillotine device cut
a
spark plug, with its front covered
as steadily increasing weight had
off the control hoses to the rudder
by
a screen of spring-loaded flaps.
degraded the missile’s performance.
servo, setting the rudder in neutral.
In
flight, the airflow forced the
It had been estimated that it would
These actions put the V-1 into a steep
flaps open, which operated a valve
have a range of 483km (300 miles)
dive.
spraying fuel into the tube. The fuel/
air
mix was ignited by the spark plug
Rheinbote, V-1, V-2, AnD A9/A10 sIZEs ComPArED
and
the explosion blew the flaps
shut, producing a brief burst of thrust
before the flaps were again forced
open by the airflow to restart the
operating cycle. At full speed, the
engine produced these pulses at an
approximate rate of 42 per second.
Missile
Length
Max Diameter
Span
Rheinbote
11.5m (37ft 6in)
0.535m (1ft 9in)
1.49m (4ft 10in)
V-1
8m (26ft)
0.84m (2ft 9in)
5m (17ft)
V-2
14m (46ft)
1.68m (5ft 6in)
3.5m (11ft 6in)
A-9/A-10 Amerikarakete
25.8m (84ft 8in)
4.3m (14ft 1in)
9m (29ft 6in)

138

missiles and air-launched weapons

surFACE-To-surFACE mIssIlEs ComPArED 9m 6m 3m V-1 length: 8m (26ft) 0m 0m 3m 6m 9m
surFACE-To-surFACE mIssIlEs ComPArED
9m
6m
3m
V-1
length: 8m (26ft)
0m
0m
3m
6m
9m
12m
15m
18m
21m
24m
27m
30m
33m
36m
9m
6m
V-2
3m
length: 14m (46ft)
0m
0m
3m
6m
9m
12m
15m
18m
21m
24m
27m
30m
33m
36m
9m
A-9/A-10
length: 25.8m (84ft 8in)
6m
3m
0m
0m
3m
6m
9m
12m
15m
18m
21m
24m
27m
30m
33m
36m
range
V-1
240km
(149 miles)
V-2
330km (205 miles)
A-9/A-10
5000km (3107
miles)

139

330km (205 miles) A-9/A-10 5000km (3107 miles) 139 Fighting Techniques of a Panzergrenadier 1941–45 MAtthew

Fighting Techniques of a Panzergrenadier 1941–45

MAtthew hughes And chris MAnn

During World War II, the Germans fielded 29 panzergrenadier divisions, in which the infantry units were fully motorised to operate alongside tanks and assault guns on the battlefield. Illustrated with more than 90 photographs and artworks, Fighting Techniques of a Panzergrenadier is a comprehensive guide to the training, techniques and weaponry of these soldiers.

to the training, techniques and weaponry of these soldiers. Fighting Techniques of a Panzergrenadier 1941–45 285

Fighting Techniques of a Panzergrenadier 1941–45

285 x 213mm (11¼ x 8¼in)

96 pages

35,000 words

50 artworks, 40 photos

ISBN: 978-1-78274-599-0

£14.99 Paperback

CHAPTER 3 Panzergrenadiers in Action in the West, 1939– 45 Although the invasion of Poland

CHAPTER

3

Panzergrenadiers in Action in the West, 1939– 45

Although the invasion of Poland saw the first use of motorised infantry, the 1940 French
Although the invasion of
Poland saw the first use of
motorised infantry, the 1940
French campaign showed
the German blitzkrieg tactics
to full effect. Conversely, by
1944, the panzergrenadiers
proved themselves highly
skilled at delaying the Allied
advance through France and
the Low Countries.

P a n z e r g r e n a d i e r s were used

war in the West, before examining

throughout World War II, from the invasion of Poland in September 1939, to the battle for Berlin in April 1945. As a fighting elite accompanying the panzers into action, or as infantry fighting stubborn rearguard actions, they were typically engaged in the thickest fighting of the war. They fought in both offensive and defensive mode; as the war went against Germany from 1942–43 it was increasingly in the latter role that they were deployed. Throughout the war,

events on the Eastern Front in the next chapter. With this in mind, this chapter will deal briefly with the invasion of Poland before examining two case studies in which panzergrenadiers were heavily involved: firstly, the elite Grossdeutschland Regiment’s offensive action in Operation Niwi and across the river Meuse at the battle of Sedan in May 1940 during the Fall of France; secondly, the defensive action of the 12th SS Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) Panzer Division

some of the best units of the German armed forces fought as panzergrenadiers. These included the Grossdeutschland Division, 1st SS Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Division, 2nd SS Das Reich Division, 12th SS Hitler Jugend Division, the Brandenburg Division and the Luftwaffe’s elite Hermann Göring Division. Although many of these panzergrenadier divisions were later reorganised as panzer divisions, even with such reorganisation, all panzer divisions, including elite formations such as the Wehrmacht’s Panzer Lehr Division, always had attached panzergrenadier regiments that would go into battle with the armour. To make sense of the widely spread theatres of war in which panzergrenadiers fought, the two chapters on the panzergrenadiers’ war record will focus firstly on the

in Normandy in 1944. Chapter Four will then cover the panzergrenadiers’ war on the Eastern Front by examining three pertinent case studies: firstly, the German advance on Moscow following Operation Barbarossa when it looked as though Germany would capture Moscow and conquer the USSR; secondly, panzergrenadiers in action during the battle of Kursk in 1943, the biggest tank battle of the war, with over 6000 tanks and self-propelled guns involved, where the Soviets halted the German advance; finally, panzergrenadiers in a defensive role on the borders of Germany in 1944 as the Red Army steamrollered west into Poland and Germany. These case studies provide accounts of panzergrenadiers in a variety of different theatres of war, and show how the panzergrenadier performed in attack as well as defence. As will be seen, whether fighting in the woods of the Ardennes, the bocage of Normandy, or the steppes of the Soviet Union, German panzergrenadiers invariably proved the maxim of the German army commander of the 1920s, Hans von Seekt:

Mehr seins als Schein’ (‘Be more than you appear to be’).

Left: SS panzergrenadiers from Kampfgruppe Hansen smoking captured American Camel cigarettes, somewhere in the Ardennes during the Battle of the Bulge, 1944. Behind them is a knocked-out American M8 armoured car.

36 Panzergrenadiers in a ction in the West Panzergrenadiers in a ction in the West,
36
Panzergrenadiers
in
a ction
in
the
West
Panzergrenadiers
in
a ction
in
the
West, 1939–45
37
Stukas dropped their bombs a ‘hair’s breadth’ from the
attacking Germans as they stormed the French defences on
the slopes of the hill of La Marfée. The French defenders,
many of whom were raw conscripts, were left bewildered
by the ferocity of the German bombardment. The ensuing
battle for the west bank shows that panzergrenadiers often
fought fixed piece assaults on prepared defences. This
was classic infantry action. Courbiere again: ‘After a short
fight the bunker is reached by a sergeant and two men.
The enemy are smoked out by hand grenades; they are
completely vanquished; they come out. Their faces reveal
the psychological strain of this fighting. Close to each other
they stand with their backs to their bunker and raise their
hands.’ In the savage fighting, some of the French defenders
in the bunkers were shot after they had surrendered. The
panzergrenadiers cleared out bunker after bunker so there
would be a foothold on the west bank sufficiently large for
combat engineers to build ferries and a bridge onto which
the panzers could pass. All along the Meuse, the experience
of the men of the Grossdeutschland was repeated as other
Wehrmacht motorised infantry units paddled across the
river in the face of fierce French fire. Casualties in such an
assault were high and for men wounded on the west bank
the delay in ferrying them back to regimental aid posts on the
east bank often proved fatal. Another problem was the lack of
water, and the Germans relied on captured bottles of water to
keep them going.
Combat Engineers at the Crossing
of the Meuse
The Grossdeutschland was just one motorised infantry
regiment crossing the Meuse. The experience of the other
motorised infantry crossing the river was very similar
to that of the Grossdeutschland . But it was an all-arms
goes unnoticed. The enemy fire begins to slacken noticeably,
but nevertheless the crossing of the first storm boats, the
engineers, remains a hard task, a task from which many don’t
come back. In impotent rage, the tank crews watch boats torn
to pieces by direct hits.’
While the tanks remained static, the men of the
Grossdeutschland (and 1st Motorised Rifle Regiment)
attempted to consolidate the bridgehead. The
panzergrenadiers operated within the German military
tradition of auftragstaktik (mission-oriented tactics), which
Above: SS panzergrenadiers crossing a river. River crossings were
extremely hazardous and costly operations, and required large
amounts of courage, as those crossing the river were extremely
exposed to any defensive enemy fire.
allowed junior officers and NCOs to react to the situation on
the ground, and ignore orders if they thought their actions
would help achieve the unit’s mission.
The Ju-87 Stuka dive-bomber was invaluable in providing
mobile fire support for the attacking infantry at the Meuse.
A common blitzkrieg tactic: whilst the German tanks
fixed the bridge’s defenders with their support fire, the
panzergrenadiers would outflank the position, and race
through the defences to capture the bridge intact.
Should the bridge be blown, tanks would again provide
supporting fire with the panzergrenadiers, while the pioneers
attempted to cross the river in rubber boats. Once across,
they would seize a bridgehead, and build an assault bridge.

3

Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–45 leo J. dAugherty iii During World War II,

Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–45

leo J. dAugherty iii

During World War II, the Japanese armed forces first captured then defended large swathes of the Pacific island groups and the Asian mainland. Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman is an in-depth analysis of the infantryman’s tactics, equipment and training, and how that translated into success (or failure) on the battlefield, where after 1943 the Japanese fought a skilful and brave defence against overwhelming odds.

a skilful and brave defence against overwhelming odds. Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman 1941–45 285

Fighting Techniques of a Japanese Infantryman

1941–45

285 x 213mm (11¼ x 8¼in)

96 pages

35,000 words

50 artworks, 40 photos

ISBN: 978-1-78274-600-3

£14.99 Paperback

Offensive and d efensive Tac T ics, 1931–1945 defence would entail different requirements in order
Offensive
and
d efensive
Tac T ics, 1931–1945
defence would entail different requirements in order to
repel or defeat an enemy landing operation.
Above: In order to counter a US Marine landing, the Japanese
devised an elaborate system of beach defences. This ‘defender’s
eye’ view shows the barbed wire defences, and beyond them the
mined anti-landing craft defences intended to disrupt a landing.
Atoll Defences

Offensive

and

d efensive

Tac T ics, 1931–1945

of extensive trench lines, Japanese soldiers constructed anti-tank ditches and slit trenches that permitted riflemen
of extensive trench lines, Japanese soldiers constructed
anti-tank ditches and slit trenches that permitted riflemen
to position themselves in the defence.
Japanese defence structures followed no set pattern,
but were made, in general, to conform to the surrounding
terrain in order to meet the immediate tactical
requirements. With only a few exceptions, most defensive
structures were flat and extended no more than 1–1.5m
(3–5ft) above ground level, or were irregularly shaped and
built around a base of trees. Japanese manuals on field
fortifications stated: ‘it was most important not to adhere

blindly to set forms in construction work, but to adapt such work to fit the tactical situation’. When the Japanese Army was forced to take up defensive positions, it adhered to the basic rule that construction of defensive positions involved a continual process of development. Starting out as a foxhole, fighting

 

hole or slit trench, these were eventually linked to form

Above: Dead Japanese soldiers line a trench on Namur island,

part of Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Few prisoners were

taken here, as those who were not killed in battle took their own

lives by committing hara-kiri.

a coordinated defence system. The third stage involved

construction of strongpoints, bunker and pillbox types of

Atolls were low-lying islets enclosed with a lagoon which

earthworks, and log positions.

ran anywhere from 3.2km to 105km (2–65 miles) in

level, were covered by dense scrub brush and coconut or

Japanese Defensive Positions

Bunkers were normally found in those areas where high

diameter. These islets extended from a few metres to a few kilometres in length to several kilometres in width. Total land area of a typical atoll in the Central Pacific area ranged from a few hundred square metres to 10km (6 miles) in length. They were rarely more than 7.6m (25ft) above sea

palm trees, and were bordered by salt marshes. The water table was normally only a few feet below the ground, thus negating the use of extensive trench or dug-in positions. Here, the Japanese normally built pillboxes and fortified bunkers. Despite the limitations placed upon the digging

Japanese positions included bunkers, pillboxes, dugouts, shelters, blockhouses, rifle and machine-gun emplacements, foxholes, trenches and anti-aircraft emplacements, and revetments.

water-levels precluded the digging of deep trenches and in more or less open terrain, such as coconut tree groves or sugarcane fields, and on the edges of airfields. The finished interiors of bunkers varied from sizes of 1.2–1.8m (4–6ft) in height, 1.8–3m (6–10ft) in width, and 3.7–9.1m (12–30 feet) in length. Larger bunkers had two bays or compartments that were separated by a large, solid block of earth. Each bunker had one or more narrow firing slits for machine guns. As the Marines discovered on landing, the neutralisation of these bunkers proved difficult, as rifle fire often could not penetrate the narrow firing ports. The Japanese covered these slits up with some form of camouflage when not in use. As US and Australian soldiers likewise discovered on Buna in New Guinea, the bunkers and pillboxes (the latter referred to as small bunkers) were built around the same general lines. With a shallow trench as a foundation, log columns and beams were erected, log revetment walls constructed, and a ceiling made of several layers of logs, laid laterally to the trench. With the completion of this basic superstructure, the revetment walls were reinforced by such materials as sheets of iron, oil drums, ammunition

by such materials as sheets of iron, oil drums, ammunition Left: ‘The Price of Victory’. A

Left: ‘The Price of Victory’. A member of the US Marine 4th Division lies dead on the sands of Iwo Jima after being shot in the head by intense Japanese sniper fire. Snipers were a constant and unwelcome threat to Allied landing forces.

74 and d efensive Tac T ics, 1931–1945 Offensive and d efensive Tac T ics,
74
and
d efensive
Tac T ics, 1931–1945
Offensive
and
d efensive
Tac T ics, 1931–1945
75
surface craft and landing vehicles.
howitzers in the defence of such positions.
Key
As for the types and calibres of gun used, the Japanese
normally employed 76mm (3in) to 203mm (8in) guns.
The 203mm guns were usually in turrets, while the
127mm (5in) and 152mm (6in) guns were separate field
pieces protected by shields. All of these guns were placed
in heavy revetments, with ammunition for the weapons
being stored in covered emplacements near the guns.
Machine guns were situated so as to fire outwards around
the perimeter. Most of these weapons were positioned for
crossfire and covered the beaches with enfilading fire. A
few were situated to fire to the rear of their positions in
Field Fortifications
Warehouses
dispersal area
Machine gun
Pillbox
Medium aa gun
coast defence gun
Heavy aa gun
anti-tank ditch
Barbed wire
concrete pyramides (Tetrahedrons)
Log boat barricade
Trenches
Buildings
Mine field
Japanese defence of the small islands or atolls was
characterised by an extensive use of field fortifications,
which in turn prompted a change in US Marine tactics
and organisation in dealing with them. After Tarawa, US
Marine units organised special assault teams of ‘bunker-
busters’ that employed the method called ‘Find’em,
fix’em and blast’em’, which had the task of dealing
specifically with Japanese bunkers. The machine guns
were the centre of these bunker and pillbox defences.
Hangers
case the enemy had managed to achieve a breakthrough
These fortifications ranged from simple fortifications of
305m
610m
0
(1000ft)
elsewhere and were encircling the guns. Some machine
palm logs and sand manned by two to three men, to the
(2000ft)
Barracks
Lagoon Lagoon
more extensive versions made of concrete and steel, and
manned by a squad of soldiers. As the Japanese Army was
forced increasingly onto the defensive, American forces
encountered more of the latter heavily reinforced defences.
Built with concrete and steel, they were relatively safe from
most smaller calibre shells and could only be destroyed
Reef
guns were situated in open emplacements, while others
machine guns were set up in pillboxes.
Those located in the open pillboxes were generally dual
purpose and had wide fields of fire, while those situated
in enclosed pillboxes had a much narrower field of fire.
These latter machine-gun positions were situated to fire in
only one direction. All emplacements were protected by
riflemen positioned in foxholes and trenches around the
fortifications. Some positions were defended by howitzers
and trench mortars, although on Tarawa, because the
Rikusentai had few of these weapons, they instead employed
Below: A Japanese pillbox reinforced with coconut logs and
covered with sand on Tarawa in November 1943. Coconut logs
were a common material featured in many Japanese bunkers in the
Pacific.
boxes filled with sand, and additional piles of logs. The
outside of the bunker was covered with dirt, rocks,
coconuts and short pieces of logs. Camouflage of these
bunkers consisted of a painted exterior with fast-growing
vines and other types of vegetation.
The defence of a beach on an atoll was centred on
the machine gun and a final protective line. The defence
consisted of a shallow line of strongpoints with a secondary
line of lesser density defences located slightly to the rear
of the main defences. Because of the small size of atolls,
the depth of the defence was limited. Strongpoints
consisted of a group of bunkers and pillboxes, connected
by communication trenches and in mutual support of
each other. Each rifleman who was assigned to protect
the pillbox or bunker had several alternative positions
to carry out his mission. As the situation warranted, the
Japanese infantryman ran from position to position. This
often led to much confusion among Marine and US Army
commanders and troops as to the actual strength of the
defenders. In such positions, Japanese infantrymen made
extensive use of hand-grenades particularly in the defence
of small islands such as Tarawa and Makin in the Gilberts,
and Kwajalein, Eniwetok and Roi-Namur in the Marshalls.
Above: A typical Japanese-controlled atoll in the Pacific, showing
the extensive and varied defensive preparations against any Allied
landing. At the centre of the atoll is the all-important airfield which
would make this an important target for the Allies.
Disrupting an Attack
Japanese defence of these small islands was based on the
idea of breaking up an attack before it reached the shore,
and all coast guns up to 203mm (8in) calibre were sited so
that they could be employed against small boats, landing
craft and any amphibian vehicles carrying assault troops.
Coastal and land batteries had local fire-director control,
with two or three guns positioned with observation
towards various gun positions to give mutual support. Flat
trajectory weapons were used extensively by the Japanese,
in contrast to indirect howitzer-type weapons which were
rarely, if at all, used. The guns were placed well forwards
on the beach where direct fire was then targeted against
the approaching landing craft. Their grouping was shallow
and all weapons were sited with the distinct mission of
defeating the seaborne assault at the water’s edge. In this
capacity, the Japanese also used anti-aircraft guns to repel

Offensive capacity, the Japanese also used anti-aircraft guns to repel The Orient Express Anthony burton Having been

the Japanese also used anti-aircraft guns to repel Offensive The Orient Express Anthony burton Having been

The Orient Express

Anthony burton

Having been launched in 1883, in its prime the Orient Express provided a stylish service that crossed borders, overcoming national interests and rivalries. The Orient Express traces the history of the service, from its glamorous beginnings, its popularity with European royalty and heads of state, on to its demise in the age of postwar austerity, the Cold War and cheaper air travel. Illustrated with outstanding, rarely seen photographs, this is a classic portrait of luxury train travel.

this is a classic portrait of luxury train travel. The Orient Express 297 x 227mm (11¾

The Orient Express

297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)

112pp

35,000 words

90 b/w photos, 10 line artworks

ISBN: 978-1-78274-602-7

£14.99 Paperback

T h e

e a r l y

y e a r s

T h e

e a r l y

y e a r s

T h e e a r l y y e a r s T h e
T h e e a r l y y e a r s T h e

above A poster of 1905, showing a variety of compartment interiors and concentrating very much on the luxury on offer, from the dining car with its panoramic views to the richly carpeted salon. Private toilet facilities may not have been as romantic, but were still sufficiently novel to earn their place in the overall picture.

Another day of coach travel lay ahead, through spectacular mountain gorges, which offered some compensation for the filthy resting places along the way. The last stage, from Sofia onwards, was the most demanding of all, with rough tracks and extreme gradients that almost brought the horses to their knees. At last, after a three-day journey, the weary travellers reached the railhead at Tatar-Bazardjik (Pazardzhik). As a place, it had as little to commend it as the squalid villages passed en route, but at least here the cramped diligence was left behind for the comforts of a railway carriage. The accommodation, though not on a par with that offered by the luxury wagons-lits , must have

Left A major improvement to the service in the 1880s came with the opening up of a rail link through Bulgaria, and to celebrate the event the Orient Express staff posed for this photograph at an unnamed Bulgarian station. The gentleman in the handsome, double-breasted uniform is the chef de train.

seemed heaven after what had gone before. And the company made the proud boast that they would now be whirling along at the dizzy speed of 26 mph (42 kph). The Sea of Marmara finally came into view, and, at six in the evening, after twelve hours on the rails, the train finally pulled into Sirkedji (now Sikerci) Station in Constantinople, splendidly sited between the quays of the Golden Horn and the great dome of Saint Sofia. There was no getting away from the fact that, regardless of the official purple prose, this was a long and wearisome journey. It is not surprising to find that few passengers booked for the through trip: it is simply astonishing that any booked at all. Everyone was aware of the shortcomings, not least the railway engineers building the new lines. Nevertheless, they did their work well, blasting and hacking their way through the mountains with remarkable speed. Early in 1889, the work was complete. On 1 June of that year, a train, composed entirely of Wagons-Lits

26

27

4 4

T u r m o i l a n d C h a n g
T u r m o i l
a n d
C h a n g e
T u r m o i l
a n d
C h a n g e
Ottoman state and its hierarchies, and in its place a modern,
independent, western-style state would be built. That man was
Kemal Ataturk. The Great War was over: civil war in Turkey
was about to begin. Germany was defeated, and was, for a
time at least, to be a pariah rather than a partner in the new
Europe that was being built on the ruins of the old. All these
factors played an important, and in some cases a decisive, part
in discussions on international rail travel.
Train de Luxe Militaire
One thing was very clear: there was no way, at the end of
1918, that the Orient Express could simply be reinstated. The
first move towards restoring railway normality came from the
military, anxious to ensure that the victors would be unimpeded
on their journeys across the continent. In February 1919, the
French minister of war organised the Train de Luxe Militaire,
strictly reserved for high-ranking officers and VIPs. It ran
from Paris via Vienna, Warsaw and Prague to Bucharest. But
there was an equally urgent need to restore something like
right The Simplon-Orient Express at Milan in the 1930s
en route from Paris to Istanbul. The photograph gives some idea
of the thousands of tons of steel used in the station’s construction.
Below The Wagons-Lits travel agency at Timisoara in Romania
in 1925. As well as advertising the usual luxury trains, it also
promotes the trains bleus.
normality to ordinary European relations, to provide lines of
communication between capitals, to restore economic dialogue
to Venice and Trieste. But this would no longer be the end
of the line: the route would continue through the brand new
and, just as importantly, to ensure freedom of movement,
which would send out a clear signal that the continent was,
indeed, at peace again. It was time to restore the trains de luxe
to the tracks.
A conference was held in Paris in March, 1919, organised
by the French, but with the active encouragement of other
governments, including the Swiss, Dutch, Italian and Yugoslav.
The aim was to establish the long-term future of international
trains and their routes. At the heart of the proposals was the
newly named Simplon-Orient Express. In general terms, the
aim was to provide a link that would stretch from London,
through Calais or Boulogne, to the Orient. There was no
question of sending trains through Germany. As before the
war, trains were to make their way south through France
and Switzerland, via the Simplon tunnel and from Milan
kingdom of Yugoslavia to Laibach (now Ljubljana), Zagreb and
on to Vincovce (now Vinkovci). Here, the train would divide, one
part going to Bucharest and Constanta, the other to Athens via
Thessalonika. And there was to be a new daily link, the Bordeaux-
Milan Express, which would be mainly made up of Wagons-Lits
cars, but with the addition of an ordinary first-class carriage.
Milan had suddenly acquired considerable importance in
the European rail system, and plans were at once put in hand
for a new station. The foundation stone was duly laid, but a
decade was to pass before Milan Central, the biggest station in
the world, covering 103 acres (42 hectares), was completed. It
was a most remarkable building, of two seemingly unrelated
parts. The main entrance, concourse and booking hall are
grandiloquence taken to extremes, a riot of stained glass windows
and marbled walls. It was aptly summed up by Jeffrey Richards
Below A simple but effective luggage label, printed in re
and green. With an increasing number of routes being ru
Wagons-Lits, each named express was given its own disti
ru Wagons-Lits, each named express was given its own disti How to Look After Your Horse

How to Look After Your Horse

peter brookesMith

How to Look After Your Horse covers all the practical details of horse ownership, as well as delving into the psyche of this most majestic of creatures. The book includes a guide to breeds, basic handling care and riding techniques, tips for feeding and grazing, and guidelines for understanding your horse’s character and history. There is invaluable advice on choosing a horse, stabling it in the most equine-friendly manner, feeding and grooming and riding your horse in a way that will give you and your mount the maximum satisfaction.

that will give you and your mount the maximum satisfaction. How to Look After Your Horse

How to Look After Your Horse

240 x 189mm (9½ x 7½”)

Extent: 192pp Illustrations: 120 black & white artworks Text: 60,000 words ISBN: 978-1-78274-591-4 £19.99 Paperback

sports and pastimes rod while remaining mounted, race to the bin and drop the carton
sports and pastimes
rod while remaining mounted, race to the
bin and drop the carton into it, and charge
back over the start line to pass the rod to
the next rider. This is not as easy as it may
seem. Some ponies really don’t like the sight
or sound of the carton on the stick, flying
hooves kick the bin and contents all over
the place, and of course the cartons on the
ground can be blown or scattered about.
Cartons can get trampled – so the rider has
to dismount to put them back into shape,
but she must be mounted again before she
picks one up. Needless to say, the rider is
not permitted to clutch the litter to the stick:
inculcate this kind of attitude, but that does
take time, patience and skill. And if you’re
going in for gymkhana, do remember, these
are games. It helps to be a good loser, and
to be tolerant of others’ mistakes too. Your
good humour will also keep your horse in
good heart.
SHOWJUMPING
she must use one hand on the rod only. Pray
it’s not a windy day.
For this kind of thing you need a pony
that can canter from a standing start and turn
on the proverbial sixpence (or dime). Given
the uproar from spectators and the possib-
ility of mayhem occurring in most mounted
games, this is not work for a highly strung
animal. It’s important to have a pony that
is unflappable and will concentrate on the
job in hand. It is by no means impossible to
Hugely popular as a spectator sport, top-
level showjumping offers big prize money
and is very demanding on horse and rider –
but many people jump their horses just for
fun, and not always competitively.
Rules for showjumping are very simple.
Depending on the level of competition,
the course usually consists of eight to 20
obstacles of various heights, up to about 2.2m
(7ft). Jumps may be simple vertical fences
and gates (these are actually among the most
difficult for the horse); ‘walls’ that look solid,
but with the top row of blocks loose so that
they will fall off easily if the horse knocks
them with his hooves; ‘spreads’ with, for
example, two or more parallel bars set one
Mounted games: the litter race
Reckoned the most challenging of mounted
games, this is run as a relay race for teams (as
shown here, with one rider ready at the start
line) or as a straight race for individuals. At
the centre is a dump bin: riders carry a rod,
use it to pick up a carton from the far end,
and dash back to dump it in the bin.

20

sports and pastimes
sports and pastimes

Showjumping: the water jump

Horses are generally wary of water, and one of the most challenging obstacles in showjump- ing is over water that’s usually hidden behind a hedge-like jump. The horse has to clear the

water, which it sees only at the last moment. It’s at such moments that the absolute trust that must be built up between steed and rider comes into its own.

behind the other, creating an extended jump

of

jump, complexity of the approaches and

the

level of difficulty accordingly.

with depth as well as height; the ‘triple bar’

The idea is to create a course that only

(three bars set at graduated heights); a water jump; and a combination of two or three

half a dozen or so horses will complete without faults within the given time limit.

different jumps a short distance apart. All

These are scored as follows: when any part

these have to be jumped in a set sequence,

of

a fence is knocked down the pair receives

which can be quite labyrinthine. No two

four faults. If a horse steps on the edge of, or

courses are the same: designers work with

in,

the water jump, the penalty is four faults.

the abilities of the competing horses in mind, and vary colours and textures, types

A

refusal at a fence receives three faults, and

21

the nature of the horse the nature of the horse come along with you. And
the nature of the horse
the nature of the horse
come along with you. And all horses have a
profoundly personal space extending roughly
1.5m (5ft) around them, plus a less intense
one that starts about 6m (20ft) away. A
horse that is feeling awkward will definitely
take umbrage if you storm into this space,
intent on making your presence felt, without
giving a thought to the offence it might
cause him.
But speak a language the horse understands
and you shouldn’t have a problem. Slump
your shoulders as you slowly but steadily
approach. Lower your head. Keep your
hands by your sides or behind your back.
Avoid eye contact and turn your head and
Putting on a head collar
1
2
shoulders slightly away from the horse. Talk
soothingly, meanwhile. The rest of you,
though, is speaking the body language of a
submissive, cautious horse
Softly, softly
When you approach a horse that’s out on grass, go indirectly,
keep any headcollar out of sight, adopt a submissive posture,
and avoid eye contact with the animal. He will read these signs
as a message that you mean no harm, and want to cooperate .
asking for acceptance. You
should be allowed to come
close enough to exchange
greetings (hold out a free
hand for the horse to sniff,
chat and give him some
strokes in return) and then
put the head collar on. Once
you’ve done this, always
show your appreciation,
physically and verbally.
If this doesn’t work,
and the horse scoots away
(probably not more than a
few metres), retreat quietly
until you’re at least 6m
(20ft) away, still retaining
your submissive posture.
Wait for a few minutes, then
advance again. Continue this
advance and retreat, if need
be, until the horse decides
you aren’t, after all, a threat
or a nuisance and lets you
right up to him.
3
4
2.
Pass your right hand under your
horses’ chin and put it palm down on the
bridge of his nose, not so quickly that you
make him start, but firmly enough so that you
have his head under gentle control. Slide the
For really determinedly
uncatchable horses,
Approach the horse quietly and submissively
if necessary, so that he can see you coming.
Talk as you walk. Exchange greetings. Make
sure the lead rope is clipped to the head col-
lar. Hold the loose end of the lead rope in the
palm of your left hand. Hold the head collar
by the noseband in the fingers of the same
hand. Then:
head collar up over his nose so that the nose-
band is in place. Hold it there with the your
left hand.
equestrian journalist Lesley
Bayley suggests ‘walking
down’. You will need to set
aside plenty of time for this.
Just follow the horse around
in his field, maintaining
your non-aggressive stance,
but staying close enough to
1. Stand at the horse’s left shoulder, facing
in the same direction as he is. Some people
put the lead rope over the horse’s neck at this
point, but it can distract the horse, or slip out
of reach, down the side away from you. So
this is by no means a golden rule. Just do what
works best for you and the particular horse,
but don’t let the rope dangle on the ground.
3.
As you slide the head collar on, use your
right hand to catch and bring the headband
round behind his ears. Make all these move-
ments smoothly so you don’t startle the horse,
and talk to him all the time.
4.
Do up the buckle (not too tight), take
the lead rope in both hands, give a scratch or
pat as thanks for the cooperation.
keep him on the move. He

70

71

MARCH 2018 PUBliCATioN

keep him on the move. He 70 71 MARCH 2018 PUBliCATioN Pawfect Friends JAck russell Playing,

Pawfect Friends

JAck russell

Playing, protecting, keeping a sleepy eye out for each other – even putting up with each other’s eccentricities – the photographs in Pawfect Friends celebrate 90 of the cutest cat and dog pairs that you will ever see.

90 of the cutest cat and dog pairs that you will ever see. Pawfect Friends 153

Pawfect Friends

153 x 153mm (6 x 6”)

96

pages

90

colour photographs

ISBN: 978-1-78274-586-0

£6.99 Hardback

Pawfect Friends 153 x 153mm (6 x 6”) 96 pages 90 colour photographs ISBN: 978-1-78274-586-0 £6.99
Pawfect Friends 153 x 153mm (6 x 6”) 96 pages 90 colour photographs ISBN: 978-1-78274-586-0 £6.99

5

Ghost Towns chris M c nAb From Pripyat in Ukraine to Deception Island in Antarctica

Ghost Towns

chris McnAb

From Pripyat in Ukraine to Deception Island in Antarctica to thousands of empty apartments in Inner Mongolia, from Greek leper colonies to deserted Italian mountain villages, Ghost Towns is a brilliant pictorial work examining lost worlds. With reasons ranging from the collapse of local industry to natural disasters to chemical spills, the book explores, in 150 striking photographs, 100 desolate urban environments from around the globe.

100 desolate urban environments from around the globe. Ghost Towns 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)

Ghost Towns

297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)

224pp

10,000 words

150 colour photographs

ISBN: 978-1-78274-550-1

£19.99 Hardback

Dooley, Montana, USA This abandoned church is all the remains of the town of Dooley,
Dooley, Montana, USA
This abandoned church is all the
remains of the town of Dooley,
in
Sheridan County, Montana.
Dooley was founded in 1913, as
a
stop on the Soo Line Railroad
branch line. A settlement grew
there with shops, a post office, the
Rocky Valley Lutheran Church
(seen here) and three large grain
elevators. Yet the town seemed to
have persistent bad luck, with fires,
tornados, pestilence and harsh
winters taking their toll, and it was
abandoned by 1957.
166
167
116 opposite above : opposite below : above : amphitheatre was a work of superb
116
116
116 opposite above : opposite below : above : amphitheatre was a work of superb Pompeii,

opposite above:

opposite below:

above:

amphitheatre was a work of superb

Pompeii, Campania, Italy

Pompeii, Campania, Italy

Pompeii, Campania, Italy

architectural sophistication. It was

A

narrow alleyway in one of

An interior passageway in

buried in ash during the Mount

Pompeii’s backstreets. Many of

Pompeii’s famous amphitheatre.

Vesuvius eruption, but it actually

One of the many cobbled streets

the

more developed Roman towns

The building was constructed in

survived the event with surprisingly

lacing ancient Pompeii. The raised

and

cities had their streets laid out

70 BCE, and like other Roman

little damage, hence historians have

stone blocks are stepping stones,

in

a grid pattern, much as we see

amphitheatres it hosted violent

been able to study the building’s

which allowed the citizens to cross

today in modern town planning in

gladiatorial games. Despite

design and how it worked in

the street when it was wet or dirty, but permitted cart wheels to pass through the gaps.

countries such as the United States.

the brutality of its events, the

exceptional detail.

 

117

of its events, the exceptional detail.   117 The Military Quiz Book John piMlott Arranged

The Military Quiz Book

John piMlott

Arranged chronologically, The Military Quiz Book contains 1,750 questions (and answers) ranging from the ancient world to the present day, from personalities and quotations to battles and campaigns, from weapons to uniforms. Written by a former instructor in war studies at Sandhurst, this is an excellent book for professional quizzes, challenging your friends, or just reading alone.

quizzes, challenging your friends, or just reading alone. The Military Quiz Book 235 x 153mm (9¼

The Military Quiz Book

235 x 153mm (9¼ x 6”)

128pp

45,000 words

ISBN: 978-1-78274-605-8

£12.99 Paperback

A N C I E N T A N D

M E DI E VA L TO 1 6 0 0

A N S W E R S

EARLY MODERN 1600 – 1914

QUESTIONS

 

Answers I

Questions 56

a. They commanded the French army’s ill-fated Genoese crossbowmen.

a.

Which self-styled ‘Napoleon of the West’ was also known as the ‘Immortal

 

b. Claudius.

Three-Fourths’ and the ‘Hero of Tampico’?

c. Richard I.

b.

Who, on witnessing the Charge of the Light Brigade, exclaimed, ‘C’est magnifique,

d. A sharp, many-pointed device usually of metal, that when scattered could break up

mais ce n’est pas la guerre.’ (‘It is magnificent, but it isn’t war.’)?

enemy cavalry or infantry attacks by piercing hooves or the soles of shoes. (In more

c.

At which English Civil War battle did Sir Jacob Ashley offer the prayer, ‘Lord, thou

modern parlance, a calthrop is a similar device used for stopping wheeled vehicles by

knowest how busy I am, or will be, this day; if I forget thee, do not thou forget me.

piercing the tyres).

March on, boys.’?

e. An early form of handgun.

d. Who would be equipped with Patu Onewa and Toki Poto?

f. Narses was a eunuch.

e. What is the meaning of the name Apache?

g. Armour to protect the shoulder.

f. Who said to a captured deserter, ‘Come, come, let us fight another battle today: if I

am

beaten we will desert together tomorrow.’?

 

Answers 2

g.

Who said, ‘In war something must be allowed to chance and fortune seeing it is,

a. Aetius.

in

its nature, hazardous and an option of difficulties.’?

b. Three,

c. Although the combat was to be on foot, at a vital moment one knight mounted his

Questions 57

horse and charged into the English.

a. Who was the highest-ranking officer to be killed in the American Civil War?

d.

So they would bend when they penetrated enemy shields, rendering the shields

b. When was Gibraltar first taken by British forces?

unusable, and also becoming useless themselves,

c. The Battle of Batoche (1885) ended which Rebellion?

e. A sling mounted on a staff for throwing large projectiles.

d. What type of weapon was manufactured by Chevalier et Grenier, Bollee and Gabert?

f. Count Belisarius.

e. Who was the real D’Artagnan?

g. The Due de Berri.

f. Who said, The Ancients had a great advantage over us in that their armies were

not

trailed by a second army of pen-pushers.’?

 

Answers 3

g.

What was the nickname of Rimington’s Scouts in the Second Anglo-Boer War?

a. Mohammad II and Constantine XI.

 
 

b. Alesia.

Questions 58

c. Patay(l429).

a. Which 17th Century general held to the maxim that ‘war should feed war’?

d. To assault a walled city: it was a solid formation where locked shields defended

b. Which engineer improved Sevastopol’s defences during the Crimean War?

infantry against missiles from the sides and from the top.

c. Who was the last British monarch to accompany his men into battle?

e. ‘Yeni ceri’ literally ‘new troops’.

d

How old was Don John of Austria when he won the Battle of Lepanto (1571)?

f. Sennacherib, King of Assyria.

d.

Who said, ‘The whole art of war consists in getting at what lies on the other side of

g. A jacket lined with iron scales.

the

hill, or, in other words, what we do not know from what we do know.’?

e.

Who said, ‘The success of my whole project is founded on the firmness of conduct

of

the officer who will command it.’?

f.

Why did the British Army’s Colonel Hale adopt the skull and crossbones

and motto ‘or Glory’ for his newly raised regiment of Light Dragoons (later the 17th Lancers) in 1759?

Questions 59

a. Who was ‘the bloody butcher’?

b. Who was known as the ‘Rock of Chickamauga’?

c. The bloody Taiping Rebellion (1851 -65) was also known by what name?

d. What was a saker?

e. Admiral Sir Edward Codrington versus Ibrahim Pasha. Which battle of 1827?

f. Who was Jenkins of the War of Jenkins’ Ear?

g. Who said, ‘If there is one area where severity is necessary for a sovereign, it is with

regard to his soldiers.’?

8

57

EARLY MODERN 1600 – 1914

ANSWERS

MODERN FROM 1914

QUESTIONS

Answers 56

a. Mexican President-General Antonio de Lopez Santa Anna.

From 1914

b. French General Bosquet.

c. Edgehill (i642).

d. Maoris. They are a type of club and long-shafted tomahawk.

e. It is derived from a word meaning enemy.

Questions I

f. Frederick the Great.

a. Where did ‘the Tiger’ beat ‘the Rabbit’?

g. James Wolfe, in a letter of November 1757.

b. Which two countries fought the ‘Soccer War’?

c. In which conflict did the first helicopter assault from the sea take place?

Answers 57

d. What did the Butt Report of August 1941 prove?

a. Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the Army of Mississippi,

e. According to British Army legend, what is ‘the most dangerous thing in the world’?

killed at Shiloh (April 1862).

f. Where did the multi-national ‘Dunsterforce’ serve at the end of World War I?

b. In 1704, during the War of Spanish Succession. The acquisition was formalised in 1713

g. Which medal was known to its recipients as the ‘Order of the Frozen Meat’?

at the Treaty of Utrecht,

c. Louis Riel’s Metis uprising in present-day Manitoba.

Questions 2

d. The Mitrailleuse (early French machine gun).

a. Which British naval officer commanded a squadron of armoured cars in Russian

e. Captain of the I st Company of Louis XIV’s Mousquetaires de la Garde from 1667

Galicia during the War of Intervention of 1917-19?

until his death at the siege of Maastricht in 1673.

b. Name the communications route that ran between Port Moresby and Buna

f. Napoleon.

in New Guinea in World War II.

g. Tigers’, because of the wild-cat skin worn around their headgear.

c. What was a ‘Big Wing’?

d. What kind of warship is the Kiev?.

Answers 58

e. What was renounced by countries signing the Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1927?

a. Wallenstein.

f. Who described the Argentine invasion of the Falklands as, ‘a most ungentlemanly act’?

b. Colonel Todleben.

g. Which famous child care specialist was prominent in the anti-Vietnam War movement?

c. George II at Dettingen, 1743.

d. 23. He owed his command first to his status as a bastard son of the Emperor

Questions 3

Charles V and half-brother of Philip II of Spain and secondly to his successful

a. Who was the first British Secretary of State for Defence?

campaign against the Spanish Moriscos (1569-70).

b. How many Indo-Pakistan Wars have been fought since the partition of 1947?

e. The Duke of Wellington.

c. What did the Soviets dub the ‘Circle of Death’?

f. Frederick the Great, Instruction to his Generals.

d. n World War I, how was the German Staaken R-VI aircraft better known?

g. In memory of his friend and comrade-in-arms, General James Wolfe, killed at

e. Which two Latin American countries contributed forces to Allied operations in

Quebec in the same year.

World War II?

 

f.

Who said, in 1944, ‘The real trouble with the Yanks is that they are completely

 

ignorant as to the rules of the game we are playing with the Germans. You play so

much better when you know the rules.’?

 

g.

In which war did the Commonwealth Division fight?

Answers 59

a.

The Duke of Cumberland, so nicknamed because of his activities after the Battle of

Culloden(l746).

b. Union General George Thomas,

c. The War of Heavenly Peace.

d. A light cannon used in the English Civil War.

e. Navarino.

f. Captain Jenkins, a merchant captain whose ear was allegedly cut off by Spanish

forces that captured his vessel in the Caribbean. This incident sparked off popular

fury in England and forced Prime Minister Walpole, unwillingly, to go to war with

Spain in 1739.

g.

Louis XIV.

58

71

6

with Spain in 1739. g. Louis XIV. 58 71 6 The Zeppelin christopher chAnt From the

The Zeppelin

christopher chAnt

From the first tentative steps at the end of the 19th century, through to important service during World War

I, the golden age of airship travel

in the 1920s and 1930s, and on to the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, this revealing book delves deep into

the history and science of airship travel. Illustrated with many seldom archive photographs, The Zeppelin gives a unique insight into one of engineering’s most remarkable achievements.

into one of engineering’s most remarkable achievements. The Zeppelin 297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”) 112pp

The Zeppelin

297 x 227mm (11¾ x 9”)

112pp

35,000 words 90 black-and-white photos and 10 line artworks ISBN: 978-1-78274-603-4 £14.99 Paperback

T r a v e l l i n g i n S T y
T r a v e l l i n g
i n
S T y l e
T r a v e l l i n g
i n
S T y l e
above The two- and four-blade propeller units were identical in
concept, although not in size, to those employed in heavier-than-
air craft.
right Landing was controlled by means of ropes pulled by the
ground crew, and a large ‘bumper’ under the control gondola
cushioned the impact with the ground.
the
LZ62 of 1916 with a greater beam/length ratio, the LZ104
of
1917 with a greater length/beam ratio, the LZ120 of 1919
with a shorter hull and greater beam/length ratio, and from the
LZ126 of 1924 a longer hull of greater length/beam ratio.
structural coNsiDeratioNs
Throughout this period the size of the Zeppelin airships, with
the exception of the LZ120, increased steadily, for the greater
the internal volume of the hull, the greater the volume of the gas
cells that could be incorporated and thus the greater the lift that
could be provided. Size, and the structural considerations that
went along with it, was arguably the single most important con-
sideration in the development of the Zeppelin airship for both
civil and military applications, even though these demanded
a
number of different features: in civil airships, for example,
maximisation of the payload/range parameter was all important
whereas a very high speed and good altitude performance were
only very secondary considerations, and in military airships a
naval L10 of 1915) had a capacity of 1,126,500ft 3 (31,900 m 3 )
ratio of 6.46/1 for its 396-ft (120-m) hull. The implication of
a
capacity of 7,000,000ft 3 (198,000m 3 ) and a length/beam ratio
and a length/beam ratio of 8.74/1 for its 536-ft (163-m) hull;
the LZ120’s design was that the emphasis was no longer being
of
5.95/1 for its 800-ft (245-m) hull.
high payload was important but in fact came to be subordinated
the
LZ62 (naval L30 of 1916) had a capacity of 1,949,000ft 3
placed so much on altitude and outright payload-carrying cap-
to
the need for the good speed and altitude performance of the
(55,200m 3 ) and a length/beam ratio of 8.28/1 for its 649-ft
ability but rather on safety, comfort and general performance.
liFtiNg the airshiP
type that was basically irrelevant to the civil airship. The LZ5
(the Imperial German Army’s ZII of 1909) had a capacity of
(198-m) hull; and the LZ104 (naval L59 of 1917, and admit-
However, the LZ126 built for the US Navy in 1924 had a
The hydrogen gas that provided the Zeppelin airships’ lift was
tedly an ‘odd man out’ as it was built for a special purpose) had
capacity of 2,472,000ft 3 (70,000m 3 ) and a length/beam ratio of
contained in the so-called Traggaszellen (‘gas cells’). In the early
530,000ft 3 (15,000m 3 ) and a length/beam ratio of 10.46/1 for
a
capacity of 2,420,000ft 3 (68,500m 3 ) and a length/beam ratio
6.27/1 for its 660-ft (200-m) hull; the LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin
airships these were made of a heavy cotton fabric covered with
its
446-ft (136-m) hull; the LZ18 (Imperial German Navy L2
of
9.48/1 for its 743-ft (226-m) hull. Then, after the end of the
civil airship of 1928 had a capacity of 2,650,000ft 3 (75,000m 3 )
a
rubber coating. Experience revealed that this combination was
of
1913) had a capacity of 953,500ft 3 (27,000m 3 ) and a length/
war
the first new Zeppelin airship was the LZ120 Bodensee and
and a length/beam ratio of 7.76/1 for its 774-ft (236-m) hull;
too
porous to prevent gas escaping from the cells and pooling
beam ratio of 9.52/1 for its 518-ft (158-m) hull; the LZ40 (and
this
had a capacity of 785,750ft 3 (22,250m 3 ) and a length/beam
and the ultimate LZ129 Hindenburg civil airship of 1936 had
under the upper part of the outer covering, so the company
44
45
T r a v e l l i n g i n S T y
T r a v e l l i n g
i n
S T y l e
T r a v e l l i n g
i n
S T y l e
above The luxury of Zeppelin airship travel, here on the
LZ127, was emphasised by the use of monogrammed silver and
porcelain.
Left The dining saloon of the LZ127 offered comfortable
accommodation, full waiter service, a good selection of wines,
and the choice of hot or cold food.
miles (1,700km), the military and naval airships provided great-
Between 1912 and 1914 the Viktoria Luise carried 9,738
Accommodation on the Zeppelin airships evolved from the
er
lift and longer range, typically about 24,500lb (11,100kg)
service persons including crew and 2,995 fare-paying passengers,
very spartan open gondolas of the LZ1 to the luxurious fully
and 1,300 miles (2,100km) respectively. The demands of
World War I then resulted in an enormous expansion of lift/
on 489 flights totalling 33,750 miles (54,310km) in 981 flying
hours, while during the autumn of 1919 the Bodensee carried
enclosed spaces of the LZ127 and LZ129. The gondola of the
LZ1 was large enough for the crew, engine and basic operation-
range capability, and while the LZ40 (naval L10 of 1915) had
4,050 persons including 2,253 fare-paying passengers on 103
al equipment. Over the following period there appeared three
a
lift of 35,000lb (15,900kg) and possessed a range of 2,600
trips totalling 31,851 miles (51,258km) in 532 flying hours.
different types of gondola. The first of these, attached under
miles (4,200km), the comparative data for the LZ62 (naval L30
The later commercial airships of course had longer ranges, and
the walkway, was a watertight assembly with a rounded front
of
1916) were 61,700lb (28,000kg) and 4,600 miles (7,400km)
the LZ127 could cover 6,370 miles (10,250km) and the LZ129
and a pointed rear. The second of these, which first made its
and those for the LZ61 (naval L21 of 1916) were 99,200lb
8,390 miles (13,500km). The lift of the LZ127 and LZ129 were
(44,500kg) and 7,455 miles (12,000km).
66,140lb and 132,275lb (30,000kg and 60,000kg) respectively.
appearance on the LZ36 (naval L9), was an enclosed control
gondola about three times larger than it had been to provide
accommodation, which now included a pilot’s compartment,
the radio operator’s compartment, an officer’s compartment
and a position for a defensive machine-gun. The third of the
gondola types was of a shorter length and introduced on the
LZ95 (naval L48). On the LZ120 Bodensee intended for civil
use, the gondola was considerably lengthened to the rear and
now included a pilot’s compartment and a passenger section
with a lounge and other compartments.
Provision for the crew was altogether more austere, and
comprised simple accommodation along the sides of the walk-
way inside the hull, where provision was made for hammocks
to be slung. It was only with the advent of the ocean-crossing
airships with their considerably longer endurance that more
comfortable provision was made for the crew, who then enjoyed
the benefits of sleeping cabins and common rooms.
Other features that came to be added to the standard
equipment of Zeppelin airships included electric lighting by an
engine-driven generator, and this first appeared in the LZ14
(naval L1) – earlier airships had relied on battery-powered light-
ing. Radio equipment was first used in the LZ6 (military ZIII),
and the standard of flight and navigation equipment steadily
improved, ranging from the compass and barometer of the LZ1
to the full suites of equipment typical of the LZ127 and LZ129.
52
53
suites of equipment typical of the LZ127 and LZ129. 52 53 The Pan Am Clipper roy

The Pan Am Clipper

roy Allen

The Pan Am Clipper: The History of Pan American’s Flying-Boats 1931 to 1946 covers one of aviation history’s most inspiring and magical periods. One of the most romantic planes ever built, flying in a Clipper was

intended to rival a great ocean liner. Illustrated with more than 100 archive photographs, this impressive book is

a tribute to a technical wonder that continues to fascinate many people today.

wonder that continues to fascinate many people today. The Pan Am Clipper 297 x 225mm (11¾

The Pan Am Clipper

297 x 225mm (11¾ x 9”)

112pp

100 b/w photos & 10 line a/ws

35,000 words

ISBN: 978-1-78274-604-1

£14.99 Paperback

D o w n

T o

T h e

S e a

D o w n

T o

T h e

S e a

l eft PAA publicity map of the period show- ing the widening coverage of the
l eft PAA publicity map of the period show- ing the widening coverage of the

left PAA publicity map of the period show- ing the widening coverage of the Caribbean and South American services.

a bove A truly memorable sight for those fortunate enough to experience it – the

above A truly memorable sight for those fortunate enough to experience it – the view from an S-42, somewhere over the Caribbean.

added for both mail and passengers. The journey took seven hours and fifteen minutes and was the first trans-continental air route in South America. Mail contracts were obtained by NYRBA from the governments of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. In November of that year, authorisation was obtained from the Brazilian government to operate within that country; a week later a new route was opened from Buenos Aires to Asuncion, Paraguay. The former US Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics, W. P. McCracken, became chairman of the board. O’Neill bought Ford Tri-Motors for his services, three Sikorsky S-38 amphibians and six Commodore flying-boats from the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, of which Reuben Fleet was the owner. While the Sikorsky S-38 was an adequate craft, seating eight passengers and offering the dual functions of land and seaplane at the handling point, the Commodore was an advanced new machine which would seat 22 passengers, and represented the first of a new breed of water-borne craft.

end, had been developed from nothing more than large fields to purposeful landing sites. These accommodated the military fighters and bombers and observation aircraft which carried on their destructive tasks over the 1914–18 period and which had been large fields and open areas for the original European aviation experiments. The Wright Brothers had brought the aeroplane to Europe as a landplane and that was how it was viewed, with a few experimenters attempting flights from the rivers, such as the Seine. There had been no such war and no such military aviation in the United States and consequently no purposely constructed landing grounds. Governments had put their money behind military aerodromes in Europe to provide for their new military craft (for which they had shown little or no interest prior to the war) and there was no such requirement in the United States. A number of enlightened towns or states had seen the potential for air services as a result of the US Post Office’s air services, but the sum total of designated aerodromes in the whole of the United States in the 1920s was just over 1000. The situation was worse in Central America and the Caribbean, with proper landing grounds being virtually non- existent. The practical necessities of a Caribbean service precluded the use of landplanes, as routes were either over water or across short stretches of land. In most of the countries of the Antilles, West Indies and Central America, landing grounds were mostly of the most primitive type or non-existent. In contrast, the building of harbours for flying-boats was relatively easy and both climate and water conditions were favourable. As Pan American’s route network lengthened, so did its requirement for landing sites. Accordingly Pan American decided to concentrate its

 

enter tHe Flying-boat

activities on the water-borne aircraft. The general view in the countries of the region was that if the United States wished to operate air services permission would be granted, but that was all that could be expected from local governments, many of which were generally impoverished and often corrupt. Pan American’s actions in this area were furthered by a development among the airlines which led to an early takeover and the acquisition of a new fleet for Pan American. In March 1929, a new company was formed in New York called the New York, Rio and Buenos Aires Line, or NYRBA, and this represented a direct challenge to the Aviation Corporation of the Americas. The head of the company was Captain Ralph O’Neill, a former World War I fighter ace and later a Boeing salesman in South America. O’Neill had seen the enormous potential for air transport in that transport-starved continent and had gone to New York to look for backers for his proposed airline. He found them in the form of an impressive collection of industrialists, which included Reuben Fleet of the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, F. C. Munson of the Munson Steamship Line, W. B. Mayo of the Ford Motor Company, J. E. Reynolds of International Founders and Lewis Pierson of the Irving Trust Company. Pierson brought in his son-in-law Richard Bevier as vice-president, together with J. K. Montgomery. These three had been partners in the original Pan American Airways and had left when Trippe and the AVCO organisation took over their company and began the first flights to Cuba. In July 1929, a proving flight was made with a Ford Tri- Motor to Buenos Aires and the first NYRBA scheduled service opened on 21 August 1929 from the Argentine capital to Montevideo. In September, a Buenos Aires–Santiago route was

The Commodore was originally designed for naval patrol work by Fleet’s company. It was a sizeable craft for its day, with a wingspan of 100ft (30m), a length of 68ft (21m) and overall height of 16ft (5m). It was powered by two Pratt & Whitney Hornet engines, each developing 575hp, and the gross weight of the aircraft was just under 18,000lb (8200kg). Its designed range was 1000 statute miles (1609km), and with a cruising speed of 100mph (161kmh) and a capability for carrying 22 passengers, the Commodore was, all-in-all, a fine craft. It was a product of the company founded by Reuben Fleet in May 1923, the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. Fleet was a self-made businessman with six years’ experience in the US Army Air Service. Later, when war added to the demands for aeroplanes, Consolidated Aircraft Corporation was to become one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the United States. Like the Trippe family, Fleet’s forebears had their roots in England, and his father had reached the Pacific Northwest by way of Kansas City. After finishing school, Fleet entered the Culver Military Academy in Indiana, graduated in 1906, and for a brief period was a school teacher in Washington. He then started his own business and became a real estate dealer. With his first flight in 1914, he became an immediate convert to flying. Fleet became a member of the Washington State Legislature and introduced a bill appropriating $250,000 for aviation training in the National Guard. The Bill died, but Fleet had attracted attention and was among 11 men to be chosen for pilot training in the scheme that had come from his Bill. He made his first flight from San Diego in 1917, and joined the military when the United States entered World War I in 1917. He left the Air Service in 1922, during which time he had made an

above The interior of an S-38, illustrating the wonderful views that were enjoyed by passengers on these early flights.

22

23

D o w n T o T h e S e a D o w
D o w n
T o
T h e
S e a
D o w n
T o
T h e
S e a
impression on senior officers in the service.
He turned down jobs with aircraft makers William Boeing
and Glenn Curtiss, and incorporated the Consolidated Aircraft
Corporation in the State of Delaware on 29 May 1923. He
gained a first order from the military for twenty TW-3 training
aircraft, which on modification was renumbered the PT-1.
A further contract for the PT-1 was placed in 1924, for fifty
aircraft, at which point Fleet moved the production facilities to
Buffalo, New York, where he took over a former Curtiss factory.
Further orders followed for training aircraft, for the navy
as well as army, and by 1927 Consolidated Aircraft was
making money. Further military designs followed, including
a new bomber, the Guardian, which was a joint venture
between Consolidated and Sikorsky, produced when Fleet and
Igor Sikorsky had agreed to collaborate on what had been a
Sikorsky design. Significantly, Sikorsky, a former competitor
of Consolidated, came to play a more significant role with Pan
American than did Consolidated. Indeed, Trippe was already
using a fleet of Sikorsky S-38s by the time of the NYRBA
challenge.
NRYBA was gaining ground in an area which Trippe had
already been working hard to call his own, and on 18 February
1930, O’Neill launched the first through service between Miami
and Santiago, using the east coast route via Brazil. In a great
flourish of publicity he gained the services of no less than Mrs
Herbert Hoover, the President’s wife, to christen a Consolidated
below In its airline form, the Commodore carried a total of 22
passengers and cruised at 100mph (160kmh). It was used in
the Caribbean.
above The S-42 was probably Sikorsky’s finest flying-boat. It
seated up to 32 passengers and cruised at 150mph (240kmh).
This aircraft served with Pan Am until July 1946.
landing bases than from over-water crossings of great distance.
Trippe had strong political influence in the US Post Office
Department, however, and conflict soon arose between NYRBA
and
Pan American. Pan American held the US mail contracts
Commodore for this service. Having begun services with
NYRBA in November 1929, the Commodores had already
been successful enough for O’Neill to increase his original
order for six to fourteen. It might be said that the US Navy’s
loss was NYRBA’s gain, for while the navy had turned down
the Commodore, Fleet found a ready buyer for a commercial
version of the aircraft in NYRBA – the airline in which Fleet
was a major investor.
Both Consolidated and NYRBA came out well from this
deal: it had a beneficial effect for Consolidated, for it provided
work on the 14 aircraft, and the deal gave O’Neill an excellent
aircraft for the South American services. The Commodores
(whose naval name had been Admiral) had the capability for
long ranges which resulted more from the shortage of adequate
as
far as Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, and NYRBA found its
path blocked for mail and passenger traffic across the gap from
Port of Spain, Trinidad, along the chain of islands to Miami.
Relations became strained and conflict continued and reached
a
critical point. The US Post Master General took issue with
NYRBA’s cut-price mail rates. The Post Master General made
it
clear that he would not award any US mail contract for an
east-coast route to Buenos Aires to any other company than Pan
American, and with so many countries in the region pledging
exclusive allegiance to Pan American, NYRBA’s economic
problems mounted. Despite a high standard of operations,
NYRBA passenger figures were as limited as its mail traffic and
it
was actually losing money on its operations.
Pan American did not itself receive US mail rights for the
24
25

7

Fighting Techniques of a U.S. Marine 1941–1945 leo J. dAugherty iii Fighting Techniques of a

Fighting Techniques of a U.S. Marine 1941–1945

leo J. dAugherty iii

Fighting Techniques of a US Marine 1941–1945 is a detailed examination of how the individual Marine operated during World War II, the organisation of Marine units, and the weapons and equipment used, illustrating why the Corps was such a powerful force in the Pacific. Detailed artworks show the uniforms and other equipment worn by Marines throughout the conflict.

and other equipment worn by Marines throughout the conflict. Fighting Techniques of a U.S. Marine 1941–1945

Fighting Techniques of a U.S. Marine 1941–1945

285 x 213mm (11¼ x 8¼in)

96 pages

35,000 words

50 artworks, 40 photographs

ISBN: 978-1-78274-601-0

£14.99 Paperback

66
66

Marine

Battlefield

t actics

and

t echniques, 1942–1945

Marine

Battlefield

t actics

and

t echniques, 1942–1945

67
67

War I proved anything, the battlefield had been dominated

the artillery and machine gun, and in assault after

assault, ‘Again, was decisively shown the great importance

artillery to infantry. Infantry alone without material,

makes little progress. If the enemy combines personnel

and material, we must do the same or lose the game.’ In

direct parallel to the fighting on Tarawa (1943) and later

during the savage fighting on Saipan and Peleliu in 1944,

and on Iwo Jima and Okinawa in 1945, the Marine Brigade

lost 112 officers and 4598 men in one month’s fighting in

Belleau Wood. With such losses, and with the nature of

open warfare fighting that General John J. Pershing

and other American commanders insisted upon, Marine officers concluded at the war’s end that the battles they

participated in during the fighting offered many lessons for

operational and tactical nature of future wars. In fact,

US Army later incorporated many of these same lessons

its 1923 Field Service Regulations (FSRs) and Infantry

Drill Regulations (IDRs) that Marines studied and trained

during the interwar era. Thus when the US Marines

Corps entered World War II, many of its senior officers had

either seen combat in France during the last war, or had been well-grounded in the tactical and doctrinal lessons of

by

in

the

the

the

a

of

by

that war, as found later in the US Army’s landmark 1923

FSRs and IDRs. As the nature of the fighting shifted from

the jungles of the Solomon Islands to the coral atolls and

volcanic islands of the Central Pacific, the fighting came

to resemble more and more that endured by the Marines

during World War I.

and more that endured by the Marines during World War I. Above: A Marine rifle squad

Above: A Marine rifle squad fords a stream on Guadalcanal in

mid-August 1942. For the Marines, jungle conditions such as this

were common in the early part of the war, before the fighting

moved to open coral atolls such as Tarawa.

Marine Corps, however, and with the issuance of the E-Tables of Organization, the Marine rifle team went from four to six men, with the average Marine squad being twelve Marines: squad leader, six riflemen, and two BAR and two assistant BAR men, all armed with M-1 Garands or BARs. All Marine formations had been organized on the triangular organization of three squads per platoon, three platoons per company, three companies per battalion, and three battalions per regiment, and finally three regiments plus supporting arms per division.

Guadalcanal Tactically, the Guadalcanal campaign vindicated Marine training, which focused on small unit operations with the emphasis being on initiative and tactical flexibility. Thus, the tactics employed by Marines were primarily lineal in nature due to the defensive nature of the campaign. According to Sergeant George MacGillivray, who served on a 37mm (1.45in) gun crew, the nature of the fighting usually involved units no larger than companies and as

two decades later, Guadalcanal closely resembled Vietnam, which was also a war waged by small units. Marines, armed with rifles, bayonets, hand grenades, mortars, machine

guns, and 37mm anti-tank guns – used primarily as anti- personnel weapons and normally against bunkers – fought off daily Japanese banzai attacks or sought out the elusive Japanese snipers, and engaged in constant patrolling. From the start, Marine infantry and artillery commanders effectively used the terrain on Guadalcanal to their advantage in order to maximize the effectiveness of their weapons. Thus, Marine positions were usually dug in and anchored along the rivers and ravines that bisected the main line of resistance located at Henderson Airfield, and allowed the leathernecks to effectively employ all of their firepower. Marines on Guadalcanal and on Tulagi likewise developed countermeasures to deal with Japanese positions carved into the sides of ridge lines and in caves. As would be the case later in the war on Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, Marines belonging to the 1st Raider Battalion, commanded by Colonel Merritt A. Edson, spent the majority of the fighting on Guadalcanal and Tulagi destroying Japanese machine guns that had been built inside the mouths of caves, blasting them with satchel charges of dynamite and explosives or canisters of gasoline with grenades attached

Jungle Fighting and Small unit

OperatiOnS, 1942–1943

For Marines, Guadalcanal was a war of small unit operations.

Indeed, many of the tactical innovations used by the

Marines had been used by their predecessors in France, in Central America, primarily in Nicaragua, and on the islands

of Haiti and the Dominican Republic during the interwar

era. Even with the deployment to China in the 1920s and

1930s, as Marines guarded the US legation’s compound,

the leathernecks developed the basic tactical formation of a

rifle company comprised of three rifle platoons composed

of six fighting teams of four Marines each. Each fire team

was led by a senior private or junior non-commissioned

officer, and due to its tactical flexibility could be employed in an independent action. Upon the expansion of the

The foxholes were intended to protect most of a Marine’s body whilst allowing him to
The foxholes were intended to protect most of a Marine’s
body whilst allowing him to aim and fire his weapon easily.
One-man
Two-man
foxhole
foxhole

One- or two-man foxholes gave Marines protection

against sudden Japanese banzai attacks or artillery fire.

40 to to anti-aircraft/boat 3in) 75mm (1.6 guns 80 to 105mm (3.2 to Marine Battlefield
40
to
to
anti-aircraft/boat 3in)
75mm (1.6
guns
80
to
105mm (3.2
to
Marine
Battlefield
t actics
and
t echniques, 1942–1945
Marine
Battlefield
t actics
and
t echniques, 1942–1945
guns
4.1in) anti-aircraft
anti-tank
front of a critical area or, as was the case on Okinawa, could
assist in the exploitation of a wavering enemy line of defence,
and thus allow the Marines to follow through quickly with an
attack. During the Okinawa campaign Private Jack Wiggins,
who served with the 29th Marines during the fighting on the
Oroku Peninsula and rode into battle atop a Sherman tank,
stated: ‘Once dismounted, we could then direct and exploit
their firepower to the utmost against the Japs.’
Wire
Okinawa
It was on Okinawa, in fact, that Marines refined their tank–
infantry tactics, and successfully employed two techniques
that further enhanced the striking power of both these
Marine arms. As the Marines pushed toward the southern
Japanese defences on part of the island of Tarawa as iden-
tified by the intelligence section of the 2nd Marine Division
prior to the attack on 20 November 1943. Every inch of the
beach was covered by sandbags and barricades.
part of the island, where the Japanese were dug in along the
Shuri Castle line, its open-country terrain permitted a greater
use of all three arms – tanks, artillery or mortars, and infantry.
Supported by an attached Army 4.2in (107mm) mortar unit,
which provided highly-effective suppressive firepower, the
tanks of the 1st Marine Division and its supporting infantry
were able to close in at greater quarters with the Japanese,
and prevented them from using their suicide squads against
the Marine tanks. In fact, working with Lieutenant Colonel
‘Jeb’ Stuart’s 1st Tank Battalion, the Marines ‘developed a
new method of protecting tanks and reducing vulnerability to
the infantry in the assault’. This method, according to Marine
Colonel Wilburt S. Brown, ‘placed an artillery observer in one
of the tanks with a radio to one of the 155mm [6.1in] howitzer
battalions. We’d also had an aerial observer overhead. We
used 75mm [2.95in] pack [howitzers] and LVT-A’s [armed
with 75mm howitzers] that had an air burst capability. If any
Jap [suicider] showed anywhere we opened fire with an air
burst and kept a pattern of shell fragments patterning down
around the tanks.’ Marine tanks likewise shuttled fresh troops
Wire
observation
Above: A Marine tank–infantry team in action on Bougainville in
mid-1943. Close cooperation between the tanks and Marines
the fact that the Sherman found itself outgunned in Euro
at least by the more powerful German Tiger and Pant
forged an effective combined arms team which was capable of
tanks, Marines skillfully employed their tanks very effectiv
dealing with most Japanese threats.
as infantry assault weapons. Furthermore, for those ta
disabled though not destroyed, Marine maintenance cre
worked round the clock and restored practically every o
of them, and, as a result of their ingenuity, ‘the assa
infantry battalions never lacked for armored firepow
mobility, and shock action. The concept of Mari
combined-arms task forces was now well underway.’
stores
bomb-proof
bomb-proof
ammo storage
barracks
‘Find’em, Fix’em, and BlaSt’em’ taCtiCS
1943–1945
airstrip
machine gun
5in (127mm)
naval turrets
bomb-proof
ammo storage
machine
gun
anti-boat guns anD heavy machine guns
right to the front line by dropping them underneath the hull
from inside the tank, as well as assisting in the evacuation of
wounded Marines, placed aboard through the crew’s escape
hatches in the bottom of the tank, or, less safely, strapped
onto the outside of the tank.
Marine tanks played an important role in cracking the
Japanese defensive line anchored on Kunishi Ridge through
their elimination of Japanese General Ushijima’s veteran
front-line troops that had manned these positions. Also
supporting the Marines was the M-7 Priest self-propelled
105mm (4.1in) howitzer, that added more firepower to a
Marine assault with its ability to ‘punch through’ the many
steel and concrete bunkers and pillboxes along the Shuri
Castle–Sugar Loaf Mountain areas. On Okinawa, tanks
functioned as the supreme ‘direct-fire, close-in support
weapon’ for the assaulting infantry. Tanks could go where
artillery couldn’t, and destroy what the latter couldn’t see.
By the battle’s end, 51 Marine Shermans had been
destroyed by Japanese artillery and anti-tank guns. Despite
In order to counter the overwhelming fire superiority of
Americans, the Japanese, starting on Guadalcanal, as 1s
Herb Merillat recounted above, retreated to fixed positio
and fortifications. This then involved both Marines a
soldiers in a costly war of attrition that did not let up u
the war’s conclusion in August 1945. In fact, this strat
of attrition became evident as the earlier Japanese tact
of contesting the Marine’s landings gave way to a defen
in-depth, with a series of interlocking fortifications a
pillboxes built into a solid defensive network. This fi
Drainage
or anti-tank Ditch
guns anD heavy machine guns
anti-boat
Wire
guns anD heavy machine guns
anti-boat
guns anD heavy machine guns
anti-boat
guns anti-boat guns anD heavy machine guns anti-boat The Italian Front MichAel e. hAskew The Italian

The Italian Front

MichAel e. hAskew

The Italian Front is a superbly illustrated history of the original ‘second front’ in Europe, including artworks of key materiel and uniforms, and campaign maps showing the movement of troops in the theatre. With detailed appendices containing orders of battle, losses and equipment, The Italian Front builds into a comprehensive account of the 1944- 45 campaign in Western Europe.

account of the 1944- 45 campaign in Western Europe. CAMPAIGNS OF WORLD WAR II: The Italian

CAMPAIGNS OF WORLD WAR II:

The Italian Front

297

256

70,000 words

45 artworks, 230 b/w photos, 10

colour maps

ISBN: 978-1-78274-606-5

£22.99 Paperback

x 227mm (11¾ x 9in)

pages

Chapter six Anzio and Monte Cassino The attempt to outflank the Germans at Cassino by
Chapter
six
Anzio and
Monte Cassino
The attempt to outflank the Germans at Cassino by
landing at Anzio ended in failure as the Allies became
bogged down in the beachhead.
S ergeant Ross Carter, a veteran of the
Eighth Army remained before the Gustav
arduous campaign in Italy, observed
Christmas Day 1944 amid the misery of
battle-scarred Monte Sammucro. Below, the
Line defences north of the Sangro River
around Ortona.
Although it had appeared that an
town of San Pietro lay in ruins, its destruction
amphibious operation intended to outflank
so
thorough that the surviving civilians did
the Gustav Line defences and facilitate the
not
bother to salvage much of anything. They
drive for Rome had been cancelled for
rebuilt their town some distance away, leaving
good, the stillborn Operation Shingle was
the
heaps of rubble and jumbled remains of
rapidly revived as a result of two events,
their former homes as mute testimony to the
the restructuring of command in the
ravages of war.
‘For 17 days, we had existed on the peak,’
Mediterranean with a distinctive British
wrote Carter, ‘in freezing weather, constant
perspective and the illness of Prime Minister
Winston Churchill. The Italian campaign
rain, icy winds and inconceivable danger. In
had long been Churchill’s favourite, and
all
that time we had never washed our hands
the Mediterranean Theatre was of particular
or
shaved, and had managed to get our boots
interest to him. Well aware that the window
off
three times. Lice were eating the hide
of opportunity for a notable success in Italy
off
our bodies and desperation was eating out
was rapidly closing, Churchill departed the
our
hearts.’
conferences at Cairo and Teheran decidedly
The desperation in the Allied ranks was, to
pessimistic about the prosecution of the
a
degree, being felt on a strategic scale as the
war there.
frustrating advance toward Rome proceeded
at
a snail’s pace. Progress had been slow,
Churchill in turmoil
even at times non-existent. The prospects for
Physically exhausted, the Prime Minister was
opposite
immediate forward movement seemed to be
fleeting at best as the bulk of Allied resources
diagnosed with pneumonia while in Tunis to
visit General Eisenhower’s headquarters on
An American infantryman
takes up a position in
were funnelled to England in preparation for
11 December. During a week in bed he was
the ruins of a house at
the
Normandy invasion. For all intents and
consumed with worry and finally decided that
Monte Cassino. The Allies
purposes the Italian campaign had reached a
stalemate. By mid-December the Fifth Army
offensive had ground to a halt, while the
something must be done to rejuvenate the
campaign in Italy. The solution, he reasoned,
was the amphibious operation. His sights set
attempted four times to
take the heights and the
Benedictine abbey which
crowned it.
122 / Anzio and Monte Cassino Anzio and Monte Cassino / 123 they were confronted
122 / Anzio and Monte Cassino
Anzio and Monte Cassino / 123
they were confronted only by the 94th
Division, which was thinly stretched from
the river to the town of Terracina 48km (30
miles) to the north and had yet to experience
combat. In planning their defences the
German commanders had hoped that the
natural barrier of the river itself and 24,000
thickly sown mines might provide enough
assistance to stymie a crossing. The attack
commenced at 9 p.m. and combat engineers
worked to clear the mines and mark exits
on the far bank while German artillery came
down steadily. It was virtually impossible to
construct bridges during the first 24 hours.
Nevertheless, 10 full battalions of
infantry crossed the Garigliano and Senger
soon began to realize the gravity of the
situation. Bypassing Vietinghoff in the chain
of command, Senger telephoned Kesselring,
who realized a British breakthrough to the
Liri Valley would outflank the defences of
Monte Cassino, unhinge the Gustav Line and
force a retreat of the entire XIV Panzer Corps
toward Rome.
reported missing and more than 500 were
undefended Cedro Hill after failing to capture
above
Marked with the distinctive
lost to exposure to the elements and such
it
four days earlier, and two tough days of
black cross, the German
SdKfz Marder II self-
propelled assault weapon
was armed with a 75mm
(2.95in) cannon and a light
maladies as trench foot. Most of the missing
armoured infantrymen eventually turned up,
but among the dead was a heroic combat
engineer sergeant, Joe C. Specker.
Advancing along the slope of Mount
fighting by the 168th Infantry, 34th Division
secured Cervaro after a lengthy artillery
bombardment and air strikes. Now, Clark’s
army was drawn up to the banks of the
Rapido, facing the heart of the Gustav Line
machine gun. This version
Porchia under cover of darkness, Specker
defences, which were located beyond the
remained in production
had been sent forward by his company
opposite bank of the stream. Approximately
until 1944.
commander on a reconnaissance of enemy
90,000 troops of the German XIV Panzer
positions in his unit’s path. When he returned
Corps were entrenched in the positions
Specker reported that a German machine gun
nest and several snipers were located directly
around Cassino, along the river and in the
vicinity of Sant’ Ambrogio.
in the path of his company. He volunteered
to take a machine gun forward to place fire on
the German positions and set out alone with
bayonets and grenades
While the fighting heated up in the east, the
the weapon and a box of ammunition.
Eighth Army sector on the Adriatic remained
The sergeant’s Medal of Honour citation
reads: ‘He was observed by the enemy as
quiet, and it was conceivable that if Clark’s
offensive succeeded reinforcements could be
he walked along and was severely wounded
forthcoming from the area of inactivity.
by the deadly fire directed at him. Though
On
12 January the 2nd Moroccan and 3rd
so seriously wounded that he was unable to
Algerian divisions were launched against the
walk, he continued to drag himself over the
mountains north of Cassino.
jagged edges of rock and rough terrain until
Under French command, these units gained
he reached the position at which he desired to
set up his machine gun. He set up the gun so
6.4km (4 miles) in four days, often fighting
hand-to-hand with the Germans. Bayonets
well and fired so accurately that the enemy
and grenades were frequently employed
machine gun nest was silenced and the